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An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

by Bosworth and Toller

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B

B THE sound of b is produced by the lips; hence it is called a labial con­sonant, and has the same sound in Anglo-Saxon as in English. In all languages, and especially in the dialects of cognate languages, the letters employing the same organs of utterance are continually interchanged. In Anglo-Saxon, therefore, we find that b interchanges with the other labials, f and p :-- Ic hæbbe I have, he hæfþ he hath. When words are transferred into modern English, b is sometimes represented by f or v :-- Beber or befor a beaver; Ober, ofer, over. 2. In comparing the Anglo-Saxon aspirated labial f with the corresponding letter in Old Saxon, the sister dialect, we find that the Old Saxons used a softer aspirated labial &b-bar; = bh. This softer aspirated &b-bar; generally occurs as a medial letter between two vowels; as,­ -

O. Sax.A. Sax.Eng.
graƀan = grafan = engrave
klioƀan = cleófan = cleave
geðan = gifan = give
3. The Runic letter Runic-Beorc not only stands for the letter B, b, but also for the name of the letter in Anglo-Saxon beorc the birch-tree. v. beorc.

, bú both; nom. f. n. acc, m. f. n. of begen :-- Ða idesa bá both the women, Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 22; Jud. 133. Wæter and eorþe, sint on gecynde cealda bá twá water and earth, both the two are by nature cold, Fox 20, 152; Met. 20, 76. Bysmeredon uncit [Inscription Bismærede ungket] men, bá ætgædre they [men] reviled us two, both together, Runic Inscrip. Kmbl. 354, 30.

baan, es; n. A bone :-- Ne tobrǽcan ða baan they broke not the bones, Homl. Daye 55, 17; Th. has, Ne tobrǽcon ða bán, Homl. ii. 280, 9. v. bán.

Babilón, e; f: Babilónie, Babilónige, an; f: Babilón, Babylón, es; f. [v. wim-man, es; f.] Babylon; Bab&y-short;l&o-long;n, &o-long;nis; f. This celebrated city of antiquity, in Mesopotamia, was built on both banks of the Euphrates. Its foundation by Nimrod is mentioned immediately after the Deluge, Gen. 10, 9, 10: 11, 9 :-- Nimrod [MS. Membrað], se ent, ongan æ-acute;rest timbrian Babilónia; and Ninus, se cyning æfter him, and Sameramis, his cwén, hí ge-endade æfter him, on middeweardum hire ríce. Seó burh wæs getimbred on fildum lande, and on swíðe emnum. And heó wæs swíðe fæger on to lócianne, and heó is swíðe rihte feówerscýte. And ðæs wealles mycelnyss and fæstnyss, is ungelýfedlíc to secgenne: ðæt he is l elna brád, and ii hund elna heáh, and his ymbgang is hund seofantig míla, and seofeþan dæ-acute;l ánre míle ... Seó ylce burh Babylónia, seó ðe mæ-acute;st wæs, and æ-acute;rest ealra burga, seó is nú læst and wéstast Nimrod, the giant, first began to build Babylon; and, after him, king Ninus, and then Semiramis, his queen, finished it in the middle of her reign. The city was built on open and very level land. It was very fair to look upon, and it is quite a true square. The greatness and firmness of the wall, when stated, is hardly to be believed. It is fifty ells broad, and two hundred ells high, and its circumference is seventy miles, and the seventh part of a mile ... This very city of the Babylonians, which was the greatest and first of all cities, is now the least and most desolate, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 17-31. Babilón wæs mæ-acute;rost burga Babylon was the greatest of cities, Cd. 209; Th. 259, 19; Dan. 694. Babilóne weard the guardian of Babylon, 177; Th. 222, 14; Dan. 104: 178; Th. 223, 9; Dan. 117. Þurh Babilónian burh through the city of Babylon, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 11. Babilónes brego the ruler of Babylon, Cd. 174; Th. 218, 30; Dan. 47. Se wæs Babylónes brego he was the ruler of Babylon, 79; Th. 98, 20; Gen. 1633. Ofer flódas Babilónes super flumina Babylonis, Ps. Surt. 136, 1: Ps. Spl. 136, 1. Dóhtor Babylónes earm filia Babylonis misera, Ps. Surt. 136, 8: Ps. Spl. 136, 11. In Babilóne in Babylon, Cd. 82; Th. 102, 28; Gen. 1707. On ðære þeóde, ðe swá hátte bresne Babilónige in the country, that was so called powerful Babylon, 180; Th. 226, 18; Dan. 173. [Heb. HEBREW b&a-long;b&e-short;l the city of Belus: Grk. GREEK, GREEK; f: Lat. Bab&y-short;l&o-long;n, &o-long;nis; f.]

Babilónia Babylon, acc. Grk, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 17. v. Babilón.

Babilónie, an; f. Babylon, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 11. v. Babilón.

Babilónige Babylon, Cd. 180; Th. 226, 18; Dan. 173. v. Babilón.

Babilónis of Babylon, gen. Lat. Ps. Th. 86, 2. v. Babilón.

Babilónisc; def. se Babilónisca, seó, ðæt Babilónisce; adj. Babylonish; Babylōnĭcus :-- Dóhtor, seó Babilónisce wræcce [MS. babilonisca wræcca] filia Babilonis misera, Ps. Lamb. 136, 8.

Babilónisca, an; m. Babylon; Bab&y-short;l&o-long;n, &o-long;nis; f :-- Ofer flód Babilóniscan super flumina Babilonis, Ps. Lamb. 136, 1. DER. Babilónisc.

Babylón Babylon, Cd. 79; Th. 98, 20; Gen. 1633. v. Babilón.

baca of backs; gen. pl. of bæc.

BACAN; ic bace, ðú bacest, bæcest, bæcst, becest, becst, he baceþ, bæceþ, beceþ, pl. bacaþ; p. ic, he bóc, ðú bóce, pl. bócon; pp. bacen; v. a. To BAKE; torrere, pinsere, coquere :-- Fíf bacaþ on ánum ofene quinque in uno clibano coquant, Lev. 26, 26. Hí bócon melu coxerunt farinam, Ex. 12, 39. [Orm. bakenn: Chauc. bake: Wyc. bake; p. boke; pp. bakun: Scot. baike to bake; pp. baiken; bakster a baker: O. Sax. bakan: N. Frs. backe: Dut. bakken: Ger. backen: M. Ger. bachen: O. H. Ger. pachan; p. puoch; pp. pachanér: Dan. bage: Swed. O. Nrs. baka to roast: Sansk. bhak-tas cooked, from bhaj to cook.] DER. a-bacan: bæcere, bæcestre: bacen, niw-, ofen-.

bacen baked; pp. of bacan.

bac-slitol, es; m. A backbiter; detractor, Off. reg. 15. v. bæc-slitol.

bacu backs; nom. acc. pl. of bæc :-- Hí me towendon heora bacu they turned their backs on me, Bt. Met. Fox 2, 29; Met. 2, 15.

bád, e; f. [from bǽdan compellere] A pledge, stake, a thing distrained; pignus :-- Gif bád genumen sý, ðonne begyte ða báde hám if a pledge be taken, then shall he obtain the pledge home again, or back, L. O. D. 3; Th. i. 354, 6, 7. DER. bádian; néd-bád; nýd. v. wed, wedd.

bád expected, waited, Cd. 132; Th. 167, 32; Gen. 2774; p. of bídan.

Baddan-burh; g. -burge; d. -byrig; f. BADBURY, Dorsetshire, formerly Baddanburgum; Baddanburgus in quo castra metatus est Eadweardus Ælfredi fil, An. 901; haud longe a Winburna, in agro Dorsetensi :-- He gewícode æt Baddanbyrig wið Winburnan he encamped at Badbury near Winburn, Chr. 901; Th. 178, 26.

Badecan wylle, an; f. [Badec's well: Flor. A.D. 1114, Badecanwella] BAKEWELL, Derbyshire :-- Fór on Peac-lond to Badecan wyllan [MS. wiellon] went into the Peak to Bakewell, Chr. 924; Erl. 110, 12.

bádian; p. ode; pp. od; v. a. To pledge, seize, take by way of a pledge; pignerare, pignus auferre :-- Of ǽgdran stæðe on óðer man mót bádian, búte man elles riht begytan mǽge from one shore to the other one may take a pledge, unless he can get justice in another way, L. O. D. 2; Th. i. 354, 3.

Bæbba-burh Bamborough, Chr. 1093; Th. 360, 6: 1095; Th. 362, 12. v. Bæbban burh.

Bæbban burh, Chr. 993; Th. 241, 17, col. 1. v. Bebban burh.

BÆC; g. bæces; pl. nom. acc. bacu, bæc; g. baca; d. bacum; n. A BACK; dorsum, tergum [dorsum is opposed to venter, especially in animals; and tergum to frons, v. hricg] :-- Mínra feónda bæc ðú onwendest to me inimicorum meorum dedisti mihi dorsum, Ps. Th. 17, 38. Fýnd míne ðú sealdest me on bæc vel hricc inimicos meos dedisti mihi dorsum, Ps. Spl. 17, 42; myn enemys thou ʒeue to me bac, Wyc. 17, 41. Ðá wendon hí me heora bæc to then turned they their backs to me, Bt. 2; Fox 4, 13. Hí me towendon heora bacu they turned their backs on me, Bt. Met. Fox 2, 29; Met. 2, 15. Ǽr hí bacum tobreden before they turn their backs to each other, Exon. 92 a; Th. 345, 20; Gn. Ex. 192. ¶ On bæc retro, Jn. Bos. 6, 66: and under bæc retrorsum, Ps. Spl. 43, 12: at his back, behind, backward, v. under-bæc. Clæ-acute;ne bæc hæbban to have a clean back, to be free from deceit, L. A. G. 5; Th. i. 156, 6. Gang on bæc, Mt. Bos. 4, 10. Gá on bæc go behind or away; vade retro, Mk. Bos. 8, 33. [Orm. bac, bacch: Chauc. back: O. Sax. bak, n: N. Frs. beck, n: O. Frs. bek, n: O. Ger. pacho, bacho, m: O. Nrs. bak, n: Scot. back a body of followers. Is it allied to the root in bígan to bow, as the N. Ger. buckel dorsum is to biegen?] DER. ofer-bæc, on-, under-.

bæc-bord, es; m. The larboard or left-hand side of a ship, when looking towards the prow or head; navigii sinistra pars :-- Burgenda land wæs us on bæcbord the land of the Burgundians was on our larboard or left, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 21, 44. [Plat. Dut. bakboord the larboard.]

bǽce a beech-tree, Som. Lye. v. béce.

bæcere, es; m. A BAKER; pistor, Ælfc. Gl. 50; Som. 65, 109; Wrt. Voc. 34, 38. [Plat. Dut. bakker: Ger. bäcker: Dan. Swed. bagere: O. Nrs. bakari.] v. bacan.

bæce-ring, es; m. A grate formed as a ring used for baking, a gridiron; craticula, Cot. 99.

bæc-ern, es; n. [bæc from bacan to bake, ern a place] A baking-place, a bakehouse; pistrinum, Ælfc. Gl. 50; Som. 65, 110; Wrt. Voc. 34, 39.

bæcest bakest, = bacest, 2nd sing. pres. of bacan.

bæcestre, bæcistre, bæcystre, an; f? m. [bacan to bake, heó bæc-eþ; estre, v. -isse] A woman who bakes; pistrix: but because afýrde men performed that work which was originally done by females, this occupation is here denoted by a feminine termination; hence, a baker; pistor :-- Ðá gelamp hit ðæt twegen afýryde men agylton wið heora hláford, Egypta cynges byrle and his bæcistre ecce accidit ut peccarent duo eunuchi, pincerna regis Ægyptorum, et pistor, domino suo, Gen. 40, 1. Ðara óðer bewiste his byrlas, óðer his bæcestran illorum alter pincernis præerat, alter pistoribus, 40, 2, Bæcistra ealdor pistorum magister, 40, 16, 20. Bæcestre a baker; pistor, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 1; Som. 30, 36.

bæceþ baketh, = baceþ, 3rd sing. pres. of bacan.

bæc-hús, es; n. A BAKEHOUSE; pistrinum, Ælfc. Gl. 22? v. bæc-ern.

bæcling; adv. Only used with on, On the back, backwards, behind; retrorsum :-- On bæcling retrorsum, Ps. Th. 113, 5. On bæclincg, 43, 12, 19. Cer ðé on bæcling turn thee behind me, Cd. 228; Th. 308, 26; Sat. 698. v. ears-ling, hinder-ling.

bæc-slitol, es; m. [bæc a back; slitol a biter, from sliten, pp. of slítan to slit, bite] A backbiter; detractor, Off. reg. 15.

bæcst bakest; bæcþ bakes. v. bacan.

bæc-þearm, es; m. The entrails; anus, longanon :-- Wrt. Voc. 283, 60. Bæcþearmas the bowels; extales, Ælfc. Gr. 13; Som. 16, 23. Bæcþearm vel snǽdel extales, Ælfc. Gl. 74; Som. 71, 66; Wrt. Voc. 44, 48. Bæcþearmes útgang morbus, fortasse, ani procidentia; Som. v. snǽdel.

bæcystre a baker; pistor :-- Bæcystra ealdor pistorum magister, Gen. 41, 10. v. bæcestre.

bæd, pl. bǽdon asked, besought, Cd. 94; Th. 122, 12; Gen. 2025: 37; Th. 48, 24; Gen. 780; p. of biddan.

Bæda-ford-scír Bedfordshire, Chr. 1011; Th. 267, 4, col. 2. v. Bedan ford-scír.

bǽdan; p. de; pp. ed To constrain, compel, require, solicit; cogere, compellere, exigere, postulare, flagitare :-- Ðæs his lufu bǽdeþ whom his love constrains, Exon. 90 b; Th. 339, 27; Gn. Ex. 100. Mǽru cwén bǽdde byras geonge the illustrious queen solicited her young sons, Beo. Th. 4040; B. 2018. [O. Sax. bédian cogere aliquem ad aliquid: O. H. Ger. ga-peitian: Goth. báidjan: O. Nrs. beiða petere, postulare.] DER. a-bǽdan, ge-.

bædd a bed, Vit. Swith. v. bed.

bǽdde, an; f? A thing required, tribute; exactum, Cot. 73.

bǽdde solicited, Beo. Th. 4040; B. 2018; p. of bǽdan.

bæddel, es; m. A hermaphrodite; hermaphroditus :-- Wǽpen-wífestre vel scritta vel bæddel hermaphroditus, Ælfc. Gl. 76; Som. 71, 125; Wrt. Voc. 45, 28. v. wǽpen-wífestre, scritta.

bædd-ryda, an; m. One bedridden; clinicus, Vit. Swith. v. bed-reda.

bǽdel a beadle, Som. Lye. v. býdel.

bǽdend, es; m. A vehement or earnest persuader, a solicitor, stirrer; impulsor, Cot. 115.

bǽde-wég, -wíg, es; n. A cup; poculum :-- Heó scencte bittor bǽde-wég she poured out the bitter cup, Exon. 47a; Th. 161, 13; Gú. 958.

bædling, es; m. [bedd a bed] A delicate fellow, tenderling, one who lies much in bed; homo delicatus :-- Bædlingas effeminate men; μaλaκoí, Cot. 71: 1 Cot. 6, 9.

bǽdling, es; m. [from bǽdan to compel, solicit] A carrier of letters or orders; tabellarius, Som.

bæd-þearm, es; m. Mentera, entera? = έντερa, pl. n. exentera? Bæd-þearm seems to be an error of the copyist for bæcþearm, Ælfc. Gl. 76; Som. 71, 122; Wrt. Voc. 45, 27.

bædzere, bæzere, es; m: bezera, an; m. A baptist, baptizer; baptista :-- Hie cwǽdun, sume Iohannes se bædzere illi dixerunt, alii Ioannem Baptistam, Mt. Rush. Stv. 16, 14: 3, 1. v. fulluhtere.

bæfta, an; m. The after part, the back; tergum :-- Ic geseah ðone bæftan I saw the back, Gen. 16, 13.

bæfta; adv. Behind; post, Gen. 32, 24. v. bæftan; adv.

bæftan, beftan; prep. dat. [be-æftan, q. v.] I. after, behind; post, pone :-- Gang bæftan me vade post me, Mt. Bos. 16, 23. II. behind,without; sine :-- Bæftan ðam hláforde without the master, Ex. 22, 14.

bæftan, bæfta; adv. [be-æftan, q. v.] After, behind, hereafter, afterwards; postea :-- Git synd fíf hungor gér bæftan adhuc quinque anni residui sunt famis, Gen. 45, 11. He ána beláf dǽr bæfta he alone was left there behind, Gen. 32, 24. Mycel ðæs heres ðe mid hyre bæftan wæs much of the army that was behind with her, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 23.

bæftan-sittende; part. Idle; reses, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 26; Som. 11, 11.

bǽg a collar :-- Wearm lim gebundenne bǽg hwílum bersteþ the warm limb sometimes escapes from the bound collar, Exon. 102b; Th. 387, 20; Rä. 5, 8. v. beáh.

bæga of both, Th. Diplm. A.D. 804-829; 462, 17. v. begen.

Bægere, Bægware; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The Bavarians; Bavarii, the Boiari, or Bajuvarii, whose country was called Boiaria, its German name is Baiern, now called the kingdom of Bavaria :-- Mid Bægerum with the Bavarians, Chr. 891; Th. 160, 24. Hí Maroaro habbaþ, be westan him, Þyringas, and Behemas, and Bægware bealfe they, the Moravians, have, on their west, the Thuringians, Bohemians, and part of the Bavarians, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 42.

bǽh a crown, Ælflædæ Test. v. beáh.

BǼL, es; n. I. fire, flame; ignis, flamma :-- Hæfde landwara líge befangen, bǽle and bronde he had enveloped the inhabitants of the land with flame, with fire and brand, Beo. Th. 4633; B. 2322: 4606; B. 2308. Bǽles cwealm in helle the torment of the fire in hell, Andr. Kmbl. 2374; An. 1188. II. the fire of a funeral pile, in which dead bodies were burned, a funeral pile; rogus, pyra :-- Ǽr he bǽl cure ere he chose the pile [the fire of the pile], Beo. Th. 5629; B. 2818. Bǽl biþ onæled the pile is kindled, Exon. 59a; Th. 212, 26; Ph. 216. [Piers. bal: O. Nrs. bál, n. a fire, funeral pile.]

bǽl-blǽse, an; f. Blaze of a flame; flammæ candor vel ardor, Exon. 42b; Th. 142, 22; Gú. 648.

bǽl-blys, e; f. Blaze of a fire; flammæ ardor, Cd. 184; Th. 230, 12; Dan. 232: 162; Th. 203, 9; Exod. 401.

bælc, es; m. I. a BELCH; eructatio, Mann. II. the stomach, pride, arrogance; stomachus, superbia, arrogantia :-- He him bælc forbígde he bent their pride, Cd. 4; Th. 4, 15; Gen. 54: Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 18; Jud. 267.

BÆLC, es; m. A covering; tegmen, peristroma, tabulatum :-- He bælce oferbrǽdde byrnendne heofon he overspread with a covering the burning heaven, Cd. 146; Th. 182, 9; Exod. 73. [N. Ger. gebälk, es; n. the beams or timber of a house: Icel. bálkr.]

bælcan to cry out; vociferari :-- He bælceþ he cries out, Exon. 83b; Th. 315, 8; Mód. 28. [Plat. bölken: N. Frs. balckien: N. Dut. balken: Ger. bolken.]

bældan to animate, encourage; animare, instigare :-- Ðú þeóde bældest to beadowe thou encouragest the people to strife, Andr. Kmbl. 2373; An. 1188. v. byldan.

bældu, e; f. Confidence; fiducia, Mt. Rush. Stv. 14, 27.

bǽl-egsa, an; m. Terror of flame? flammæ terror?-Bǽlegsan [bell egsan MS.] hweóp he threatened with terror of flame, Cd. 148; Th. 185, 12; Exod. 121.

bǽl-fýr, es; n. A funeral fire; rogi ignis :-- Bǽlfýra mǽst greatest of funeral fires, Beo. Th. 6278; B. 3143: Exon. 74a; Th. 277, 12; Jul. 579.

bælg, bælig, es; m. A bulge, bag; bulga, Cot. 27. v. belg.

bælig-nis, -niss, e; f. [from belgan to be angry, to make angry] An injury; injuria, Mt. Lind. Stv. 20, 13.

bǽl-stede, es; m. A funeral pile place; rogi locus, Beo. Th. 6185; B. 3097.

bǽl-þræc; g. -þræce; pl. nom. g. acc. -þraca; f. Force of fire; flammæ impetus :-- Æfter bǽlþræce after the fire's force, Exon. 59b; Th. 216, 19; Ph. 270.

bǽl-wudu, es; m. Wood of the funeral pile; rogi lignum, Beo. Th. 6216; B. 3112.

bǽl-wylm, es; m. Fire's heat; flammæ æstuatio, Exon. 70b; Th. 262, 22; Jul. 336.

bǽm for bám; dat. of begen both, Bt. 38, 5, MS. Cott; Fox 206, 15: Th. Diplm. A.D. 804-829; 463, 3. v. begen.

bænc a bench, Som. Lye. v. benc.

bænd, es; m. A band; vitta :-- Healfne bænd gyldenne [dederunt] dimidiam vittam auream, Text. Rof. 111, 3; Th. Diplm. A.D. 950; 501, 35: Text. Rof. 110, 23; Th. Diplm. A.D. 950; 501, 20. v. bend.

Bænesing-tún Bensington, Chr. 571; Th. 32, 29, col. 1. v. Bensingtún.

BÆR; g. m. n. bares; f. bærre: d. barum: acc. bærne: pl. nom. baru; acc. bare; dat. barum; def. se bara; seó, ðæt bare; adj. BARE, naked, open; nudus :-- On bær líc on the bare body, Exon. 125a; Th. 482, 7; Rä. 66, 4. On barum sondum on bare sands, Bt. 34, 10; Fox 148, 24. Wit hér baru standaþ unwered wǽdo we stand here naked, unprotected by garments, Cd. 38; Th. 50, 20; Gen. 811. [Plat. Dut. Ger. baar nudus, promptus, merus, manifestus: M. H. Ger. bar nudus: O. H. Ger. par, bar: the Goth. form is not found, but would be basis or basus: Dan. Swed. bar: O. Nrs. berr: Slav. bos: Lith. bosus; then the radical consonants would be b-s, not b-r; therefore the word is not connected with beran ferre. v. Grm. Wrtbch. i. 1055.] v. berie.

bær, pl. bǽron bore, Cd. 24; Th. 31, 2; Gen. 479: 178; Th. 223, 18; Dan. 121; p. of beran.

bǽr, e; f. I. a BIER; feretrum :-- Síe seó bǽr gearo let the bier be ready, Beo. Th. 6202; B. 3105. Gefærenne man brohton on bǽre they brought a dead man on a bier, Elen. Kmbl. 1742; El. 873. II. a couch, pallet, litter; grabatus :-- On his þegna handum on bǽre boren wæs manibus ministrorum portabatur in grabato, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 22. [Chauc. Wyc. bere: Plat. baar, f: O. Sax. bára, f: O. Frs. bére, f: Dut. baar, f: Ger. bahre, f: M. H. Ger. báre, f: O. H. Ger. bára, f: Dan. baar, f.] v. bér, beer, Lind. Rush. DER. beran.

bǽran; p. de; pp. ed To bear, bear oneself; ferre, transferre :-- He ne geþafode, ðæt ǽnig man ǽnig fæt þurh ðæt templ bǽre, Mk. Bos. 11, 16; he suffride not, that ony man schulde bere a vessel thurʒ the temple, Wyc. DER. ge-bǽran.

bær-beáh; g. -beáges; m. A bearing-ring, ring; anulus, Exon. 108b; Th. 414, 18; Rä. 32, 22.

bǽr-disc, es; m. [bǽr, disc a dish] A dish bier or tray, a frame on which several dishes were brought to table at once, a course, service; ferculum, Wrt. Voc. 26, 64.

bǽre a bier; feretrum, Wrt. Voc. 49, 26. v. bǽr.

-bǽre an adjective termination signifying Producing, bearing, from beran to bear, produce; as, wæstm-bǽre fruit-bearing, fruitful; frugifer: æppel-bǽre apple-bearing; pomifer: horn-bǽre horn-bearing; corniger: leóht-bǽre light-bearing. [Plat. Dut. -baar: Ger. -bar: M. H. Ger. -bǽre: O. H. Ger. -pári.] v. bora.

bære-flór, es; m. A barley-floor, barn-floor, threshing-floor; hordei area, area :-- þurh-clǽnsaþ his bæreflór permundabit aream suam, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 3, 12. v. bere.

bǽrende bearing; part. of bǽran. v. berende.

bær-fót; adj. BAREFOOT or that goeth barefooted; nudipes, Peccat. Med. 8. [Ger. barfusz.]

bærlíc, es; m? Barley; hordeum :-- Man sælde ðæt æcer-sǽd bærlíc to six scillingas one sold the acre-seed of barley for six shillings, Chr. 1124; Th. 376, 5. v. bere.

bær-líce; adv. Openly, nakedly, BARELY; palam, Jn. Lind. War. 6, 29.

bærm a bosom, lap; sinus, Som. Lye. v. bearm.

bǽr-man, -mann, es; nom. pl. bǽrmenn; d. bǽrmannum; m. A man who bears, a bearer, carrier, porter; bajulus :-- Ða bǽrmenn gesetton heora fótlǽst the porters set their footstep, Jos. 3, 15.

bærn a barn, Wrt. Voc. 84, 55. v. bern.

bærnan; p. bærnde; pp. bærned; v. a. To kindle, light, set on fire, to BURN, burn up; accendere, urere, comburere, exurere :-- Bærnaþ nú eówer blácern light now your lamp, Bd. 4, 8; S. 576, 5. Hí bærndon gecorene they burned the chosen, Exon. 66a; Th. 243, 26; Jul. 16. [Plat. brennen; p. brende ardere, urere: Dut. branden; p. brande id: O. Dut. bernen; p. bernde; branden; p. brande id: Ger. brennen; p. brannte; but brinnan; p. brann ardere: M.H. Ger. brennen; p. brante urere: O.H. Ger. brennan; p. branta; prennan; p. pranta id: O. Sax. brinnan, brennan: Goth. brannjan; p. brannida: Dan. brände ardere, urere: Swed. bränna urere: O. Nrs. brenna; p. brendi id.] DER. forbærnan, ge-, on-. v. byrnan, beornan.

bærnes, bærnis, -ness, e; f. A burning; incendium, Bd. 1, 6; S. 476, 25. DER. an-bærnis, -bærnys, in-, on-.

bærnet, bærnyt, bernet, es; n. I. a combustion, burning up; combustio :-- He wudu gelogode to his sunu bærnytte he laid in order the wood for the burning of his son, Gen. 22, 9. II. arson; incendium :-- Húsbryce and bærnet ... is bótleás bootless is ... house-breaking and arson, L.C.S. 65; Th. i. 410, 5. DER. wudu-bærnet.

bærning, berning, e; f. A BURNING; adustio :-- Sylle bærninge wið bærninge reddat adustionem pro adustione, Ex. 21, 25.

bærnyt a combustion, burning, Gen. 22, 9. v. bærnet.

