Department of Anthropology

Anthony Di Fiore


ProfessorPh.D., University of California, Davis

Department Chair and Professor
Anthony Di Fiore

Contact

  • Phone: (512) 232-2183 (Chair's Office); (512) 471-2318
  • Office: SAC 4.102H (Chair's Office); SAC 5.150
  • Office Hours: Spring 2016: Mondays 9:00 a.m.-11:00 a.m.
  • Campus Mail Code: C3200

Interests


Population genetics, comparative socioecology, mating systems, molecular ecology, phylogenetics, tropical ecology, computational modeling; South and Central American primates

Biography


I conduct long-term behavioral and ecological field research on several species in the primate community of Amazonian Ecuador to investigate the ways in which ecological conditions (such as the abundance and distribution of food resources) and the strategies of conspecifics together shape primate behavior and social relationships and ultimately determine the kinds of societies we see primates living in.  This is a crucial and central focus in evolutionary anthropology, as understanding the ways in which behavior and social systems are shaped by environmental pressures is a fundamental part of the discipline. 

I complement my field studies with molecular genetic laboratory work in order to address issues that are typically difficult to explore through observational studies alone, including questions about dispersal behavior, gene flow, mating patterns, population structure, and the fitness consequences of individual behavior.  In collaboration with colleagues, I have also started using molecular techniques to investigate a number of broader questions concerning the evolutionary history, social systems, and ecological roles of various New World primates.

Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis (Biological Anthropology) - 1997
Dissertation: Ecology and Behavior of Lowland Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, Atelinae) in Eastern Ecuador

Previous Affilliations:

  • Assistant and Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, New York University - January 2000 to August 2011
  • NSF Postdoctoral Fellow, Smithsonian Institution (Molecular Genetics Laboratory - National Zoological Park) and University of Maryland (Department of Biology) - January 1998 to December 1999

Courses


ANT 348K • Sex And Human Nature

30495 • Spring 2016
Meets TTH 930am-1100am SAC 4.174
(also listed as WGS 323)

I. Course Description and Rationale

This class provides an introduction to the SCIENTIFIC study of sexual behavior, mate choice, and reproduction in humans from the perspectives of evolutionary and comparative biology. In this course, we will examine a wide range of genetic, ecological, social, physiological, and behavioral aspects of human and nonhuman primate sexuality. Starting from basic principles of evolutionary theory, we consider a diverse range of basic questions about sex and sexuality: How is sex determined? Why did sexual reproduction evolve? How are males and females different biologically? What determines sexual orientation? We also look at the role of ecology and social life in shaping human mating patterns using a variety of ethnographic and cross- cultural materials. Do men and women differ in their sexual strategies and, if so, how and why? Why do people marry and form long-term pair-bonds? Why do we experience sexual jealousy? Finally, topics relevant to contemporary human sexuality will be also discussed, including rape, contraception, and the influence of sexually transmitted diseases on human evolution. Throughout, examples will be drawn primarily from traditional and modern human societies as well as from studies of our nonhuman primate relatives.

This course fits into the Department’s broader curriculum in biological anthropology by considering human sexual behavior in the context of comparative primate sexuality and reproduction and in demonstrating how evolutionary approaches can be used to make sense of the sexual behavior, mating patterns, and reproductive biology of the human species. It fits into the general anthropology curriculum in addressing important issues about human gender and sexuality from a combined biological and cultural perspective.

II. Course Aims and Objectives

Aims

The purpose of this course it to give students a solid foundation in evolutionary biology and adaptationist thinking as it is used in the anthropological sciences, with a specific focus on understanding aspects of human sexual anatomy, reproductive biology, sexual behavior, and cultural practices.

Specific Learning Objectives

When you have completed the course, you should be able to:

  • Summarize different adaptationist/evolutionary approaches to thinking about human

    behavioral biology (e.g., evolutionary psychology, human behavioral ecology) and

    distinguish among such approaches

  • Describe the fundamentals of human and mammalian sex determination systems,

    including the physiological and genetic underpinnings of sexual differentiation

  • Describe the physiological and endocrine processes involved in female reproductive

    cycling and in male spermatogenesis and how these change over the lifespan

  • Describe and contrast different hypotheses for the evolution of sexual reproduction

  • Discuss how human sexual anatomy, behavior, and mating practices are similar to and

    differ from those of other primates and other mammals

  • Understand the comparative method and how it can applied to answer evolutionary

questions

–2–

  • Articulate evolutionary hypothesis for a given pattern of human sexual behavior (e.g., mate choice) and design and critique tests of that hypotheses using logic and evidence

  • Read and critique research from the primary literature on human sexuality, including evaluating the strengths and weaknesses in the researchers methodology and interpretation

    III. Format and Procedures

    The course will be divided into four sections, each of which will involve a combination of lecture material and discussion/recitation during normal class time, both in small groups and as a class as a whole. In addition, students are expect to participate in and online collaborative project (the Sex and Human Nature weblog, see below). The following is an overview of the major topics we will cover in each part of the course:

    Part I – Principles of Evolutionary Biology

• Approaches to the scientific study of human sexuality and sexual behavior. Levels of explanation in evolutionary biology. Fundamentals of evolutionary theory. The evolution of sexual reproduction.

Part II – Natural History of Sex: A Comparative Perspective

• Sex determination processes in animals. The role of sex hormones in sexual differentiation. Male and female reproductive anatomy and physiology. The physiology of sexual intercourse. Orgasm and its significance. Human sexuality in comparative perspective.

Part III – The Mating Game: Strategies of Human Mate Choice and Retention

  • Sexual selection theory: Evolution and biological basis of sex differences in mating strategies, mate choice and attraction.

  • Intrasexual competition, woman’s “extended” sexuality, and sperm competition. Human marriage and mating systems in cross-cultural perspective. Mate guarding, mate retention, and the role of sexual jealousy. Biocultural perspective on control of sexuality

  • Sexual orientation: Biological bases and cross-cultural overview.

    Part IV – Sex in Our Lives

• Changes across the lifespan in human sexuality. Contraception and sexually transmitted disease and their evolutionary consequences. Sexual coercion: Unwanted attention, harassment, and rape. The future of human reproduction.

ANT 346L • Primate Social Behavior

31575 • Fall 2014
Meets MWF 1000am-1100am SAC 5.172
(also listed as WGS 323)

This course focuses on the study of primate social behavior. It explores the basic theoretical principles that guide primatologists.

Topics covered include: evolutionary theory, primate diversity, social and mating systems, sexual selection, life history, cooperation, competition, intelligence, communication, and human behavior.

ANT 391L • Comp Modeling In Evol Anthro

31900 • Spring 2014
Meets W 200pm-500pm SAC 5.112

In this second major category of courses in physical anthropology are listed those that have research techniques as their principal focus.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Course number may be repeated for credit when the topics vary.

ANT 347C • Methods In Primate Biology

31335 • Spring 2013
Meets W 100pm-200pm SAC 5.172

This course focuses on the study of primate behavior and the methods by which animal behavior is observed and documented.  Students will learn how to conduct library research, formulate hypotheses and predictions, devise research projects to test these predictions, collect and analyze data, and write comprehensive research reports describing these results.

1 lecture hour and 3 lab hours per week.

ANT 346L • Primate Social Behavior

31230 • Fall 2012
Meets TTH 1100am-1230pm SAC 5.172
(also listed as WGS 323)

This course focuses on the study of primate social behavior. It explores the basic theoretical principles that guide primatologists. Topics covered include: evolutionary theory, primate diversity, social and mating systems, sexual selection, life history, cooperation, competition, intelligence, communication, and human behavior.

ANT 348K • Sex And Human Nature

31394 • Spring 2012
Meets TTH 930am-1100am SAC 5.172

Publications



 

Papers in Preparation or Review

Morales-Jimenez, A.L., Cortes-Ortiz, L.C, and Di Fiore, A. [accepted, pending minor revision]. Phylogenetic relationships of Mesoamerican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi): Molecular evidence suggests the need for a revised taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.


Morales-Jimenez, A.L., Disotell, T.R., and Di Fiore, A. [submitted and reviewed; revision in progress]. Revisiting the phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and taxonomy of spider monkeys (Ateles sp.) in light of new molecular data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.


Spence-Aizenberg, A., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. [submitted and reviewed; revision in progress]. Pair mate relationships and biparental care in a wild population of titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor). American Journal of Primatology.


Alvarez, S., Di Fiore, A., Champion, J., Pavelka, M., Páez, J., and Link, A. [submitted, under review]. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).Primates.


Schmitt, C.A. and Di Fiore, A. [submitted and revision; revision under review]. Predation risk sensitivity and the spatial organization of primate groups: A case study using GIS in lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii). American Journal of Physical Anthropology.


