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Lorraine and Tom Pangle, Co-Directors BAT 2.116, C4100, Austin, TX 78712 • 512-471-6648

Lorraine Pangle

Professor Ph.D., University of Chicago

Professor of Government; Co-Director, Jefferson Center
Lorraine Pangle

Contact

Biography

Lorraine Pangle studies and teaches ancient, early modern, and American political philosophy, with special interests in ethics, the philosophy of education, and problems of justice and moral responsibility. She has held fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the Earhart Foundation.

Her publications include Virtue is Knowledge: The Moral Foundations of Socratic Political Philosophy (University of Chicago Press, 2014), The Political Philosophy of Benjamin Franklin (Johns Hopkins, 2007), Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship (Cambridge, 2003), The Learning of Liberty: The Educational Ideas of the American Founders (co-authored with Thomas L. Pangle, Kansas, 1993), and articles on Plato, Aristotle, the American founders, and the philosophy of education.

Interests

Benjamin Franklin; Philosophy of education; Ancient political philosophy and ethics; Modern political philosophy to 1900

CTI 322 • Critics Of Modern Liberalism

34560 • Spring 2014
Meets TTH 1230pm-200pm WAG 420
(also listed as GOV 351G )
show description

 

Course Description

 

This course will study Rousseau’s Discourse on the Origins of Inequality and Emile, followed by selections from Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morals and Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Our aim will be to understand both thinkers’ radical and comprehensive critiques of the Enlightenment or the modern rationalist project of reforming politics and society. Major themes will be human nature and its relation to history, the character of human excellence, freedom, religion, and the relationship of the philosopher to the rest of society. Special attention will be given to Rousseau’s and Nietzsche’s opposing assessments of compassion, equality, democracy, and the Christian faith. Throughout the course, we will reflect on the impact that the revolutionary teachings of these philosophers have had on the political world in which we live.

 

Some previous study of political philosophy is strongly recommended.

 

 

Texts

Rousseau, The First and Second Discourses, ed. Masters (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1964), ISBN 0312694407.

Rousseau, Emile, trans. Bloom (Hanover, NH: Dartmouth U Press, 2009), ISBN  1584656778.

Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo (New York: Vintage, 1989), ISBN 0679724621.

Nietzsche, Portable Nietzsche, ed. Kaufmann (New York: Penguin Books, 1977), ISBN 0140150625.

 

 

Course Requirements and Grading Policy

attendance, quizzes, and participation                                                                    20%

short paper on Rousseau                                                                                      25%

short paper on Nietzsche                                                                                       25%

final exam                                                                                                           30%

 

Flag: Ethics and leadership

CTI 301 • Ancient Philosophy And Lit

34049 • Spring 2013
Meets TTH 930am-1100am WAG 208
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Course Description

In this class, we will explore some of the greatest works of classical epic, tragedy, comedy, and philosophy.  We will use them not only to get a better understanding of a society very different from our own, but also to help us think about questions of enduring importance.  What is justice?  What is virtue?  What is love, and what should we expect from it?  How should we think about God and religion?  What about the life of the mind – what is its place in political society, and in a well-lived human life?  We will examine the answers given to these questions in classical Greece and compare those answers to our own. But beyond that, we will see that the works which we read are more than mirrors of their times; their authors reflected profoundly on these basic questions, challenging and transcending the conventions of their own society.  We will find that many of their insights are still valid, and that they can teach us about today’s moral and political situation.

 

 

Grading Policy

Weekly 1-page papers for the first 10 weeks of class: 4% each

5-page paper: 20%

Final exam: 20%

Attendance, quizzes, and class participation: 20%

 

 

Required Texts (all available at The University Co-op)

Homer, Odyssey.  Tranlated by Richmond Lattimore.  University of Chicago Press.

Sophocles, Antigone. In Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone.  Translated by David Grene and Richmond Lattimore.  University of Chicago Press.

Plato, Apology. In West, Thomas G. and Grace Starry.  Four Texts on Socrates.  Cornell University Press. 

Plato, Gorgias.  Translated by James Nichols.  Cornell Univesity Press.