-bǽro, -bǽru a bearing. v. forþ-, ge-, on-.

bærs, bears, es; m. A perch; perca, lupus :-- Bærs lupus vel scardo, Ælfc. Gl. 101; Som. 77, 58; Wrt. Voc. 55, 63. [Dut. baars, m: Ger. bars, barsch, m.]

bærst burst, Byrht. Th. 140, 6; By. 284; p. of berstan.

bærstlian; p. ode; pp. od To break, burst; crepare :-- Bærstlaþ crepuerit, Cot. 39. v. brastlian.

bær-synnig, -sinnig, -suinnih, -sunig; adj. [bær bare, open; synnig sinful, wicked] Openly-wicked; used substantively, an open or public sinner, a publican; apertus vel publicus peccator, publicanus :-- Síe ðé swǽ bærsynnig sit tibi sicut publicanus, Mt. Lind. Stv. 18, 17: 21, 32: Mk. Lind. War. 2, 16: Lk. Lind. War. 15, 1: Mt. Lind. Stv. 9, 10. [O. Nrs. ber-syndugr.]

bærwe a grove, Som; dat. of bearo.

BÆST, es; m? n? The inner bark of a tree, of which ropes were made; tilia :-- Bæst vel lind tilia, Lye. [Plat. Dut. bast, m. bark: O. Dut. bast, m. signifies the bark of a tree and also a rope; because the inner part of the linden or lime-tree was mostly used for making ropes: Ger. M. H. Ger. bast, m. bark: O. H. Ger. past, m: Dan. bast, m: Swed. bast, n: O. Nrs. bast, n. The word is probably to be derived from bindan to bind, v. Grm. Wrtbch. i. 1148.]

bæsten; adj. Made of bast, BAST; tiliaceus :-- Híg ðá hine gebundon mid twám bæstenum rápum then they bound him with two bast ropes, Jud. Grn. 15, 13.

bæstere a baptizer; baptista :-- Bæstere baptista, Mt. Lind. Stv. 3, 1. v. bædzere.

bæswi [= basu purple] A scarlet robe; coccinum, Cot. 208.

bǽtan; p. bǽtte; pp. bǽted; v. a. To bridle, rein in, restrain, curb, bit; frenum equo vel asino injicere, frenare, cohibere :-- Esolas bǽtan to bridle asses, Cd. 138; Th. 173, 25; Gen. 2866. Gif he ǽr þweores windes bǽtte if he first restrained the perverse wind, Bt. 41, 3; Fox 250, 16. [O. H. Ger. beizian mordere facere, infrenare : O. Nrs. beita.] DER. ge-bǽtan, ymbe-.

bǽte, es; n. A BIT of a bridle, a bridle, trappings, harness; lupatum, frenum. v. gebǽte, gebǽtel.

BÆÞ, es; pl. nom. acc. baðu; g. baða; d. baðum, baðan, baðon; n. I. a BATH; balneum, balneatio :-- Bæþ háte weól the bath boiled [welled] with heat, Exon. 74a; Th. 277, 16; Jul. 581. On hátum baðum in hot baths, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 6. II. a font; fons lustralis :-- Hú hí hine bǽdan fullwihtes bæðes how they had asked him for a font of baptism, Ors. 6, 34; Bos. 130, 30. [Plat. bad, n: O. Sax. bath, n: Dut. Ger. bad, n: M. H. Ger. bat; gen. bades, n: O. H. Ger. bad, n: Dan. Swed. bad: O. Nrs. bað, n.] DER. fýr-bæþ, seolh-: Baðan Bath.

bæðere, es; m. A baptist; baptista, Grm. i. 253, 38. v. bædzere.

bæþ-hús, es; n. A BATH-HOUSE; thermarum domus :-- Bæþhús balnearium vel thermarium, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 79, 13; Wrt. Voc. 58, 54. Bæþhús vel bæþstów thermæ, Ælfc. Gl. 107; Som. 78, 75; Wrt. Voc. 57, 53. v. bæþ-stów.

bæðian; p. ode; pp. od To bathe, Som. Lye. v. baðian.

bæþ-stede, es; m. A place of baths; thermarum locus :-- Bæþstede thermæ vel gymnasium, Ælfc. Gl. 55; Som. 67, 7; Wrt. Voc. 37, 5.

bæþ-stów, e; f. A bathing-place; thermarum locus :-- Bæþhús vel bæþstów thermæ, Ælfc. Gl. 107; Som. 78, 75; Wrt. Voc. 57, 53. v bæþ-hús.

bæþ-weg, es; m. A bath-way, the sea; via balnei, mare :-- Brecan ofer bæþweg to break over the bath-way, Andr. Kmbl. 445; An. 223. Bæþweges blǽst a blast or wind of the sea, a sea breeze, the south wind. Súþwind is so called, Cd. 158; Th. 196, 11; Exod. 290.

bǽting, béting, e; f. A cable, a rope, anything that holds or restrains; funis, retinaculum :-- Lǽtan ða bétinge [Cot. bǽtinge] to slip the cable, Bt. 41, 3; Fox 250, 15.

bǽtte restrained, Bt. 41, 3; Fox 250, 16; p. of bǽtan.

bæzera, bæzere a baptizer, Mt. Rush. Stv. 11, 11, 12. v. bædzere.

bala-níþ, es; m. Baleful malice, evil, Ps. C. 50, 151; Ps. Grn. ii. 280, 151. v. bealo-níþ.

balca, an; m. A BALK, beam, bank, a ridge; trabs, porca, terra inter duos sulcos congesta :-- On balcan lecgan to lay in ridges, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 54, 2. [Piers P. Chauc. balke trabs: Plat. balk, m. id: O. Sax. balko, m: Dut. balk, m: Ger. M. H. Ger. balke, m: O. H. Ger. baicho, balko, m: Dan. bjälke: Swed. bjelke: O. Nrs. bálkr, m; but cf. also Gaelic balc a ridge of earth between two furrows, Grm. Wrtbch. i. 1089.]

balcettan to belch, Som. Lye. v. bealcettan.

bald; adj. BOLD, audacious, adventurous, confident; audax, confidens :-- Bald breóst-toga a bold chief, Salm. Kmbl. 369; Sal. 184: Hilde calla bald bord upahóf the bold war-herald raised his shield, Cd. 156; Th. 193, 27; Exod. 253. Wǽron hí ðe baldran gewordene confidentiores facti, Bd. 1, 12; S. 481, 17. v. beald.

-bald, -bold; as the incipient or terminating syllable of proper names denotes Bold, courageous, honourable; audax, virtuosus :-- Baldwin from bald, and win a contest, battle. Cúþbold, Cúþbald from cúþ known, bald bold. Eádbald happily bold, from eád or eádig and bald.

balde; adv. Boldly, freely, confidently, instantly; audacter, libere, fidenter, instanter, prone, statim, sine mora :-- Hie balde gecwǽdon they said boldly, Cd. 182; Th. 228, 11; Dan. 200. v. bealde.

bald-líce boldly; fortiter :-- He baldlíce beornas lǽrde he boldly exhorted the warriors, Byrht. Th. 140, 60; By. 311. v. beald-líce.

bald-lícost; sup. Most bravely; fortissime :-- Ðe baldlícost on ða bricge stóp who stept on the bridge most bravely, Byrht. Th. 134, 2; By. 78. v. beald-líce.

baldor, es; m. [the comp. of bald is baldor more bold, courageous, honourable, hence] A prince, ruler; princeps, dominus :-- thus, Gumena baldor a ruler of men, Cd. 128; Th. 163, 4; Gen. 2693: Judth. 9; Thw. 21, 8; Jud. 9. Rinca baldor, 12; Thw. 26, 21; Jud. 339. Wígena baldor a prince of warriors, 10; Thw. 22, 5; Jud. 49. v. bealdor.

baldra bolder, Bd. 1, 12; S. 481, 17. v. bald, beald.

baldsamum, i; n. Balsam, balm; balsamum :-- Swá swá mon héddern ontýnde ða baldsami quasi opobalsami cellaria esse viderentur aperta, Bd. 3, 8; S. 532, 19. v. balsam.

balewa, an; m. The baleful or wicked one, Satan; Satanas, Diabolus :-- Swá inc se balewa hét as the baleful one desired you, Cd. 224; Th. 295, 11; Sat. 484.

balewe wicked :-- Se inc forgeaf balewe geþohtas he inspired you with wicked thoughts, Cd. 224; Th. 295, 19; Sat. 488. v. bealo.

ballíce boldly :-- Ballíce audacter, Mk. Lind. War. 15, 43. v. bald-líce, beald-líce.

balo bale, evil, Lye. DER. balo-cræft. v. bealo.

balo-cræft, es; m. A pernicious, wicked, or magic art; ars perniciosa vel magica, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 150; Met. 26, 75. v. bealo-cræft.

balsam, es; n. [balsamum, baldsamum, i; n.] Balsam, balm; balsamum :-- Balsames blǽd the balsam's fruit; carpo balsami, Ælfc. Gl. 48; Som. 65, 54; Wrt. Voc. 33, 50. Balsames teár the tear or juice of the balsam-tree; opobalsamum, Ælfc. Gl. 48; Som. 65, 55; Wrt. Voc. 33, 51. Héddern ða balsamum on wǽre a store-house in which was balm, Bd. 3, 8; S. 532, 19, note.

bals-minte, an; f. BALSAM-MINT, spear-mint, water-mint; sisymbrium: q. mentha aquatica, Lin. Ælfc. Gl. 43; Som. 64, 52; Wrt. Voc. 31, 62.

balw; g. m. n. es; f. re Miserable, wicked; malus, Beo. Th. 1958; B. 977. v bealo.

balzam balsam :-- Se sceal on balzame beón it shall be of balsam, L.M. 2, 64; Lchdm. ii. 288, 23. v. balsam.

bám with both, Hexam. 2; Norm. 4, 22: Cd. 6; Th. 8, 23; Gen. 128; dat. of begen.

ban, bann, es; n. A command, edict, interdict; mandatum, edictum, interdictum, Grm. 3rd edit. i. 359, 8. v. ge-ban.

BÁN, baan, es; pl. bán; n. A BONE; os :-- Ðis ys nú bán of mínum bánum hoc nunc os ex ossibus meis, Gen. 2, 23. Moises nam Iosepes bán mid, him tulit Moyses ossa Ioseph secum, Ex. 13, 19: Cd. 9; Th. 12, 9; Gen. 182. Híg synt innan fulle deádra bána intus plena sunt ossibus mortuorum, Mt. Bos. 23, 27. Bán míne my bones, Ps. Spl. 6, 2: Exon. 110a; Th. 421, 14; Rä. 40, 18: 125b; Rä. 68, 3: Beo. Th. 5149; B. 2578. [Plat. been, n. os, crus: O. Sax. O. Frs. bén, n: Dut, been, n: Ger. M. H. Ger. bein, n: O. H. Ger. pein, n: Dan. been: Swed. ben: O. Nrs. bein, n. In Goth. the word is preserved only in baina-bagms a bone-tree, cornel-tree, for σνκάμινos. Thus, all the Teut. languages have the same word, the chief and oldest signification of which is os a bone. This is the only meaning it has in A. Sax. where scanca is used for crus; also in O. Nrs. the meaning crus is very rare, the more common word being leggr a leg. The Sansk. Lat. Grk. and the Slav. languages use a totally different root,-Sansk. asthi os: Lat. os: Grk. όστέoν: the Slav. branch kost, Boh. kost, Pol. kosc, all with an initial k. Grimm, Wrtbch. i. 1381, suggests, if crus could be proved to be the original meaning of bán, it might be related to βαίνειν, in the same way as Sansk. asthi to στήναι.] DER. breóst-bán, cin-, elpen-, hrycg-, wído-, ylpen-.

BANA, bona, an; m. A killer, murderer, manslayer, also applied to the devil; interfector, occisor, homicida, diabolus :-- Ðam wearþ Weohstán bana to whom Weohstan became a murderer, Beo. Th. 5220; B. 2613: Cd. 144; Th. 180, 3; Exod. 39. Banena byre the son of the murderers, Beo. Th. 4112; B. 2053. Hie nǽfre his banan folgian noldon they never would follow his murderer, Chr. 755; Th. 84, 33, col. 1: L. Ethb. 23; Th. i. 8, 7: L.H.E. 2, 3, 4; Th. i. 28, 1, 5, 7. On banan fæðme in the embrace of the murderer, i.e. the devil, Andr. Kmbl. 1232; An. 616. [O. Sax. bano: O. Frs. bona: O. H. Ger. bano: O. Nrs. bani.] DER. aldor-bana [-bona], bróðor-, dǽd-, ecg-, feorh-, ferhþ-, fugel-, gást-, hand-, múþ-, ord-, rǽd-, súsl-.

bán-beorgas; pl. m. Bone defences, greaves; ossium præsidia, ocreæ, Cot. 17: 145.

bán-brice, -bryce, es; m. A BONE-BREAKING or fracture of a bone; ossis fractura :-- Wið bánbryce genim ðysse ylcan wyrte wyrttruman for fracture of a bone take roots of this same plant, Herb. 15, 3; Lchdm. i. 108, 9.

BANC, e; f. A bench, BANK, hillock; tumulus, Som. v. benc.

bán-cófa, an; m. A bone-dwelling, the body; ossium cubile, corpus :-- Wæs se báncófa ádle onǽled the body was inflamed with disease, Exon. 46b; Th. 159,16; Gú. 927.

Bancorena burh, Bancorna burh; g. burge; d. byrig; Bangor, in Wales; civitas Bangor :-- Swýðest of Bancorena [Bancorna, B.] byrig most chiefly from the city of Bangor, Bd. 2, 2; S. 502, 39, note.

ban-cóða, an; m: -cóþ, -cóðu, e; f: -cóðe, an; f. [ban, bana a killer, cóða a disease] A baneful disease, a fatal or deadly malady, erysipelas; lethalis morbus, ignis sacer :-- Wæs him inbogen bittor bancóða a bitter malady was fixed in him, Exon. 47b; Th. 163, 23; Gú. 998. Wið bancóðe, ðæt is óman, nim eolonan for the baneful disease, that is erysipelas, take elecampane, L.M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 16.

band bound, Cd. 143; Th. 178, 22; Exod. 15; p. of bindan.

banda, an; m. A householder, husband, Som. Lye. v. bonda.

bán-fæt; g. -fætes; pl. nom. acc. -fatu; n. The bone vessel, the body; ossium vas, corpus, Exon. 59a; Th. 213, 23; Ph. 229.

ban-fáh, -fág; adj. [ban, bana a killer, fág stained] Death or murder stained; homicidio pollutus, lethifer, Beo. Th. 1564; B. 780.

bán-gebrec, es; n. A bone-breaking; ossium fractio, Andr. Kmbl. 2882; An. 1444.

bán-helm, es; m. A bone-helm, shield; ossium galea, clipeus, Fins. Th. 60; Fin. 30.

bán-hring, es; m. A bone-ring, a neck-bone; ossium artus, vertebra :-- Ðæt hire wið halse heard grápode, bánhringas bræc against her neck it griped her hard, broke the bone-rings, Beo. Th. 3138; B. 1567.

bán-hús, es; n. The bone-house, the chest, body; ossea domus, pectus, corpus :-- He ðæt bánhús gebrocen hæfde he had broken the bone-house, the breast, or body, Beo. Th. 6285; B. 3147. Hence bánhúses weard the body's guard, the mind, Cd. 169; Th. 211, 9; Exod. 523.

Baningas; pl. m. The Banings, people mentioned in the Gleeman's tale :-- Becca weóld Baningum Becca ruled the Banings, Scóp Th. 39; Wíd. 19.

bán-leás; adj. Bone-less, without bones; ossibus carens, Exon. 112b; Th. 431, 19; Rä. 46, 3.

bán-loca, an; m. A bone inclosure, the skin, body; ossium clausura, caro :-- Ðý-læs se ord ingebuge under bánlocan lest the point enter in under the skin, Exon. 19a; Th. 48, 10; Cri. 769.

BANNAN, bonnan; ic banne,ðú bannest, banst, benst, he banneþ, banþ, benþ, pl. bannaþ; p. bén, bénn, beón, beónn, pl. beónnon; pp. bannen To summon; jubere, citare, convocare :-- Leóde tosomne bannan to summon the people together, Andr. Kmbl. 2189; An. 1096: Elen. Grm. 45. [O. Frs. banna, bonna: Ger. M. H. Ger. bannen edicere, interdicere, prohibere, expellere: O. H. Ger. pannan: Goth. bandwjan significare, innuere: O. Nrs. banna prohibere, interdicere.] DER. a-bannan, ge-: ge-ban.

bannuc-camb, es; m. [camb a comb] A wool-comb; pecten textorium :-- Bannuccamb pecten, Ælfc. Gl. 111; Som. 79. 77. DER. cimban.

bán-rift, bán-ryft; pl. n. Bone coverings, greaves; tibialia, ossium velamen, ocreæ, Cot. 174. v. bán-beorgas.

ban-segn, es; m. A banner, an ensign; vexillum, Cot. 23. V. treuteru.

bán-sele, es; m. A bone-house or dwelling, the body; ossium aula, corpus :-- Gǽst and bánsele soul and body, Exon. 117b; Th. 451, 12; Dóm. 102.

banst, he banþ summonest, summoneth; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of bannan.

bán-wærc, es; n. Grief, pain, or ache in the bones; ossium dolor. v. bán a bone, wærc pain.

bán-wyrt, e; f. Bone-wort, a violet, perhaps the small knapweed; viola, centaurea minor :-- Bánwyrt hæbbe croppan bone-wort hath bunches of flowers, L. M. 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 266, 5. Bánwyrt centaurea minor, Ælfc. Gl. 44; Som. 64, 85; Wrt. Voc. 32, 21. Sió greáte bánwyrt the great bone-wort, L. M. 3, 8; Lchdm. ii. 312, 19: 1, 1; Lchdm. ii. 22, 15: 1, 25; Lchdm. ii. 66, 17, 20: 1, 31; Lchdm. ii. 74, 24: 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 21: 1, 59; Lchdm. 130, 11: 1, 63; Lchdm. ii. 138, 15: Herb. 165, 1; Lchdm. i. 294, 7: 152, 1; Lchdm. i. 276, 24: Lchdm. iii. 16, 6.

baorm bosom:-On baorm in sinu, Jn. Rush. War. 13, 23. v. bearm.

bar, es; m. A bear; ursns. v. bera.

BÁR, es; m. A BOAR; aper :-- Cyng Willelm forbeád sleán ða heortas swylce eác ða báras king William forbade men to kill the stags, and also the boars, Chr. 1087; Ing. 296, 12. Ic gefeó heortas, and báras, and rann, and rægan, and hwílon haran capio cervos, et apros, et damas, et capreas, et aliquando lepores, Coll. Monast. Th. 21, 31: Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 14: Ps. Lamb. 79, 14. [Dut. beer: M. H. Ger. bér: O. H. Ger. pér.]

bards, an; m. A beaked ship, a ship pointed with iron; rostrata navis, Mone A. 131.

bare bare, naked, Cd. 37; Th. 48, 30; Gen. 783; acc. pl. of bær, adj.

barenian; p. ode; pp. od To make bare; denudare :-- Sand barenodon made bare the sand, Cd. 166; Th. 207, 22; Exod. 470, note.

barian; p. ede; pp. ed To make bare, discover, disclose; denudare, prodere, in medium proferre. DER. a-barian.

barm a bosom:-On barme in sinu, Jn. Rush. War. 1, 18. v. bearm.

barn a child, Th. Diplm. A.D. 830; 465, 30. v. bearn.

barn burned, Ex. 3, 2; p. of beornan.

Baroc-scír, e; f. The bare oak shire or BERKSHIRE, so called from a polled oak in Windsor forest, where public meetings were held, Brompt. p. 801. It was most commonly written by the Anglo-Saxons-Barruc, Bearruc, and Bearwucscíre, Chr. 860; Th. 130, 3.

bár-spere, es; n. A BOAR SPEAR; venabulum :-- Bárspere vel huntig-spere venabulum, Ælfc. Gl. 51; Som. 66, 22.

bár-spreót, es; m. A boar spear; venabulum. v. bár-spere.

barþ, es; m. A kind of ship, a light vessel to sail or row in; dromo :-- Æsc vel barþ dromo, Ælfc. Gl. 103; Som. 77, 102; Wrt. Voc. 56, 24. v. æsc.

Barton Barton, a corn village; frumentaria villa. v. bere-tún.

basilisca, an; m. A basilisk; basiliscus :-- Ðú ofer aspide miht eáðe gangan and bealde nú basiliscan tredan super aspidem et basiliscum ambulabis, Ps. Th. 90, 13.

Basilius; g. Basilies; m. Basil, bishop of Cæsaréa = Kαιδάρεια :-- Basilius se eádiga wæs swíðe hálig bisceop, on Cessarean byrig, on Gréciscre þeóde, manegra munuca fæder, munuchádes him sylf. He wæs swýðe gelǽred and swýðe mihtig lareów, and he munuc regol gesette mid swýðlícre drohtnunge. He wæs ǽr Benedictus, ðe us bóc awrát on Lédenre spræce leóhtre be dǽle ðonne Basilius, ac he tymde swáðeáh to Basilies tǽcinge for his trumnysse. Basilius awrát áne wundorlíce bóc, be eallum Godes weorcum, ðe he geworhte on six dagum, 'Exameron' geháten, swíðe deópum andgite. And he awrát ða láre ðe we nú willaþ on Englisceum gereorde secgean Basil the blessed [born A.D. 328, died 379] was a very holy bishop in the city of Cæsaréa, a province belonging to Greece, the father of many monks, himself of the monkhood. He was a very learned and a very mighty teacher, and he appointed monastic canons with strict conduct. He was before Benedict [born A.D. 480, died 540], who wrote us a book in the Latin language more clear in part than Basil, but yet he appealed to the teaching of Basil for his confirmation. Basil wrote a certain wonderful book concerning all the works of God which he wrought in six days, called the 'Hexameron,' with a very deep understanding. And he wrote the advice which we now wish to tell in the English language, Basil prm; Norm. 32, 1-14: Sancti Basilii Exameron [= έξάμεεου], ðæt is, be Godes six daga weorcum the Hexameron of holy Basil, that is, concerning the six days' works of God, Hexam. 1; Norm. 1, 1-3.

basing, es; m. A short cloak, a cloak; chlamys = χλăμύs, pallium :-- Ic geseah wurm-reádne basing I saw a purple [worm or shell-fish reddened] cloak; vidi pallium coccineum, Jos. 7, 21.

Basing, es; m. The name of a place, Basing, old Basing, near Basingstoke, Hampshire; nomen oppidi ita hodie vocatum in agro Hantoniensi :-- Wið ðone here æt Basingum with the army at Basing, Chr. 871; Th. 138, 28, col. 2; 139, 27, col. 1, 2.

básnian, básnan; p. ode; pp. od To expect, await; exspectare :-- Gestód ðæt folc básnende stabat populus exspectans, Lk. Lind. War. 23, 35. Básnode hwæt him gifeðe wurde he awaited what should befall him, Andr. Kmbl. 2131; An. 1067. DER. ge-básnian.

básnung, e; f. Expectation; exspectatio, Lk. Lind. War. 21, 26.

baso, basu, e; f. Purple; purpura, Cot. 85. DER. brún-baso, wealh-. v. basu.

baso, basu a berry; bacca, Grm. i. 244, 36.

baso-popig, es; n? [astula regia, Glos. Brux. Recd. 40, 57; Mone A. 354; Wrt. Voc. 66, 65] Corn or red poppy; papaver rhχas, L. Prior, p. 279.

Basterne The people of Sarmatia in Europe or upper Hungary; Bastarnæ. Lye.

basu: g. m. n. -wes; f. -re: pl. nom. m. f. n. -we: def. m. se baswa; adj. Purple, crimson; purpureus, phœániceus, coccineus :-- Sum brún, sum basu part brown, part purple, Exon. 60a; Th. 218, 17; Ph. 296. Baswe bócstafas crimson characters, Cd. 210; Th. 261, 10; Dan. 724. Basu hǽwen of purple colour or hue, of scarlet or crimson colour, Cot. 117. [Grimm, Wrtbch. i. 1243, connects the word with Goth. basi a berry: Ger. beere: A. Sax. berie.]

basu, e; f. A scarlet robe; coccinum, Grm. i. 254, 2. v. baso.

basuian; p. ode; pp. od To be clad in purple; purpura vestiri. v. basu.

baswa stán, es; m. [basu purple, stán stone] A topaz, a precious stone varying from a yellow to a violet colour; topazium :-- Ofer gold and ðone baswon stán [= baswan stán] super aurum et topazion, Ps. Spl. 118, 127.

baswe crimson :-- Baswe bócstafas crimson letters, Cd. 210; Th. 261, 10; Dan. 724; pl. of basu, adj.

bat, e; f. I. contention, strife; contentio, R. Ben. 21. II. a bat, club, staff, stick; fustis, Som. [O. Nrs. beit, f; lamina explanata a thin board, plank.]

BÁT, e; f: es; m. A BOAT, ship, vessel; linter, scapha, navicula :-- Ðeós bát glídeþ on geofene this boat glideth over ocean, Andr. Kmbl. 992; An. 496. He bát gestág he ascended a boat, Exon. 52a; Th. 181, 33; Gú. 1302. [Plat. boot, n: Dut. boot, f: Ger. boot, n: Dan. baad, c: Swed. bát, m: Icel, bátr, m. cymba, navicula.] DER. mere-bát, sǽ-, wudu-.

bát bit; momordit, Beo. Th. 1488; B. 742; p. of bítan.

bát, e; f. What can be bitten,-Food; esca, Ettm. 305. [Icel. beit, f. pascuum; beita, f. esca: bát; p. of bítan to bite.]

baða of baths, Exon. 57b; Th. 205, 10; Ph. 110; gen. pl. of bæþ.

Baðan [dat. pl. of bæþ a bath, q. v.], Baðan-ceaster; g. -ceastre; acc. -ceastre, -ceaster; f. The city of Bath, Somersetshire, so called from its baths; Bathoniæ urbs a balneis dicta, in agro Somersetensi :-- Baðan, Baðon, Baðun, for Baðum, æt Baðum, Cod. Dipl. 170; A.D. 796; Kmbl. i. 207, 5, at the Baths, or, as we now say, at Bath or Bath [v. æt, prep. I. 3, before names of places]; apud balneas, vel apud Bathoniam, vel apud urbem Bathoniæ. Æt Baðan, Chr. 1106; Erl. 241, 1. On Baðan, Th. Diplm. A.D. 1060; 379, 14: 436, 8. Æt Baðun, Cod. Dipl. 354; A.D. 931; Kmbl. ii. 177, 7. In monasterio, quod situm est in civitate æt Baðun, Cod. Dipl. 193; A.D. 808; Kmbl. i. 237, 1. In illa famosa urbe, quæ nominatur calidum balneum, ðæt is æt ðæm hátum baðum, Cod. Dipl. 290: A.D. 864; Kmbl. ii. 80, 8. Eádgár wæs to cyninge gehálgod on ðære ealdan byrig, Acemannes ceastre; eác, óðre worde, beornas Baðan nemnaþ Edgar was consecrated king in the old town, Akemansceaster; also, by another word, men name Bath, Chr. 973; Th. 224, 22, col. 1; Edg. 5. Genámon þreó ceastra,-Gleawan ceaster and Ciren-ceaster and Baðan-ceaster they took three cities,-Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath, Chr. 577; Erl. 18, 20. v. Ace-mannes burh.

baðian, beðian, beðigean, ic -ige, -yge; p. ode, ede; pp. od. I. v. trans. To wash, foment, cherish; lavare, fovere :-- Hí baðedon ðone líchoman they washed the body, Bd. 4, 19; S. 589, 38. Wit unc in ðære burnan baðodan we two washed ourselves in that brook, Exon. 121b; Th. 467, 2; Hö. 132. II. v. intrans. To BATHE; lavari, balneare, aquis se immergere :-- Seldon heó baðian wolde she would seldom bathe, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 6. Gesihþ baðian brimfuglas he sees sea-fowls bathing, Exon. 77a; Th. 289, 12; Wand. 47. Baðiendra manna hús ðǽr hí hí unscrédaþ inne apodyterium, domus, qua vestimenta balneantium ponuntur, Ælfc. Gl. 55; Som. 67, 9. DER. bi-baðian. v. bæþ.

baðo baths, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 22; acc. pl. of bæþ.

bátian; p. ode; pp. od To BAIT or lay a bait for a fish, to bait a hook; inescare, Som.

bát-swán, es; m. A BOATSWAIN; scaphiarius, proreta. v. bát a boat; swán a swain, servant.

bátwá, bútá, bútú, bútwú; adj. [bá both, twá two] BOTH THE TWO, both:-Bátwá Adam and Eue both Adam and Eve, Cd. 37; Th. 47, 24; Gen. 765: Gen. 26, 35. v. begen.

bát-weard, es; m. [bát boat, weard keeper] Keeper or commander of a ship; navis custos :-- He ðæm bátwearde swurd gesealde he gave a sword to the keeper of the ship, Beo. Th. 3804; B. 1900.