Garber, P.A., Porter, L.M., Spross, J., and Di Fiore, A. [submitted and reviewed; revision under review]. Saddleback tamarins: Insights into monogamous and non-monogamous single female breeding systems. American Journal of Primatology.


Honorio Coronado, E.N., Dexter, K.G., Pennington, R.T., Lewis, S.L., Alexiades, M.N., Alvarez, E., Alves de Oliveira, A., Amaral, I.L., Araujo-Murakami, A., Arets, E.J.M.M., Aymard, G.A., Baraloto, C., Bonal, D., Brienen, R., Cerón, C., Chave, J., Cornejo Valverde, F., Di Fiore, A., Farfan Rios, W., Feldpausch, T.R., Higuchi, N., Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I., Laurance, S.G., Laurance, W.F., López-Gonzalez, G., Marimon, B.S., Marimon-Junior, B.H., Monteagudo Mendoza, A., Neill, D., Palacios Cuenca, W., Peñuela Mora, M.C., Pitman, N.C.A., Prieto, A., Quesada, C.A., Ramirez Angulo, H., Rudas, A., Ruschel, A.R., Salinas Revilla, N., Salomão, R.P., Segalin de Andrade, A., Silman, M.R., Spironello, W., ter Steege, H., Terborgh, J., Toledo, M., Valenzuela Gamarra, L., Vieira, I.C.G., Vilanova Torre, E., Vos, V., and Phillips, O.L. [submitted, under review]. Phylogenetic diversity of Amazonian tree communities. Diversity and Distributions.


Brienen, R.J.W., Phillips, O.L., Feldpausch, T.R., Gloor, E., Baker, T.R., Lloyd, J., López-Gonzalez, G., Monteagudo-Mendoza, A., Alexiades, M., Alvarez-Loayza, P., Andrade, A., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Araujo-Murakami, A., Arets, E.J.M.M., Aymard, G.A., Baraloto, C., Barroso, J., Bonal, D., Boot, R.G.A., Chama, V., Chao, K.J., Chave, J., Comiskey, J.A., Cornejo Valverde, F., da Costa, L., de Oliveira, E., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T.L., Fauset, S., Forsthofer, M., Grahame, S., Groot, N., Herault, B., Honorio C., E., Keeling, H., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, W.F., Laurance, S., Lewis S.L., Licona, J., Malhi, Y., Marimon, B.S., Marimon-Junior, B.H., Neill, D.A., Nogueira, E.M., Nunez, P., Pallqui Camacho, N.C., Parada, A., Pardo, G., Peacock, J., Peña-Claros, M., Pickavance, G.C., Pitman, N.C.A., Poorter, L., Prieto, A., Quesada, C.A., Ramírez, F., Ramírez-Angulo, H., Restrepo, A., Roopsind, A., Rudas, A., Salomão, R.P., Schwarz, M., Silva, N., Silva-Espejo, J.E., Silveira, M., Stropp, J., Talbot, J., ter Steege, H., Teran-Aguilar, J., Terborgh, J., Thomas-Caesar, R., Toledo, M., Torello-Raventos, M., Umetsu, R.K., van der Heijden, G.M.F., van der Hout, P., Vásquez Martinez, R., Vieira, I., Vieira, S.A., Vilanova, E., Vos, V. and Zagt, R. [submitted and reviewed; revision under review]. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink. Nature.


Pos, E., Guevara, J., Sabatier, D., Molino, J.-F., Pitman, N., Mogollón, H., Neill, D., Cerón, C., Rivas, G., Di Fiore, A., Thomas, R., Tirado, M., Young, K., Wang, O., Sierra, R., García-Villacorta, R., Zagt, R., Palacios Cuenca, W., Aulestia, M., and ter Steege, H [submitted, under review]. Are all species necessary to reveal ecologically important patterns? Ecology and Evolution.


Montague, M.J. and Di Fiore, A. [submitted and reviewed; revision in progress]. Diet, ranging and activity patterns of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus macrodon) in Amazonian Ecuador. International Journal of Primatology.


Fauset, S., Johnson, M.O., Gloor, M., Baker, T., Mendoza, A., Brienen, R., Feldpausch, T., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Malhi, Y., ter Steege, H., Pitman, N.C.A., Baraloto, C., Engel, J., Pétronelli, P., Andrade, A., Camargo, J.L.C., Laurance, S.G., Laurance, W.F., Chave, J., Allie, E., Núñez Vargas, P., Terborgh, J., Ruokolainen, K., Silveira, M., Aymard C., G.A., Arroyo, L., Bonal, D., Ramirez-Angulo, H., Araujo-Murakami, A., Neill, D.A., Hérault, B., Dourdain, A., Torres-Lezama, A., Marimon, B.S., Salomão, R.P., Comiskey, J.A., Réjou-Méchain, M., Toledo, M., Licona, J.C., Alarcón, A., – 3 – Prieto, A., Rudas, A., van de Meer, P., Killeen, T.J., Marimon Jr., B.-H., Poorter, L., Boot, R.G.A., Stergios, B., Vilanova Torre, E., Costa, F.R.C., Levis, C., Schietti, J., Souza, P., Groot , N., Arets, E., Chama Moscoso, V., Castro, W., Honorio Coronado, E.N., Peña-Claros, M., Stahl, C., Barroso, J., Talbot, J., Guimarães Vieira, I.C., van der Heijden, G., Thomas, R., Vos, V.A., Almeida, E.C., Álvarez Davila, E., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Erwin, T., Morandi, P.S., Oliveira, E., Valadão, M.B., Zagt, R.J., van der Hout, P., Alvarez Loayza, P., Pipoly III, J.J., Wang, O., Alexiades, M., Cerón, C.C., Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I., Di Fiore, A., Peacock, J., Pallqui Camacho, N.C., Umetsu, R.K., de Camargo, P., Burnham, R., Herrera, R., Quesada, C.A., Stropp, J., Vieira, S., Steininger, M., Reynel Rodríguez, C., Restrepo, Z., Muelbert, A.E., Lewis, S., Pickavance, G.C., and Phillips, O. [submitted, under review]. Hyperdominance in Amazonian forest carbon cycling. Nature Communications.


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Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Van Belle, S., Estrada, A., Garber, P.A., and Di Fiore, A. [in press]. Social and genetic factors mediating male participation in collective group defence in black howler monkeys. Animal Behaviour.


Van Belle, S., Estrada, A., and Di Fiore, A. [in press]. Kin-biased spatial association and social interactions in male and female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Behaviour.


Galvis, N., Link, A., and Di Fiore, A. 2014. A novel use of camera traps for studying the demography and life history of wild animals: A case study on spider monkeys. International Journal of Primatology. [online early]


Rimbach, R., Link, A., Montes-Rojas, A., Di Fiore, A., Heistermann, M., and Heymann, E. 2014. Behavioral and physiological responses to fruit availability of spider monkeys ranging in a small forest fragment. American Journal of Primatology. [online early]


Di Fiore, A., Chaves, P.B., Cornejo, F.M., Schmitt, C.A., Shanee, S., Cortes-Ortiz, L., Fagundes, V., Roos, C., and Pacheco, V. 2014. The rise and fall of a genus: Complete mtDNA genomes shed light on the phylogenetic position of yellow-tailed woolly monkeys, Lagothrix flavicauda, and on the evolutionary history of the family Atelidae (Primates: Platyrrhini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. [online early]


Botero, S., Stevenson, P.R., and Di Fiore, A. 2014. A primer on the phylogeography of Lagothrix lagotricha (sensu Fooden) in northern South America. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. [online early]


Mitchard, E.T.A., Feldpausch, T.R., Brienen, R.J.W., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Monteagudo, A., Baker, T.R., Lewis, S.L., Lloyd, J., Quesada, C.A., Gloor, M., ter Steege, H., Meir, P., Alvarez, E., Araujo-Murakami, A., Aragão, L.E.O.C., Arroyo, L., Aymard, G., Banki, O., Bonal, D., Brown, S., Brown, F.I., Cerón, C.E., Chama Moscoso, V., Chave, J., Comiskey, J.A., Cornejo, F., Corrales Medina, M., Da Costa, L., Costa, F.R.C., Di Fiore, A., Domingues, T.F., Erwin, T.L., Fredericksen, T., Higuchi, N., Honorio Coronado, E.N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, W.F., Levis, C., Magnusson, W.E., Marimon, B.S., Marimon Junior, B.H., Mendoza Polo, I., Mishra, P., Nascimento, M.T., Neill, D., Núñez Vargas, M.P., Palacios, W.A., Parada, A., Pardo Molina, G., Peña-Claros, M., Pitman, N., Peres, C.A., Poorter, L., Prieto, A., Ramírez-Angulo, H., Restrepo Correa, Z., Roopsind, A., Roucoux, K.H., Rudas, A., Salomão, R.P., Schietti, J., Silveira, M., de Souza, P.F., Steininger, M., Stropp, J., Terborgh, J., Thomas, R., Toledo, M., Torres-Lezama, A., van Andel, T.R., van der Heijden, G.M.F., Viera, I.C.G., Vieira, S., Vilanova-Torre, E., Vos, V.A., Wang, O., Zartman, C.E., Malhi, Y., and Phillips, O.L. 2014. Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23: 935-946.