Plato, Symposium. Translated by Seth Benardete.  University of Chicago Press.

 

Recommended Texts (available at The University Co-op)

H. D. F. Kitto, The Greeks, Penguin Press.

Strunk, William, and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, Penguin Press.

Turabin et al, Manual for Writers of Research Papers, University of Chicago Press.

 

CTI 301 • Ancient Philosophy And Lit-Hon

33873 • Fall 2012
Meets TTH 1100am-1230pm CBA 4.340
show description

Course Description

In this class, we will explore some of the greatest works of classical epic, tragedy, comedy, and philosophy.  We will use them not only to get a better understanding of a society very different from our own, but also to help us think about questions of enduring importance.  What is justice?  What is virtue?  What is love, and what should we expect from it?  How should we think about God and religion?  What about the life of the mind – what is its place in political society, and in a well-lived human life?  We will examine the answers given to these questions in classical Greece and compare those answers to our own. But beyond that, we will see that the works which we read are more than mirrors of their times; their authors reflected profoundly on these basic questions, challenging and transcending the conventions of their own society.  We will find that many of their insights are still valid, and that they can teach us about today’s moral and political situation.

 

 

Grading Policy

Weekly 500-word papers for the first 10 weeks of class: 4% each

5-page paper: 20%

final exam: 20%

attendance, quizzes, and class participation: 20%

 

 

Texts

Homer, Odyssey.  Tranlated by Richmond Lattimore.  University of Chicago Press.

Sophocles, Oedipus the King; Antigone. In Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone.  Translated by David Grene and Richmond Lattimore.  University of Chicago Press.

Aristophanes, Clouds; and Plato, Apology. In West, Thomas G. and Grace Starry.  Four Texts on Socrates.  Cornell University Press. 

Plato, Gorgias.  Translated by James Nichols.  Cornell Univesity Press.

Plato, Symposium. Translated by Seth Benardete.  University of Chicago Press.

 

Recommended Texts (available at The University Co-op)

H. D. F. Kitto, The Greeks, Penguin Press.

Strunk, William, and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, Penguin Press.

Turabin et al, Manual for Writers of Research Papers, University of Chicago Press.

 

CTI 325 • Morality And Politics

33935 • Fall 2012
Meets MWF 100pm-200pm WAG 420
(also listed as GOV 351L )
show description

Prerequisites

Some previous study of political philosophy is recommended.

 

Course Description

This course will explore the themes of morality and leadership in the writings of two great political philosopher, the ancient Athenian Xenophon and the renaissance Florentine Machiavelli. First, we will read Xenophon’s Education of Cyrus, a rich fictional depiction of a virtuous ancient polis and the process by which a man of boundless talents and ambition easily subverts it. In place of the virtuous republic, Xenophon’s Cyrus creates a progressive, dynamic, multi-ethnic society, aimed at wealth and expansion and glory, in which merit is rewarded and a self-sacrificing view of justice is replaced by a frank pursuit of the good things of this world. Yet in exploring this entrancing vision, Xenophon gives clear reasons why, in the end, he rejects it as the best model for a healthy society. Thus we will turn next to Xenophon’s Memorabilia of Socrates, in which he presents an alternate model of human excellence, that of the philosopher Socrates. Machiavelli had the highest opinion of Xenophon and gave all his works the closest study. Yet he came to the opposite conclusion from Xenophon, and devoted his writings to promoting the progressive, expansive political vision and the embrace of ambition that Xenophon rejected. We will read next Machiavelli’s two great masterpieces, the Prince and Discourses on Livy. What did Machiavelli see that Xenophon did not, or what did Xenophon see that Machiavelli did not? How can these contrasting works help us understand and assess the deepest differences between ancient and modern republicanism and the fundamental presuppositions of modern liberalism?

 

Grading Policy

Attendance, quizzes, and participation- 20%

5-page paper on Xenophon- 25%

5-page paper on Machiavelli- 25%

Final exam- 30%

 

Texts

Xenophon, Education of Cyrus, trans. Ambler, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-8750-1.

Xenophon, Memorabilia of Socrates, trans. Bonnette, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-8171-6.