BE [abbreviated from big = bí, q. v.]; prep. dat. and instr. 1. BY, near to, to, at, in, on, upon, about, with; juxta, prope, ad, secus, in, cum :-- Be wege by the way, Mk. Bos. 8, 3. Wunode be lordane he dwelt by Jordan, Cd. 91; Th. 116, 6; Gen. 1932. Be grúnde wód went on the ground, Exon. 106a; Th. 404, 29; Rä. 23, 15. Be ýþláfe along the leaving of the waves, Beo. Th. 1136; B. 566. Ic be grúnde græfe I dig along the ground, Exon. 106a; Th. 403, 3; Rä. 22, 2. Be fullan in full; abundanter, Ps. Th. 30, 27. Be eallum with all, altogether, L. Ath. v. § 8, 2; Th. i. 236, 12. Ne mæg he be ðý wedre wesan he may not be in the open air, Exon. 90b; Th. 340, 18; Gn. Ex. 113. Be ðam strande upon the strand or shore, Mt. Bos. 13, 48. Ne leofaþ se man be hláfe ánum, ac be æ-acute;lcon worde, ðe of Godes múþe gæ-acute;þ non in solo pane vivit homo, sed in omni verbo, quod procedit de ore Dei, Mt. Bos. 4, 4. Byrgan be deádum to bury with the dead, Exon. 82b; Th. 311, 27; Seef, 98. 2. of, from, about, touching, concerning; de, quoad :-- Be ðam cilde of or concerning the child, Mt. Bos. 2, 8. Be hlísan of or about fame, Bt. titl. xviii. xix; Fox xiv. 1. Gramlíce be Gode spræ-acute;can male locuti sunt de Deo, Ps. Th. 77, 20. Be his horse Bucefal about his horse Bucephal, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 67, 39. Ahsiaþ be ealdum dagum interrogate de diebus antiquis, Deut. 4, 32. Mæg ic be me sylfum sóþ gied wrecan of myself I can relate a true tale, Exon. 81b; Th. 306, 1; Seef. 1. Ic ðis gid be ðé awræc I recited this strain of thee, Beo. Th. 3451; B. 1723. Nysse ic be ðæ-acute;re [róde] riht I did not know the right about the cross, Elen. Kmbl. 2479; El. 1241. 3. for, because of, after, by, through, according to; pro, propter, per, secundum :-- He sette word be worde he set word for word, Bt. pro?m; Fox viii. 3. Be hyra weorcum for their works, Exon. 26b; Th. 79, 13; Cri. 1290. Ðú scealt sunu ágan, bearn be brýde ðínre thou shalt have a son, a child, by thy bride, Cd. 106; Th. 140, 11; Gen. 2326. Forlæ-acute;dd be ðam lygenum misled by the lies, 28; Th. 37, 31; Gen. 598. Ðæt ic meahte ongitan be ðam gealdre Godes bearn that I might comprehend, through that lore, God's child, Exon. 83a; Th. 313, 26; Mód. 6. Hie, be wæstmum, wíg curon they, according to his strength, choose each warrior, Cd. 155; Th. 193, 8; Exod. 243. Ná ðú be gewyrhtum úrum woldest us dón thou wouldst not do to us according to our sins [secundum peccata nostra], Ps. Th. 102, 10. 4. beside, out of; e, ex :-- Ic ðé læ-acute;de be ðam [bi, ðæm MS. Cott.] wege I should lead thee out of the way, Bt. 40, 5; Fox 240, 23. Genam hine æt eowde úte be sceápum tulit eum de gregibus ovium, Ps. Th. 77, 69. 5. sometimes be is separated from its case:-Be dæges leóhte at the light of day or at daylight, Exon. 107b; Th. 410, 17; Rä. 28, 17. Be fæder láre through the father's counsel, Beo. Th. 3905; B. 1950. Úre bán syndon toworpene be helwarena hæfte neódum dissipata sunt ossa nostra secus infernum, Ps. Th. 140, 9. Mín bibod ðú bræ-acute;ce be ðines bonan worde thou didst break my command through the word of thy destroyer [the devil], Exon. 28a; Th. 85, 21; Cri. 1394. ¶ Be ánfealdum single. Be twífealdum twofold, Ex. 22, 4. Be ðam mæ-acute;stan at the most. Be ðam ðe as, Gen. 3, 6. [Orm. Laym. R. Glouc. Piers P. bi: Chauc. Wyc. by: Plat. bí: O. Sax. bi, be: O. Frs. bí, be: Dut. by: Ger. bei: M. H. Ger. bí: O. H. G. bí, pí: Goth. bi: Sansk. abhi?]

be-, bi-, big-, and bí- are often used as prefixes. I. when prefixed to verbs, be- and bi- either give an intensive signification to a transitive verb, or change an intransitive into a transitive verb, as,-Sprengan to sprinkle, be-sprengan to be-sprinkle; lecgan ponere, be-lecgan im-ponere; settan to set, put, be-settan to be-set, surround; fón to seize, be-fón to surround; gangan to go, be-gangan to exercise; reótan plorare, be-reótan de-plorare. 2. they have a privative sense, as;-Be-niman to deprive, be-reáfian to bereave, be-heáfdian to behead. 3. sometimes they do not indicate any perceptible variation in the sense, as,-Be-cuman to come, be-sencan to sink. 4. be-, bi-, big- have the same effect when prefixed to substantives, adjectives, and adverbs. II. the accented bí- and big-, as prefixes, generally have the original sense of the preposition by, as,-Bí-cwide, big-cwide a by-saying, proverb; bí-spell, big-spell a by-story, parable; bí-wǽrlan to pass-by; big-standan to stand-by. vide 1. 2.

BEÁCEN, bécen, bécn, bécun; g. beácnes; n. A BEACON, sign, token, standard; signum, significatio, typus, vexillum, portentum, miraculum; in specie de sancta cruce et de sole :-- Leóht eástan com beorht beácen light came from the east a bright beacon, Beo. Th. 1144; B. 570. He beácen onget he perceived the sign, Cd. 198; Th. 246, 33; Dan. 488, Wæs beácen boden the token was announced, Andr. Kmbl. 2403; An. 1203. Beácnes cyme the beacon's [the sun's] coming, Exon. 57b; Th. 205, 4; Ph. 107. Segn genom beácna beorhtost he took an ensign brightest of standards, Beo. Th. 5547; B. 2777. [O. Sax. bókan: O. Frs. báken: O. H. Ger. pouchan.] DER. fore-beácen, freoðo-, heofon-, here-, sige-, sigor-, wundor-: beácn, -ian, -ung: bécn-an, -ian: bícn-ian: býcn-an, -endlíc, -iend, -iendlíc.

beácen-stán, es; m. A stone whereon the beacon fire was made, a stone or tower whereon to set the beacon fire; specula, pharus; Cot. 88.

beácne to a sign, Cd. 80; Th. 100, 19; Gen. 1666; dat. of beácen.

beácneng a beckoning or nodding, a speaking by tropes or figures; nutus, Cot. 139: tropologia, Cot. 201. v. beácnung.

beácnian, býcnian, bícnian; p. ode; pp. od. I. to BECKON, nod; innuere :-- He wæs bícniende him erat innuens illis, Lk. Bos. 1, 22, 62: 5, 7. II. to shew, indicate; indicare, typice significare :-- Swá fenix beácnaþ as the ph?nix shews, Exon. 65a; Th. 240, 30; Ph. 646. Ðisses fugles gecynd beácnaþ hú hí beorhtne gefeán healdaþ this bird's nature indicates how they possess bright joy, Exon. 61b; Th. 225, 14; Ph. 389. DER. ge-beácnian, -bécnan.

beácniend-líc, býcniend-líc, býcnend-líc; adj. Allegorical; allegoricus :-- Ic sette áne bóc beácniendlícre race be Cristes cyricean unum librum explanationis allegoriecæ de Christo et ecclesia composui, Bd. 5, 23; S. 648, 5.

beácnung, býcnung, beácneng, e; f. I. a BECKONING or nodding; nutus, Cot. 139. II. a speaking by tropes or figures; tropologia, Cot. 201.

beád a prayer; oratio. v. gebéd, beáda.

beád, es; m. A table; mensa :-- Of beád de mensa, Lk. Lind. War. 16, 21. Beádas, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 21, 12. v. beód.

beád commanded, Cd. 111; Th. 147, 1; Gen. 2432; p. of beódan.

beáda, an; m. A counsellor, persuader, an exhorter or intreater; suasor. v. beád.

Beáda ford-scír, e; f. Bedfordshire:-Cnut wende him út þurh Buccingahámscíre into Beadafordscíre Canute went out through Buckinghamshire into Bedfordshire, Chr. 1016; Th. 279, 16, col. 1. v. Bedan ford-scír.

BEADO, beadu; g. d. beadowe, beadwe, beaduwe; f. Battle, war, slaughter, cruelty; pugna, strages :-- Gúþ-Geáta leód, beadwe heard the War-Goths' prince, brave in battle, Beo. Th. 3082; B. 1539. Wit ðære beadwo begen ne onþungan we both prospered not in the war, Exon. 129b; Th. 497, 2; Rä. 85, 23. Beorn beaduwe heard a man brave in battle, Andr. Kmbl. 1963; An. 984. Ðú þeóde bealdest to beadowe thou encouragest the people to slaughter, Andr. Kmbl. 2373; An. 1188. [O. H. Ger. badu-, pato-: O. Nrs. böð, f. a battle: Sansk. badh to kill.]

beado-cræftig; adj. War-crafty, skilful war, warlike; bellicosus :-- Beadocræftig beorn a chief skilful in war, Exon. 78b; Th. 295, 28; Crä. 40. v. beadu-cræftig.

beado-gríma, -grímma, an; m. A war-mask, helmet; bellica larva, cassis :-- Ða ðe beadogrímman býwan sceoldon those who should prepare the war-helmet, Beo. Th. 4506; B. 2257. v. beadu-gríma.

beado-hrægl, es; n. A war-garment, coat of mail; bellica vestis, lorica :-- Beadohrægl on breóstum læg the coat of mail lay on my breast, Beo. Th. 1108; B. 552. v. beadu-hrægl.

beado-leóma, an; m. A war-gleam, sword; stragis flamma, ensis :-- Ðæt se beadoleóma bítan nolde that the war-gleam would not bite, Beo. Th. 3050; B. 1523. v. beadu-leóma.

beado-méce, es; m. A battle-sword, sword of slaughter; pugnæ ensis :-- Ðæt hine nó beadomécas bítan ne meahton that no battle-sword might bite it, Beo. Th. 2912; B. 1454. v. beadu-méce.

beado-rinc, es; m. A soldier; bellicosus vir :-- Betst beadorinca the best of soldiers, Beo. Th. 2222; B. 1109: Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 24; Jud. 276. v. beadu-rinc.

beado-róf; adj. War-renowned, bold in war; in pugna strenuus :-- Beornas beadorófe war-renowned warriors, Apstls. Kmbl. 155; AP. 78. v. beadu-róf.

beado-searo; gen. -searewes, -searwes; n. A war-train, an engine or weapon of war; bellicus apparatus :-- þurh ða heora beadosearo wǽgon through which their war-train had moved, Cd. 170; Th. 214, 21; Exod. 572. v. beadu-searo.

beado-wǽpen; gen. -wǽpnes; dat. -wǽpne; n. A war-weapon; bellica arma :-- Ic beadowǽpen bere I bear a war-weapon, Exon. 104b; Th. 396, 11; Rä. 16, 3. Ic swelgan onginne beadowǽpnum I begin to swell with war-weapons, 105a; Th. 399, 8; Rä 18, 8. v. beadu-wǽpen.

beado-wég, -wége, es; n. A war-cup, contest, discussion; poculum certaminis, certamen :-- Him betwih beadowég [MS. beadowíg] scencton ðæs heofonlícan lífes dum sese alterutrum cælestis vitæ poculis ebriarent [MS. debriarent], Bd. 4, 29; S. 607, 17. v. beadu-wég, bǽde-wég.

beado-weorc, es; n. A war-work, warlike operation; bellicum opus :-- Ic eom beadoweorca sæd I am tired of war-works, Exon. 102b; Th. 388, 4; Rä. 6, 2: Chr. 937; Th. 205, 40, col. 1, 2; Æðelst. 47. v. beadu-weorc.

Beado-wulf, es; m. Beowulf, Th. Anlct. v. Beówulf.

beadu; gen. beaduwe; f. Battle, war, etc. Andr. Kmbl. 1963; An. 984. v. beado and the following compounds.

beadu-cáf; adj. Battle-prompt, ready for battle; ad pugnam expeditus, Exon. 100b; Th. 380, 20; Rä. 1, 11.

beadu-cræft, es; m. War-craft, strength in war; bellica vis :-- Ðé gúþgewinn þurh hǽðenra hilde wóman, beorna beaducræft, geboden wyrþeþ a war-contest will be offered to thee through the heathens' battle rush, the war-craft of heroes, Andr. Kmbl. 437; An. 219.

beadu-cræftig, beado-cræftig; adj. War-crafty, warlike; bellicosus :-- Fugel beaducræftig the warlike bird, Exon. 60a; Th. 217, 26; Ph. 286. Beaducræftig beorn Bartholameus a warlike chief, Bartholomeus, Apstls. Kmbl. 87; Ap. 44.

beadu-cwealm, es; m. A war-death, violent death; nex :-- Ðǽr he sáwulgedál beaducwealm gebád there he awaited the separation of the soul, a war-death, Andr. Kmbl. 3400; An. 1704.

beadu-folm, e; f. A war or bloody hand; bellica manus :-- Nán íren blódge beadufolme onberan wolde no iron would impair his bloody warhand, Beo. Th. 1984; B. 990.

beadu-grim; adj. War-grim, war-furious; in pugna atrox, Leo 114.

beadu-gríma, an; m. A war-mask, helmet. v. beado-gríma.

beadu-hrægl, es; n. A war-garment; bellica vestis, lorica. v. beado-hrægl.

beadu-lác, es; n. Play of battle, battle, war; stragis actio, pugna :-- Ǽnig mon to beaduláce ætberan meahte any man might bear forth to the play of battle, Beo. Th. 3126; B. 1561. To ðam beaduláce to the battle-play, Andr. Kmbl. 2238; An. 1120.

beadu-leóma, an; m. A war-gleam, sword; stragis flamma, ensis. v. beado-leóma.

beadu-mægen; gen. -mægnes; n. Battle-strength, military power; militaris vis, exercitus stragem faciens :-- Beadumægnes rǽs, grím-helma gegrind the rush of battle-strength, the crash of grim helmets, Cd. 160; Th. 198, 28; Exod. 329.

beadu-méce, es; m. A battle-sword, sword of slaughter; pugnæ ensis. v. beado-méce.

beadu-rǽs, es; m. A battle-rush, onset; pugnæ impetus :-- Biter wæs se beadurǽs the onset was bitter, Byrht. Th. 134, 68; By. 111.

beadu-rinc, es; m. A soldier; bellicosus vir, miles :-- Beadurincum wæs Róm gerýmed Rome was laid open by the soldiers, Bt. Met. Fox 1, 36; Met. 1, 18. v. beado-rinc.

beadu-róf; adj. War-renowned, bold in war; in pugna strenuus :-- Beadurófes beácn a beacon of the war-renowned, Beo. Th. 6301; B. 3161. He hǽlo and frófre beadurófum abeád he offered safety and comfort to the bold in war, Andr. Kmbl. 191; An. 96. v. beado-róf.

beadu-rún, e; f. A war-secret, quarrel; jurgiosum arcanum, rixa :-- Húnferþ onband beadurúne Hunferth unbound the war-secret, Beo. Th. 1006; B. 501.

beadu-scearp; adj. Battle-sharp, sharp in fight, applied to a sword; ad pugnam acutus :-- Cyning wælseaxe gebræd biter and beaduscearp the king drew his deadly knife bitter and battle-sharp, Beo. Th. 5401; B. 2704.

beadu-scrúd, es; n. [scrúd clothes] Warlike apparel, warlike garmen a coat of mail; bellicum vestimentum, lorica :-- Beaduscrúda betst mine breóst wereþ the best of warlike garments defends my breast, Beo. Th. 910; B. 453.

beadu-searo; gen. -searewes, -searwes; n. A war-train, an engine or weapon of war; bellicus apparatus. v. beado-searo.

beadu-serce, an; f. A war-shirt, coat of mail; bellica tunica, lorica :-- Ic gefrægn sunu Wihstánes beran beadusercean I heard that Wihstan's son bore the coat of mail, Beo. Th. 5503; B. 2755.

beadu-þreát, es; m. A war-host, an army; exercitus, Elen. Kmbl. 62; El. 31.

beadu-wǽpen; gen. -wǽpnes; dat. -wǽpne; n. A war-weapon; bellica arma. v. beado-wǽpen.

beadu-wang, es; m. A battle-plain; pugnæ campus :-- On beaduwange on the battle-plain, Andr. Kmbl. 825; An. 413.

beadu-wég a war-cup, contest, discussion. v. beado-wég.

beadu-weorc, es; n. A war-work, warlike operation; bellicum opus. v. beado-weorc.

beadu-weorca, an; m. A war-worker, soldier; miles, Grm. ii. 449, 34.

Beadu-wulf Beowulf. v. Beado-wulf.

be-æftan; prep. I. after, behind; post, pone :-- Be-æftan contracted to bæftan, q. v. II. without; sine :-- Beæftan ðære menego sine turbo, Lk. Bos. 22, 6.

be-æftan; adv. Behind, after, hereafter; post, pone, postea :-- Ðǽr beæftan forlét eall left there all behind, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 45, 14. Ðæt ic wille hér beæftan sweotolor gereccan that I will hereafter more clearly shew, Bt. 11, 1; Fox 30, 29.

beærn a son, Ps. Spl. T. 28, 1. v. bearn.

be-ǽwnian; p. ode; pp. od To join in marriage, marry, wed; legitime despondere :-- Bewedded and beǽwnod wedded and married, Chr. 1052; Th. 314, 38. v. ǽwnian.

beaf a gad-fly; ?strus = οίστροs, Leo 118.

beaftan, beaftian; p. beaftode, beafte, pl. beaftodon, beafton; pp. beaftod To lament; lamentare :-- We mid hondum beafton lamentavimus, Mt. Lind. Stv. 11, 17. v. beofian.

beág a ring, crown; anulus, corona, Exon. 91a; Th. 341, 24; Gn. Ex. 131. v. beáh.

beág gave way, Exon. 124a; Th. 477, 2; Ruin. 17; p. of búgan.

beágian, biágian; p. ode; pp. od To crown, to set a garland on; coronare :-- Of wuldre and weorþmynt ðú beágodest hine gloria et honore coronasti eum, Ps. Spl. 8, 6.

beáh, beág, bǽh, bég, béh; gen. beáges; dat. beáge; pl. beágas; m. [beáh, beág; p. of búgan to bend] Metal made into circular ornaments, as A ring, bracelet, collar, garland, crown; anulus, armilla, diadema, corona. Bracelets were worn about the arms and wrists; rings on the fingers, round the ankles, the neck, and about the head. See Guide to Northern Archæology, by the Earl of Ellesmere, 8vo. 1848, p. 54; also Weinhold, Altnordisches Leben, 8vo. Berlin, 1856, p. 185. These being valuable were probably used in early times as means of exchange or as money; hence the origin of ring-money. v. Sir Wm. Betham's Essay in the Trans. of Rl. Ir. Acd. and Gent's. Mag. April 1837, pp. 372, 373, and May. p. 499 :-- Ic nyme ðínne hring and ðínne beáh and ðínne stæf, ðe ðú on handa hæfst capiam anulum tuum et armillam et baculum, quem manu tenes, Gen. 38, 18, 25. Gehwearf in Francna fæðm cyninges se beáh the collar of the king went into the grasp of the Franks, Beo. Th. 2427; B. 1211. Sceal bryde beág a ring shall be for a bride, Exon. 91a; Th. 341, 24; Gn. Ex. 131. He beágas dǽlde he distributed bracelets, Beo. Th. 161; B. 80. Ic frinan wille beága bryttan I will ask the distributor of bracelets, Beo. Th. 709; B. 352. Brúc ðisses beáges make use of this collar, Beo. Th. 2436; B. 1216. Se beorhta beág hlifaþ ofcr heáfde the bright garland rises over the head, Exon. 64b; Th. 238, 10; Ph. 602. Under gyldnum beáge under a golden crown, Beo. Th. 2330; B. 1163. To ðam beáge to the crown, Bt. 37, 2; Fox 188, 11. Se beáh gódes [Cot. MS. beág goodes] the crown of good, 37, 2; Fox 188, 21. [O. Sax. bóg, m: M. H. Ger. bouc, m: O. H. Ger. pouc, m: O. Nrs. baugr, m.] DER. earm-beáh, -beág, heals-, rand-, scanc-, wuldor-.

beáh submitted, Chr. 1015; Th. 276, 22; p. of búgan.

beáh-gifa, beág-gifa. -gyfa, an; m. A ring-giver, a giver of ring or bracelet money; anulorum vel armillarum largitor :-- Se geonga gewát Eádgár of lífe, beorna beáhgifa the young Edgar, ring-giver of men, departed from life, Chr. 975; Th. 226, 36, col. 2: Byrht. Th. 140, 19; By. 290: Elen. Grm. 100: 1199: Beo. Th. 2208; B. 1102.

beáh-gifu, e; pl. nom. acc. a; gen. a, ena; f. A ring-gift, distribution of rings or bracelets; armillarum largitio :-- Geongne æðeling sceolan góde gesíðas byldan to beáhgife good companions should exhort a young prince to a distribution of bracelets, Menol. Fox 490; Gn. C. 15.

beáh-hord, es; n. A ring-hoard, Beo. Th. 1792; B. 894.

beáh-hroden [hroden; pp. of hreóðan] Crown-adorned, adorned with bracelets; armillis vel diademate ornatus :-- Beáh-hroden [MS. beághroden] cwén a queen adorned with bracelets, Beo. Th. 1251; B. 623.

beáh-sel, es; n. Hall of bracelets; domus vel aula in qua armillas dominus largitur, Andr. Kmbl. 3312; An. 1659.

beáh-sele, es; m. Idem, Beo. Th. 2358; B. 1177.

beáh-þegu, e; f. A ring-receiving; armillarum acceptio :-- Æfter beáhþege after the receiving of rings, Beo. Th. 4358; B. 2176.

beáh-wriða, an; m. A ringed wreath, armlet, bracelet; armilla = armilla, quæ brachialis vocatur, Cic :-- Oft hió beáhwriðan secge sealde oft she gave a ringed wreath to the warrior, Beo. Th. 4041; B. 2018.

beal bellowed, roared; p. of bellan.

beala-níþ, es; m. Baleful malice, evil, wickedness, Ps. C. 50, 111; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 111. v. bealo-níþ.

bealcan to emit, utter, pour out; eructare :-- Dæg ðam dæge bealceþ word dies diei eructat verbum, Ps. Spl. 18, 2. v. bealcettan.

bealcettan, belcettan, bealcan; p. te; pp. ted To belch, utter, send forth, emit; eructare, dicere, emittere :-- Swéte to bealcetenne pleasant to belch, Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 32. Bealcetteþ heorte mín word gód eructat cor meum verbum bonum, Ps. Spl. 44, 1. Bealcettaþ weleras míne lofsang eructabunt labia mea hymnum, Ps. Spl. 118, 171.

BEALD, bald; adj. BOLD, brave, confident, of good courage; validus, strenuus, fortis, constans, audax, fidens, bono animo, liber :-- He beald in gebéde bídsteal gifeþ he confident in prayer maketh a stand, Exon. 71 a; Th. 265, 28; Jul. 388. Beald reordade, eádig on elne brave he spake, happy in courage, Exon. 47 b; Th. 163, 24; Gú. 998. He healdeþ Meotudes ǽ beald in breóstum bold in his breast he holds the law of the Creator, Exon. 62 b; Th. 229, 20; Ph. 458. Hí beóþ bealde, ða ðe beorhtne wlite Meotude bringaþ they will be of good courage, who bring a bright aspect to the Creator, Exon. 23 b; Th. 66, 25; Cri. 1077. [Goth. balþs : O. Sax. bald : O. Frs. balde, adv, quickly : O. H. Ger. bald : O. Nrs. ballr.] DER. cyning-beald, cyre-, un-.

bealde, balde; adv. Boldly, freely, instantly; audacter, libere, fiducialiter, fidenter, instanter, prone, statim, sine mora :-- Of Basan cwæþ bealde Drihten dixit Dominus ex Basan, Ps. Th. 67, 22. Bletsige míne sáwle bealde Dryhten benedic anima mea Dominum, Ps. Th. 102, 2 : 65, 18 66, 4 : 67, 24 : 72, 16 : 118, 130. Balde, Cd. 182; Th. 228, 11; Dan. 200 : Ps. Th. 113, 25 : 133, 3 : 149, 8.

bealdian; p. ode; pp. od To be brave, bear oneself bravely; strenue vel fortiter se gerere :-- Swá bealdode bearn Ecgþeówes thus the son of Ecgtheow bore himself bravely, Beo. Th. 4360; B. 2177.

beald-líce, bald-líce, bal-líce; adv. BOLDLY, instantly, earnestly, saucily; audenter, statim :-- Ic bealdlíce mínum hondum slóg I boldly slew with my hands, Exon. 73 a; Th. 272, 1; Jul. 492. Aoth bleów bealdlíce his horn Aod statim insonuit buccina, Jud. 3, 27 : 3, 21.

bealdor, baldor, es; m. A hero, prince; princeps :-- Wedera bealdor prince of the Weders, Beo. Th. 5127; B. 2567. Is hláford mín beorna bealdor my lord is the prince of men, Exon. 52 b; Th. 183, 24; Gú. 1332. v. baldor.

bealg was angry, Exon. 68 a; Th. 253, 25; Jul. 185; p. of belgan.

bealh was angry, irritated; p. of belgan.

beallucas testiculi, Wrt. Voc. 283, 57.