Baker, T.R., Pennington, R.T., Magallon, S., Gloor, E., Laurance, W.F., Alexiades, M., Alvarez, E., Araujo, A., Arets, E.J.M.M., Aymard, G., Alves de Oliveira, A., Amaral, I., Arroyo, L., Bonal, D., Brienen, R.J.W., Chave, J., Dexter, K.G., Di Fiore, A., Eler, E., Feldpausch, T.R., Ferreira, L., López-Gonzalez, G., van der Heijden, G., Higuchi, N., Honorio, E., Huamantupa, I., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, S., Leaño, C., Lewis, S.L., Malhi, Y., Marimon, B.S., Marimon Junior, B.H., Monteagudo Mendoza, A., Neill, D., Penuela-Mora, M.C., Pitman, N., Prieto, A., Quesada, C.A., Ramírez, F., Ramírez Angulo, H., Rudas, A., Ruschel, A.R., Salomão, R.P., Segalin de Andrade, A., Silva, N.J.M., Silveira, M., Simon, M.F., Spironelo, W., ter Steege, H., Terborgh, J., Toledo, M., Torres-Lazama, A., Vasquez, R., Vieira, I.C.G., Vilanova, E., Vos, V.A., and Phillips, O.L. 2014. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees. Ecology Letters 17: 527-536.


Huck, M., van Lunenburg, M., Dávalos, V., Rotundo, M., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2014. Double effort: Parental behavior of wild Azara's owl monkeys in the face of twins. American Journal of Primatology 76: 629-639.


Matsumoto, Y., Hiramatsu, C., Matsushita, Y., Ozawa, N., Ashino, R., Nakata, M., Kasagi, S., Di Fiore, A., Schaffner, C.M., Aureli, F., Melin, A.D., and Kawamura, S. 2014. Evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism confers a fruit discrimination advantage to ateline New World monkeys. Molecular Ecology 23: 1799-1812.


Di Fiore, A. and Valencia, L.M. 2014. The interplay of landscape features and social system on the genetic structure of a primate population: A simulation study using "tamarin" monkeys. International Journal of Primatology 35: 226-257.


Montague, M.J., Disotell, T.R., and Di Fiore, A. 2014. Population genetics, dispersal, and kinship among wild squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus macrodon): Preferential association among closelyrelated females and its implications for insect prey capture success. International Journal of Primatology 35: 169-187.


ter Steege, H., Pitman, N.C.A., Sabatier, D., Baraloto, C., Salomão, R.P., Guevara, J.E., Phillips, O.L., Castilho, C.V., Magnusson, W.E., Molino, J.-F., Monteagudo, A., Vargas, P.N., Montero, J.C., Feldpausch, T.R., Honorio Coronado, E.N., Killeen, T.J., Mostacedo, B., Vasquez, R., Assis, R.L., Terborgh, J., Wittmann, F., Andrade, A., Laurance, W.F., Laurance, S.G.W., Marimon, B.S., Marimon Jr., B.-H., Vieira, I.C.G., Amaral, I.L., Brienen, R., Castellanos, H., López, D.C., Duivenvoorden, J.F., Mogollón, H.F., de Almeida Matos, F.D., Dávila, N., García-Villacorta, R., Stevenson Diaz, P.R., Costa, F., Emilio, T., Levis, C., Schietti, J., Souza, P., Alonso, A., Dallmeier, F., Duque Montoya, A.J., Fernandez Piedade, M.T., Araujo-Murakami, A., Arroyo, L., Gribel, R., Fine, P.V.A., Peres, C.A., Toledo, M., Aymard C., G.A., R. Baker, T.R., Cerón, C., Engel, J., Henkel, T.W., Maas, P., Petronelli, P., Stropp, J., Zartman, C.E., Daly, D., Neill, D., Silveira, M., Paredes, M.R., Chave, J., Lima Filho, D. de A., Jørgensen, P.M., Fuentes, A., Schöngart, J., Valverde, F.C., Di Fiore, A., Jimenez, E.M., Peñuela Mora, M.C., Phillips, J.F., Rivas, G., van Andel, T.R., von Hildebrand, P., Hoffman, B., Zent, E.L. ., Malhi, Y., Prieto, A., Rudas, A., Ruschell, A.R., Silva, N., Vos, V., Zent, S., Oliveira, A.A., Schutz, A.C., Gonzales, T., Nascimento, M.T., Ramirez-Angulo, H., Sierra, R., Tirado, M., Umaña Medina, M.N., van der Heijden, G., Vela, C.I.A., Torre, E.V., Vriesendorp, C., Wang, O., Young, K.R., Baider, C., Balslev, H., Ferreira, C., Mesones, I., TorresLezama, A., Urrego Giraldo, L.E., Zagt, R., Alexiades, M.N., Hernandez, L., Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I., Milliken, W., Palacios Cuenca, W., Pauletto, D., Valderrama Sandoval, E., Valenzuela Gamarra, L., Dexter, K.G., Feeley, K., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., and Silman, M.R. 2013. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. Science 342: 325.


Aureli, F., Di Fiore, A., Murillo Chacón, E., Kawamura, S., and Schaffner, C. 2013. Male philopatry in spider monkeys revisited. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 152: 86-95.


Spehar, S.N. and Di Fiore, A. 2013. Loud calls as a mechanism of social coordination in a fission-fusion taxon, the white-bellied spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67: 947-961.


Link, A.L. and Di Fiore, A. 2013. Effects of predation risk on the grouping patterns of white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) in western Amazonia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150: 579-590.


Feldpausch, T.R., Lloyd, J., Lewis, S.L., Brienen, R.J.W., Gloor, E., Mendoza, A.M., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Banin, L., Abu Salim, K., Affum-Baffoe, K., Alexiades, M., Almeida, S., Amaral, I., Andrade, A., Aragão,L.E.O.C., Araujo Murakami, A., Arets, E.J.M., Arroyo, L., Aymard C., G.A., Baker, T.R., Bánki, O.S., Berry, N.J., Cardozo, N., Chave, J., Comiskey, J.A., Dávila, E.A., de Oliveira, A., Di Fiore, A., Djagbletey, G., Domingues, T.F., Erwin, T.L., Fearnside, P.M., França, M.B., Freitas, M.A., Higuchi, N., Honorio C., E., Iida, I., Jiménez, E., Kassim, A.R., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, W.F., Lovett, J.C., Malhi, Y., Marimon, B.S., Marimon-Junior, B.H., Lenza, E., Marshall, A.R., Mendoza, C. Metcalfe, D.J., Mitchard, E.T.A., Neill, D.A., Nelson, B.W., Nilus, R., Nogueira, E.M., Parada, A., Peh, K.S.-H., Pena Cruz, A., Peñuela, M.C., Pitman, N.C.A., Prieto, A., Quesada, C.A., Ramírez, F., – 5 – Ramírez-Angulo, H., Reitsma, J.M., Rudas, A., Saiz, G., Salomão, R.P., Schwarz, M., Silva, N., Silva-Espejo, J.E., Silveira, M., Sonké, B., Stropp, J., Taedoumg, H.E., Tan, S., ter Steege, H., Terborgh, J., Torello-Raventos, M., van der Heijden, G.M.F., Vásquez, R., Vilanova, E., Vos, V., White, L., Wilcock, S., Woell, H., and Phillips. 2012. Tree height integrated into pan-tropical forest biomass estimates. Biogeosciences 9: 3381-3403.


Barnett, A.A., Boyle, S.A., Norconk, M.A., Palminteri, S., Santos, R.R., Veiga, L.M., Alvim, T.H.G., Bowler, M., Chism, J., Di Fiore, A., Fernandez-Duque, E., Guimarães, A.C.P., Harrison-Levine, A., Haugaasen, T., Lehman, S., MacKinnon, K.C., De Melo, F.R., Moreira, L.S., Moura, V.S., Phillips, C.R., Pinto, L.P., Port-Carvahlo, M., Setz, E.Z.F., Shaffer, C., da Silva, L.R., da Silva, S. do S.B., Soares, R.F., Thompson, C.L., Vieira, T.M., Vreedzaam, A., Walker-Pacheco, S.E., , Spironello, W.R., MacLarnon, A., and Ferrari, S.F. 2012. Terrestrial activity in pitheciines (Cacajao, Chiropotes and Pithecia). American Journal of Primatology 74: 1106-1127


Rimbach, R., Pardo-Martinez, A., Montes-Rojas, A., Di Fiore, A., and Link, A. 2012. Interspecific infanticide and infant-directed aggression by spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a fragmented forest in Colombia. American Journal of Primatology 74: 990-997.


