E 364D l 2-Creole Languages and Their Speakers
Instructor: Hancock, I
Unique #: 34705
Semester: Spring 2016
Cross-lists: AFR 372G, LIN 350
Computer Instruction: No
Prerequisites: Nine semester hours of coursework in English or rhetoric and writing.
Description: This class in Creole Studies (creolistics) will begin with a general discussion of the nature of pidginized and creolized languages, and the societies and cultures that have emerged supported by them. No attempt will be made at this point to draw any conclusions about what kind of languages they are, or where they come from. This will be followed by an account of the development of the field of Creole Studies, from Pelleprat (1649) to the present. The major approaches—monogeneticist, polygeneticist, relexificationalist, substratist, componentialist, bioprogram—will be dealt with, and the works of their main proponents read and discussed. This will be followed by an examination of the definitions of the terms pidgin and creole, and of other so-called ‘marginal’ languages (traders’ jargons, cryptolectal varieties, foreigner speech, &c.), in order to justify their inclusion, or otherwise, as true cases of pidginized or creolized languages. This will be followed by a survey of the world’s pidgins and creoles, and a detailed examination of the history and linguistic features of a small number of representative languages, with tape-recorded texts for analysis. Initially, particular emphasis will be placed upon Sierra Leone Krio, to provide a template for the examination of further creole languages; there will be particular focus on these languages that are spoken in the Americas, including African American Vernacular (“Black English”), Texas Afro-Seminole Gullah and Louisiana Creole French, as well as the Native American contact languages Yamá and Chinuk Wawa. Others with a non-European-lexifier include Fanagalo Pidgin Bantu and Juba Creole Arabic. We will also examine the non-linguistic aspects of creolization, i.e. of identity, cuisine, music and religion (see e.g. Chaudenson, 2001 and Le Page & Tabouret-Keller, 1985 in the reading list below). The class includes the examination of some publications written in them, and watching some creole-language films from Sierra Leone and Jamaica.
Towards the end of the course we shall return to the issues raised at the beginning, and attempt a definition of the processes and typologies. We will also look at creolization as it relates to acquisitionist theory, the process of decreolization/metropolitanization, and issues of education and standard language reform.
Ammon, Ulrich, Norbert Dittmar and K. Mattheier (eds.), Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2007 edition, pp. 459-469.
Arends, J., 1995. The Early Stages of Creolization. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Bakker, P., & M. Mous, eds., 1994. Mixed Languages: 15 Case Studies of Language Intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT.
Byrne, F., & T. Huebner, eds., 1991. Development and Structure of Creole Languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Couto, H. do, 1996. Introduciio ao Estudio das Linguas Crioulas e Pidgins. Brasilia: Editora UnB.
Edwards, W., & D. Winford, eds., 1991. Verb Phrase Patterns in Black English and Creole. Detroit: Wayne State UP.
Escure, G., & A. Schwegler, 2004. Creoles, Contact and Language Change. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Grant, A., 2003. Papers in Contact Linguistics. Bradford: The University Press.
Hancock, I., 1979. Readings in Creole Studies. Ghent: Story-Scientia.
Hancock, I., 1985. Diversity and Development in Creole Studies. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
Holm, J., 2000. An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles. Cambridge: CUP.
Holm, J., 2004. Languages in Contact: The Partial Restructuring of Vernaculars. Cambridge: CUP.
Holm, J., & P. Patrick, 2007. Comparative Creoles Syntax: Parallel Outlines of 18 Creole Grammars. London: Westminster UP.
Kouwenberg, S., 2003. Twice as Meaningful: Reduplication in Pidgins, Creoles and Other Contact Languages. London: Westminster UP.
Lehiste, I., 1988. Lectures on Language Contact. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Le Page, Robert, & Annegret Tabouret-Keller, 1985. Acts of Identity. Cambridge UP.
Matras, Y., & P. Bakker, 2003. The Mixed Language Debate. Amsterdam: Mouton.
Morgan, M., ed., 1994. Language and The Social Construction of Identity in Creole situations. Los Angeles: UCLA.
Neumann-Holzschuh, 1., & E. Schneider, eds., 2000. Degrees of Restructuring in Creole Languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Polomé, Edgar, 1990. Research Guide on Language Change. Berlin: Mouton-DeGruyter.
Romaine, S., 1988. Pidgin and Creole Languages. Harlow: Longman.
Sebba, M., 1997. Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Singh, I., 2000. Pidgins and Creoles: An Introduction. London: Arnold.
Thomason, S., 2001. Language contact: An Introduction. Washington: Georgetown UP.
Requirements & Grading: You’ll be graded on (a) two closed book, period long, hand in tests and (b) the composition and presentation of a research paper, and (c) on your evaluation of the papers of the others in the class. Each of you will have a whole period at the end of the semester (half for presentation, half for questions and evaluation by everyone else). The tests are 10% each, the evaluations 10%, attendance and participation 10% and your paper 60%.