BEALO, bealu, balu; gen. bealowes, bealwes, bealuwes, baluwes; dat. bealuwe, bealwe, baluwe, bealo; acc. bealu, balu, bealo; instr. bealwe, bealuwe; pl. gen. bealwa, bealuwa, baluwa; dat. instr. balawum; balawun; n. I. BALE, woe, harm, evil, mischief; malum, calamitas, pernicies, damnum, noxa, tribulatio :-- Hæfdon bealo they had woe, Cd. 214; Th. 269, 10; Sat. 71. Bealowes gást spirit of evil [diabolus], Cd. 228; Th. 307, 19; Sat. 682. Oft heó to bealwe bearn afédeþ often she nourisheth her child to woe, Salm. Kmbl. 745; Sal. 372. Him to bealwe to their own harm, Exon. 24 a; Th. 68, 19; Cri. 1106. Bealwe gebǽded by calamity compelled, Beo. Th. 5644; B. 2826. Ne ondrǽde ic ðínra wíta bealo I dread not the evil of thy torments, Exon. 68 b; Th. 255, 9; Jul. 211. II. wickedness, depravity; malities, nequitia :-- Me wið blódhreówes weres bealuwe gehǽle preserve me against the wickedness of the blood-thirsty man, Ps. Th. 58, 2. [O. Sax. balu : O. Frs. balu : O. H. Ger. balo : Goth. balweins punishment, pain : O. Nrs. böl : Slav. ból pain.] DER. aldor-bealo [-bealu], ealdor-, feorh-, firen-, folc-, helle-, hreðer-, leód-, mán-, morþ-, morþor-, niht-, sweord-, þeód-, un-, wíg-.

bealo-ben, -benn, e; f. A baleful wound. v. bealu-ben.

bealo-blonden; pp. Mixed with bale, pernicious; pernicie mixtus, perniciosus :-- Bealoblonden níþ pernicious hate, Exon. 92 a; Th. 345, 30; Gn. Ex. 198.

bealo-clom, -clomm, es; m : e; f. A dire chain. v. bealu-clom.

bealo-cræft, balo-cræft, es; m. A wicked, pernicious, or magic art; perniciosa vel magica ars, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 150; Met. 26, 75.

bealo-cwealm, es; m. A pernicious or violent death; perniciosa vel violenta mors, Beo. Th. 4523; B. 2265.

bealo-dǽd, bealu-dǽd, e; f. A wicked, evil, or sinful deed; peccatum :-- Dæt hý bealodǽde gescomeden that they felt shame for a sinful deed, Exon. 27 a; Th. 80, 4; Cri. 1302.

bealo-ful, -full; def. se bealo-fulla; adj. BALEFUL, dire, cursed, wicked; pestiferus, facinorosus, scelestus, malitiosus :-- Bealofull baleful, Judth. 10; Thw. 22, 15; Jud. 63. Se bealofulla hýneþ heardlíce the baleful one hardly oppresseth, Exon, 11 b; Th. 16, 27; Cri. 259. Heó ðone bealofullan aléde mannan she laid down the odious man, Judth. 10; Thw. 23, 2; Jud. 100. Biter bealofullum bitter to the baleful, Exon. 21 a; Th. 56, 31; Cri. 909.

bealo-fús; adj. Inclined to sin; peccandi pronus, Exon. 94 b; Th. 354, 23; Reim. 50.

bealo-hycgende; part. Intending evil; perniciem moliens :-- Ǽghwæðrum wæs bealo-hycgendra bróga fram óðrum to either of them, intending evil, was a fear of the other, Beo. Th. 5123; B. 2565.

bealo-hydig; adj. Intending evil, baleful-minded; perniciem moliens, Beo. Th. 1450; B. 723.

bealo-inwit, es; n. Guile, deceit. v. bealu-inwit.

bealo-leás; adj. Void of evil, innocent; innocens, Exon. 89 b; Th. 335. 27; Gn. Ex. 39.

bealo-níþ, beala-níþ, bala-níþ, es; m. Baleful malice, evil, wickedness; pravum vel perniciosum studium, pernicies, calamitas :-- Him on breóstum bealoníþ weóll baleful malice boiled in his breast, Beo. Th. 5422; B. 2714. Bebeorh ðé ðone bealoníþ keep from thee that baleful evil, Beo. Th. 3520; B. 1758.

bealo-ráp, es; m. A pernicious cord; dirus laqueus, Exon. 13 a; Th. 23, 7; Cri. 365.

bealo-searu; g. -searwes; n. A wicked machination or snare; malitiosa machinatio, Exon, 72 b; Th. 270, 30; Jul. 473.

bealo-síþ, bealu-síþ, es; m. I. an evil fortune, misfortune, calamity; calamitas, adversa fortuna :-- Bealosíþa hwón few [of] misfortunes, Exon. 81 b; Th. 307, 24; Seef. 28. II. a destructive or deadly path, death; fatale iter, mors, Cd. 143; Th. 178, 1; Exod. 5.

bealo-sorg, e; f. Baleful sorrow; dirus ægritudo vel mæror, Exon. 61 b; Th. 226, 21; Ph. 409.

bealo-spell, es; n. A baleful message or tale; perniciei nuntius, Cd. 169; Th. 210, 5; Exod. 510.

bealo-þanc, -þonc, es; m. A baleful or wicked thought; prava vel malitiosa cogitatio, Exon. 72 b; Th. 270, 22; Jul. 469.

bealo-ware; gen. -wara, pl. m. Baleful inhabitants, criminals; scelesti. v. bealu-ware.

bealu, balu; adj. Baleful, pernicious, wicked, malicious; dirus, perniciosus, pravus, malus, malitiosus :-- Awrítaþ hie on his wǽpne bealwe bócstafas they cut baleful letters upon his weapon, Salm. Kmbl. 325; Sal. 162. v bealo.

bealu-ben, -benn, e; f. A baleful wound; lethale vulnus, Cd. 154; Th. 192, 27; Exod. 238.

bealu-clom, -clomm, es; m : e; f. A dire chain; dirum vinculum :-- Under bealuclommum under dire chains, Exon. 120 b; Th. 463, 5; Hö. 65.

bealu-dǽd, e; f. An evil deed, Elen. Kmbl. 1027; El. 515. v. bealo-dǽd.

bealu-inwit, es; n. Guile, deceit; dolus, Ps. Th. 54, 24.

bealu-síþ, es; m. A destructive or deadly path, death; fatale iter, mors, Cd. 143; Th. 178, 1; Exod. 5. v. bealo-síþ.

bealu-ware; gen. -wara; pl. m. Baleful inhabitants, criminals; scelesti :-- Ðæt ic bealuwara weorc gebiden hæbbe that I have endured the work of criminals, Rood Kmbl. 155; Kr. 79.

BEÁM, es; m. I. a tree; arbor :-- Se beám bude wyrda geþingu the tree boded the councils of the fates, Cd. 202; Th. 250, 11; Dan. 545 : 23; Th. 30, 18; Gen. 468 : 24; Th. 31, 1; Gen. 478. On ðæs beámes blédum on the branches of the tree, 200; Th. 248, 4; Dan. 508 : Exon. 114 a; Th. 437, 14; Rä. 56, 7. On ðam beáme on the tree, Cd. 24; Th. 31, 11; Gen. 483. Exon. 57 b; Th. 206, 6; Ph. 122. Forlǽtaþ ðone ǽnne beám abstain from the one tree, Cd. 13; Th. 15, 19; Gen. 235 : 25; Th. 31, 28; Gen. 492. Twegen beámas stódon ofætes gehlǽdene two trees stood laden with fruit, 23; Th. 30, 2; Gen. 460 : Exon, 56 a; Th. 200, 4; Ph. 35. Ic beámas fylle I fell the trees, 101 a; Th. 381, 11; Rä. 2, 9. II. the tree, cross; patibulum, crux :-- Wæs se beám bócstafum awriten the cross was inscribed with letters, Elen. Kmbl. 181; El. 91 : Exon. 24 a; Th. 67, 17; Cri. 1090. Se ðe deáþes wolde biteres onbyrigan on ðam beáme who would taste of bitter death on the cross, Rood Kmbl. 226; Kr. 114 : Cd. 224; Th. 296, 30; Sat. 510. He on ðone hálgan beám ahongen wæs he was hung on the holy cross, Exon. 24 a; Th. 67, 25; Cri. 1094: 29 a; Th. 88, 29; Cri. 1447. III. a column, pillar; columna :-- Hæfde wuldres beám werud gelǽded the pillar of glory had led the host, Cd. 170; Th. 214, 10; Exod. 566 : 148; Th. 184, 22; Exod. 111. God hét him fýrenne beám befóran wísian God commanded a pillar of fire to point out the way before them, Ps. Th. 104, 34. Him befóran fóron beámas twegen two pillars went before him, Cd. 146; Th. 183, 20; Exod. 94. IV. wood, a ship; lignum, navis :-- Ic of fæðmum cwom brimes and beámes I came from the clutches of sea and ship, Exon. 103 b; Th. 392, 13; Rä. 11, 7. V. a BEAM, splint, post, a stock of a tree; trabs, stipes :-- Se beám biþ on ðínum ágenum eágan trabs est in oculo tuo, Mt. Bos. 7, 4. Bunden under beáme bound under a beam, Exon. 126 a; Th. 485, 9; Rä. 71, 11. Ðú ne gesyhst ðone beám on ðínum ágenum eágan trabem in oculo tuo non vides, Mt. Bos. 7, 3. 5. Heora ǽrenan beámas ne mihton fram Galliscum fýre forbærnede weorþan their brazen beams could not be destroyed by the fire of the Gauls, Ors. 2, 8; Bos. 52, 16. Of beáme de stipite, Cot. 63. VI. in composition, anything proceeding in a right line, hence, - A ray of light, a sun-BEAM; radius :-- Cométa, se steorra, scán swilce sunne-beám a comet, the star, shone like a sun-beam, Chr. 678; Erl. 41, 5. VII. in the Northumbrian Gospels beám is put for býme a trumpet; tuba :-- Mið beám cum tuba, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 24, 31. [Tynd. beame : Chauc. Wyc. beme : R. Glouc. beam, bem : Laym. beam, bem : O. Sax. bóm, m : N. Frs. baem, beamme, bjemme : O. Frs. bám, m : Dut. boom, m : Ger. baum, m : M. H. Ger. boum, m : O. H. Ger. poum, m : Goth. bagms, m : Icel. baðmr, m.] DER. beg-beám, ceder-, deáþ-, ele-, fíc-, firgen-, gár-, gleó-, sige-, wer-, wudu-, wyn-.

Beám-dún, Beán-dúm, e; f. BAMPTON, Devonshire; oppidum situm esse arbitror in agro Devoniensi, qua Somersætensibus adjacet, et vocari hodie Bampton, Gibson Chr. Explicatio, p. 14, col. 1 :-- Hér Cynegils and Cwichelm gefuhton on Beámdúne in this year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought at Bampton, Chr. 614; Th. 38, 38, cols. 2, 3. [beám a tree; dún a hill, down; collis stipitibus seu trabibus refertus, Gibson.]

Beám-fleót, es; m. The name of places now called Beamfleet [Beamfled, Hunt.] Bamfleet, Benfleet, Essex; æstuarii nomen in agro Essexiensi, hodie Benfleet :-- Hie fóron eást to Beámfleóte they marched east to Benfleet, Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 15.

beámian; p. ede; pp. ed To shine, to cast forth rays or beams like the sun; radiare, Som.

beám-sceadu, e; f. A tree-shade, the shade of a tree; arborum umbra :-- Gewitan him ðá gangan under beámsceade then they retired under the tree-shade, Cd. 40; Th. 53, l0; Gen. 859. Hí slépon under beámsceade they slept under the tree-shade, Bt. Met. Fox 8, 55; Met. 8, 28.

beám-telg, es; m. Dye of a tree [ink]; tinctura arborea [atramentum scriptorium] :-- Fugles wyn beámtelge swealg the bird's joy [i. e. the pen] swallowed dye of a tree, Exon. 107 a; Th. 408, 9; Rä. 27, 9.

BEÁN, bién, e; f. A BEAN, all sorts of pulse; faba, legumen :-- Beán pisan a vetch, Cot. 34 : 122. [Plat. Dut. boon, f : Ger. bohne, f : M. H. Ger. bóne, f : O. H. Ger. póna, f : Dan. bönne : Swed. böna : O. Nrs. baun, f : Lat. faba, f.]

beán-belgas, beán-coddas; pl. m. [beán a bean, belg or codd a bag] Bean-pods, husks, cods or shells; fabarum sacculi, siliquæ :-- Of ðám beáncoddum de siliquis, Lk. Bos. 15, 56: Cot. 200.

beand, es; m. A band, bond; vinculum :-- On beandon in bonds or captivity; in vinculis, Chr. 1069; Erl. 207, 15. v. bend.

Beán-dún, e; f. Bampton, Devonshire, Chr. 614; Th. 38, 38, col. 1; 39, 37, col. 1; Erl. 20, 36; 21, 35. v. Beám-dún.

beánen; adj. Beany, belonging to beans; fabarius :-- Beánene melewe BEAN-MEAL, Herb. 155, 3; Lchdm. i. 282, 9.

beán-scealas BEAN-SHELLS; siliquæ, quisquiliæ, Cot. 200.

Bearan burh; gen. burge; dat. byrig; f. Banbury, Oxfordshire. v. Beran burh.

BEARD, es; m. I. a BEARD; barba :-- Ne beard ne sciron nec radetis barbam, Lev. 19, 27; nether ge schulen schave the beerd, Wyc. Smyringc niðerfeól on bearde, bearde Aarones unguentum descendit in barbam, barbam Aaronis, Ps. Lamb. 132, 2. II. the Anglo-Saxons were proud of their beards, and to shave a layman by force was a legal offence :-- Gif man ðone beard ofascire, mid xx scillinga gebéte. Gif he hine gebinde, and ðonne to preoste bescire, mid LX scillinga gebéte if a man shave off the beard, let him make amends [boot] with xx shillings. If he bind him, and then shave him like a priest, let him make amends [boot] with lx shillings, L. Alf. pol. 35; Th. i. 84, 8. [Laym. baerd : Plat. Dut. baard, m : Frs. berd, bird, m : Ger. bart, m : Icel. bart, n.]

beard-leás; adj. BEARDLEss; imberbis. Used as a noun, it denotes those without a beard, as a youth, stripling, also a hawk or buzzard; ephebus, buteo :-- Beardleás ephebus, vel buteo, Ælfc. Gl. 87; Som. 74, 55; Wrt. Voc. 50, 33.

BEARG, bearh, es; m. A castrated boar, a barrow pig; majālis :-- Amæsted swín, bearg bellende on bóc-wuda a fattened swine, a barrow pig [castrated boar] grunting in beech woods, Exon. 111 b; Th. 428, 10; Rä. 41, 106. Bearh majalis, Ælfc. Gl. 20; Som. 59, 31; Wrt. Voc. 22, 72. [Plat. borg, m. a castrated boar pig : Dut. barg, m : Frs. baerg, m : Ger. borg-schwein : O. H. Ger. barc, barg, m. porcus castratus.]

bearg, bearh saved, secured, Exon. 55 a; Th. 195, 21; Az. 159; p. of beorgan.

bearh saved, Cd. 124; Th. 158, 29; Gen. 2624; p. of beorgan.

bearht bright, Ps. Spl. 22, 7. v. beorht.

bearhtm, es; m. A noise, tumult, clamour, sound, cry; fragor, strepitus, tumultus, clamor :-- Ic on ðisse byrig bearhtm gehýre I hear a tumult in this city, Cd. 109; Th. 145, 50; Gen. 2406. v. breahtm, brecan to break.

bearhtm, es; m. Brightness, glittering, scintillation, twinkling, glance; claritas, splendor, nitor, scintillatio, acies :-- Eágena bearhtm forsiteþ and forsworceþ the brightness of the eyes vanishes and darkens, Beo. Th. 3537; B. 1766. Ðæt biþ an eágan bearhtm [MS. bryhtm] that is in the twinkling of the eye, in a moment, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, 20. DER. bearht, beorht bright.

bearhtm-hwíl, byrhtm-hwíl, e; f. A twinkling while, a moment; oculi nictus tempus, momentum :-- On ánre byrhtmhwíle in momenta temporis, Lk. Bos. 4, 5.

bearhtnes brightness. v. beorhtnes.

bearm, es; m. The bosom, lap; sinus, gremium :-- On eówerne bearm in sinum vestrum, Lk. Bos. 6, 38. Iosep hí nam of ðæs fæder bearme Ioseph eos tulit de gremio patris, Gen. 48, 12 : Cd. 216; Th. 274, 12; Sat. 153. Ðá wæs fæger foldan bearm then was earth's bosom fair, Beo. Th. 2278; B. 1137. Alédon leófne þeóden on bearm scipes they laid the beloved chief in the ship's bosom, Beo. Th. 70; B. 35 : Exon. 101 b; Th. 382, 28; Rä. 4, 3. [Chauc. barme the bosom : O. Sax. barm, m. sinus, gremium : O.Frs. barm-bracco a lap-dog : O. H. Ger. barm, m : Goth. barms, m : Icel. barmr, m. I. the brim of anything; ora, margo; II. the bosom; gremium : from beran, beoran to bear, to carry in folded arms, or on the bosom.]

bearm-cláþ, es; n. A BARME-CLOTH [Chauc. The Milleres Tale, 3237], a bosom-cloth, an apron; sinui imposita mappula :-- Bearmcláþ mappula, Wrt. Voc. 26, 68.

bearm-rægl, es; m. A bosom-garment; sinui imposita vestis vel mappula, Wrt. Voc. 26, 28.

bearn, es; n. A BEARN, child, son, issue, offspring, progeny; natus, infans, puer, filius, soboles, proles :-- Bearn Godes Son of God, Elen. Kmbl. 1624; El. 814. Nú is ðæt bearn cymen now is that child come, Exon. 8 b; Th. 5, 8; Cri. 66. Híg næfdon nán bearn non erat illis filius, Lk. Bos. 1, 7. Þurh bearnes gebyrd through the birth of a child, Exon. 8 b; Th. 3, 18; Cri. 38. Beón mid bearne gravidam esse, Somn. 370. Bearn soboles vel proles, Ælfc. Gl. 91; Som. 75, 19. Geáta bearn the sons of the Goths, Beo. Th. 4374; B. 2184. He Noe gebletsade and his bearn he blessed Noah and his sons, Cd. 74; Th. 91, 1; Gen. 1505. Ðys synd Israéla bearna naman hæc sunt nomina filiorum Israel, Ex. 1, 1. Geseah his bearna bearn vidit filios filiorum suorum, Job Thw. 168, 35. Ge Godes bearn, bringaþ Gode ramma bearn filii Dei, afferte Domino filios arietum, Ps. Th. 28, 1. [Piers barn a child : Scot. and Northumb. bairn : O. Sax. barn, n : O. Frs. bern, n : O. H, Ger. barn, n : Goth. barn, n : Dan. Swed. Icel. barn, n. a child : what is borne, from beran to bear.] DER. cyne-bearn, dryht-, folc-, freó-, frum-, god-, hǽlu-, húsel-, sige-, þryþ-, woruld-. v. beran.

bearn, es; n. A barley-place, a BARN; honeum :-- He gadereþ hys hwǽte on his bearn congregabit triticum suum in horreum, Mt. Kmbl. Hat. 3, 12, v. bere-ærn.

be-arn occurred, Wanl. Catal. 154, 5; p. of be-yrnan.

bearn burned, consumed; p. of beornan.

bearn-cennung, e; f. Child-birth; puerperium. v. cenning, from cennan parere.

bearn-eácen [bearn a child, eácen increased] Increased, pregnant; auctus, gravidus :-- Bearneácen wíf þrówaþ micel earfoðu a pregnant woman suffers much trouble, Bt. 31, 1; Fox 112, 2, note 2, Cott: L. Alf. pol. 9; Th. i. 66, 23. DER. eácan.

bearn-eácnung, e; f. Generation, conception, pregnancy; genitura, conceptio, prægnatio. v. eácnung.

bearnende burning; ardens, Jn. Lind. War. 5. 35. v. bernende; part. of byrnan.

bearn-gebyrdo; indecl. f. Child-bearing; partus :-- Hyre eald Metod éste wǽre beamgebyrdo to her the ancient Creator was gracious in her child-bearing, Beo. Th. 1896; B. 946.

bearn-gestreón, es; n. Child procreation; liberorum procreatio :-- Ðæt ic þolian sceal bearngestreóna : ic wið brýde ne mót hǽmed habban that I shall lack child-procreation : with a bride I may not have intercourse, Exon. 105 b; Th. 402, 9; Rä. 21, 27.

bearn-leás; adj. Childless; absque liberis :-- Beamleásne ge habbaþ me gedónne absque liberis me esse fecistis, Gen. 42, 36 : Ex. 21, 22.

bearn-lést, e; f. Childlessness, want of children; liberorum defectus vel orbitas, eorum conditio qui liberis carent :-- For bearnléste for want of children, Bt. 11; 1; Fox 32, 6.

bearn-lufe, an; f. Child-love, love of one's own or of an adopted child; liberorum amor, filii sui vel adoptivi amor :-- Hine on bearnlufan habban wolde eum loco adoptivi haberet, Bd. 5, 19; S. 638, 4.

bearn-myrþra, an; m. A child-murderer, an infanticide; liberorum interfector, Lupi Serm. i. 19; Hick. Thes. ii. 105, 5.

bearn-teám, es; m. A succession of children, issue, posterity; liberorum ordo vel successio, soboles :-- Ðæt hí to raðe woldon fultumleáse beón æt hiora bearnteámum that they should very soon be without help from posterity, Ors. 1, 14; Bos. 37, 19. [Scot. barn-teme, bairn-time a brood of children, all the children of one mother.]

BEARO, bearu; gen. bearwes; dat. bearwe, bearowe, bearuwe; acc. bearo; pl. nom. acc. bearwas; gen. -wa; dat. -wum; m. A grove, wood; nemus vel lucus, silva, virgultum :-- Se hálga bearo sette the holy man planted a grove, Cd. 137; Th. 172, 7; Gen. 2840. Wæter wynsumu bearo ealne geondfaraþ pleasant waters pervade all the grove, Exon. 56 b; Th. 202, 10; Ph. 67. Bearu nemus vel lucus, Wrt. Voc. 32. 38. Se fugel of ðæs bearwes beáme gewíteþ the fowl departs from the tree of the grove, Exon. 57 b; Th. 206, 5; Ph. 122 : 58 a; Th. 207, 27; Ph. 148. Wíc mid bearuwe ymbsealde mansions surrounded with a grove, Bd. 5, 2; S. 614, 31. In bearwe, on bearwe or on bearowe in a wood, Cot. 109. Heó begeát gréne bearwas she gained the green groves, Cd. 72; Th. 89, 13; Gen. 1480. [Heyne says a bearing or a fruit-bearing tree, hence trees in general, a wood : O. Nrs. börr, m. arbor.] DER. æppel-bearo, sun-, wudu-.

Bearocscýre, Bearucscýre, Bearwucscíre Berkshire. v. Barocscir.

bearo-næs, -næss, es; m. A woody shore or promontory; litus nemorosum :-- Trædaþ bearonæssas they tread the woody promontories, Exon. 114 b; Th. 439, 5; Rä. 58. 5.

bearowe in a wood, Menol. Fox. 496; Gn. C. 18. v. bearo.

bears a perch; lupus. v. bærs.

bear-swinig; adj. openly wicked, a publican, Lk. Rush. War. 3, 12 : 15, 1. v. bær-synnig.

bearu a grove, Wrt. Voc. 32, 38. v. bearo.

bearug a barrow pig. v. bearg.

bearuwe with a grove, Bd. 5, 2; S. 614, 31. v. bearo.

bearwas, bearwe, bearwes, Exon. 57 b; Th. 206, 5; Ph. 122. v. bearo.

BEÁTAN; part. beátende; ic beáte, ðú beátest, býtst, he beáteþ, být, pl. beátaþ; p. beót, pl. beóton; pp. beáten. I. to BEAT, strike, lash, dash, hurt; percutere, tundere, verberare, cædere, pulsare, quatere, lædere :-- Agynþ beátan hys efenþeówas cæperit percutere conservos, Mt. Bos. 24, 49. Hwí beátst ðú me quid me cædis? Jn. Bos. 18, 23. Ðá Balaam beót ðone assan cum Balaam verberaret asinam, Num. 22, 23. Streámas staðu beátaþ streams beat the shores, Exon. 101 a; Th. 382, 4; Rä. 3, 6. Sǽ on staðu beáteþ the sea lashes against the shore, Bt. Met. Fox 6, 30; Met. 6, 15. Beóton brimstreámas the sea-streams dashed, Andr. Kmbl. 477; An. 239 : 3084; An. 1545. Ne se bryne beót mæcgum nor did the burning hurt the youths, Cd. 187; Th. 232, 24; Dan. 265. II. to beat with the feet, - to tread, trample, tramp; calcare, proculcare :-- Se mearh burhstede beáteþ the steed tramps the castle-place, Beo.Th.4522; B. 2265. [Ger. boszen to beat : M. H. Ger. bózen id : O. H. Ger. pózan id : O. Nrs. bauta id.] DER. a-beátan, ge-, of-, ofa-, to-.

beátere, es; m. A BEATER, fighter, champion; pugil, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 8.

beáw-hyrnet = beó-hyrnet, -hyrnett, e; f. A bee-hornet, gad-fly, horse-fly; œstrus = oίττρos :-- Beáw-hyrnet œstrus [MS. beáw-hyrnette œstrum, acc?], Ælfc. Gl. 22; Som. 59, 108; Wrt. Voc. 23, 64. v. beó, hyrnet.

be-baðian, bi-baðian; p. ode; pp. od To bathe, wash; luere, abluere, lavare :-- Wætere aþwegen and bebaðod lotus aqua, Bd. 1, 27; S. 496, 17.

Bebba-burh Bamborough, Chr. 1095; Th. 361, 39, 40 : 362, 1. v. Bebban burh.