Laurance, W. F., Useche, D.C., Rendeiro, J., Kalka, M., Bradshaw, C.J. A., Sloan, S.P., Laurance, S.G., Campbell, M., Abernethy, K., Alvarez, P., Arroyo-Rodriguez, V., Ashton, P., Benítez-Malvido, J., Blom, A, Bobo, K.S., Cannon, C.H., Cao, M., Carroll, R., Chapman, C., Coates, R., Cords, M., Danielsen, F., De Dijn, B., Dinerstein, E., Donnelly, M.A., Edwards, D., Edwards, F., Farwig, N., Fashing, P., Forget, P.-M., Foster, M., Gale, G., Harris, D., Harrison, R., Hart, J., Karpanty, S., Kress, W.J., Krishnaswamy, J., Logsdon, W., Lovett, J., Magnusson, W., Maisels, F., Marshall, A.R., McClearn, D., Mudappa, D., Nielsen, M.R., Pearson, R., Pitman, N., van der Ploeg, J., Plumptre, A., Poulsen, J., Quesada, M., Rainey, H., Robinson, D., Roetgers, C., Rovero, F., Scatena, F., Schulze, C., Sheil, D., Struhsaker, T., Terborgh, J., Thomas, D., Timm, R., Urbina-Cardona, J.N., Vasudevan, K., Wright, S.J., Arias-G., J.C., Arroyo, L., Ashton, M., Auzel, P., Babaasa, D., Babweteera, F., Baker, P., Banki, O., Bass, M., Bila-Isia, I., Blake, S., Brockelman, W., Brokaw, N., Brühl, C.A., Bunyavejchewin, S., Chao, J.-T., Chave, J., Chellam, R., Clark, C.J., Clavijo, J., Congdon, R., Corlett, R., Dattaraja, H. S., Dave, C., Davies, G., Beisiegel, B. de M., Paes de Silva, R. de N., Di Fiore, A., Diesmos, A., Dirzo, R., Doran-Sheehy, D., Eaton, M., Emmons, L., Estrada, A., Ewango, C., Fedigan, L., Feer, F., Fruth, B., Willis, J.G., Goodale, U., Goodman, S., Guix, J.C., Guthiga, P., Haber, W., Hamer, K., Herbinger, I., Hill, J., Huang, Z., Sun, I. F., Ickes, K., Itoh, A., Ivanauskas, N., Jackes, B., Janovec, J., Janzen, D., Jiangming, M., Jin, C., Jones, T., Justiniano, H., Kalko, E., Kasangaki, A., Killeen, T., King, H.-B., Klop, E., Knott, C., Koné, I., Kudavidanage, E., da Silva Ribeiro, J., Lattke, J., Laval, R., Lawton, R., Leal, M., Leighton, M., Lentino, M., Leonel, C., Lindsell, J., Ling-Ling, L., Linsenmair, K.E., Losos, E., Lugo, A., Lwanga, J., Mack, A.L., Martins, M., McGraw, W.S., McNab, R., Montag, L., Thompson, J.M., Nabe-Nielsen, J., Nakagawa, M., Nepal, S., Norconk, M., Novotny, V., O'Donnell, S., Opiang, M., Ouboter, P., Parker, K., Parthasarathy, N., Pisciotta, K., Prawiradilaga, D., Pringle, C., Rajathurai, S., Reichard, U., Reinartz, G., Renton, K., Reynolds, G., Reynolds, V., Riley, E., Rödel, M.-O., Rothman, J., Round, P., Sakai, S., Sanaiotti, T., Savini, T., Schaab, G., Seidensticker, J., Siaka, A., Silman, M.R., Smith, T.B., Soares de Almeida, S., Sodhi, N., Stanford, C., Stewart, K., Stokes, E., Stoner, K.E., Sukumar, R., Surbeck, M., Tobler, M., Tscharntke, T., Turkalo, A., Umapathy, G., van Weerd, Merlijn, Rivera, J.V., Venkataraman, M., Venn, L., Verea, C., Volkmer de Castilho, C., Waltert, M., Wang, B., Watts, D., Weber, W., West, P., Whitacre, D., Whitney, K., Wilkie, D., Williams, S., Wright, D.D., Wright, P., Xiankai, L., Yonzon, P., and Zamzani, F. 2012 . Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical protected areas. Nature 489: 290-294.


Van Belle, S., Estrada, A., Strier, K.B., and Di Fiore, A. 2012. Preliminary data on the genetic population structure of black howler monkeys, Alouatta pigra, at Palenque National Park, Mexico. American Journal of Primatology 74: 948-957.


Pickett, S.B., Bergey, C.M., and Di Fiore, A. 2012. A metagenomic study of primate insect diet diversity. American Journal of Primatology 74: 622-631.


Lynch Alfaro, J.W., Boubli, J.P., Olson, L.E., Di Fiore, A., Wilson, B., Gutiérrez-Espeleta, G.A., Chiou, K.L., Schulte, M., Neitzel, S., Ross, V., Schwochow, D., Nguyen, M.T.T., Farias, I., Janson, C.H., and Alfaro, M.E. 2012. Explosive Pleistocene range expansion leads to widespread Amazonian sympatry between robust and gracile capuchin monkeys. Journal of Biogeography 39: 272-288.


Quesada, C.A., Phillips, O.L., Schwarz, M., Czimczik, C.I., Baker, T.R., Patiño, S., Fyllas, N.M., Hodnett, M.G., Herrera, R., Almeida, S., Alvarez Dávila, E., Arneth, A., Arroyo, L., Chao, K.J., Dezzeo, N., Erwin, T., Di Fiore, A., Higuchi, N., Honorio Coronado, E., Jimenez, E. M., Killeen, T., Lezama, A.T., Lloyd, G., López-González, G., Luizão, F.J., Malhi, Y., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Núñez Vargas, P., Paiva, R., Peacock, J., Peñuela, M.C., Peña Cruz, A., Pitman, N., Priante Filho, N., Prieto, A., Ramírez, H., Rudas, A., Salomão, R., Santos, A.J.B., Schmerler, J., Silva, N., Silveira, M., Vásquez, R., Vieira, I., Terborgh, J., and Lloyd, J. 2012. Basin-wide variations in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by both soils and climate. Biogeosciences 9: 2203-2246.


Fernandez-Duque, E., Di Fiore, A., and Huck, M. [in press]. Behavior, ecology, and social evolution of New World monkeys. In: The Evolution of Primate Societies (J. Mitani, J. Call, P. Kappeler, R. Palombit, and J. Silk, eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Di Fiore, A. [in press]. Genetic consequences of primate social organization. In: The Evolution of Primate Societies (J. Mitani, J. Call, P. Kappeler, R. Palombit, and J. Silk, eds.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Babb, P.L., McIntosh, A.M., Fernandez-Duque, E., Di Fiore, A. and Schurr, T.G. 2011. An optimized microsatellite genotyping strategy for assessing genetic Identity and kinship in Azara’s owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). Folia Primatologica 82: 107-117.


Strier, K.B., Chaves, P.B., Mendes, S.L., Fagundes, V., and Di Fiore, A. 2011. Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 108: 18915-18919.


Lynch Alfaro, J., Boubli, J.P., Olson, L.E., Di Fiore, A., Wilson, B., Gutiérrez-Espeleta, G.A., Schulte, M., Neitze, S., Ross, V., Schwocho, D., Farias, I., Janson, C., and Alfaro, M.E. 2011. Explosive Pleistocene range expansion leads to widespread Amazonian sympatry between robust and gracile capuchin monkeys. Journal of Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02609.x


Dacier, A., de Luna, A.G., Fernandez-Duque, E., and Di Fiore, A. 2011. Estimating population density of Amazonian titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) via playback point counts. Biotropica 43: 135–140.


Link, A., Galvis, N., Fleming, E., and Di Fiore, A. Patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and howler monkeys in Amazonia: are licks perceived as risky areas? American Journal of Primatology 73:386-396.


Chiou, K.L., Pozzi, L., Lynch Alfaro , J.W., Di Fiore, A. 2011. Pleistocene diversification of living squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) inferred from complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59:736-745.


de Luna, A.G., Sanmiguel, R., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2010. Predation and predation attempts on red titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) and equatorial sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis) in Amazonian Ecuador. Folia Primatologica 81: 86-95.


Spehar, S.N., Link, A., and Di Fiore, A. 2010. Male and female range use in a group of white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador. American Journal of Primatology 72:129-141.


