Reporting qualitative data
Present repeating ideas that lead to major themes that inform conclusions and implications.
Repeating idea—the same idea expressed by different respondents. After identifying and labeling repeated ideas during initial coding, present the ones that seem most meaningful. With smaller samples (fewer than 20 responses), provide the number of respondents who expressed the same ideas but avoid using percentages. With larger samples, use percentages as well.
When reporting findings, quote one or two responses that exemplify the repeating idea. You may also want to quote a response that was an exception to illustrate a minority opinion or highlight a noteworthy idea. If so, you should state that it is only one person’s response.
Five students wrote that using the Classroom Response System during lectures did not increase their understanding of course concepts. For example, one student wrote, “The questions we answered using the CRS were so basic, they didn’t help me understand the ideas which were confusing. Once we answered the warm-up questions, there was no time for follow-up questions.” The repeating ideas that emerged were: using the CRS did not promote deeper understanding of concepts and the instructor did not leave time for follow-up questions.
Theme—a topic that organizes a group of repeating ideas. Themes are usually developed during focused coding, but may emerge at any time.
From the identification of two other repeating ideas about the CRS—1) the system limited class discussion time and 2) the system did not help students learn how to solve quantitative problems—a theme emerged: CRS limited discussion and application of concepts.
Making conclusions—a determination of what was found and how the repeating ideas and themes can impact the field of education or future research.
Based on our findings from this study, college instructors may decide not to use the Classroom Performance System due to the negative effects of decreasing classroom discussion and the inability to promote further understanding of quantitative problems. However, due to our limited sample in this study, future research should….
Presenting results in graphical form
To supplement text, findings may also be presented in a table/matrix, concept map, or Venn diagram. Use a table to summarize results and conceptual relationships:
CPS limited discussion and application of concepts
Consider using a concept map toshow the interrelationship of concepts within a topic, as in this example for human nutrition:
Use a Venn diagram to show broad relationships between concepts:
Auerbach, C.F. & Silverstein, L.B. (2003). Qualitative Data:
An Introduction to Coding and Analysis.
New York: New York University Press.
Human Nutrition concept map (n.d.) Retrieved October 5, 2004 from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Education Web site: http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~johnson/misconceptions/concept_map/human_nutrition_2.html.