Machiavelli, Prince, trans. Mansfield, Chicago, ISBN 0-226-50038-1

Machiavelli, Discourses on Livy, trans. Mansfield, Chicago, ISBN 0-226-50036-5

CTI 335 • Classical Quest For Justice

33965 • Spring 2012
Meets TTH 200pm-330pm UTC 3.134
(also listed as EUS 348, GOV 351C )
show description

In this course we will look at the problem of justice as it was explored in some of the greatest literary and philosophic works of ancient Greece. In the first part of the course, we will explore the challenges posed to political authority by three famous rebels: Achilles, a man of outstanding courage; Antigone, a woman who chose to obey the gods rather than a human king; and Socrates, a philosopher whose pursuit of the truth brought him to be condemned for impiety and corruption of the youth by the city of Athens. After reading their stories in Homer’s Iliad, Sophocles’ Antigone, Aristophanes’ comedy The Clouds, and Plato’s Apology, we will turn to Plato’s masterpiece on justice, The Republic. In this dialogue we will see how Socrates defends justice to the young, skeptical Glaucon by creating in speech a perfectly just city. This city, ruled by philosopher-kings, is an attempt to do justice to every claim to authority based on human excellence, inspiration, and wisdom, so as to win the loyalty of every reasonable person. In the course of creating the city in speech, Socrates explores the problem of justice from every angle and shows why a “perfect” political order may not even be desirable.

Prerequisites: thirty hours of coursework.

Required Texts:

Homer, Iliad

Sophocles, Antigone

Aristophanes, Clouds

Plato, Apology, Republic

Course Requirements:

Three short (3-5 pp.) papers, final exam.

CTI 335 • Rousseau And Nietzsche

34187 • Spring 2011
Meets TTH 1100am-1230pm WAG 420
(also listed as EUS 347, GOV 335M )
show description

This course will study Rousseau’s Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts and Emile, followed by Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil. Our aim will be to understand both thinkers’ radical and comprehensive critiques of the Enlightenment or the modern rationalist project of reforming politics and society. Major themes will be human nature and its relation to history, the character of human excellence, freedom, and the relationship of the philosopher to the rest of society. Special attention will be given to Rousseau’s and Nietzsche’s contrasting assessments of compassion, equality, democracy, and the Christian faith. Throughout the course, we will reflect on the impact that the revolutionary teachings of these philosophers have had on the political world in which we live.Some previous study of political philosophy is strongly recommended.

WCV 320 • Rousseau And Nietzsche

48250 • Spring 2010
Meets TTH 1100-1230pm WAG 420
(also listed as EUS 347, GOV 335M )
show description

Books

Virtue is Knowlege: The Moral Foundations of Socratic Political Philosophy (University of Chicago Press, 2014)

Virtue is Knowledge"Virtue Is Knowledge is an extraordinary accomplishment: suffused with insight, gracefully written, and powerfully argued. It will challenge much of the received wisdom about the meaning of the Socratic ‘paradox’ and set down important signposts for students of Socrates who wish to understand the full dimensions of his defense of philosophy and its significance for moral and political life. The book will easily take its place as one of the gems among the books devoted to the Platonic dialogues.”

(Susan D. Collins, University of Notre Dame)

“Lorraine Smith Pangle has written an ambitious and important book, one that richly rewards the effort it requires of readers. In it, she advances our understanding of Plato and unravels with remarkable clarity and comprehensiveness an important and enigmatic Socratic teaching. The power of her argument and the fruitfulness of her approach will make her book one with which every serious scholar will have to reckon.”


(Aristide Tessitore, Furman University)

“Pangle leads the reader on a thrilling intellectual journey, through Plato’s five most important dialogues on virtue, in search of a clear understanding of the moral character of Socratic philosophy. By demonstrating that Plato combines philosophic intransigence with a consummate moral and political realism, Pangle provides a vital correction to the traditional stereotype of Plato as a hopelessly naïve idealist. Through a remarkable combination of rigorous textual analysis, deft psychological insight, and bold philosophic reflection, Virtue Is Knowledge offers both a singularly illuminating account of the central moral teaching of Socratic philosophy and also a wonderfully vivid account of the life and soul of the philosopher.”