Bass, M., Finer, M., Jenkins, C.N., Kreft, H., Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., McCracken, S.F., Pitman, N.C.A., English, P.H., Swing, K., Villa, G., Di Fiore, A., Voigt, C.C., Kunz, T.H. 2010. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasui National Park. PLoS ONE 5


Moscovice, L.R., Di Fiore, A., Crockford, C., Kitchen, D.M., Wittig, R., Seyfarth, R.M., and Cheney, D.L. 2010. Hedging their bets? Male and female chacma baboons form friendships based on likelihood of paternity. Animal Behaviour 79: 1007-1015.


Di Fiore, A., Link, A., and Campbell, C.J. 2010. The atelines: Behavioral and socioecological diversity in a New World radiation. In: Primates in Perspective, Second Edition (C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, M. Panger, and S.K. Beader, eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [50]


Di Fiore, A., Lawler, R.R., and Gagneux, P. 2010. Molecular primatology. In: Primates in Perspective, Second Edition (C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, M. Panger, and S.K. Beader, eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [49]


Fernandez-Duque, E., Di Fiore, A., and de Luna, A.G. [in press]. Pair-mate relationships and parenting in equatorial saki monkeys (Pithecia aequatorialis) and red titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) of Ecuador. In: Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Titis, Sakis, and Uacaris (L.M. Veiga, A.A. Barnett, S. Ferrari, and M.A. Norconk, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [48]


Link, A., Di Fiore, A., and Spehar, S.N. 2009. Female-directed aggression and social control in spider monkeys. In: Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans: An Evolutionary Perspective on Male Aggression against Females (M.N. Muller and R.W. Wrangham, eds.), pp. 157-183. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. [47]


Moscovice, L.R., Heesen, M., Di Fiore, A., Seyfarth, R.M., Cheney, D.M. 2009. Paternity alone does not predict long-term investment in juveniles by male baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63: 1471-1482. [46]


Di Fiore, A., Link, A.L., Schmitt, C.A.,and Spehar,S.N. 2009. Dispersal patterns in sympatric woolly and spider monkeys: Integrating molecular and observational data. Behaviour 146:437-470.[45]


Di Fiore, A., Disotell, T., Gagneux, P., and Ayala, F.J. 2009. Primate malarias: Evolution, adaptation, and species jumping. In: Primate Parasite Ecology: The Dynamics and Study of Host-Parasite Relationships (M.A. Huffman and C.A. Chapman, eds.), pp. 141-182. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [44]


Di Fiore, A.2009. Genetic approaches to the study of dispersal and kinship in New World primates. In: South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (P.A. Garber, A. Estrada, J.C. Bicca-Marques, E.W. Heymann, and K.B Strier, eds.), pp. 211-250. New York: Springer. [43]


Phillips, O.L., Aragao, L.E.O.C., Lewis, S.L., Fisher, J.B., Lloyd, J., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Malhi, Y., Monteagudo, A., Peacock, J., Quesada, C.A., van der Heijden, G., Almeida, S., Amaral, I., Arroyo, L., Aymard, G., Baker, T.R., Banki, O., Blanc, L., Bonal, D., Brando, P., Chave, J., de Oliveira, A.C.A., Cardozo, N.D., Czimczik, C.I., Feldpausch, T.R., Freitas, M.A., Gloor, E., Higuchi, N., Jimenez, E., Lloyd, G., Meir, P., Mendoza, C., Morel, A., Neill, D.A., Nepstad, D., Patino, S., Penuela, M.C., Prieto, A., Ramirez, F., Schwarz, M., Silva, J., Silveira, M., Thomas, A.S., Steege, H.t., Stropp, J., Vasquez, R., Zelazowski, P., Davila, E.A., Andelman, S., Andrade, A., Chao, K.-J., Erwin, T., Di Fiore, A., Honorio C., E., Keeling, H., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, W.F., Cruz, A.P., Pitman, N.C.A., Vargas, P.N., Ramirez-Angulo, H., Rudas, A., Salamao, R., Silva, N., Terborgh, J., and Torres-Lezama, A. 2009. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science 323: 1344-1347. [42]


Baker, T.R., Phillips, O.L., Laurance, W.F., Pitman, N.C.A., Almeida, S., Arroyo, L., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, S.G., Nascimento, H., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Silva, J.N.M., Malhi, Y., Lopez Gonzalez, G., Peacock, J., Quesada, C.A., Lewis, S.L., and Lloyd, J. 2009. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests? Biogeosciences 6: 297-307. [41]


Shimooka, Y., Campbell, C., Di Fiore, A., Felton, A., Izawa, K., Link, A., Nishimura, A., Ramos-Fernandez, G., and Wallace R. 2008. Demography and group composition in Ateles. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Genus Ateles (C.J. Campbell, ed.), pp. 329-348. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [40]


Di Fiore, A., Link, A., and Dew, J.L. 2008. Diets of wild spider monkeys. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Genus Ateles (C.J. Campbell, ed.), pp 81-137. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [39]


Aureli, F., Schaffner, C.M., Boesch, C., Bearder, S.K., Call, J., Chapman, C.A., Connor, R., Di Fiore, A., Dunbar, R.I.M., Henzi, S.P., Holekamp, K., Korstjens, A.H., Layton, R., Lee, P., Lehmann, J., Manson, J.H., Ramos-Fernandez, G., Strier, K.B., and van Schaik, C.P. 2008. Fission-fusion dynamics: New research frameworks. Current Anthropology 49: 627-654. [38]


Fernandez-Duque, E., Di Fiore, A., and Carillo-Bilbao, G. 2008. Behavior, ecology and demography of owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador. International Journal of Primatology 29: 421-431. [37]


Fernandez-Duque, E., Juárez, C.P., and Di Fiore, A. 2008. Adult male replacement and subsequent infant care by male and siblings in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). Primates 49: 81-84. [36]


Di Fiore, A. and Suarez, S.A. 2007. Route-based travel and shared routes in sympatric spider and woolly monkeys: Cognitive and evolutionary implications. Animal Cognition 10: 317-329. [35]


Rendall, D. and Di Fiore, A. 2007. Homoplasy, homology, and the perceived special status of behavior in evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 52: 504-521. [34]


Di Fiore, A., Fernandez-Duque, E., and Hurst, D. 2007. Adult male replacement in socially monogamous equatorial saki monkeys (Pithecia aequatorialis). Folia Primatologica 78: 88-98. [33]


Oklander, L.I., Zunino, G.E., Di Fiore, A., and Corach, D. 2007. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of 11 autosomal STRs suitable for population studies in black and gold howler monkeys Alouatta caraya. Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 117-120. [32]


Di Fiore, A. and Campbell, C.J. 2007. The atelines: Variation in ecology, behavior, and social organization. In: Primates in Perspective (C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, M. Panger, and S.K. Beader, eds.), pp. 155-185. New York: Oxford University Press. [31]


Di Fiore, A. and Gagneux, P. 2007. Molecular primatology. In: Primates in Perspective (C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, M. Panger, and S.K. Beader, eds.), pp. 369-393. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [30]


Di Fiore, A., Link, A., and Stevenson, P. 2006. Scent marking in two western Amazonian populations of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). American Journal of Primatology 68: 637-649. [29]


Link, A. and Di Fiore, A. 2006. Seed dispersal by spider monkeys and its importance in the maintenance of neotropical rain-forest diversity. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 335-346. [28]


Di Fiore, A. 2005. A rapid genetic method for sex assignment in nonhuman primates. Conservation Genetics 6: 1053-1058. [27]


Di Fiore, A. and Campbell, C.J. 2005. Contemporary issues in ecology, behavior, and evolution of the atelin primates. International Journal of Primatology 26: 995-997. [26]


Di Fiore, A. and Fleischer, R.C. 2005. Social behavior, reproductive strategies, and population genetic structure of Lagothrix poeppigii. International Journal of Primatology 26: 1137-1173. [25]


Carrillo-Bilbao, G.A., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. [2005]. Dieta, forrajeo y presupuesto de tiempo en cotoncillos (Callicebus discolor) del Parque Nacional Yasuní en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Neotropical Primates 13: 7-11. [24]


Perez-Sweeney, B.M., Valladares-Padua, C.P., Burrell, A.S., Di Fiore, A., Satkoski, J.S., van Coeverden De Groot, P., Boag, P.T., and Melnick, D.J. 2005. Dinucleotide microsatellite primers designed for a critically endangered primate, the black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus). Molecular Ecology Notes 5: 198-201. [23]