Bebban burh, Chr. 547; Th. 28, 25; 29, 24 : 641; Th. 49, 3 : 993; Th. 240, 17; 241, 16, col. 2 : Bæbba-burh, Chr. 1093; Th. 360, 6 : Bebba-burh, Chr. 1095; Th. 361, 39, 40 : gen. -burge; dat. -byrig; acc. -burg, -burh; f. BAMBOROUGH, in Northumberland: Babbæ oppidum in provincia Northanhymbrorum :-- Hér Ida féng to ríce, ðonon Norþanhymbra cyne-cyn onwóc, and ríxode twelf geár. He timbrode Bebban burh, seó wæs ǽrost mid hegge betýned, and ðǽr æfter mid wealle here [A. D. 547] Ida began to reign, from whom arose the royal race of the Northumbrians, and reigned twelve years. He built Bamborough, which was at first inclosed by a hedge, and afterwards by a wall, Chr. 547; Erl. 16, 7-10. From Bebban byrig from Bamborough, Chr. 926; Th. 199, 31. Ðá becom Penda, Myrcna cyning, to ðære cynelícan byrig, seó is nemned Bebban burh then came Penda, king of the Mercians, to the royal city, which is named Bamborough, Bd, 3, 16; S. 542, 18 : 3, 6; S. 528, 28. Hér wæs Bæbban burg tobrocon, and mycel herehúðe ðǽr genumen here [A. D. 993] Bamborough was destroyed, and much spoil was there taken, Chr. 993; Erl. 133, 1. [Bebba, æ; f. Lat : Bebbe, an; f. Bebba, the name of a queen : burh a borough, corporate town; hence Bebban burh Bebba's burgh or city; Bebbæ urbs. Bede calls it, - 'Urbs regia, quæ a Regina quondam vocabulo Bebba cognominatur,' Bd, 3, 6; S. 109, 22. We thus see that the town had its name from queen Bebba. It is probable that king Ida, who built the town, did not give it this name; but his grandson, Ædilfrid, as Nennius says, - 'Eadfered [= Ædilfrid] dedit uxori suæ [urbem], quæ vocatur Bebbab, et de nomine suæ uxoris suscepit nomen, id est Bebbanburch,' Nenn. 63, ed. Stevens; Bd. Gidl. 187, note 1. Bebban burh was written in succeeding ages, - Bebbanburc, Flor. A. D. 1117 : Bebanburgh, Bebamburgh, Babanburch, Hunt. A. D. 1148 : Babbanburch, Bebbanburc, Dun. A. D. 1164 : Babanburch, Ric. A. D. 1184 : Bebbamburg, Hovd. A. D. 1204 : Bamburgh, Kni. A. D. 1395 : now, in 1873, Bamborough.]

bebeád commanded, Elen. Kmbl. 1417; El. 710; p. of be-beódan.

be-beódan, bi-beódan; part. be-beódende, he be-být; p. be-beád, pl. be-budon; impert. be-beód; pp. be-boden. I. to give a by-command or a gentle command, but generally to command, order; jubere, præcipere, mandare :-- He hys englum bebýt angelis suis mandavit, Lk. Bos. 4, 10. Bebeód Iosue præcipe Iosue, Deut. 3, 28 : Ps. Th. 67, 26 : Ex. 16, 16. Swá him God bebeád as God commanded him, Frag. Kmbl. 75; Leás. 39. Hí bebudon him præceperunt illi, Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 35. Ðǽm landbúendum is beboden, ðæt ealles ðæs ðe him on heora ceápe geweaxe, híg Gode ðone teóðan dǽl agyfen to farmers it is commanded, that of all which increases to them of their cattle, they give the tenth part to God, L. E. I. 35; Th. ii. 432, 27. II. to offer, give up, commend; offerre, commendare, mandare :-- Ðú scealt leófes líc forbærnan and me lác bebeódan thou shalt burn the beloved's body and offer it me as a sacrifice, Cd. 138; Th. 173. 9; Gen. 2858. On hands ðíne ic, bebeóde gást mínne in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum, Ps. Spl. 30, 6 : Hy. 4, 5; Hy. Grn. ii. 283, 5 : Ps. Th. 132, 4. III. to announce; nuntiare, pronuntiare :-- He bebeád wyrd gewordene he announced the event that had passed, Cd. 197; Th. 245, 29; Dan. 470. v. beódan.

be-beódend, es; m. One who commands, a master; præceptor, Lk, Bos. 5, 5 : 9, 33.

be-beódendlíc gemet, beódendlíc gemet, es; n. The imperative mood; modus imperativus :-- Ðæt óðer modus is imperativus, ðæt is bebeódendlíc; mid ðam gemete we hátaþ óðre menn dón sum þingc, oððe sum þingc þrówian, - Rǽd ðú lege, rǽde he legat, beswing ðis cild flagella istum puerum, sí he beswungen flagelletur. Ðis gemet sprecþ forþwerd, and næfþ nǽnne præteritum, forðanðe nán mann ne hǽt dón ðæt ðe gedón biþ the other mood is the imperative, that is the commanding; with this mood we order other people to do something, or to suffer something, - Read thou, let him read, beat this child, let him be beaten. This mood speaketh directly [forthward or to those present], and has no preterite, because no man commands to do what is done, Ælfc. Gr. 21; Som. 23, 20-24.

be-beorgan; p. -bearg, pl. -burgon; pp. -borgen To defend oneself, to take care; cavere ab aliqua re :-- He him bebeorgan ne con wóm he cannot defend himself against the evil, Beo. Th. 3497; B. 1746 : 3520; B. 1758.

beber a beaver, Som. Lye. v. befor.

be-beran; he -byreþ; p. -bær To bear or carry to, provide, supply; afferre, instruere :-- Gif man mannan wǽpnum bebyreþ if one supply a man with weapons, L. Ethb. 18; Th, i. 6, 19, v. beran.

be-biddan to command. v. biddan.

be-bindan; p. -band, -bond, pl. -bundon; pp. -bunden [be, bindan, q. v.] To bind in or about; inligare, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, note 9.

be-birgan, -birigan; p. de; pp. ed To bury; sepelire :-- Mín fæder me byd ðæt ic hine bebirgde pater meus adjuravit me, ut eum sepelirem, Gen. 50, 5 : 50, 6. He hine bebirigde he buried him, Ælfc. T. Grn. 6. 2. Hine bebirgdon sepelierunt eum, Gen. 50, 13. Bebirged sepultus, 50, 14. Ðǽr wæs Isaac bebirged, and ðǽr líþ eác Lia bebirged ibi sepultus est Isaac, ibi et Lia condita jacet, 49, 31. v. be-byrgan.

be-birigan; p. de; pp. ed To bury, Gen. 49, 29. v. be-byrigan.

be-blonden; pp. infected, dyed; infectus, tinctus. v. blandan.

be-bod, bi-bod, es; pl. nom, acc. u, o; gen. a; dat. um; n, A command, mandate, decree, order; mandatum, jussum :-- Hwilc ðære geógoþe gleáwost wǽre bóca bebodes which of the youth was most skilful in the precepts of books, Cd. 176; Th. 221, 2; Dan. 82. Eall ðín bebodu omnia mandata tua, Ps. Th. 118, 172. Ealra beboda mǽst primum omnium mandatum, Mk. Bos. 12, 28. Hí brǽcon bebodo they broke the commandments, Cd. 188; Th. 234, 28; Dan. 299.

be-bodan to command, Ps. Spl. 67, 31. v. be-beódan.

be-boden commanded, commended; pp. of be-beódan.

be-bohte sold, Cd. 226; Th. 301, 5; Sat. 577; p. of be-bycgean.

be-bond bound, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, note 9; p. of be-bindan.

be-boren-inniht born within a country, free of a country, native; municipalis, Cot. 136. v. beran.

be-brecan, he, heó -briceþ, -bricþ; p. -bræc, pl. -brǽcon; pp. -brocen To break off deprive by breaking, to break to pieces, consume; carpendo spoliare, confringere, consumere :-- Beám heó abreóteþ and bebriceþ telgum it crusheth the tree and deprives it of its twigs, Salm. Kmbl. 592; Sal. 295. Bebrocene wǽron ealle hyra hláfas consumpti erant omnes eorum panes, Gr. Dial. 2, 21.

be-bregdan; p. -brægd, pl. -brugdon; pp. -brogden To pretend; simulare, Lk. Lind. War. 20, 20. v. bregdan.

be-briceþ, -bricþ breaks off, deprives by breaking, Salm. Kmbl. 592; Sal. 295. v. be-brecan.

be-brocen broken, consumed, Gr. Dial. 2, 21; pp. of be-brecan.

be-brugdon they pretended, Lk. Lind. War. 20, 20; p. of be-bregdan.

be-búgan, bi-búgan; p. -beág, pl. -bugon; pp. -bogen. I. to avoid; avertere, evitare :-- Ne meahte he ða gehðu bebúgan he could not avoid the sorrow, Elen. Kmbl. 1215; El. 609 : Ps. Th. 138, 17. II. to surround, encircle, encompass; circumire, circumcingere :-- Swá wæter bibúgeþ ðisne beorhtan bósm so far as the water encircles this bright expanse, Exon. 95 b; Th. 356, 4; Pa. 6 : Cd. 190; Th. 236, 16; Dan, 322. III. to reach, extend; pertinere :-- Swá bebúgeþ gebod geond Brytenrícu Sexna cyninges [MS. kyninges] so far as the command of the king of the Saxons extendeth through Britain, Menol. Fox 457; Men. 230: Beo. Th. 2451; B. 1223.

be-bycgean, -bycgan; part. -bycgende; p. -bohte; pp. -boht To sell, to set or put to sale; vendere :-- On gold bebycgean to sell for gold, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 39. Iudas bebohte bearn wealdendes on seolfres sinc Judas sold the child of the Almighty for a heap of silver, Cd. 226; Th. 301, 5; Sat. 577 : Ps. Th. 43, 14 : 104, 15 : Beo. Th. 5591; B. 2799.

be-byrd garnished with nails, set with spikes; clavatus, Cot, 49, Som. Lye.

be-byreþ, supplies, L. Ethb. 18; Th. i. 6, 19; pres. of be-beran.

be-byrgan, be-birgan; p. de; pp. ed To bury; sepelire :-- Bebyrgeþ bán and ýslan buries bones and embers, Exon. 60 a; Th. 217, 26; Ph. 286 : Gen. 23, 19. To bebyrgenne sepelire, Mt. Bos. 27, 7 : Jn. Bos. 19, 40. v. byrgan.

be-byrian; p. ede, ide; pp. ed To bury; sepelire :-- Ðæt hí móston ða deádan bebyrian that they might bury the dead, Ors. 3,1; Bos. 54, 29. Hine árlíce bebyride eum honorifice sepelivit, Bd. 4, 22; S. 591, 20. v. byrian.

be-byrigan, be-birigan; p. ede; pp. ed To cover with a mound, to bury; tumulare, sepelire :-- Bebirigaþ me sepelite me, Gen. 49, 29. Ða bán ðe ðǽr bebyrigede wǽron ossa quæ ibidem fuerant tumulata, Bd. 4, 10; S. 578, 10 : 2, 1; S. 500, 15. v. byrigan.

be-byrigean to bury, Mt. Bos. 8, 21, 22 : Bd. 4, 11; S. 580; 3. v. byrgan, byrigan.

be-byrigednes, -ness; e; f. A burying; sepultura :-- Æfter monigum geárum his bebyrigednesse post multos ejus sepulturæ annos, Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 27. v. be-byrignys.

be-byrignys, -nyss; be-byrigednes, -ness, e; f. A burying; sepultura :-- Ne wæs ǽnig se ðe bebyrignysse sealde ðám ðe acwealde wǽron nec erat qui interemptos sepulturæ traderet, Bd. 1, 15; S. 484, 3.

be-být commands, Lk. Bos. 4, 10; 3rd pres. of be-beódan.

bec, becc, es; m. A brook, BECK or small rapid stream; rivulus :-- Of ðan bece [MS. bæce] from the beck, Kmbl. Cod. Dipl. iii. 121, 16.

Bec an abbey in Normandy :-- Teodbald, ðe was abbot in ðe Bec Theobald, who was abbot of Bec, Chr. 1140; Th. 383, 40.

béc books, Hy. 7, 20; Hy. Grn. ii. 287, 20. v. bóc.

be-cæfian, be-cefian; p. ede; pp. ed To embroider, ornament, decorate; phalerare :-- Becæfed phaleralus, Cot. 84, v. cæfian.

be-carcan to take care of; accurare, Som. Lye. v. carc care.

becc a beck, brook. v. bec.

-becc, -bec, -beck, used for the name of places, or as a termination to the names of places, denotes the situation to be near a brook or river.

becca, an; m. A BECK, pick-axe, mattock; ligo, marra, Ælfe. Gl. 2; Som. 55, 42.

béce, bǽce, beóce, an; f. A beech-tree, a tree bearing mast; fagus, æsculus :-- Béce fagus, Wrt. Voc. 285, 21. v. bócce, bóc.

be-ceápian; p. ode; pp. od To sell; vendere :-- He sceolde ealle his wélan beceápian he should sell all his wealth, Homl. Th. i. 62, 3. Se ðe sóþfæstnysse beceápaþ wið feó he who sells truth for money, ii. 244, 24. Hí beceápodon heora ǽhta they sold their possessions, i. 316, 4,11, 31. Beceápa ealle ðíne ǽhta sell all thy possessions, ii. 400, 12. v. be-cýpan, ceápian.

be-ceásan; p. -ceós, pl. -ceóson; pp. -ceásen To attack, fight, combat; oppugnare, contendere, Leo 131. v. ceásan, ceás strife.

be-cefian; p. ede; pp. ed To ornament, embroider, Lye. v. be-cæfian.

bécen a beacon, Mk. Skt. Lind. 13, 22. v. beácen.

bécen; adj. BEECHEN, made of beech; fagineus :-- Bécen fagineus, Ælfc. Gl, 45; Som. 64, 101; Wrt. Voc. 32, 36.

be-ceorfan; p. -cearf, pl. -curfon; pp. -corfen To BECARVE, cut off, to cut or pare away; amputare, præcidere :-- Ðá hét he hine heáfde beceorfan then he ordered to cut of his head, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478, 3.

be-ceorian; p. ode; pp. od To complain; obmurmurare, R. Ben. 5. v. ceorian.

be-ceówan, bi-ceówan; p. -ceáw, pl. -cuwon; pp. -cowen To chew, gnaw; corrodere :-- Biþ swyra becowen [bicowen, Exon.] the neck is gnawed, Soul Kmbl. 218; Seel. 111.

be-cerran, -cyrran; p. de; pp. ed To turn, turn round; vertere, convertere, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 156; Met. 13, 78. v. be-cyrran, cyrran.

becest bakest = bacest; 2nd pers. pres. of bacan.

beceþ baketh = baceþ; 3rd pers. pres. of bacan.

be-clæmed; part. p. BECLAMMED, glued to or together, emplastered, plastered over; glutinatus, Som. v. be-clemman.

be-clǽnsian; p. ode; pp. od To cleanse; purgare, Lye. v. clǽnsian.

be-clemman; p. de; pp. ed To fetter, bind, tie, inclose, glue together, BECLAM; vincire, includere, glutinare :-- Ðeáh he hie mid fíftigum clúsum beclemme though he inclose it. with fifty bonds, Salm. Kmbl. 143; Sal. 71. Beclæmed glutinatus, Lye.

be-clingan; p. -clang, pl. -clungon; pp. -clungen [clingan,I. to wither, II. to adhere] To BECLING, surround, inclose; circumcludere, includere :-- Clommum beclungen inclosed in bands, Elen. Kmbl. 1388; El. 696.

be-clísan; p. de; pp. ed To inclose; includere, Leo 126. v. be-clýsan.

be-clísing, e; f. An inclosed place, a cell; cella, Leo 126. v. be-clýsing, be-clýsan.

be-clypian, be-cleopian, be-clepian; p. ede, ode, ade; pp. ed, od, ad To accuse, summon, sue at law; accusare, in judicium vocare, judicio compellere :-- Ǽr he clǽne sý ǽlcere spæce, ðe he ǽr beclyped wæs before he be clear of every suit, in which he had been previously accused, L. C. S. 28; Th. i. 392, 12 : 31; Th. i; 394, 29 : 73; Th. i. 414, 23.

be-clyppan, bi-clyppan; p. -clypte; pp. -clypt To clip, embrace; amplecti, Ps. Th. 118, 61 : Mk. Bos. 9, 36. v. clyppan.

be-clýsan; p. de; pp. ed To close in, to shut in, to inclose, to shut; includere, concludere, claudere :-- He beclýsde Iohannem on cwearterne inclusit Johannem in carcere, Lk. Bos. 3, 20: Ps. Spl. 30, 10: Jos. 10, 18. Híg hyra eágan beclýsdon oculos suos clauserunt, Mt. Bos. 13, 15 : Exon. 12 b; Th. 20, 26; Cri. 323.

be-clýsing, e; f. A cell. v. be-clísing.

bécn, es; n. A sign, beacon; signum :-- Mín gebéd nú gyt bécnum standeþ ðæt him on wísum is wel lýcendlíce adhuc est oratio mea in beneplacitis eorum, Ps. Th. 140, 8 : Beo. Kmbl. 6314; B. 3161. v. beácen.

bécnan; p. ede; pp. ed To indicate, denote, signify; indicare, significare :-- Ðe we mid ðæm bridle bécnan tiliaþ which we will denote by the bridle, Bt. Met. Fox 11, 158; Met. 11, 79 : Exon. 110 a; Th. 421, 31; Rä. 40, 26 : 106 b; Th. 407, 5; Rä. 25, 10. v. beácnian.

be-cnáwan; p. -cneów, pl. -cneówon; pp. -cnáwen To know; cognoscere, C. R. Ben. 25. v. on-cnáwan.

bécniendlíce; adv. Allegorically or by parable; allegorice, Som. v. bécnan.

bécnuncg, e; f. A sign, token; significatio :-- Ðú bécnuncge sealdest ðám ðe ege ðínne elne healdaþ dedisti metuentibus te significationem, Ps. Th. 59, 4.

bécnydlíc; adj. Allegorical; allegoricus :-- Bécnydlícre gerecednesse explanationis allegoricæ, Bd. 5, 23; S. 648, 5, note. v. bécnan.

be-cnyttan; v. a. To knot, bind or tie, inclose; ligare :-- Ðe seó molde on becnit wæs in which the mould was inclosed, Bd. 3, 10; S. 534, 29, note. v. cnyttan, cnittan.

be-com came, was come, Beo. Th. 231; B. 115; p. of be-cuman.

be-corfen; part. p. Cut off, beheaded; truncatus :-- Becorfen wæs heáfde capite truncatus est, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 19. v. be-ceorfan.

be-crafian; p. -creáp, pl. -crupon; pp. -cropen To bring secretly, to creep; irrepere :-- Ðæt he síe becropen on carcern that he should be secretly led to prison, Bt. Met. Fox 25, 71; Met. 25, 36.

becst bakest = bacest; 2nd pers. pres. of bacan.

be-cuman; he -cymþ; p. -com, -cwom, pl. -cómon, -cwómon; pp. -cumen; v. intrans. I. to BECOME, happen, befall, meet with, fall in with; contingere, evenire, supervenire, incidere :-- Syððan niht becom after it had become night, or night had come, Beo. Th. 231; B. 115. Oft becymþ se ánweald ðisse worulde to swíðe gódum monnum often cometh the power of this world to very good men, Bt. 39, 11; Fox 228, 18. Ðǽm gódum becymþ ánfeald ýfel to the good happens unmixed evil, Bt. 39, 9; Fox 224, 29. Him ðæs grim leán becom this grim retribution happened to them, Cd. 2; Th. 3, 36; Gen. 46. Him becómon fela yrmþa much misery befell them, Ælfc. T. 41, 21. Becom evenit, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 18. He becom on ða sceaðan he fell among thieves, Lk. Bos- 10, 30 : R. Ben. 65. II. to come, enter, come or attain to, come together; venire, ingredi, pervenire, attingere, concurrere :-- In ða ceastre becuman meahte thou mightest come into the city, Andr. Kmbl. 1858; An. 931. Hannibal to ðam lande becom Hannibal came to that land, Ors. 4, 8; Bos. 90, 14. Gehlýde mín to ðé becume clamor meus ad te perveniat, Ps. Th. 101, 1. Ic eft up becom éce dreámas I again on high attained to eternal joys, Cd. 224; Th. 297, 4; Sat. 512. Becumen sí concurratur, R. Ben. 43. Becumendum to Segor venientibus in Segor, Gen. 13, 10.

bécun a beacon, Mk. Skt. Rush. 13, 22. v. beácen.

be-cunnian; p. ode; pp. od To assay, prove, try; experiri. v. cunnian.

be-cweðan; ðú -cwíst, he -cwiþ; p. -cwæþ, pl. -cwǽdon; pp. -cweden, -cweðen. I. to say, assert; dicere :-- Swá ðú worde becwíst as thou sayest by word, Andr. Kmbl. 386; An. 193 : 419; An. 210. II. to reproach; exprobrare :-- Hí becweðaþ, exprobraverunt, Ps. Th. 88, 44. III. to BEQUEATH, to give by will; legare :-- Ealle ða, mynstra and ða cyrican wǽron givene and becweðene Gode all the minsters and churches were given and bequeathed to God, Chr. 694; Th. 66, 6, note 2 : Th. Diplm. A. D. 830; 465, 16.

be-cwom, pl. -cwómon came fell, Cd. 160; Th.199, 26; Exod. 344; p. of be-cuman.

be-cwyddod; part. p. [be, cwiddian to speak] Bespoken, deposited; ­depositum, Ælfc. Gl. 14; Som. 58, 9.

be-cyme, es; m. A BY-COMING, an event or coming suddenly; eventus :-- Ðæs gehátes and ðæs wítedómes sóþ se æfterfyligenda becyme ðara wísena geséðde and getrymde cujus promissi et prophetiæ veritatem sequens rerum astruxit eventus, Bd. 4, 29; S. 607, 35.

be-cymþ happens, Bt. 39, 9; Fox 224, 29. v. be-cuman.

be-cýpan; ic -cýpe, ðú -cýpest, -cýpst, he -cýpeþ, cýpþ, pl. -cýpaþ; p. ic, he -cýpte, ðú -cýptest, pl. -cýpton; pp. -cýped, -cýpt To sell; vendere :-- Ðú becýptest folc ðín vendidisti populum tuum, Ps. Spl. 43, 14. Gif hwá becýpþ his dóhtor si quis vendiderit filiam suam, Ex. 21, 7. Iosep becýped wæs venundatus est Ioseph, Ps. Spl. 104, 16 : Mt. Bos. 10, 29. v. cýpan.

be-cyrran; p. -cyrde; pp. -cyrred, -cyred, -cyrd; v. trans. To turn to, to give up, deliver, betray; vertere, transferre ad :-- Ælfmær hí becyrde Ælfmær betrayed it, Chr. 1011; Th. 266, 23, v. be-cerran.

BED, bedd, es; n. I. a BED, couch, pallet; stratum, lectus :-- Hí ðá inasendon ðæt bed, ðe se lama on læg, Mk. Bos. 2, 4; thei senten doun the bedd, in whiche the sike man lay, Wyc. To ðínum bedde to thy bed, Gen. 16, 2. II. a bed in a garden; pulvillus vel areola in hortis : used in compounds, as Wyrt-bedd a wort bed, Herb, 7, 1; Lchdm. i. 96, 22 : Hreód-bedd a reed bed, 8, 1; Lchdm. i. 98, 13. [Plat. O. Sax. Dut. bed, n : Ger. bett, bette, n : M. H. Ger. bette, n : O. H. Ger. petti, n : Goth. badi, n : Dan. bed : Swed. bädd, n : O. Nrs. beðr, m. According to Grm. Wrtbch. i. 1722 connected with A. Sax. biddan : Goth. bidjan? for which he suggests the original meaning to lie on the ground; humi jacere.] DER, bed, bedd, -bolster, -clýfa, -cófa, -felt, -ian, -ing, -ling, -reáf, -reda [-rida], -rest, -stede, -þéen, -tíd : gebed, -clýfá, -scipe.

bed asked :-- Ic bed petii, Ps. Spl. 26, 7, = bæd; p. of biddan.

BÉD, es; nom. acc. pl. bédu, bédo; n. A prayer, supplication, re­ligious worship; oratio, supplicatio, Dei cultus :-- Ðæt he sceolde ða bédu [MS. B. byldo constancy] anescian that he should diminish [weaken] the prayers, Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, 43. Béd is chiefly found in composition, as in, - Béd-hús a place for prayer, béd-dagas prayer-days, Rogation-days. The original word béd a prayer was superseded by ge-béd a prayer, q.v. [Orm. bede a prayer; acc pl. bedess : Laym. acc. s. bede, bode a prayer; ­dat. s. ibede; nom. pl. beden : R. Glouc. acc. pl. bedes prayers : Piers acc. pl. bedes prayers, - 'if I bidde any bedes :' Piers and Chauc. also bedes, - 'a peire of bedes,' - a set of beads or small balls of glass etc. on a string, for counting prayers: O. Sax. beda; gen. s. bede; dat. s. bedu : O. Frs. bede : M. H. Ger. bete : O. H. Ger. beta.] DER. béd-dagas, -hús, -ríp : gebéd, -dagas, -hús, -man, -ræ-acute;den, -stów. v biddan.

Beda, an; m. Venerable Bede, born at Monkton by Jarrow, near the ­mouth of the Tyne, in A. D. 674. He wrote his Historia Ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum about A. D. 731, and died May 26, at the age of 61, in 735. - He gives the following account of himself, according to king Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version, made about 890 :-- Ic Beda, Cristes þeów, and Mæsse-Preóst ðæs Mynstres ðare eádigra Apostola Petrus and Paulus, ðæt is æt Wira-múþan [Wearmouth] and on Gyrwum [Jarrow], wæs acenned on sundor-lande ðæs ylcan Mynstres. - Mid ðý ic wæs seofon wintre, ðá wæs ic mid gýmenne mínra maga scald to fédanne and to læ-acute;ranne ðam árwurþan Abbude Benedicte, and Ceolfriþe æfter ðon and syððan ealle tíd mínes lífes on ðæs ylcan Mynstres eardunge, ic wæs dónde, and ealle geornnesse ic sealde to leornianne and to smeágianne hálige gewríto and betwyh gehald regollíces þeódscipes and ða dæghwám­lícan gýmenne to singanne on cyricean me symble swéte and wynsum wæs ðæt ic oððe [leornode oððe] læ-acute;rde oððe wríte. - And ðá ðý nigonteoðan geáre mínes lífes ðæt ic Deáconháde onféng; and ðý þrittigoðan geáre Mæsse-Preóst-háde. And æ-acute;ghwæðerne þurh þénunge ðæs árwurþan biscopes Johannes þurh hæ-acute;se and bebod Ceolferþes ðæs Abbudes. - Of ­ðære tíde ðæs ðe ic Mæssepreóstháde onféng óþ nigon and fíftig wintra mínre yldo, ic ðás béc for mínre nýdþearfe and mínra freónda of geweorcum árwurþra Fædera wrát and sette ge eác swylce to mæ-acute;gwlite andgytes and gástlícra gerecenessa ic to ætýcte [Ego] Bæda, famulus Christi, et Presbyter Monasterii beatorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, quod est ad Viuræmuda et Ingyruum, natus sum in territorio ejusdem Monasterii. ­- Cum essem annorum septem [A. D. 674 + 7 = 681] cura propinquorum datus sum educandus reverentissimo Abbati Benedicto, ac deinde Ceolfrido cunctumque ex eo tempus vitæ in ejusdem Monasterii habitatione peragens, omnem meditandis Scripturis operam dedi atque inter observantiam disciplinæ regularis et quotidianam cantandi in ecclesia curam semper aut discere aut docere aut scribere dulce habui. - Nonodecimo autem vitæ meæ anno [A. D. 674 + 19 = 693] Diaconatum, tricesimo gradum Presbyteratus [A. D. 674 + 30 = 704]. Utrumque per ministerium reverentissimi Episcopi Johannis jubente Ceolfrido Abbate suscepi. - Ex quo tempore accepti Presbyteratus usque ad annum ætatis meæ quinquagesimum no num [A. D. 674 + 59 = 733], hæc in Scripturam sanctam meæ meorumque necessitate ex opusculis venerabilium Patrum breviter adnotare sive etiam ad formam sensus et interpretationis eorum superadjicere curavi, Bd. 5, 23; S. 647, 18-35. Hér forþférde Beda here, A. D. 735 [MS- 734], Bede died, Chr. 734; Th. 77, 20, col. 1, 2, 3. Anno 735, Bæda Presbyter obiit, Bd. S. 224, 5. Sanctes Bedan bán restaþ on Gyrwa-wíc saint Bede's bones rest in Jarrow, L. Ælf. C. 6; Th. ii. 344, note 4, 3.

be-dǽlan, -délan, bi-dǽlan; p. -dǽlde, -délde; pp. -dǽled, -déled To deprive, bereave of anything, to deliver, release, free from anything; pri­vare, orbare, sejungere, liberare, expertem reddere :-- Wuldres bedǽled deprived of honour, Salm. Kmbl. 760; Sal. 379. Nele hí God ǽfre góde bedǽlan Dominus non privabit eos bonis, Ps. Th. 83, 13. Be ðære lyfte bedǽled aere privatus, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. scienc. 17, 11. Hí bióþ ǽlces cræftes bedǽlde they are destitute of all ability, Bt, 36, 6; Fox 180, 28. Hwí sceal ic beón bedǽled ǽgþer mínra sunena cur utroque orbabor filio? Gen. 27, 45. Gesǽlige sáwle sorgum bedǽlde happy souls released from cares, Cd. 220; Th. 282, 34; Sat. 296.