(Peter J. Ahrensdorf, Davidson College)

  


The Political Philosophy of Benjamin Franklin (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007)

Political Philosophy of Ben FranklinThis insightful and elegantly written book is a joy to read and highly recommended.

(Choice)

A learned, wise, and well-written account... for giving readers one of the very finest introductions to this remarkable American's thought, we must thank Lorraine Pangle.

(Ralph Ketcham Claremont Review of Books)

An excellent piece of work, gracefully written, as befits a work on the printer and master-writer himself. Its insight into Benjamin Franklin's thought is fresh and penetrating. Among the distinctive features of this work is its running comparison of Franklin with Socrates and with the high tradition of political philosophy. Pangle digs unusually deeply into Franklin's writings and the history of his doings.

(Steven Forde, University of North Texas)

Smith Pangle... Brings an impressive knowledge of philosophy and Western intellectual traditions.

(Carla Mulford Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography)

 


Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship (Cambridge University Press, 2002)

Aristotle Philosophy of Friendship"[Pangle's] focus on friendship enables the reader to appreciate more deeply the tensions of political life, virtue, and ultimately the life of philosophy...Aristotle's insights come alive in these pages. She also provides convincing proof that the relationship between teacher and student is the paradigmatic friendship, and we are in debt for her benefaction."

(Review of Politics)

"[G]ood discussions of textual problems..... Recommended."

(Choice)

"A valuable contribution to our undertanding of an important topic, not least because it is willing to take risks by including a wide range of philosophical opinions, and by presenting the author's own views alongside those of Plato, Aristotle, Montaigne and Cicero. It repays careful reading by Classicists, historians of philosophy, and all others interested in learning more about friendship."

(Classical Bulletin)

"Pangle has given us a deeply humane account of Aristotelian ideas...At the same time, Pangle's acute critical intelligence enables her to enrich our understanding of Aristotle's doctrines and to bring to light his argumentative and rhetorical strategies."

(Ancient Philosophy, Dirk t. D. Held, Connecticut College)

 


The Learning of Liberty: The Educational Ideas of the American Founders (co-author, with Thomas Pangle, The University Press of Kansas, 1993)

Learning of Liberty"Essential reading for every student and scholar of American education. I found myself wondering why no one had written this book before."

(Diane Ravitch, author of The Schools We Deserve: Reflections on the Educational Crisis of Our Time and former U.S. Assistant Secretary of Education)

"This thoughtful and thought-provoking book demonstrates that the contradictions that informed the educational theories of even the noblest and most generous Founders continue to haunt American education today, notably the challenge of reconciling the claims of a secular democracy with the claims of excellence, honor, and reverence that are necessary to individuals and to the quality of our political life."-

(Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, author of Feminism without Illusions: A Critique of Individualism)

"The authors make a powerful case that in a democratic republic, education must focus on civic and moral questions. Their sympathetic and critical account of the ideas and lives of such men as Washington, Jefferson, and Franklin is fascinating in itself and a superb way to illuminate the issues. No one seriously interested in the character of education in America should miss this book."

(Donald Kagan, author of The Fall of the Athenian Empire and co-author of The Western Heritage)

"This wonderful book reminds us of the importance that the Founders placed on education. Their ideas are full of sustenance and provocation for anyone interested in improving our schools."

(Lynne V. Cheney, former chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities)

"The Pangles direct our attention to what is best in America, the thought of our Founders, and make it available to the debate on education today. This is a work of careful scholarship and political philosophy in high style."

(Harvey C. Mansfield, Jr., author of America's Constitutional Soul)

"A truly admirable work written with genuine grace. To my knowledge, this is the fullest, richest study of the subject."

(Lance Banning, author of The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology)

  


 

Educational Resources

Reclaiming the Core: Liberal Education in the Twenty-first Century

reflections on teaching and learning for current and future professors, especially in political science

Advice on Essay Writing

advice for undergraduate and graduate students

Essay Evaluation Rubric

criteria I use in grading essays that make a good checklist for reviewing one's work

Habits of Highly Successful Students

especially for undergraduates

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