Phillips, O.L., Baker, T.R., Arroyo, L., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Lloyd, J., Malhi, Y., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Núñez Vargas, P., Silva, J.N.M., Terborgh, J.,Váquez Martínez, R., Alexiades, M., Almeida, S., Brown, S., Chave, J., Comiskey, J.A., Czimczik, C.I., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Kuebler, C., Laurance, S.G., Nascimento, H.E.M., Olivier, J., Palacios, W., Patiño, S., Pitman, N., Quesada, C.A., Saldias, M., Torres Lezama, A., and Vinceti, B. 2005. Late twentieth-century patterns and trends in Amazon tree turnover. In: Tropical Forests and Global Atmospheric Change (Y. Malhi and O. Phillips, eds.), pp. 107-127. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [22]


Baker, T.R., Phillips, O.L., Malhi, Y., Almeida, S., Arroyo, L., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, S.G., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Nuñez Vargas, P., Pitman, N.C.A., Silva, J.N.M., and Váquez Martínez, R. 2005. Late twentieth-century trends in the biomass of Amazonian forest plots. In: Tropical Forests and Global Atmospheric Change (Y. Malhi and O. Phillips, eds.), pp. 129-141. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [21]


Di Fiore, A. 2004. Diet and feeding ecology of woolly monkeys in a western Amazonian rainforest. International Journal of Primatology 24: 767-801. [20]


Di Fiore, A. and Fleischer, R.C. 2004. Microsatellite markers for woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) and their amplification in other New World primates (Primates: Platyrrhini). Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 246-249. [19]


Di Fiore, A. 2004. Primate conservation. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, pp. 274-277. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. [18]


Baker, T.R., Phillips, O.L., Malhi, Y., Almeida, S., Arroyo, L., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, S.G., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Lloyd, J.. Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Patiño, S., Pitman, N.C.A., Silva, J.N.M., and Váquez Martínez, R. 2004. Variation in wood density determines spatial patterns in Amazonian forest biomass. Global Change Biology 10: 545-562. [17]


Baker, T.R., Phillips, O.L., Malhi, Y., Almeida, S., Arroyo, L., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, S.G., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Nunez Vargas, P., Pitman, N.C.A., Silva, J.N.M., and Váquez Martínez, R. 2004. Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B 359: 353-365. [16]


Malhi, Y., Baker, T.R., Phillips, O.L., Almeida, S., Alvarez, E., Arroyo, L., Chave, J., Czimczik, C.I., Di Fiore, A., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, S.G., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Montoya, L.M.M., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Núñez Vargas, P., Patiño, S., Pitman, N.C.A., Quesada, C.A., Silva, J.N.M., Torres Lezama, A., Váquez Martínez, R., Terborgh, J., Vinceti, B., and Lloyd, J. 2004. The above-ground course wood productivity of 104 neotropical forest plots. Global Change Biology 10: 563-591. [15]


Phillips, O.L., Baker, T.R., Arroyo, L., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Lloyd, J., Malhi, Y., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Núñez Vargas, P., Silva, J.N.M., Terborgh, J., Váquez Martínez, R., Alexiades, M., Almeida, S., Brown, S., Chave, J., Comiskey, J.A., Czimczik, C.I., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Kuebler, C., Laurance, S.G., Nascimento, H.E.M., Olivier, J., Palacios, W., Patiño, S., Pitman, N.C.A., Quesada, C.A., Saldias, M., Torres Lezama, A., and Vinceti, B. 2004. Pattern and process in Amazon tree turnover, 1976-2001. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B 359: 381-407. [14]


Di Fiore, A. 2003. Molecular genetic approaches to the study of primate behavior, social organization, and reproduction. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 46: 62-99. [13]


Di Fiore, A. 2003. Ranging behavior and foraging ecology of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii) in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador. American Journal of Primatology 59: 47-66. [12]


Seuánez, H., Di Fiore, A., Moreira, M.A.M., Almeida, C.A.S., and Canavez, F.C. 2002. Genetics and evolution of lion tamarins. In: Lion Tamarins: Biology and Conservation (D.G. Kleiman and A.B. Rylands, eds.), pp. 117-132. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. [11]


Barash, D.P. and Di Fiore, A. 2002. Sociobiology. In: Mc-Graw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, pp. 586-589. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. [10]


Phillips, O.L., Martínez, R.V., Arroyo, L., Baker, T.R., Killeen, T., Lewis, S.L., Malhi, Y., Mendoza, A.M., Neill, D., Vargas, P.N., Alexiades, M., Cerón, C., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Jardim, A., Palacios, W., Saldias, M., and Vinceti, B. 2002. Increasing dominance of large lianas in Amazonian forests. Nature 418: 770-774. [9]


Di Fiore, A. 2002. Predator sensitive foraging in ateline primates. In: Eat or Be Eaten: Predator Sensitive Foraging among Primates (L.E. Miller, ed.), pp. 242-267. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [8]


Di Fiore, A. 2002. Primate social organization. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, pp. 276-279. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. [7]


Di Fiore, A. 2001. Investigación ecológica y de comportamiento de primates en el Parque Nacional Yasuní. In: Memorias del Seminario-Taller Yasuní, 2001 (J.P. Jorgenson and M. Coello Rodríguez, eds.), pp. 165-173. Quito, Ecuador: Editorial SIMBIOE. [6]


Di Fiore, A. and Rodman, P.S. 2001. Time allocation patterns of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii) in a neotropical terra firma forest. International Journal of Primatology 22: 449:480. [5]


Hamilton, M.B., Pincus, E.L., Di Fiore, A. and Fleischer, R.C. 1999. Universal linker and ligation procedures for construction of genomic DNA libraries enriched for microsatellites. Biotechniques 27: 500-507. [4]


Di Fiore, A. 1997. Ecology and Behavior of Lowland Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii, Atelinae) in Eastern Ecuador. Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Davis. [3]


Rendall, D. and Di Fiore, A. 1995. The road less traveled: Phylogenetic perspectives in primatology. Evolutionary Anthropology 5: 43-52. [2]


Di Fiore, A. and Rendall, D. 1994. Evolution of social organization: A reappraisal for primates by using phylogenetic methods. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 91: 9941-9945. [1]


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Abstracts and Conference Presentations

Di Fiore, A. and Link, A. 2011. Male mating strategies and paternity in white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) of Amazonian Ecuador. [34th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists]


Valencia, L., Link, A., Cadena, C.D., and Di Fiore, A. 2011 Phylogeography of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in Colombia: Testing the reverine barrier hypothesis. [34th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists]


Link, A. and Di Fiore, A. 2011. Intergroup competition and aggression in wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth). [34th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists]


Di Fiore, A. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2011. Interbirth interval, age at dispersal, and sexual dimorphism in wild tits (Callicebus discolor) and sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis). [80th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


MIddleton, E.R., Schmitt, C.A., and Di Fiore, A. 2011. Ontogenetic changes in prehensile tail use by lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in Yasunì National Park, Ecuador. [80th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


Spence-Aizenberg, A., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2011. Pairbonded adult titi monkeys of Ecuador (Callicebus discolor) change ther affiliative relationships in the presence of infants.[80th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


Strier, K.B., Chaves, P.B., Mendes, S.L., Fagundes, V., and Di Fiore, A. 2011. Molecular paternity analyses confirm inbreeding avoidance and low reproductive skew in the northern muriqui, Brachyteles hypoxanthus. [80th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


Sato, A., Campos, F., Oota, H., Jack, K., Di Fiore, A., Aureli, F., Fedigan, L. and Kawamura, S. 2011. Genetic variation in wild capuchins and spider monkeys in Costa Rica: implications for dispersal patterns. [Annual Conference of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, Kyoto, Japan]


Di Fiore, A. 2010. The influence of social systems on primate population genetic structure: An agent-based modeling approach. [SOCIOR Conference on Social Systems: Demographic and Genetic Issues, University of Rennes, Paimpont, France]


Montague, M.M. and Di Fiore, A. 2010. The implications of color vision on prey capture strategies for wild squirrel monkeys (Saimiri scireus). [XXIIIrd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan]


Spehar, S.N., Di Fiore, A., Link, A., Aureli, F., Ramos-Fernandez, G., Schaffner, C.M., Shimooka, Y., Vick, L., and Wallace, R.B. 2010. Male scarcity: How does the number of males in a group influence spider monkey society? [XXIIIrd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan]


Di Fiore, A. 2010. Forward-time, individual-based simulations and their use in primate landscape genetics. [XXIIIrd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan]


Shimooka, Y., Sugiura, H., Link, A., and Di Fiore, A. 2010. Vocal emission at fission-fusion events of spider monkeys in comparision with Japanese macaques. [XXIIIrd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan]


Schmitt, C.A., and Di Fiore, A. 2010. The influence of social cohesion on the development of sex-specific association patterns in juvenile atelin primates. [XXIIIrd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan]