Beda-ford Bedford, Chr. 915; Th. 191, 26, col. 1. v. Bedan ford.

bédan to offer, Chr. 1011; Th. 267, 12, col. 1, v. beódan III.

Bedan ford, Beda-ford, Bedcan ford, Bede-ford, Bedican ford, Biedcan ford, es; m : dat. -forde, -forda [Hunt. A. D. 1148 Bedeford : West. 1377 Bedford : Kni. 1395 Bedforde, Bedeforde : bedan = bedum lectis, ford vadum : lectos et diversoria ad vadum sonans, Camd.] BEDFORD; oppidi nomen :-- Ða yldestan men to Bedan forda hyrdon the first men belonged to Bedford, Chr. 918; Ing. 133, 2. Eádweard cyning fór to Bedan forda king Edward went to Bedford, 919; Ing. 133. 13. Hie gedydon æt Bedan forda pervenirent ad Bedanfordam, Chr. 921; Gib. 107, 40.

Bedan ford-scír, Bæda-ford-scír, Beada-ford-scír, Bede-ford-scír, e; f. BEDFORDSHIRE; comitatus nomen :-- Hí hæfdon ofergán Bedan fordscíre they had subjugated Bedfordshire, Chr. 1011; Th. 266, 5, col. 2. Wende him út into Bedan fordscíre egressus est in Bedanfordsciram, 1016; Th. 278, 16, col. 1.

Bedan heáfod, es; m. Beda's head, Bedwin? in Wiltshire, Chr. 675; Erl. 37, 6. v. Biedan heáfod.

bed-bolster; gen. -bolstres; m. A pillow, bolster; plumacium :-- Bed-bolster plumacium, Ælfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 103; Wrt. Voc. 25, 43.

Bedcan ford Bedford, Chr. 571; Th. 32, 27, col. 1. v. Bedan ford.

bed-clýfa, bedd-clýfa, bed-cleófa, bed-cófa, an; m. A bed-chamber, closet; cubile hominis, cubiculum :-- Gang into ðínum bedclýfan infra in cubiculum tuum, Mt. Bos. 6, 6.

bed-cófa, an; m. A bed place; cubiculum :-- Bed-cófa vel búr cubiculum, Ælfc. Gl, 27; Som. 60, 99 : Lk. Bos. 12, 3. v. bed-clýfa.

bedd a bed; stratum, lectus, Cd. 101; Th. 134, 33; Gen. 2234. v. bed.

bedd bid, command, Lev. 6, 20, = bid, bidd; impert. of biddan.

béd-dagas; pl. nom. m. Prayer-days, Rogation-days; orandi dies, Rogationis dies, Wanl. Catal. 20, 12.

bedd-clýfa a bed-chamber; cubiculum, Gen. 43, 30. v. bed-clýfa.

beddian, beddigan; p. ode; pp. od To prepare or make a bed; sternere :-- Ic strewige, oððe beddige I make or prepare a bed, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 1; Som. 30, 34. Féde þearfan, and beddige him feed the needy, and make a bed for them, L. Pen. 14; Th. ii. 282, 16.

bedding, beding, e; f. I. BEDDING, covering of a bed; stra­mentum, stratum, Ælfc. Gl. 111; Som. 79, 60 :-- Mid mínum teárum míne beddinge ic beþweá lacrimis meis stratum meum rigabo, Ps. Lamb. 6, 7. II. a bed; lectus :-- Gyf ic astíge on bedinge stræ-acute;te mínre si ascendero in lectum strati mei, Ps. Spl. 131, 3.

bedd-reáf bed-clothes. v. bed-reáf.

bedd-redda, bedd-rida, an; m. One bed-ridden; clinicus, Ælfc. Gl. 77; Som. 72, 28. v. bed-reda.

bedd-rest, bed-rest, e; f. A bed-rest, a bed; lectus :-- Me Sarran bedd-reste gestáh Sarah ascended my bed, Cd. 129; Th. 164, 16; Gen. 2715 : 102; Th. 135, 25; Gen. 2248.

-béde exorable. DER. eáþ-béde, q. v.

be-deáglian, bi-deáglian; p. ode; pp. od To hide, cover, conceal, keep close or secret; occultare, abscondere :-- Me ne meahte monna ǽnig bi-deáglian hwæt he hogde nobody could conceal from me what he meditated, Exon. 51 a; Th. 177, 12; Gú. 1226. v. be-díglian.

be-deaht = be-þeaht covered, Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 29; Jud. 213; pp. of be-þeccan.

Bede-ford Bedford, Chr. 10l0; Th. 264, 12, col. 1. v. Bedan ford.

Bede-ford-scír Bedfordshire, Chr. 1011; Th. 266, 5, col. 1. v. Bedan ford-scír.

be-déglad, bi-déglad hidden, obscured, Exon. 57 a; Th. 204, 15; Ph. 98; pp. of be-díglian.

be-délan; p. -délde; pp. -déled To deprive; privare :-- Duguðum be-­déled deprived of dignity, Cd. 215; Th. 272, 19; Sat. 122. v. be-dæ-acute;lan.

be-delfan; p. -dealf, pl. -dulfon; pp. -dolfen To dig in or around, to bury, inter; circumfodere, sepelire :-- Óþ i hine bedelfe usque dum fodiam circa illam, Lk. Bos. 13, 8. Bedealf hyt on eorþan he buried it in the earth, Mt. Bos. 25, 18. Bedolfen, Elen. Kmbl. 2159; El. 1081.

be-delfing, e; f. A digging about; ablaqueatio :-- Niðerwart treówes bedelfing a digging about the lower part of a tree, Ælfc. Gl. 60; Som. 68, 16; Wrt. Voc. 39, 2.

beden prayed, Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 28 : Th. Diplm. A. D. 743-745; 28, 22; pp. of biddan.

Bederices weorþ, es; m. [Bederices Bederic's, weorþ worth, town, or residence] Bederic's worth or town, so called because the manor formerly belonged to Bederic, who bequeathed it to Edmund the king and martyr, hence it was subsequently called Eádmundes burh, St. Edmund's bury :-- On Bedericeswyrþe at Bedericsworth, Will 23; Th. Diplm. A. D. 970; 517, 26. At an earlier date, in A. D. 958, Ælfgar records, - Ic an ðat lond into Beodricheswrþe to Seynt Eádmundes stówe I give the land at Bedericsworth to St. Edmund's place, Th. Diplm. 506, 12. v. Eádmundes burh.

Bedewinda, an; m. BEDWIN, Wilts :-- Ic, Ælfréd, West-Seaxena cining [MS. cingc], an Eádweade, mínum yldran suna, ðæs landes æt Bedewindan I, Alfred, king of the West-Saxons, give the land at Bedwin to Edward, my elder son [lit. made a grant of the land at Bedwin], Alfd. Will 14, 10.

bed-felt, es; m? A bed-covering; lecti pannus, lodix, R. Ben. 55.

béd-hús, es; n. [béd a prayer, hús a house] A chapel, an oratory, a place for prayer; oratorium, Fulg. 43.

Bedican ford, es; m. Bedford, Chr. 571; Ing. 26, 12. v. Bedan ford.

be-dícian; p. ode; pp. od; v. a. To REDIKE, to mound, to fortify with a mound; aggere munire :-- Bedícodon ða buruh útan they embanked the city without, Chr. 1016; Th. 280, 8, col. 1.

be-didrian; p. ode; pp. od To deceive; decipere :-- Wéndon ge, ðæt ge mihton bedidrian mínne gelícan think ye, that ye could deceive one like me? Gen. 44, 15. DER. be-dyderian, dyderian.

be-dielf dug, Mt. Foxe 25, 18, for be-dealf; p. of be-delfan.

be-díglian, -díhlian, -deáglian; ic -díglige; p. -díglode; pp. -díglod, -díhlod; v. a. To hide, cover, conceal, keep close or secret; occultare, abscondere :-- Né hire ðú him ðæt ðú hine bedíglige non audias eum ut occultes eum, Deut. 13, 8. On gríne ða ðe hí bedíglodon in laqueo quem absconderunt, Ps. Spl. 9, 16. Bedíglod occultus, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 3; Som. 31, 5.

be-díhlian; p. -díhlode; pp. -díhlod To hide. v. be-díglian.

beding, e; f. Bedding, covering of a bed, a bed, Ps. Spl. 131, 3. v. bedding.

be-dipped, bedypt dipped, dyed; tinctus. v. be-dyppan.

bedling a delicate person. v. bædling.

be-dofen drowned; submersus, Homl. Th. ii. 472, 5; pp. of be-dúfan.

be-dolfen buried, Elen. Kmbl. 2159; El. 1081; pp. of be-delfan.

be-dón [be, dón to do] To shut; claudere :-- Ðæt ðú ðíne doru mihtest bedón fæste that thou mightest shut fast thy doors, Ps. Th. 147, 2.

béd-rǽden, -rǽdenn, e; f. An assignment, ordinance or appointment; assignatio, Som. v. ge-béd-rǽden.

be-drǽf drove, Exon. 108 a; Th. 412, 5; Rä. 30, 9, = be-dráf; p. of be-drífan.

be-dráf drove, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 72, 38; p. of be-drífan.

be-dragan; p. -dróg, -dróh, pl. -drógon; pp. -dragen To draw aside, seduce; seducere :-- Ðe hie dearnenga bedróg who seduced her secretly, Cd. 29; Th. 38, 5; Gen. 602.

bed-reáf, es; m. Bed-clothes, bedding; lodix, fulcrum, lectisternia, Ælfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 109 : 111; Som. 79, 62, 64 : R. Ben. 55.

bed-reda, -rids, an; m. [bed a bed, reda = rida from riden ridden, pp. of rídan to ride, hence the def. adj. bedreda bedridden, and the noun bedreda, bedrida one bedridden] One BEDRIDDEN; clinicus :-- Ðǽr læg be ðam wege án bedreda there lay by the way one bedridden, Homl. Th. ii. 422, 4. Arás se bedreda, and arn blissigende the bedridden arose, and ran rejoicing, ii. 422, 9. Ðá ðá se sunderhálga Iosias ðæt tácn geseah on ðam bedredan [def. adj.] men, ðá feól he to ðæs apostoles fótum when the pharisee Josias saw that miracle in the bedridden man, then fell he at the apostle's feet, ii. 422, 11. Drihten cwæþ to sumum bedridan the Lord said to one bedridden, i. 472, 23.

bed-rest a bed; lectica, Ælfc. Gl. 66; Som. 69, 75: Judth. 10; Thw. 21, 26; Jud. 36. v. bedd-rest.

bed-rida one bedridden, Homl. Th. i. 472, 23. v. bed-reda.

be-drífan; p. -dráf, -drǽf, pl. -drifon; pp. -drifen; v. a. I. to drive, thrust on or upon, to compel, constrain or enforce one to do a thing, to pursue, follow; cogere, compellere, agere, adigere :-- Perðica hine bedráf into ánum fæstene Perdiccas drove him into a fastness, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 72, 38. Hí him hám bedrifon [MS. bedrifan] and sige áhton they drove them home and had a victory, Bd. 1, 14; S. 482, 20. Wiht ða húðe him bedrǽf a creature drove the spoil home, Exon. 108 a; Th. 412, 5; Rä. 30, 9. Ðú bedrifen [MS. bidrifen] wurde on ðas þeóstran worulde thou wast driven into this dark world, Exon. 28 b; Th. 86, 17; Cri. 1409. II. to drive or beat against, to surround; obruere, obducere, circumflare :-- He geseah stapulas standan storme bedrifene he saw columns standing driven by the storm, Andr. Kmbl. 2987; An. 1496 : Rood Kmbl. 123; Kr. 62. DER. drífan.

be-drincan; p. -dranc, pl. -druncon; pp. -druncen To drink in or up, absorb; imbibere :-- Ðonne ðæt bedruncen sý, eft hit geniwa when that is drunk up, renew it again, Med. ex Quadr. 2, 10; Lchdm, i. 336, 4, MS. B.

béd-ríp, e; f. The cutting or reaping of corn on request; ad preces messio, L. R. S. 5; Th. i. 436, 4, note. v. bén-ríp.

be-dróg seduced, Cd. 29; Th. 38, 5; Gen. 602; p. of be-dragan.

be-droren; pp. Deceived, deluded, bereaved, deprived; deceptus, orbatus, Cd. 26; Th. 33, 31; Gen. 528 : 93; Th. 120, 22; Gen. 1998; pp. of be-dreósan. v. dreósan, bi-droren.

be-druncen drunk in, absorbed, Med. ex Quadr. 2, 10; Lchdm. i. 336, 4, MS. B; pp. of be-drincan.

bed-ryda, an; m. A bedridden man; clinicus :-- Se bedryda wearþ gehǽled sóna; and eóde him ðá hám, hál on his fótum, se ðe ǽr wæs geboren on bǽre to cyrcan the bedridden man was soon healed; and he then went home, whole on his feet, who before was borne on a bier to church, Glostr. Frag. 10, 4, 15-18. v. bed-reda, drí, drían.

bed-stede, es; m. [bed a bed; stede a place, station; locus, situs] A BEDSTEAD; sponda. v. stede.

bed-þén, es; m. [bed a bed, þén for þegn a servant] A chamberlain, a servant who has the care of a chamber; lecti minister, camerarius, Ælfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 101.

bed-tíd, e; f. BEDTIDE, bed time; lecti adeundi tempus, serum, Ælfc. Gl. 95; Som. 76, 2.

bédu prayers; orationes, Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, 43. v. béd; n.

be-dúfan; p. -deáf, pl. -dufon; pp. -dofen To bedive, put under; submergere, Homl. Th. ii. 392, 13. v. be-dofen. DER. dúfan.

bédul; adj. Prayerful, suppliant; petitiosus, Ælfc. Gl. 101; Som. 77, 46.

be-dulfon buried, Ors. 3, 6; Bos. 58, 7; p. pl. of be-delfan.

bed-wahrift, es; n. A curtain; cortina, Cod. Dipl. A. D. 995; Kmbl. vi. 133, 9.

be-dyderian; p. ode; pp. od To deceive; decipere. v. be-didrian. DER. dyderian to deceive.

be-dydrung, e; f. A deceit, deceiving; deceptio. DER. dydrung.

be-dyppan; p. -dypte, pl. -dypton; pp. -dypped; v. trans. To dip, immerse; mergere, intingere, tingere :-- Se ðe bedypþ on disce mid me his hand qui intingit mecum manum in paropside, Mt. Bos. 26, 23. Se ðe ic rǽce bedyppedne hláf is cui ego intinctum panem porrexero, Jn. Bos. 13, 26. Híg bedypton his tunecan on ðam blóde tinxerunt tunicam ejus in sanguine, Gen. 37, 31. Ic bedyppe mergo, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 4; Som. 31, 36.

be-dyrnan, bi-dyrnan; p. de; pp. ed To hide, conceal; occultare :-- Ne mihte him bedyrned wyrþan it might not be hidden from him, Cd. 14; Th. 17, 18; Gen. 261 : Elen. Kmbl. 1201; El. 602 : 1164; El. 584. v. dyrnan.

be-ebbian; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad To leave aground by ebbing; aqua privare :-- Scipu wǽron be-ebbode [be-ebbade] the ships were left aground by the ebb, Chr. 897; Th. 176, 30. v. ebbian.

beel, es; n. A pile; rogus, Gl. E. 6, Lye. v. bǽl.

be-eódon dwelt, inhabited, Bd. 1, 26; S. 488, 1; p. of be-gán.

beer a bier, bed, Cot. 23 : Jn. Lind. War. 5, 8. v. bǽr.

be-fæstan, bi-fæstan; p. -fæste; pp. -fæsted. I. to fasten, make fast, fix; infigere :-- Biþ se þridda dǽl líge befæsted, in gléda grípe the third part shall be fastened in fire, into the gripe of flames, Elen. Kmbl. 2598; El. 1300. II. to establish; fundare, firmare :-- Wæs se bisceophád fægere befæsted the bishopric was fairly established, Elen. Kmbl. 2423; El. 1213. III. to commend, recommend, commit, deliver, put in trust, entrust; commendare, tradere, committere :-- He his geféran his freóndum wæs befæstende socios amicis suis commendavit, Bd. 4, 26; S. 602, 38. Ic him befæsted wæs I was entrusted to him, 5, 6; S. 618, 37 : Ps. Th. 30, 5. Hyt gebyrede ðæt ðú befæstest feoh myneterum oportuit te committere pecuniam numulariis, Mt. Bos. 25, 27 : L. C. S. 28; Th. i. 392, 10.

be-fæsting, e; f An entrusting. DER. fæsting.

be-fæðman; p. ede; pp. ed To embrace with the arms; ulnis amplecti :-- Befæðman, Cd. 163; Th. 204, 32; Exod. 428. v. fæðman.

be-fættian; p. ode; pp. od [be, fættian to fatten] To make fat, anoint; impinguare. v. ge-fættian.

be-falden covered. v. swegl-befalden.

be-fangen taken, Jos. 7, 15; pp. of be-fón.

be-faran; p. -fór, pl. -fóron; pp. -faran; v. trans. [be, faran to go] To go round, to travel through, go all over, to traverse, to go, march, encompass, to surround; peragrare, circumvenire :-- Ne befaraþ ge Israhéla burga ǽrðan ðe mannes sunu cume ye shall not go over the cities of the Israelites before the son of man come, Mt. Bos. 10, 23. Rómáne on ungewis on án nyrewett befóran, óþ hý Somnite útan befóran the Romans marched unwittingly into a narrow pass, till the Samnites surrounded them on the outside, Ors. 3, 8; Bos. 63, 8 : Cd. 167; Th. 209, 10; Exod. 497.

be-fealdan, bi-fealdan; p. -feóld, pl. -feóldon; pp. -fealden, -falden To fold, infold, clasp, involve, surround,, inwrap, cover, overwhelm; implicare, involvere, amplecti, circumdare :-- Ðú miht on ánre hand eáðe befealdan ealne middaneard thou canst easily infold in one hand all the midearth, Hy. 7, 119; Hy. Grn. ii. 289, 119. Ðá he ða bóc befeóld cum plicuisset librum, Lk. Bos. 4, 20. He befeóld his handa mid ðæra tyccena fellum pelliculas hædorum circumdedit manibus, Gen. 27, 16. Mec hý-gedryht befeóld a body of domestics surrounded me. Exon. 94b; Th. 353, 32; Reim. 21. DER. swegl-befalden.

be-feallan, ic -fealle, ðú -feallest, -fylst, he -fealleþ, -fylþ, pl. -feallaþ; p. -feól, -feóll, pl. -feóllon; pp. -feallen. I. to fall; cadere, incidere :-- Án of ðám ne befylþ on eorþan unus ex illis non cadet super terram, Mt. Bos. 10, 29. Hie oft befeallaþ on micel yfel they often fall into great evil, Past. 40, 3; Hat. MS. 53 b, 8 : Cd. 18; Th. 21, 26; Gen. 330 : Lk. Bos. 10, 36 : Gen. 16, 12. II. to fall off; cadere ab aliquo; pp. befeallen deprived, bereft; orbatus, privatus :-- Freóndum befeallen bereft of friends, Beo. Th. 2256; B. 1126 : 4504; B. 2256. DER. feallan.

be-feastnian; p. ade; pp. ad To betrothe; desponsare :-- Befeastnad betrothed; desponsatus, Mt. Lind. Stv. 1, 18. v. be-fæstan.

be-féhþ includes, Bt. 24, 1; Fox 80, 14; 3rd pers. pres. of be-fón.

be-felan, -feolan; p. -fæl, pl. -fǽlon; pp. -feolen, -folen To commit, commend, deliver, assign, allot; committere, commendare, tradere, Leo 140. v. be-feolan.

be-felgan,bi-felgan; p. -fealg, -fealh, -felh, pl. -fulgon; pp. -folgen. I. v. intrans. To stick or cling to, betake oneself; inhærere, insistere :-- Þilcum wordum heó him befelh ǽlce dæge hujuscemodi verbis per singulos dies mulier molesta eras ei, Gen. 39, 10. Æfter ðon ðe he ðǽr sum fæc hálgum leornungum befealh after he had there for a while betaken himself to holy learning, Bd. 4. 23; S. 594, 19. Ðæt he ðám hálwendan ongynnessum georne gefeole [befulge MS. B.] ut cœptis salutaribus insisteret, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 11, note. II. v. trans. To deliver, transmit, consign; tradere, committere :-- He hine róde befealg he delivered him to the cross, Andr. Kmbl. 2654; An. 1328.

be-fellan; p. de; pp. ed To fell; cædere. v. be-fyllan.

be-féng concubuerit, Gen. 19, 33. v. be-fón.

be-feohtan; p. -feaht, pl. -fuhton; pp. -fohten To deprive by fighting; pugnando privare. v. bi-feohtan.

be-feól, -feóll fell, Lk. Bos. 10, 36; p. of be-feallan.

be-feolan, bi-feolan; p. -fæl, pl. -fǽlon; pp. -folen, -feolen To commit, commend, deliver, grant; committere, commendare, tradere :-- Morðor under eorþan befeolan to commit murder under the earth, Exon. 90 b; Th. 340, 23; Gn. Ex. 115 : Cd. 202; Th. 251, 7; Dan. 560. Ðú him for inwite yfel befǽle propter dolos disposuisti eis mala, Ps. Th. 72, 14. Him wæs hálig gást befolen fæste the holy spirit was fully granted to him, Elen. Kmbl. 1870; El. 937 : 391; El. 196. v. be-felan.

be-feóld folded, Lk. Bos. 4, 20; p. of be-fealdan.

BEFER, beofer, beofor, byfor, es; m. A BEAVER; castor, fiber :-- Befer fiber, castor, ponticus? Ælfc. Gl. 19; Som. 59, 3; Wrt. Voc. 22, 47. Beofor, byfor fiber, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 13. [Plat. Dut. bever : Ger. M. H. Ger. biber : O. H. Ger. pipar, pipur : Dan. bäver : Swed. bäfver : O. Nrs. bifra, f : Slav. bobr. Grm. Wrtbch. i. 1806 connects the word with Ger. bauen to build.]

be-féran; p. de; pp. ed To go about, to go round, surround; circumire, circumdare :-- He lǽrende ða castel beférde circumibat castella in circuitu docens, Mk. Bos. 6, 6. He beférde ðæt Israhélisce folc he surrounded the people of Israel, Ex. 14, 9. DER. féran.

be-fician to deceive, to go round; decipere, Off. Episc. 8.

be-fílan; p. de; pp. ed To befoul, defile :-- Ná mid meoxe befíled not defiled with dung, L. Ælf. P. 45; Th. ii. 384, 11. v. be-fýlan.

be-filgan; p. -filgde; pp. -filged To follow after, pursue; insequi :-- Wolde me befilgende beón mid sáre voluit me insequi cum dolore, Bd. 4, 19; S. 589, 28, note. v. be-felgan.

be-flagen flǽsc, es; n. [MS. flǽc] The bowels; viscera :-- Beflagen flǽc [= flǽsc] vel innoþes innewearde viscera, Ælfc. Gl. 75; Som. 71, 99; Wrt. Voc. 45, 7. v. be-fleán.

be-fleán; p. -flóg, pl. -flógon; pp. -flagen To flay, to skin, or take off the skin or bark; decorticare, Cot. 62. v. beflagen flǽsc.

be-fleógan; p. -fleáh, pl. -flugon; pp. -flogen To fly around or about; circumvolare :-- Ða spearcan beflugon on ðæs húses hróf the sparks flew about on the roof of the house, Bd. 3, 10; S. 534, 31, note.

be-fleón, to be-fleónne; p. -fleáh, pl. -flugon; pp. -flogen To flee, flee away, escape; fugere, effugere, evitare :-- Hú he mihte befleón fram ðam toweardan yrre quomodo posset fugere a ventura ira, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 39. Hwider mæg ic ðínne andwlitan befleón a facie tua quo fugiam? Ps. Th. 138, 5 : 61, 6. Nó ðæt ýðe byþ to befleónne it is not easy to flee from that, Beo. Th. 2010; B. 1003.

be-flówan; p. -fleów, pl. -fleówon; pp. -flówen To overflow; diffluere, redundare :-- Wætre beflówen overflowed with water, Exon. 115 b; Th. 444, 19; Kl. 49.

be-fóh contain; complectere, Solil. 3; impert. of be-fón.

be-folen granted, Elen. Kmbl. 1870; El. 937; pp. of be-felan, be-feolan.

be-fón, bi-fón, ic -fó, ðú -féhst, he -féhþ, pl. -fóþ; p. -féng, pl. -féngon; impert. -fóh; pp. -fangen, -fongen; v. trans. I. to comprehend, grasp, seize, take hold of, catch; comprehendere, apprehendere, capere :-- Swá he ealle beféhþ ánes cræfte, heofon and eorþan even as he comprehendeth all by his sole, power, heaven and earth, Andr. Kmbl. 653; An. 327. Habbaþ me helle clommas fæste befangen the clasps of hell have firmly grasped me, Cd. 19; Th. 24, 7; Gen. 374. Heó ánne hæfde befangen she had seized one, Beo. Th. 2594; B. 1295. Befangen on ðam fracodan gilte deprehensus in hoc facinore, Jos. 7, 15. Ne mihton híg his word befón non potuerunt verbum ejus reprehendere, Lk. Bos. 20, 26. Gif mon forstolenne ceáp beféhþ if a man seize stolen cattle, L. In. 47; Th. i. 132, 4 : L. Ath. i. 9; Th. i. 204, 10. Ðæt híg woldon ðone Hǽlend on his spræce befón ut caperent eum in sermone, Mt. Bos. 22, 15. II. to surround, encompass, encircle, envelop, contain, clothe, case, receive, conceive; circumdare, amplecti, complecti, capere, cingere, tegere, operire, accipere, concipere :-- He hafaþ ðam brídle bú tú befangen he has encompassed both with the bridle, Bt. Met. Fox 11, 58; Met. 11, 29. Befongen freáwrásnum encircled with noble chains, Beo. Th. 2906; B. 1451. Fýre befangen enveloped in fire, Beo. Th. 4540; B. 2274. Ne mihte ðes middaneard ealle ða béc befón non potest capere mundus omnes eos libros, Jn. Bos. 21, 25 : Bt. 24, 1; Fox 80, 14. Befóh hit mid feáum wordum complectere hoc paucis verbis, Solil. 3 : Ps. Th. 74, 2. Ne hét he ná etan ðone líchaman ðe he mid befangen wæs he bade them not eat that body with which he was surrounded, Homl. Pasc. Lisl. 9, 19 : Soul Kmbl. 67; Seel. 34 : Job 19, 26; Thw. 168, 2. Saglas, golde befongne poles, cased in gold, Past. 22, 2; Hat. MS. 33 a, 25. Ic hér hǽlu calic hæbbe befangen calicem salutaris accipiam, Ps. Th. 115, 4 : Exon. 9 a; Th. 6, 7; Cri. 80.

be-fongen encircled, Beo. Th. 2906; B. 1451; pp. of be-fón.

be-fóran, bi-fóran; prep. I. dat. II. acc. [be by, proximity, fóran fore, as æt fóran] BEFORE; ante, coram, præ :-- I. dat. He swíðe oft befóran fremede folces rǽswum wundor æfter wundre he very often performed before the princes of the people miracle after miracle, Andr, Kmbl. 1237; An. 619. Ealdormen héredon híg befóran him principes laudaverunt eam apud illum, Gen. 12, 15. Hwá ne wáfaþ ðæs, ðæt ða steorran scínaþ befóran ðam mónan, and ne befóran ðære sunnan who wonders not at this, that the stars shine before the moon, and not before the sun? Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 30. II. acc. He oft befóran hine com ante illum venire consueverat, Bd. 5, 2; S. 614, 42, note. Sweord manige gesáwon befóran beorn beran many saw a sword borne before the hero, Beo. Th. 2052; B.1024. III. befóran frequently comes after the case :-- Him befóran féreþ leóht light goeth before him, Cd. 222; Th. 288, 29; Sat. 389. Him bifóran before them, Exon. 47 a; Th. 160, 22; Gú. 947.

be-fóran; adv. Before, at hand, openly; ante, antea, præ, in conspectu, in conspectum :-- He sceal befóran féran he shall advance before, Bt. Met. Fox 4, 35; Met. 4, 18. Wundor on eorþan he befóran cýþde he revealed miracles on earth openly, Andr. Kmbl. 1212; An. 606. Wæs se atola befóran the wicked one was at hand, Cd. 224; Th. 295, 17; Sat. 487. He befóran gengde he went before, Beo. Th. 2829; B. 1412.

befóran-cweðan; p. -cwæþ, pl. -cwǽdon, -cwédon; pp. -cweden To foretell; prædicere, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 15, note : 5, 2; S. 615, 13, note.

befóran-gestihtian; p. ode; pp. od To fore-ordain; præordinare. DER. ge-stihtian.

