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Turning Causal Conclusions around
Give students exposure to several cause-effect hypotheses and the primary source data that supports those hypotheses.
Ask students to make an argument for one of the cause-effect hypotheses using primary data as evidence.
Now ask the students to turn the argument back on themselves, and where the weaknesses are in their arguments for which they cannot account.
"Problematizing" a Graph or Image
Inferences and Assumptions
Evaluating Media Reports
Determining Causality: Defined and Explored
Determining Causality: Research and Resources