Dacier, A., Pozzi, L., Schmitt, C.A., and Di Fiore, A. 2010. Vocal repertoire of woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in the Ecuadorian Amazon. [XXIIIrd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan]


Middleton, E.R., Schmitt, C.A., and Di Fiore, A. 2010. Locomotor and positional behavior of juvenile lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) in Yasunì National Park, Ecuador. [XXIIIrd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan]


Chiou, K.L., Hodgson, J.A., Pozzi, L., and Di Fiore, A. 2010. Complete mitochrondrial DNA sequences lend insight into the evolutionary history and biogeography of Central American squirrel monkeys. [79th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


Pickett, S. and Di Fiore, A. 2010. Metagenomic approaches to studying primate dietary ecology. [79th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


Schmitt, C.A. and Di Fiore, A. 2010. The interaction of social organization and juvenile risk aversion: A case study in atelin primates. [79th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists]


Stubblefield, P.S., Antòn, S.C., Snodgrass, J.J., Crowder, C., Di Fiore A., Duren, D.L., Fernandez-Duque, E., Leonard, W.R., Leigh, S.R., Madimenos, F., McGraw, S., Middleton, E., Schmitt, C.A., Sherwood, R.J., Turner, T.R., Valeggia, C.R., and White, F.J. 2010. Integrative measurement protocols incorporating morphometric and behavioral research tools from forensic anthropology, human biology and primatology. Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Science 16: 366.


Link, A., and Di Fiore, A. 2009. Effects of predation risk on the grouping patterns of spider monkeys. [3rd Congress of the European Primatological Society]


Rimbach, R., Link, A., and Di Fiore, A. 2009. Sex differences in the social behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in Yasunì National Park, Ecuador. [11th Conference of the Gesellschaft for Primatologie]


Schmitt, C.A., Harris, H., Kendall, T., Weidenbeck, J., and Di Fiore, A. 2009. Predation risk sensitivity and the spatial organization of primate groups: A case study of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii). [46th Annual Meeting of the Animal Behavior Society] [42]


Di Fiore, A. 2009. Agent-based simulation modeling of primate sociality. [78th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [41]


Colman, M.N., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2009. A preliminary report on the interaction between ambient acoustics and primate vocalizations in the Ecuadorian Amazon. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 48: 108. [78th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [40]


Anton, S.C., Snodgrass, J.J., Crowder, C., Di Fiore, A., Duren, D.L., Fernandez-Duque, E., Leonard, W.R., Leigh, S.R., Madimenos, F.C., McGraw, W.S., Middleton, E., Schmitt, C., Sherwood, R.J., Stinson, S., Stubblefield, P., Turner, T., Valeggia, C.R., and White, F.J. 2008. Integrative measurement protocol for morphological and behavioral research in human and nonhuman primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 48: 78-79. [79th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [39]


Shimooka, Y., Sugiura, H., Link, A., Di Fiore, A., and Ramirez, M.A. 2008. [Spatial distribution of individuals within a group - comparison between Japanese macaques and spider monkeys.] Reichorui Kenkyu/Primate Research 24 (Supplement): S31. [38]


Di Fiore, A. 2008. Molecular assessment of dispersal patterns in sympatric woolly and spider monkeys. [XXIInd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland] [37]


Spehar, S.N., Mathewson, P., and Di Fiore, A. 2008. The male spider monkey loud call: A means of mate attraction and mate choice? [XXIInd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland] [36]


Shimooka, Y., Link, A., Ramirez, M., and Di Fiore, A. 2008. Spatial distribution of wild spider monkeys in fission-fusion societies: Simultaneous follows of two individuals using GPS. [XXIInd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland] [35]


Dacier, A., de Luna, G., Fernandez-Duque, E., and Di Fiore, A. 2008. Estimating population density of titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) through playback calls. [XXIInd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland] [34]


Moscovice, L.R., Heesen, M., Di Fiore, A., Seyfarth, R.M., Cheney, D.M. 2008. Evidence for male caretaker roles in chacma baboons and the relationship to paternity. [XXIInd Congress of the International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland] [33]


Di Fiore, A., Link, A., and Spehar, S.N. 2008. Multiple males sire offspring in groups of wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 46: 90. [77th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [32]


Spehar, S.N. and Di Fiore, A2008. The role of long-distance vocalizations in regulating association patterns and social interactions in white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 46: 199. [77th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [31]


Di Fiore, A. and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2007. A comparison of paternal care in three socially-monogamous neotropical primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 44: 99-100. [76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [30]


Sendall, C., Fernandez-Duque, E., and Di Fiore, A. 2007. A preliminary study of mate-guarding in wild titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 44: 214-215. [76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [29]


Rakhovskaya, M., Fernandez-Duque, E., and Di Fiore, A. 2007. The effects of demographic and ecological factors on territory size and ranging patterns of Argentinean owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 44: 195. [76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [28]


Schmitt, C.A., Di Fiore, A., Link, A., Mathhews, L.J., Montague, M.J., Derby, A., Hurst, D., Carrillo, G., Sendall, C., Field, M.Y., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2007. Comparative ranging behavior of eight species of primates in a western Amazonian rainforest. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 44: 208-209. [76th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [27]


Sendall, C., Fernandez-Duque, E., and Di Fiore, A. 2006. A brief investigation into the maintenance of proximity during estrus by titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor). [34th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Physical Anthropology] [26]


Di Fiore, A., Fernandez-Duque, E., Carrillo, G., and Hurst, D. 2006. Comparative social behavior of males and females in three genera of socially monogamous platyrrhines. American Journal of Primatology 68 (Supplement 1): 99. [29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists] [25]


Fernandez-Duque, E., Di Fiore, A., Rotundo, M., and Juarez, C. 2006. Demographics and ranging of floaters in socially monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai). American Journal of Primatology 68 (Supplement 1): 86. [29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists] [24]


Barnett, A.A., Setz, E.Z., Pinto, L.P., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2006. Picky, picky: The bases for diet choice in pitheciins. International Journal of Primatology 27 (Supplement 1): 513. [XXIst Congress of the International Primatological Society, Entebbe, Uganda] [23]


Veiga, L.M, Bowler, M., Cunningham, E., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2006. Variability in pitheciine social organization. International Journal of Primatology 27 (Supplement 1): 516. [XXIst Congress of the International Primatological Society, Entebbe, Uganda] [22]


Link, A., Di Fiore, A., and Spehar, S.N. 2006. Predation risk affects subgroup size in spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) at Yasunì National Park, Ecuador. Folia Primatologica 77: 318. [6th Meeting of the Spanish Primatological Society] [21]


Schmitt, C., Di Fiore, A., Hurst, D., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2005. Maternally-initiated babysitting by wild adult male equatorial sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis) in Yasunì National Park, Ecuador. [1st Annual NYCEP Symposium: "Monkeys: Old and New"] [20]


Fernandez-Duque, E., Rotundo, M., Juarez, C., and Di Fiore, A. 2005. Ecología, comportamiento, genética y conservación del mono mirikiná en el Gran Chaco Argentino. Sociedad Argentino de Mastozoologia. [19]


Di Fiore, A., Hurst, D.,and Carrillo, G. 2005. Myrmecophagy in neotropical primates. American Journal of Primatology 66 (Supplement 1): 116. [28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists] [18]


Hurst, D., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque, E. 2005. Male replacement in a wild group of equatorial sakis (Pithecia aequatorialis). American Journal of Primatology 66 (Supplement 1): 118-119. [28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists] [17]


Spehar, S.N., Link, A., and Di Fiore, A. 2005. Patterns of male and female range use in white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in Yasunì National Park, Ecuador. American Journal of Primatology 66 (Supplement 1): 118. [28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists] [16]


Derby, A.M. and Di Fiore, A. 2005. How ecology and demography influence density in two populations of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus), Yasunì National Park, Ecuador. American Journal of Primatology 66 (Supplement 1): 150. [28th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists] [15]


Di Fiore, A. 2005. A rapid genetic method for sex-typing primate DNA. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 40: 95. [74th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [14]


Di Fiore, A. and Suarez, S.A. 2004. Route-based travel and shared routes in sympatric spider and woolly monkeys. Folia Primatologica 75 (Supplement 1): 97. [XXth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Turin, Italy] [13]


Di Fiore, A. and Strier, K.B. 2004. Flexibility in social organization in atelin primates. Folia Primatologica 75 (Supplement 1): 140. [XXth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Turin, Italy] [12]


Link, A., Spehar, S.N., and Di Fiore, A. 2004. Differences in the behavior of males and females in sympatric woolly and spider monkeys. Folia Primatologica 75 (Supplement 1): 294. [XXth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Turin, Italy] [11]


