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What Bloom (1956) and Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) call
"application," cognitive psychologists call "transfer." Both words
describe the process of putting a skill to use in a new context. To
learn to do this, Halpern (2003) argues that students require "structure
training" in which they learn the important features of a situation in
which a given thinking skill is appropriate. This way, they'll be able
to recognize those features in new contexts and be cued to use the right
thinking skill at the right time.
Multiple Solutions - Generating more than one
option to meet a given set of criteria.
This module provides resources on ways to discourage satisficing and encourage flexible and divergent thinking in your students.
Ethics - Reasoning based upon the fulfillment of one's moral
In any real context, determining what actions will have both impact and integrity requires a special kind of critical thinking.
Case Studies - Using a story with a carefully arranged set of
facts to stimulate critical thinking.
In class, events and situations from outside the classroom are often simulated or represented using cases studies, so this module provides insights and techniques on how to find, create, and use case studies well.
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for
learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of
educational objectives. New York: Longman.
Bloom, B.S. (Ed.), Engelhart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill,W.H., &
Krathwohl, D.R. (1956). Taxonomy ofeducational objectives: The
classification of educational goals. Handbook 1: Cognitive domain.
New York: David McKay.
Halpern, D.F. (2003). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to
critical thinking (4th Edition). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.