Befor-leág Beverley, in Yorkshire. v. Beofer-lic.

be-fótian, -fótigan ; p. ode; pp. od [be, fótian, fót a foot] To befoot, to cut off the feet; pedes abscindere, Som. v. be-heáfdian to behead.

be-freón; p. -freóde; pp. -freód To free; liberare, Ps. C. 50, 110; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 110.

be-frinan, -frynan; p. -fran, pl. -frunon; pp. -frunen [be, frinan to ask] To ask, inquire, learn; interrogare, sciscitari, discere :-- Ic befrine sciscitor, Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 27, 4. Herodes befran hí Herodes didicit ab eis, Mt. Bos. 2, 7.

beftan after, behind, without; post, sine, Som. Lye. v. bæftan.

be-fýlan, -fílan; p. -fýlede; pp. -fýled, -fíled, -fýld; v. trans. [be, fúl foul] To BEFOUL, pollute, defile, make filthy; inquinare, fœdare, contaminare :-- Befíled, L. Ælf. P. 45; Th. ii. 384, 11 : Basil. admn. 7; Norm. 48, 23 : Lchdm. iii. 208, 7 : Cot. 104.

be-fyllan; p. -fylde; pp. -fylled [be, fyllan to fill] To fill, fill up; adimplere :-- Befyllan, Bd. 1, 27; S. 489, 26.

be-fyllan; p. -fylde,-fealde; pp. -fylled; v. trans. [be, fyllan, fellan to fell]. I. to fell, strike down; cædere, prosternere, projicere :-- Hwæt befealdest ðú wærfæstne rinc why didst thou fell the upright man? Cd. 48; Th. 62, 6; Gen. 1010. He us hæfþ befylled he has struck us down, 19; Th. 23, 17; Gen. 361. II. to deprive by felling, bereave; cædendo orbare :-- Secgum befylled bereft of his warriors, Cd. 97; Th. 128, 10; Gen. 2124.

befylþ falls, Mt. Bos. 10, 29; 3rd pers. pres. of be-feallan.

bég, es; m. A bracelet, ring, crown; armilla, corona :-- Hie feredon brýd and bégas they conveyed bride and bracelets, Cd. 90; Th. 112, 25; Gen. 1876. Hí on beorg dydon bégas [MS. beg] and siglu they placed in the mound rings and jewels, Beo. Th. 6308, note; B. 3164. v. beáh.

be-galan; p. -gól, pl. -gólon; pp. -galen [be, galan to sing, enchant] To enchant; incantare :-- Gyf hwylc yfel-dǽde man óðerne begaleþ if any ill-doing man enchants another, Herb. 87, 4; Lchdm. i. 190, 10.

be-gan began, Gen. 9, 20. v. be-ginnan.

be-gán, bi-gán, ic -gá, ðú -gǽst, he -g þ, pl. -gáþ; p. -eóde, pl. -eódon; pp. -gán [be, gán to go]. I. to go over, to surround, occupy, dwell, cultivate, till; perambulare, circumdare, incolere, habitare, colere :-- Ic férde geónd ðas eorþan and hí be-eóde I walked through [over] the earth, and perambulated it, Job 1, 7; Thw. 164, 16. Se ðe æcer begǽþ he who goes over the land, a farmer, Ælfc. Gr. 7; Som. 6, 44. Mid ðý Rómáne ðá gyt Breotone be-eódan dum adhuc Romani Brittaniam incolerent, Bd. 1, 26; S. 488, 1. Hí ðone búr útan be-eódon they surrounded the dwelling without, Chr. 755; Th. 83, 26, col. 1. II. to go to, visit, attend, to cherish, honour, worship; obire, colere, excolere :-- Plegan begán to go to or attend plays, Ors. 6, 2; Bos. 117, 9. Ðæt mynster seó ylce cwén swýðe lufode and árwyrþode and be-eóde eadem regina hoc monasterium multum diligebat, venerabatur, excolebat, Bd. 3, 11; S. 535, 15 : 2, 13; S. 517, 1. III. to commit, exercise, practise, observe; committere, perficere, observare :-- Synne, ða ic selfa be-eóde sins, which I committed myself, Ps. C. 50, 66; Ps. Grn. ii. 278, 66. He begǽþ unmǽtas [MS. unætas] he commits gluttonies, Deut. 21, 20. Begá ðé sylfne to árfæstnysse exercise thyself in or devote thyself to piety, 1 Tim. 4, 7 : Bt. Met. Fox 8, 33; Met. 8. 17 : Ps. Th. 105, 12. Ða ðe be-eódon ídelnesse observantes vanitatem, 30, 6 : 118, 23 : 119, 5 : 98, 4 : Bd. 2, 13; S. 517, 4.

be-gán tilled, cultivated :-- On begánum landum in cultivated lands, Herb. 5, 1; Lchdm. i. 94, 6; pp. of be-gán.

bégan; he bégþ; p. de; pp. ed. I. to bow, bend, turn; flectere, inflectere, deprimere :-- Ðeáh ðú teó hwelcne bóh of dúne to ðære eorþan, swelce ðú bégan mǽge though thou pull any bough down to the earth, such as thou mayest bend, Bt. 25; Fox 88, 23. Se Ælmihtiga bégþ ðider he wile mid his ánwealde the Almighty bends them whither he will by his power, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 6; Met. 13, 3 : Cd. 221; Th. 288, 15; Sat. 381 : Bd. 4, 11; S. 580, 10. II. to bow to, to settle; inflectere, insistere :-- Ðara bearn swylce bégaþ æðelum settum beámum, samed anlíce, standan on staðule stíðe wið geóguþe quorum filii sicut novellæ plantationes stabilitæ a juventute sua, Ps. Th. 143, 14. DER. a-bégan, for-, ge-, ofge-. v. býgan.

be-gang, be-gong, bi-gang, bi-gong, bi-gencg, es; m. [be, gang a step, proceeding]. I. a course, way, passage, circuit, district; cursus, via, tenor, circuitus :-- Ofer geofenes begang over the course of ocean, Beo. Th. 729; B. 362. Holma begang the passage of the deeps, Andr. Kmbl. 390; An. 195. Gársecges begang the circuit of ocean, 1059; An. 530. II. an undertaking, a business, exercise, service, religious worship; negotium, exercitatio, cultus :-- Ða willnode he hyne sylfne fram eallum begangum ðisse worulde fremde gedón cupivit se ab omnibus sæculi hujus negotiis alienare, Bd. 3, 19; S. 549, 38. On bigange ðæs áncorlífes in exercenda vita solitaria, 5, 1; S. 613, 9. Ðæt heó móste healdan ðone geleáfan and bigong hire ǽfestnysse ut fidem cultumque suæ religionis servaret, 2, 9; S. 510, 29 : 1, 7; S. 477, 21 : Jos. 23, 7. Bigencg observatio, studium, Scint. 7.

be-ganga, bi-gonga, bi-genga, bi-gengea, an; m. An inhabitant, a dweller, cultivator, observer, benefactor, worshipper; incola, cultor :-- Be ǽrran bigengum [begangum MS. B.] of the first inhabitants, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 7. Þearfena bigenga a benefactor of the poor; cultor pauperum, Bd. 3, 14; S. 540, 23 : 2, 15; S. 519, 8. DER. land-begenga.

be-gangan, -gongan, bi-gangan; -gongan; pp. -gangen [be, gangan to go]. I. to go round, surround; circumdare :-- Cartaina wæs mid sǽ útan befangen [begangen Cot.] Carthage was outwardly surrounded by sea, Ors. 4, 13; Bos. 99, 39. II. to go to or after, to attend, commit, practise, exercise, perform, observe, worship; exercere, incumbere, procurare, colere :-- Begangan his gebédu to attend his prayers, Bd. 3, 16; S. 542, 34, col. 1. Begangan wæccan to attend wakes, Bd. 3, 17; S. 545, 11. Forligru ne begange should not commit adultery, L. C. E. 7; Th. i. 364, 24. Ðæt ðú his bebod georne begange that thou shouldst gladly perform his command, Elen. Kmbl. 2339; El. 1171 : Ps. Th. 118, 48. Swýðe ic begangen wæs exercitatus sum, Ps. Th. 76, 4 : 54, 2. Gif ðú fremdu godu bigongest if thou wilt worship strange gods, Exon. 67 b; Th. 250, 3; Jul. 121.

begannes, -ness, e; f. [beginnan to begin] The calends, the first day of the month; calendæ, Cot. 202.

bégaþ shall settle, Ps. Th. 143,14; pres. and fut. pl. of bégan II.

beg-beám, beig-beám, es; m. [begir a berry, beám a tree] The mulberry-tree, the blackberry-bush, a tree bearing berries, a bramble; morus, rubus :-- Moyses æt-ýwde wið ǽnne beigbeám Moyses ostendit secus rubum, Mωσήs έμήνυσεν έπί τήs βάτου, Lk. Bos. 20, 37.

begea of both, Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 19; Jud. 128; gen. of begen.

bégean to bow, bend :-- Cneó bégean scolden genua flectere deberent, Bd. 3, 17; S. 544, 39, col. 2. v. bégan.

be-geat, be-geáton obtained, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 72, 6; p. of be-gytan.

be-gellan to celebrate by song, to sing. v. bi-gellan.

be-gémed taken care of, governed; pp. of be-gýman.

BEGEN; nom. m. only, Both; ambo; adj. pron. pl :-- Híg feallaþ begen on ǽnne pytt ambo in foveam cadunt, Mt. Bos. 15, 14. Wit wǽron begen ðá git on geógoþfeore we [Beowulf and Breca] were both yet in youthful life, Beo. Th. 1077; B. 536. - Nom. m. f. n. bá, bú, bó both; ambo, ambæ, ambo :-- Ða idesa, f. bá both the women, Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 22; Jud. 133. Þrym, m. sceal mid wlenco, þriste, m. mid cénum; sceolon bú recene beadwe fremman pomp shall be with pride, the confident with the bold; both shall quickly promote war, Exon. 89 b; Th. 337, 9; Gn. Ex. 62 : Elen. Kmbl. 1225; El. 614. Blód, n. and wæter, n. bú tú ætgædre eorþan sóhton blood and water, both the two sought the earth together, Exon. 70 a; Th. 260, 5; Jul. 292 : Cd. 35; Th. 46, 29; Gen. 751. - Nom. m. and f. or f. and n. bá, bú both; ambo et ambæ vel ambæ et ambo, n :-- Sorgedon bá twá, Adam and Eue both the two sorrowed, Adam and Eve, Cd. 37; Th. 47, 24; Gen. 765 : 39; Th. 52, 8; Gen. 840. Hí bú þégon [MS. þegun] æppel they both [Adam and Eve] ate the apple, Exon. 61 b; Th. 226, 8; Ph. 402 : Cd. 10; Th. 12, 18; Gen. 187. Wǽron bú tú rihtwíse befóran Gode both the two [Zacharias and Elizabeth] were righteous before God, Lk. Bos. 1, 6, 7 : Cd. 27; Th. 36, 20; Gen. 574. Wæter, n. and eorþe, f. sint on gecynde cealda bá twá water and earth, both the two are by nature cold, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 152; Met. 20, 76. Bú samod, líc, n. and sáwl, f. both together, body and soul, Elen. Kmbl. 1775; El. 889 : Exon. 27 a; Th. 81, 20; Cri. 1326. Niwe wín, n. sceal beón gedón on niwe bytta [acc. pl. of bytt, f.], ðonne beóþ bú tú gehealden new wine shall be put into new bottles, then both the two shall be preserved, Mk. Bos. 2, 22. - Gen. m. f. n. begra, begea, bega of both; amborum, ambarum, amborum :-- Se Hálga Gást, ðe gǽþ of ðam Fæder and of ðam Suna, is heora begra lufu the Holy Ghost, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, is the love of them both, Hexam. 2; Norm. 4, 22 : Ælfc. T. 3, 4. Heora begra eágan wurdon ge-openode the eyes of them both were opened, Gen. 3, 7 : Cd. 90; Th. 113, 27; Gen. 1893. Hyra begea nest earum ambarum cibum, Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 19; Jud. 128 : Ps. Th. 86, 2. Engla and deófla, weorþeþ bega cyme of angels and of devils, of both shall be a coming, Exon. 21 a; Th. 56, 8; Cri. 897. Heora bega fæder earum ambarum pater, Cd. 123; Th. 157, 4; Gen. 2600. - Dat. m. f. n. bám, bǽm to both; ambobus, ambabus, ambobus :-- Se Hálga Gást, ðe gǽþ of ðam Fæder and of ðam Suna, is him bám gemǽne the Holy Ghost, who proceedeth from the Father and the Son, is common to them both, Hexam. 2; Norm. 4, 22 : Lk. Bos. 7, 42. He sceóp bám naman he gave names to both, Cd. 6; Th. 8, 23; Gen. 128 : Exon. 45 b; Th. 154, 14; Gú. 842. - Acc. m. f. n. bá, bú both; ambos, ambas, ambo :-- Bysmeredon uncit [Inscription Bismærede ungket] men, bá ætgædre they [men] reviled us two, both together, Runic Inscrip. Kmbl. 354, 30. Ða beón beraþ, bú tú ætsomne, árlícne anleofan and ǽtterne tægel the bees bear excellent food and a poisonous tail, both the two together, Frag. Kmbl. 35; Leás. 19. On bá healfa on both sides, Beo. Th. 2614; B. 1305 : Ps. Th. 59, 5. Sceolde bú witan ylda ǽghwilc yfles and gódes each of men must know both of evil and good, Cd. 24; Th. 31, 3; Gen. 479. - Acc. m. and f. or f. and n. bá, bú both; ambos et ambas vel ambas et ambo :-- Ðæt ðæt fýr ne mæg foldan, f. and merestreám, m. forbærnan, ðeáh hit wið bá twá síe gefeged that the fire may not burn up earth and sea, though it be joined with both the two, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 230; Met. 20, 115. Bringaþ Drihtne, bú ætsomne, wlite, m. and áre, f. bring to the Lord, both together, glory and honour, Ps. Th. 95, 7. Hát bú tú aweg Agar féran and Ismael command both the two to go away, Hagar and Ishmael, Cd. 134; Th. 169, 12; Gen. 2798. Gehwylc hafaþ ætgædre bú líc, n. and sáwle, f. each shall have together both body and soul, Exon. 23 a; Th. 64, 13; Cri. 1036. - Instr. m. f. n. bám, bǽm with or by both; ambobus, ambabus, ambobus :-- Mid bǽm handum with both hands, Elen. Kmbl. 1607; El. 805. [R. Brun. beie, gen : R. Glouc. beye, bey : Laym. beie, beine, beigene : Orm. beʒenn, gen : O. Scot. baith : O. Sax. béðie, bédea : Frs. béthe : Dut. beide : M. Dut. bede : Ger. M. Ger. beide : N. L. Ger. beede : O. Ger. pédé, pédó, pédiu : Goth. bai and bayoþs; n. ba : Dan. baade : Swed. både : O. Nrs. báðir, báðar, bæði : Lat. ambo : Grk. άμφω : Lith. abbu; f. abbi : O. Slav. oba : Sansk. ubha; dual ubhau; pl. ubhe.]

be-geondan, be-iundan; prep. acc. [be by, geond, geondan over] BEYOND; per, trans :-- Him fyligdon mycele menigu fram Iudea and fram begeondan Iordanen secutæ sunt eum turbæ multæ de Judæa et de trans Jordanem, Mt. Bos. 4, 25. Alífe me to farenne and to geseónne ðæt séloste land begeondan Iordane transibo et videbo terram hanc optimam trans Jordanem, Deut. 3, 25. Begeondan sǽ in transmarinis partibus, Bd. 5, 19; S. 639, 10. Gewendon begeondan sǽ went beyond sea, Chr. 1048; Erl. 180, 16. Beiundan Iordane trans Jordanem, Deut. 1, 5.

be-geondan; adv. Beyond; ultra :-- Feor begeondan far beyond, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 3. v. geond; adv.

be-geótan, bi-geótan; he -gýt; p. -geát, pl. -guton; pp. -goten, -geten [be, geótan to pour]. I. to pour out, to cast upon, to sprinkle, cover; aspergere :-- Ic wæs mid blóde bestémed, begoten of ðæs guman sídan I was wet with blood, poured from the man's side, Rood Kmbl. 97; Kr. 49. Mid blóde begoten sprinkled with blood, Chr. 734; Th. 76, 18 : Herb. 96, 4; Lchdm. i. 210, 3 : Rood Kmbl. 13; Kr. 7. II. to pour into; infundere :-- He me láre on gemynd begeát he poured knowledge into my mind, Elen. Kmbl. 2494; El. 1248.

be-geten, L. H. E. 2; Th. i. 28, 2; for be-gitan to seize, obtain.

be-getende seeking out, = be-gitende, Ps. Spl. T. 110, 2. v. be-gitan.

be-géton begot, Cd. 223; Th. 294, 20; Sat. 474; p. of be-gitan.

beggen both, L. Ælf. P. 35; Th. ii. 378, 13, 15, 16; nom. m. = begen.

bégian; p. ode; pp. od [bég a crown] To crown; coronare :-- Ðú bégodest us coronasti nos, Ps. Spl. C. 5, 15. v. beágian.

be-gietan to get, obtain, Exon. 65 b; Th. 242, 6; Ph. 669. v. be-gitan.

be-gíman to guard; custodire, Gen. 2, 15. v. be-gýman.

be-gímen observation, care; observatio, Wanl. Catal. 78, 24, v. begýmen.

be-gíming, e; f. An invention, a device; adinventio, Ps. Spl. 105, 36.

be-gínan; p. -gán, pl. -ginon; pp. -ginen To open the mouth wide, gape, yawn? oscitare in aliquem? - Ic begíne I yawn, Exon. 129 b; Th. 497, 19; Rä. 87, 3.

be-ginnan, ic -ginne, ðú -ginnest, -ginst, he -ginneþ, -gineþ, -ginþ, pl. -ginnaþ, -ginaþ; p. -gan, pl. -gunnon; pp. -gunnen; v. a. [be, ginnan, q. v.] To BEGIN; incipere :-- Nóe ðá began to wircenne ðæt land Noe tunc cæpit exercere terram, Gen. 9, 20 : 18, 27 : Hy. 10, 36; Hy. Grn. ii. 293, 36. v. on-ginnan.

be-giondan beyond, Past. Pref. MS. Hat. v. be-geondan.

be-girdan; p. -girde; pp. -girded To begird, Apol. Th. 12, 17. v. be-gyrdan.

be-gitan, -gietan, -gytan; part. -gitende; ic -gite, ðú -gytst, he -gyteþ, pl. -gytaþ; p. -geat, pl. -geáton; pp. -geten; v. a. [be, gitan to get] To get, obtain, take, acquire, to seek out, receive, gain, seize, lay hold of, catch; sumere, obtinere, assequi, acquirere, nancisci, capere, comprehendere, arripere :-- Ǽlc mód wilnaþ sóþes gódes to begitanne every mind wishes to get the true good, Bt. 24, 2; Fox 82, 1. Hí ða burh mihton eáðe begitan they might easily have taken the city, Ors. 3, 4; Bos. 56, 10. He begeat ealle ða eást land he obtained all the east country, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 72, 6. Hwæt begytst ðú of ðínum cræfte quid acquiris de tua arte? Coll. Monast. Th. 23, 3 : Ps. Th. 83, 3 : 68, 37. Ðe hý under Alexandre begeáton which [riches] they had gained under Alexander, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 73, 27 : Beo. Th. 4490; B. 2249. Fin sweord-bealo begeat misery from the sword seized Fin, Beo. Th. 2297; B. 1146.

be-gleddian, ic -gleddige; p. ode; pp. od To dye, stain; inficere :-- Ic begleddige inficio, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 6; Som. 32, 37. And begleddod is eorþe on blódum et infecta est terra in sanguinibus, Ps. Spl. 105, 36.

be-glídan; p. -gláð, pl. -glidon; pp. -gliden To glide or disappear from any one, to desert any one; evanescere ab aliquo, derelinquere :-- Unriht me eall beglíde iniquitas a me omnis transeat, Ps. Th. 56, 1.

be-gnagan; p. -gnóg, pl. -gnógon; pp. -gnagen To BEGNAW, gnaw; corrodere, Martyrol. 9, Jul.

begne, an; f. An ulcer, a carbuncle; carbunculus :-- Seó blace begne the black ulcer; carbunculus, Ælfc. Gl. 64; Som. 69, 21; Wrt. Voc. 40, 52.

be-gnornian; p. ode; pp. od To deplore; lugere :-- Begnornodon deplored, Beo. Th. 6338; B. 3179.

be-gong, es; m. A course :-- Under swegles begong under the course of heaven, Beo. Th. 1724; B. 860. v. be-gang.

be-gongan to exercise, Exon. 32 b; Tb. 103, 24; Cri. 1693 [MS. bi-gongan]. v. be-gangan.

be-goten covered, Rood Kmbl. 13; Kr. 7; pp. of be-geótan.

begra of both :-- He is heora begra lufu he is the love of them both, Hexam. 2; Norm. 4, 22. v. begen.

be-grafan, bi-grafan; p. -gróf, pl. -grófon; pp. -grafen [be, grafan to dig] To bury; defodere, sepelire :-- Róda greóte begrafene [MS. be-grauene] crosses buried in the sand, Elen. Kmbd. 1666; El. 835.

be-grauen buried, = begrafen; pp. of be-grafan.

be-greósan; p. -greás, pl. -gruron; pp. -groren To overwhelm fearfully; horrore afficere, formidolose obruere? - Atole gástas súsle begrorene [MS. begrorenne] the horrid spirits fearfully overwhelmed with torment, Cd. 214; Th. 268, 9.

be-grétan, -grǽtan; p. -grét, pl. -gréton; pp. -gréten, -grǽten To lament, bewail; lamentare, deplorare :-- Fæmnan ne wǽran geonge begrétte virgines eorum non sunt lamentatæ, Ps. Th. 77, 63. v. grétan.

be-grindan; p. -grand, pl. -grundon; pp. -grunden. I. to grind, polish; perfricare, polire, exacuere :-- Sindrum begrunden ground with cinders, Exon. 107 a; Th. 408, 3; Rä. 27, 6. II. to deprive; privare :-- Ǽlc hine selfa begrindeþ gástes dugeþum each deprives himself of his soul's happiness, Cd. 75; Th. 91, 33; Gen. 1521. DER. grindan.

be-grípan; p. -gráp, pl. -gripon; pp. -gripen; v. trans. [be, grípan to gripe] To BEGRIPE, chasten, chide; increpare, Ps. Spl. T. 15, 7.

begrorene [MS. begrorenne] fearfully overwhelmed, Cd. 214; Th. 268, 9; pp. of be-greósan.

be-grornian to lament, to grieve for; mœrere, Cd. 13; Th. 16, 14; Gen. 243. v. gnornian.

be-grynian; p. ode; pp. od To ensnare, entrap; illaqueare, irretire :-- Ðæt híg swá beón begrynode ut sic irretientur, Coll. Monast. Th. 21, 17. v. grinian.

be-gunnon, be-gunnen began, begun, C. R. Ben. 22. v. be-ginnan.

be-gyldan; p. -gylde; pp. -gylded To gild; inaurare, deaurare :-- Begylded fatu vasa deaurata, Lye. v. gyldan, gildan.

be-gýman, be-gíman; p. de; pp. ed; v. trans. To take care of, to keep, govern, regard, serve, attend; custodire, curare, servare, observare, attendere :-- Godes þeówum ðe ðære cyrcan begýmaþ to God's servants who serve the church, L. Ælf. C. 24; Th. ii. 352, 11 : Ps. Spl. 77, 63 : Lk. Bos. 10, 35 : Mt. Bos. 6, 1 : Ps. Spl. 5, 2.

be-gýmen, be-gímen, e; f. Care, regard, observation, shew, pomp; observatio :-- Mid begýmene = μετά παρατηρήσεωs, with shew or that it can be observed, Lk. Bos. 17, 20.

be-gyrdan, -girdan; p. de; pp. ed, or be-gyrd; v. trans. [be, gyrdan to gird]. I. to BEGIRD, surround; cingere, præcingere, accingere :-- Begyrdaþ eówer lendenu renes vestros accingetis, Ex. 12, 11. He ðæt eálond begyrde and gefæstnade mid díce he begirt and secured the island with a dike, Bd. 1, 5; S. 476, 10. God se begyrde me of mihte Deus qui præcinxit me virtute, Ps. Spl. 17, 34 : Ps. Th. 17, 37. He wæs begyrded mid wǽpnum ðæs gástlícan camphádes accinctus erat armis militiæ spiritalis, Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, 24. II. to clothe; amicire :-- Begyrded oððe bewǽfed leóhte swá swá mid hrægle amictus lumine sicut vestimento, Ps. Lamb. 103, 2.

