Assess students



A rubric is a systematic scoring guideline to evaluate students’ performance (papers, speeches, problem solutions, portfolios, cases) using a detailed description of performance standards. When students are made aware of the rubrics prior to instruction and assessment, they know the level of performance expected and they are more motivated to reach those standards. Rubrics provide both a grade (summative evaluation) and detailed feedback to improve future performance (formative evaluation).  

Parts of a rubric

Rubrics are generally comprised of four essential parts.

Types of rubrics

Rubrics can be holistic or analytic, general or task specific. [more]


Rubric development

Decide to either select a predesigned rubric or create a new one. [more]

Guidelines for using a rubric

For optimal results when using a rubric to grade student work, it is important that the rubric is properly administered and graded. [more]

Suggested uses



Additional information

Andrade, H. G. (1997). Understanding rubrics. Educational Leadership, 54(4).

Arter, J. (2000). Rubrics, scoring guides, and performance criteria: Classroom tools for assessing and improving student learning. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, 2000.

Holistic critical thinking scoring rubric. Retrieved May 3, 2004 from California Academic Press Web site: http://www.uog.edu/coe/ed451/tHEORY/HolisticCTrubric.pdf

Nitko, A. J. (1996). Educational assessment of students, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Taggart, G. L., Phifer, S. J., Nixon, J. A., & Wood, M. (Eds.) (n.d.). Rubrics: Handbook for construction and use. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co.

Tips for choosing rubrics. (2000). Retrieved July 19, 2006 from http://www.sites4teachers.com/links/redirect.php?url=http://intranet.cps.k12.il.us/Assessments/Ideas_and_Rubrics/Rubric_Bank/Choosing_Rubrics/choosing_rubrics.html

Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative assessment: Designing assessments to inform and improve student performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Zimmaro, D. M. (2004). Developing grading rubrics. Retrieved July 20, 2005 from the University of Texas at Austin, Center for Teaching and Learning Web site: http://www.utexas.edu/academic/mec/research/pdf/rubricshandout.pdf. (includes examples)

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