Schwindt, D.M., Carillo, G.A., Bravo, J.J., Di Fiore, A., and Fernandez-Duque 2004. Comparative socioecology of monogamous primates in the Amazon and Gran Chaco. Folia Primatologica 75 (Supplement 1): 412. [XXth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Turin, Italy] [PDF VERSION OF POSTER] [10]


Di Fiore, A. and Schwindt, D.M. 2004. A preliminary study of social behavior and pair-bonding in wild titi monkeys (Callicebus discolor) in Amazonian Ecuador. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 38: 87. [73rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [PDF VERSION OF POSTER] [9]


Dew, J.L., Greenberg, J., Franzen, M., and Di Fiore, A. 2003. Road to extinction: GIS modeling of road development and hunting pressure on Amazonian primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36: 89. [72nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [8]


Disotell, T.R., Tosi, A.J., and Di Fiore, A. 2003. X-chromosome phylogeny of the Platyrrhini. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36: 89-90. [72nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [7]


Di Fiore, A. 2003. Social and reproductive strategies of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36: 89. [72nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [PDF VERSION OF POSTER] [6]


Koester, F. and Di Fiore, A. 2003. Payoffs, community relations, and vocational training: Implementing local conservation in Ecuador's Yasunì National Park. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 36: 131. [72nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [5]


Di Fiore, A. 2002. Molecular perspectives on dispersal in lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 34: 63. [71st Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [4]


Di Fiore, A. 2001. Ranging behavior and foraging ecology of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 32: 59. [70th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [3]


Di Fiore, A. and Rendall, D. 1993. The evolution of primate social organization: A role for phylogeny. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 16: 81. [62nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [2]


Rodman, P.S. and Di Fiore, A. 1993. Effects of group size and resource dispersion on foraging efficiency of primates: A simulation model. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 16: 166. [62nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists] [1]


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Field Work


I am, first and foremost, a field primatologist, and I either am directly involved in or supervise a very diverse array of field studies on New World primates. The major portion of my field research takes place at two different sites in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve in Amazonian Ecuador – at the Proyecto Primates Research Area, which I established in 1994 as a Ph.D. student with Dr. Peter Rodman (UC Davis), and at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station, located approximately 40 km away. Both of these sites are home to a diverse primate community consisting of 10 to 12 different species. Additionally, I collaborate on a number of projects involving fieldwork in other New World sites outside of Ecuador.

Thank you to The Leakey Foundation, National Geographic, The Wenner-Gren Foundation, and National Science Foundation for funding numerous projects. Thank you also to the staff of both research stations and especially to the government of Ecuador.

Some of my ongoing field projects are described in more detail below. But first, I'd like to thank the project alumni(colleagues, students, and assistants listed below) that have been part of Proyecto Primates over the last few decades.

 

Research Overview

Behavior and Ecology of Ateline Primates

Ateline primates – howler monkeys, woolly monkeys, spider monkeys, and muriquis – are a closely related group of New World monkeys that shared a common ancestor roughly 16 million years ago and that, today, manifest marked differences in foraging strategies and patterns of social organization, making them an excellent natural system for comparative study. Interestingly, however, all members of this clade of primates are characterized by a tendency for females to disperse from their natal social groups prior to reproduction and for some degree of male philopatry, which are both features of social organization that they share with the African great apes.

Prompted by this convergence with African hominoids (and, presumably, with our earliest human ancestors), much of my field research to date has centered on ateline primates. In my doctoral research and in follow-up work as a postdoctoral fellow, I focused on documenting the natural history, time allocation patterns, ranging behavior, diet, and foraging strategies of lowland woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii), particularly as they relate to conditions of changing resource abundance. The results of some of this work – including the unexpected significance of animal prey foraging for this otherwise largely frugivorous primate – are outlined in my publications on the ecological strategies and ranging behavior of woolly monkeys.

My more recent field work on atelines has focused on woolly monkey social behavior and population genetic structure and on comparing the social behavior, foraging strategies, seed dispersal behavior, and cognitive ecology of woolly monkeys with those of sympatric white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) a closely-related primate that differs markedly in social organization. These various field projects, conducted in collaboration with several of my current graduate students, form the basis for a number of recent publications and presentations at professional meetings.

Evolution of Monogamy and Pair-Bonding in Primates

A second area of my ongoing fieldwork concerns several other members of the Yasuní primate community. Since 2002, I have been conducting a long-term study of the evolution of “monogamous” or "pair-bonded" social systems in primates using three species of New World monkeys – owl monkeys, titi monkeys, and sakis – as models. This work represents an international collaboration with Dr. Eduardo Fernandez-Duque (Fundación ECO, Argentina and CRES (Conservation and Research for Endangered Species), Zoological Society of San Diego), who studies one of these taxa (owl monkeys) at his field site in Argentina.

Monogamy is a rare social system in mammals, and the specific pressures leading to its evolution are still debated. Early hypotheses forwarded to explain the evolution of monogamy tended to fall into one of two classes. Some proposed that monogamy evolved in response to the need for biparental care in order to successfully rear offspring, while others envisioned monogamy as the default social system imposed upon males in cases where the dispersion of females makes it difficult for single males to successfully defend access to more than one. More recently, emphasis has turned to the role of direct mate guarding of individual females by males and to the importance of specific male-female bonds as an infanticide-prevention strategy, with "monogamy" then emerging as a tradeoff between the competing reproductive strategies of males and females. In this project, we are trying to evaluate these various hypotheses for the origin and maintenance of monogamy in primates using a comparative approach, collecting comparable behavioral, ecological, demographic, and genetic data on all three genera at my study site in Ecuador and on one of the taxa (owl monkeys) at study sites in both Ecuador and Argentina. As an additional component of this project, I am currently working in the laboratory to develop novel molecular genetic markers to allow paternity and population structure analyses for these monogamous species.

Tropical Forest Biodiversity and Phenology

Primatologists interested in how ecological conditions shape the behavior and social strategies of their study subjects must also collect detailed data on the diversity, abundance, and distribution of resources of potential importance. Thus, a third area of my ongoing fieldwork focuses on documenting and understanding spatial patterns in plant diversity and temporal patterns of flowering and fruiting in neotropical forests. Since 1994, almost without interruption, my team has been collecting data every month on the phenological status of a large subset of the trees located in five hectares of botanical plots that were established at the onset of my studies. This now represents one of the largest databases of phenological information available for an Amazonian rainforest site. Additionally, some of my plots are periodically recensused to look at temporal changes in floristic composition and biomass. These data form a part of the Amazon Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR) database, which compiles information from a large set of Amazonian rainforest sites for the purposes of monitoring the long-term dynamics and productivity of these forests in response to global climate change.

 

Collaborators and Current Field Research Team

  • Sebastian Ramirez
  • Kelsey Ellis
  • Robyn Reeder
  • Lucy Millington
  • Andres Link
  • Laura Abondano
  • Eduardo Fernandez Duque
  • Ana Maria Pardo
  • Colin Addis

Primate Molecular Ecology and Evolution Lab


Location: SAC 5.184
Number: 512.471.6716

 

Molecular Genetics

Since my postdoctoral training in the Molecular Genetics Laboratory at the National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, I have been using molecular genetic techniques to complement my field studies as well as the field studies of other scientists. Much of the early work in this area benfitted from the Molecular Anthropology Laboratory at New York University.

  1. Investigations of New World Monkey Social Systems: In the lab, we use molecular techniques to study the dispersal patterns, mating systems, and population structure of various New World primates. Although many of the taxa we work with have subjects of long-term observational studies in the wild, it is difficult to get a complete picture of mating systems and dispersal patterns using observational data only.
  2. New World Monkey Phylogenetics and Phylogeography: Through collaborations with various colleagues (Dr. Todd Disotell, Dr. Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Dr. Liliana Cortes-Ortiz) and former students (Dr. Alba Morales, Dr. Andres Link), I am also beginning to address questions concerning the phylogeny, evolutionary history, and biogeography of several New World primates.
  3. Methodological Contributions: In the course of my genetic work, I have been involved in the development and application of several methodological innovations with broader impact for molecular ecological studies of primates, including a "subtractive hybridization enrichment" protocol that facilitates the isolation of new microsatellite loci from a taxon. More recently, I developed a rapid and simple PCR-based test for determining the sex of a primate DNA sample that should be of use to many primatologists. While several molecular methods had already been developed for sex assignment in humans, very few had proven useful in other primates. By contrast, my sex-typing assay is applicable to taxa from across the primate order and can be effectively used on even the small amounts of DNA recovered from noninvasively collected samples such as hair or feces.

 

Current Lab Members

  • Lina Valencia
  • Kelsey Ellis
  • Laura Abondano
  • Amely Martins
  • Paulo Chaves (New York University)
  • Martha Lyke (UT San Antonio)
  • Mary Kelaita (UT San Antonio)