be-gytan to obtain, Mt. Bos. 5, 7. v. be-gitan.

be-gytst obtainest, Coll. Monast. Th. 23, 3. v. be-gitan.

béh a crown. :-- On ðone béh in coronam, Bd. 5, 21; S. 643, 28. v. bég.

be-habban, he -hæfeþ; p. -hæfde; pp. -hæfed, -hæft; v. a. [be by, near, habban to have]. I. to compass, encompass, surround; cingere, circumdare :-- Ðíne fýnd behabbaþ ðé inimici tui circumdabunt te Lk. Bos. 19 43 : Jos. 6, 20. Behæfde heápa wyn Hǽlendes burg the joy of bands surrounded the Saviour's tomb, Exon. 120 a; Th. 460, 16; Hö. 18 : Cd. 112; Th. 148, 9; Gen. 2454. II. to comprehend; comprehendere, continere :-- Behabban hreðre or on hreðre to comprehend in the mind, Andr. Kmbl. 1633; An. 818 : Exon. 92 b; Th. 347, 9; Sch. 10 : Ps. Spl. 76, 9. III. to restrain, detain, stay; detinere :-- Hí behæfdon hine detinebant illum, Lk. Bos. 4, 42.

be-hæfednes, -ness, e; f. A detention, care; conservatio :-- Behæfednes fæsten sparingness, parsimony, Cot. 191. v. fæst-hafolnes.

be-hæftan; p. -hæfte; pp. -hæfted, contr. -hæftd, -hæft To betake, take, bind; captare, vincire :-- Be-hæft held; captus = gehæft, q. v. Gen. 22, 13. v. pp. of hæftan. v. ge-hæftan.

be-hǽs, e; f. [be by, near, hǽs command] A self-command, vow, promise. Hence our behest; votum :-- He fela behǽsa behét he promised many vows, Chr. 1093; Th. 359, 33. v. hǽs, behát.

be-hǽtst vowest, Gen. 38, 17. v. be-hátan.

be-hangen hung round; pp. of be-hón.

behát, es; n. A promise, vow; promissum, votum :-- Ic sende on eów mínes fæder behát ego mitto promissum Parris mei in vos, Lk. Bos. 24, 49. Ðonne ðú behát behǽtst Drihtene cum votum voveris Domino, Deut. 23, 21. DER. be-hátan, ge-hát.

be-hátan, ic -háte, ðú -hátest, -hǽtst, he -háteþ, pl. -hátaþ; p. -hét, pl. -héton; pp. -háten [be, hátan to call, promise, vide II] To promise, vow, threaten; spondere, pollicere, vovere, comminari :-- Ðæt ðú me behǽtst quod polliceris, Gen. 38, 17. Behét he mid áþe cum juramento pollicitus est, Mt. Bos. 14, 7. Ðonne ðú behát behǽtst Drihtene cum votum voveris Domino, Deut. 23, 21. Drihten God behét us wedd Dominus Deus pepigit nobiscum fædus, 5, 2. Ǽlc yfel man him behét they threatened him every evil, Chr. 1036; Ing. 209, 12; Ælf Tod. 11.

be-háwian; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad To see, see clearly; videre :-- Beháwa ðonne ðæt ðú útadó ðæt mot see then clearly [τότε διαβλέψειs] that thou take out the mote, Mt. Bos. 7, 5.

be-heáfdian; p. ode; pp. od; v. trans. [be, heáfod head] To BEHEAD; decollare :-- He beheáfdode Iohannem decollavit Iohannem, Mt. Bos. 14, 10 : Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 32; Jud. 290.

be-heáfdung, e; f. A BEHEADING; decollatio, L. Ath. i. prm; Th. i. 194, 21.

be-healdan, bi-healdan, ic -healde, ðú -healdest, -hylst, he -healdeþ, -hylt, -hilt, pl. -healdaþ; p. ic, he -heóld, ðú -heólde, pl. -heóldon; pp. -healden; v.trans. [be near, healdan to hold, observe]. I. to hold by or near, possess, observe, consider, beware, regard, mind, take heed, behave, to mean, signify; tenere, inhabitare, servare, curare, gerere :-- Heora ǽ to behealdenne to observe their laws, Ors. 3, 5; Bos. 57, 21. Adam sceal mínne stronglícan stól behealdan Adam shall possess my strong seat, Cd. 19; Th. 23, 28; Gen. 366. He gemetfæstlíce and ymbsceáwiendlíce hine sylfne on eallum þingum beheóld se modeste et circumspecte in omnibus gereret, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 5. Hwæt ðæt swefen beheóld what the dream signified, Gen. 41, 8. II. to BEHOLD, see, look on; observare, aspicere, videre :-- Beheald ða tunglu behold the stars, Bt. 39,13; Fox 232, 25. Loth ðá beheóld geond eall, and geseah elevatis itaque Lot oculis, vidit, Gen. 13, 10.

be-heáwan, bi-heáwan; p. -heów; pp. -heáwen To beat, bruise, hew or cut off, to separate from, deprive of; tundere, cædendo privare, amputare :-- Beheáwene mid swingellan tunsi per flagella, Past. 36, 5; Hat. MS. 47 b, 15. Heáfde beheáwan to behead, Bt. Met. Fox 1, 85; Met. 1, 43. Hwonne me wráþra sum aldre beheówe when some enemy might deprive me of life, Cd. 128; Th. 163, 21; Gen. 2701.

be-hédan; p. -hédde; pp. -héded To watch, heed, guard; cavere, curare, Leo 178. v. hédan.

be-héfe, es; m : be-héfnes, -ness, e; f. [be-hófen] Gain, advantage, benefit, BEHOOF; lucrum. v. be-hófian to have need of.

be-héfe; adj. Necessary, behoveful; necessarius :-- Ðe behéfe synd qui necessarai sunt, Lk. Bos. 14, 28. Behéfe þing necessary things, necessaries, C. R. Ben. 46. DER. efn-behéfe.

be-hegian; p. ede; pp. ed To BEHEDGE, hedge around; circumsepire. v. hegian.

be-helan, bi-helan; p. -hæl, pl. -hǽlon; pp. -holen To conceal, hill or cover over, hide; occultare, Beo. Th. 833; B. 414 : Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 25, note. v. helan, be-helian.

be-held availed, Chr. 1123; Th. 374, 23. v. be-healdan.

be-heldan [= be-healdan?] To attend, intend; attendere, intendere :-- Wesan ðíne eáran gehýrende and beheldende fiant aures tuæ intendentes, Ps. Th. 129, 2.

be-helian, bi-helian; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed; v. trans. [be, helian to cover] To cover, cover over, conceal, obscure, hide; condere, sepelire :-- Wurdon behelede ealle ða dúna operti sunt omnes montes, Gen. 7, 19. Se heofen mót ðæt leóht behelian the heaven may obscure the light, Bt. 7, 3; Fox 20, 21 : Elen. Kmbl. 858; El. 429.

be-helman; p. ede; pp. ed To cover over, to cover; cooperire :-- Heolstre behelmed covered with darkness, Salm. Kmbl. 209; Sal. 104. v. bi-helmian.

Behémas, pl. m : Béme, nom. acc; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The Bohemians; Bohēmi :-- Hí Maroaro habbaþ, be westan him Þyringas, and Behémas, and Bægware healfe they, the Moravians, have, on their west, the Thuringians, Bohemians, and part of the Bavarians, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 42.

be-héng, pl. -héngon hung round; p. of be-hón.

be-heófian; p. ode; pp. od To bewail, lament; lugere, lamentari :-- Heora mǽdena ne synt beheófode virgines eorum non sunt lamentatæ, Ps. Lamb. 77, 63. v. heófian.

be-heóld beheld, Gen. 13, 10; p. of be-healdan.

be-heonan, -heonon; adv. [be by, heonan hence] On this side, close by; cis, citra :-- Get beheonon yet nearer; citerius, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 4 : Cot. 33.

be-heopian; p. ode; pp. od To hew or cut off; amputare, Cd. 125; Th. 160, 2, note a; Gen. 2644, = be-heáwan? q. v.

be-heówe might deprive, Cd. 128; Th. 163, 21; Gen. 2701. v. be-heáwan.

be-hét promised, Deut. 5, 2; p. of be-hátan.

be-hicgan to confide, trust, rely, depend upon; acquiescere, niti, inniti :-- Ðe on Gode behicgaþ qui in Deo acquiescunt, R. Ben. 31. DER. hicgan.

be-hídan; p. -hídde To hide; abscondere :-- Forðamðe ic eom nacod, ic behídde me quod nudus essem, abscondi me, Gen. 3, 10, 8. v. be-hýdan.

be-hidiglíce carefully, Bd. 3, 19; S. 547, 29. v. be-hydelíce.

be-hilt beholds; respicit, R. Ben. 8; pres. of be-healdan.

be-hindan; prep. dat. Behind; post, pone :-- He lét him behindan ciólas he left ships behind him, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 45; Met. 26, 23. Ligeþ him behindan hefig hrusan dǽl behind it lies the heavy mass of earth, 29, 106; Met. 29, 52. Ne ðé behindan nú lǽt mænige ðus micle now leave not behind thee such a multitude of people, Exon. 10 a; Th. 10, 19; Cri. 155.

be-hindan; adv. Behind, back; a tergo, pone, post :-- Ac behindan beleác mid wǽge but inclosed them behind with the wave, Cd. 166; Th. 206, 24; Exod.456. Ðú ðone héhstan heofen behindan lǽtst thou shalt leave the highest heaven behind, Bt. Met. Fox 24, 58; Met. 24, 29.

be-hionan on this side, Past. pref. v. be-heonan.

be-híring a hiring, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 123. v. be-hýring.

be-hlád covered, Ors. 3, 3; Bos. 56, 6; p. of be-hlídan.

be-hlǽman to overwhelm with noise; strepitu obruere. v. bi-hlǽman.

be-hlǽnan to beset by leaning anything against another; acclinando circumdare. v. bi-hlǽnan.

be-hlæstan to load a ship; navem onerare. v. be, hlæstan.

be-hleápan; p. -hleóp, pl. -hleópon; pp. -hleápen To leap upon or in, to fix; insilire :-- Ðæs monnes mód and his lufu biþ behleápen on ða lǽnan sibbe the man's mind and his love are fixed on the fragile peace, Past. 46, 5; Hat. MS. 67 a, 9.

be-hlehhen, bi-hlyhhan; p. -hlóh, pl. -hlógon; pp. -hlahen, -hleahen To laugh at, deride; ridere aliquid, exultare de aliqua re :-- Ic ne þearf behlehhan I need not deride, Exon. 52 b; Th. 183, 22; Gú. 1331. DER. hlehhan.

be-hlemman to dash together; collidere cum strepitu. v. bi-hlemman.

be-hlídan; p. -hlád, pl. -hlidon; pp. -hliden [hlídan to cover] To cover over, to cover, close; tegere, claudere :-- Híg awylton ðone stán, and ðone pytt eft behlidon thei schulden turne awei the stoon, and thei schulden put. it eft on the pit, Wyc; Gen. 29, 3. Seó eorþe siððan togædere behlád the earth then closed together, Ors. 3, 3; Bos. 56, 6.

be-hlidenen = be-lidenan the left or departed, the dead; mortuos, Andr. Kmbl. 2179; An. 1091; acc. pl. pp. from be-líðan, q. v.

be-hlígan, he -hlíþ To dishonour, defame; infamare :-- Oft hí mon wómmum behlíþ man often defames her with vices, Exon. 90 b; Th. 339, 29; Gn. Ex. 101.

be-hlýðan; p. de; pp. ed To deprive; privare, spoliare :-- Ic sceal heáfodleás behlýðed licgan I must lie deprived of head, Exon. 104 a; Th. 395, 20; Rä. 15, 10.

be-hófen supplied, provided; ornatus :-- Ðætt ealle Godes cyricean sýn wel behófene that all God's churches be well supplied or well provided [with all they have need of], L. Edm. E. 5; Lambd. 58, 7; Wilk. 73, 13. v. be-hweorfan.

be-hófian, bi-hófian; p. ode; pp. od; v. a. To have need of, to need, require; egere, indigere. Impersonally, it BEHOVETH, it concerns, it is needful or necessary; oportet, interest :-- Mycel wund behófaþ mycles lǽcedómes a great wound has need of a great remedy, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 40. He mægenes behófaþ gódra gúþrinca he requires strength of good warriors, Beo. Th. 5288; B. 2647 : Exon. 98 a; Th. 367, 1; Seel. 1. Ðeáh ða scearpþanclan witan ðisse Engliscan geþeódnesse ne behófien though the sharp-minded wise men may not have need of this English translation, MS. Cot. Faust A. x. 150 b; Lchdm. iii. 440, 32. Behófaþ oportet, Jn. Lind. War. 3, 7. DER. a-behófian.

be-hóf-líc; adj. Behoveful, needful; necessarius :-- Ðæt his líf him behóflíc wǽre quia necessaria sibi esset vita ipsius, Bd. 5, 5; S. 618, note 3. Behóflíc is is necessary, Mk. Skt. Lind. 11, 3.

be-hogadnes, -ness, e; f. Use, custom, practice; exercitatio, Cot. 114.

be-hogian to be anxious, solicitous, wise, very careful; solicitum esse, C. R. Ben. 58. v. hogian, hycgan.

be-hón; p. -héng, pl. -héngon; pp. -hangen, -hongen [be, hón to hang] To BEHANG, to hang round; circumpendere, circumdare, ambire :-- Behongen beón mid bellum to be behung or hung round with bells, Past. 15, 4; Hat. MS. 19 b, 7.

be-hongen hung round, Past. 15, 4; Hat. MS. 19 b, 7; pp. of be-hón.

be-horsian; p. ode, ade, ude; pp. od, ad, ud To deprive of a horse; equo privare :-- Ðá eode se here to hyra scipum ... and hí wurdon ðǽr behorsode then the army went to their ships ... and they were there deprived of their horses, Chr. 886; Th. 152, 28, col. 3. DER. horsian.

be-hreósan, pl. -hreósaþ; p. -hreás, pl. -hruron; pp. -hroren To rush down, fall; ruere, corruere, incidere :-- Behreósaþ on helle incidunt in gehennam, Lupi Serm. 5, 8.

be-hreówsian; part. -hreówsigende; ic -hreówsige, ðú -hreówsast, he -hreówsaþ, pl. -hreáwsiaþ; p. ode; pp. od To repent, feel remorse, make amends or reparation; pœnitere,compungi, satisfacere :-- Behreówsian pœnitere, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 22. Behreówsiaþ compungimini, Ps. Lamb. 4, 5. Ic behreówsige satisfacio, Ælfc. Gr. 37; Som. 39, 40. Behreówsigende pœnitens, Scint. 9. DER. hreówan, hreów.

be-hreówsung, e; f. A lamenting, repentance, penitence; pœnitentia :-- Behreówsung oððe dǽdbót pœnitentia, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 22.

be-hríman; p. de; pp. ed [hrím rime, hoar-frost] To cover with rime or hoar-frost; pruinis circumfundere, Exon. 115 b; Th. 444, 17; Kl. 48.

be-hringed, be-hrincged; part. [be, hring a ring] Inclosed in a ring, encircled, surrounded; circumdatus :-- Behringed beón to be surrounded, Past. 21, 5; Hat. MS. 32 a, 8.

be-hrópan; p. -hreóp, pl. -hreópon; pp. -hrópen [hrópan to call or cry out] To scoff at, rail, trouble; sugillare :-- Ðe-læs heó cume me behrópende ne veniens sugillet me, Lk. Bos. 18, 5.

be-hroren; p. part. Fallen off, deprived of; a quo aliquid decidit, orbatus :-- Fatu hyrstum behrorene vessels deprived of their ornaments, Beo. Th. 5517; B. 2762; pp. of be-hreósan, q. v.

be-hrúmig; adj. Swarthy, sooty; fuliginosus, Martyr. 3, April. v. hrúmig.

be-hrumod; p. part. Bedaubed, dirtied; cacabatum, Cot. 31 : 189. v. besciten.

béhþ, e; f. A token, sign, proof; signum, testimonium :-- Heó hét hyre þínenne ðæs herewǽðan heáfod to béhþe blódig ætýwan ðám burhleódum she ordered, her servant to shew the bloody head of the leader of the army to the citizens as a token, Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 6; Jud. 174.

be-hwearf, es; m. A change, an exchange; commutatio :-- On be-hwearfum heora in commutationibus eorum, Ps. Spl. 43. 14.

be-hweorfan; p. -hwearf, pl. -hwurfon; pp. -hworfen, -hweorfen. I. to turn, spread about; vertere, convertere :-- Hleahtre behworfen turned to laughter, Andr. Recd. 3402; An. 1705. Híg behwurfon híg búton ðære wícstówe they spread them about outside of the camp, Num. 11, 32. II. to turn or put in order, arrange; disponere, parare :-- Ðæt ealle Godes cyrcan sýn wel behworfene [behweorfene, H.] that all God's churches be well put in order, L. Edm. E. 5; Th. i. 246, 12. Ðæt ǽlc preost hæbbe eal mæsse-reáf wurþlíce behworfen that every priest have all his mass-vestments worthily arranged, L. Edg. C. 33; Th. ii. 250, 28. DER. hweorfan.

be-hwerfan; p. de; pp. ed [be, hwerfan to turn] To turn, prepare, instruct; vertere, instruere :-- Ðonne hió ǽrest síe útan behwerfed when it is first turned round about, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 154; Met. 13, 77. Ic wolde mid sumre bísne ðé behwerfan útan I would instruct thee further [útan from without] by some example, Bt. 34, 4; Fox 138, 27.

be-hwon whence; unde, Bd. 2, 2; S. 503, 2. v. hwonan.

be-hwurfon spread about, Num. 11, 32; p. pl. of be-hweorfan.

be-hwylfan; p. -hwylfde; pp. -hwylfed To cover or vault over; operire, obruere :-- Ne behwylfan mæg heofon and eorþe his wuldres word the word of his glory may not cover over heaven and earth, Cd. 163; Th. 204, 28; Exod. 426. v. hwylfan.

be-hwyrfan to treat, direct, exercise, practice; tractare, exercere :-- Behwyrf ðé sylfne exerce temet ipsum, Coll. Monast. Th. 31, 37 : R. Ben. 32. v. be-hweorfan.

be-hycgan, -hicgan to think, consider, bear in mind, trust; meditari, considerare, sollicitum esse de re, confidere, niti :-- He sceal deópe behycgan þroht þeóden-gedál he must deeply bear in mind the dire decease of his lord, Exon. 52 b; Th. 183, 7; Gú. 1323. Ðe on Gode behicgaþ qui in Deo acquiescunt, R. Ben. 31. v. hycgan.

be-hýdan, bi-hýdan; p. -hýdde; pp. -hýded, -hýdd, -hýd To hide, conceal, cover; abscondere, occultare, operire :-- Se ðe hine behýdde fram hǽton his qui se abscondit a calore ejus, Ps. Spl. 18, 7 : Salm. Kmbl. 604; Sal. 301. Ðæt wæs lange behýded which was long concealed, Elen. Kmbl. 1582; El. 793. Heolstre behýded covered with darkness, Elen. Kmbl. 2161; El. 1082. Behýdd absconditum, Mk. Bos. 4, 22.

be-hydelíce, -hidiglíce, big-hydilíce, big-hidiglíce; adv. Carefully; sollicite, sollerter, Bd. 1, 27; S. 489, 39 : 3. 19; S. 547, 29 : 4, 23: S. 595. 4.

be-hydig, bí-hidig; adj. Careful, vigilant, wary, watchful, solicitous, anxious; sollers :-- He wæs se behydegesta [MS. behydegæsta] erat sollertissimus, Bd. 5, 20; S. 642. 13 : 4, 7; S. 574. 33. v. hydig.

be-hýdignys, -nyss, e; f. [be, hýdan to hide] A desert, a wilderness; desertum :-- Stefn Drihtnes tosceacende behýdignys vox Domini concutientis desertum, Ps. Spl. C. 28, 7.

be-hyldan to put off to flay, skin; excoriare :-- He hét hý behyldan he ordered to flay it, Ors. 4, 6; Bos. 84, 45.

be-hýpan; p. -hýpte; pp. -hýped [hýpe a heap] To heap or cover over, surround, encompass; contegere, circumsepire, circumdare :-- He wæs mid wǽpnum and mid feóndum eall útan behýped cum armis et hostibus circumseptus erat, Bd. 3, 12; S. 537, 28.

be-hýring, -híring, e; f. A hiring, letting out to hire; locatio :-- Behíring vel gehýred feoh locatio, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 123; Wrt. Voc. 20, 60. v. ge-hýran.

be-hyðelíce; adv. More sumptuously; sumptuosius, Cot. 186.

be-hyðlíc sumptuous. v. hyðelíc.

beig-beám, es; m. A bramble; rubus :-- Moyses ætýwde wið ǽnne beigbeám Moyses ostendit secus rubum, Lk. Bos. 20, 37. v. begbeám.

be-innan; prep. dat. In, within; in, intra :-- Boétius ðá nánre frófre beinnan ðam carcerne ne gemunde then Boethius thought of no comfort within the prison, Bt. 1; Fox 4, 2.

be-irnan; impert. be-irn; p. -am, pl. -urnon; pp. -urnen To come or run into; incurrere :-- Ne be-irn ðú on ða inwitgecyndo do not run into their guilty nature, Salm. Kmbl. 660; Sal. 329. v. be-yrnan.

be-iundan beyond; trans, ultra :-- Beiundan Iordane trans Iordanem, Deut. 1, 5 : 11, 30. v. be-geondan.

be-lácan; p. -léc, -leólc, pl. -lécon; pp. -lácen To flow around, inclose; circumfluere :-- Ýþ mec lagufæðme beleólc the wave inclosed me in its watery bosom, Exon. 122 b; Th. 471, 26; Rä. 61, 7.

be-ládian, ic -ládige; p. ode; pp. od To clear, excuse; excusare :-- Ðæt he wolde beládian his módor that he might clear his mother, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 65, 24 : Ælfc. Gr. 28, 6; Som. 32, 35. v. ládian.

be-ládigend, es; m. One who makes excuses, a defender; excusator, Ælfc. Gl. 23; Wrt. Voc. 83, 64.

be-ládung, e; f. An excuse; apologeticus, excusatio :-- Beládung apologeticus, Ælfc. Gl. 106; Som. 78, 65; Wrt. Voc. 57, 44. v. ládung.

be-lǽdan; p. -lǽdde; pp. -lǽd, -léd; v. a. To bring, lead by, mislead, lead; seducere, inferre, inducere, impellere :-- Ðú belǽddest us on grin thou hast mislead us into a snare; induxisti nos in laqueum, R. Ben. 7. Belǽd beón mid unþeáwum impelli vitiis, R. Ben. 64. v. lǽdan.

be-lǽfan; p. de; pp. ed To remain, to be left; remanere, superesse :-- Án of him ne belǽfde unus ex eis non remansit, Ps. Spl. C. 105, 11. v. lǽfan.

be-læg surrounded, Ps. Th. 118, 153; p. of be-licgan.

be-lændan to deprive of land, Chr. 1112; Th. 369, 39. v. be-landian.

be-lǽðed; part. [láþ evil] Loathed, detested; exosus. v. láðian.

be-lǽwa, an; m. A destroyer; proditor, traditor. v. lǽwa.

be-lǽwan; p. -lǽwde; pp. -lǽwed; v. a. To bewray, betray; tradere, prodere :-- Ðæt he hyne wolde belǽwan ut traderet eum, Mt. Bos. 26, 15, 16. Heó hine belǽwde she betrayed him, Jud. 16, 21. Ðæt Iohannes belǽwed wæs quod Ioannes traditus esset, Mt. Bos. 4, 12.

be-lǽwing, e; f. A betraying, treason; proditio, Homl. Th. ii. 244, 22. v. be-lǽwan, lǽwa a betrayer.

be-láf remained, Jos. 5, 1; p. of belífan.

be-lagen beón to be oppressed; opprimi, Past. 58, 1; Hat. MS.

be-lamp happened, befell, Beo. Th. 4928; B. 2468; p. of belimpan.

be-landian; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed; v. a. To deprive of land, to confiscate, disinherit; terris privare :-- Wearþ Eádgár belandod Edgar was deprived of land, Chr. 1091; Th. 359. 5. Hí hí ǽr belandedon they had deprived them previously of their lands, 1094; Th. 361, 12. v. belendian. Opposed to gelandian to inherit.

belced-sweora; adj. Possessed of an inflated neck; inflata cervice præditus :-- Ic eom belced-sweora I am neck-inflated, Exon. 127 b; Th. 489, 24; Rä. 79, 1.

belcentan to utter, give forth, belch, eructate; eructare :-- Se lǽcecræft biþ swíðe swéte belcentan the medicine is very sweet to eructate, Bt. 22, 1, Bodl; Fox 76, note 17. v. belcettan.

belcettan; p. te; pp. ted To utter, give forth; eructare :-- Nú míne weleras ðé wordum belcettaþ ymnas elne eructabunt labia mea hymnum, Ps. Th. 118, 171. v. bealcettan.

beld, beldo boldness, rashness; audacia. v. byld, byldo.

be-leác shut in, Ors. 4, 5; Bos. 81, 40; p. of belúcan.

be-leán; p. -lóh, pl. -lógon; pp. -leahen To hinder by blame, reprehend, reprove, forbid; prohibere, reprobare, reprehendere :-- We lǽraþ ðæt preostas oferdruncen beleán óðrum mannum we enjoin that priests reprehend drunkenness in other men, L. Edg. C. 57; Th. ii. 256, 14. He him ðæt swýðe belóh hoc multum illi prohibuit, Bd. 5, 19; S. 638, 28, note : Beo. Th. 1027; B. 511. v. leán.

be-lecgan, bi-lecgan; p. -legde, -léde, pl. -legdon; pp. -legd, -léd; v. a. To lay or impose upon, cover, invest, load, afflict, charge, accuse; imponere, afficere, onerare, accusare :-- Heó ðone hleóðor-cwyde husce belegde she covered the revelation with scorn, Cd. 109; Th. 143, 21; Gen. 2382. Papirius wæs mid Rómánum swylces dómes beléd Papirius was invested with such authority by the Romans, Ors. 3, 8; Bos. 63, 40. We hine clommum belegdon we loaded him with chains, Andr. Kmbl. 3119; An. 1562. Hí ðé wítum belecgaþ they afflict thee with torments, 2424; An. 1213. Gyf man sacerd belecge mid tyhtlan and mid uncræftum if one charges a priest with an accusation and with evil practices, L. C. E. 5; Th. i. 362, 8, 19, 21. Se ðe hine belecge he who accuses him, L. O. D. 6; Th. i. 354, 30 : 4; Th. i. 354, 15.

be-léd impelled, R. Ben. 64; pp. of belǽdan.

be-léd = be-legd charged, accused, L. O. D. 4; Th. i. 354, 15; pp. of be-lecgan.

be-légan, bi-légan; p. -légde; pp. -légd To surround with flame; circumflagrare flamma :-- Líge belégde surrounded with flame [Ger. umlodert mit lohe], Cd. 188; Th. 234, 22; Dan. 296. v. légan.

be-legde covered, Cd. 109; Th. 143, 21; Gen. 2382; p. of be-lecgan.

be-lendan, be-lændan; p. de; pp. ed To deprive of land; terris privare :-- Se cyng belænde ðone eorl the king deprived the earl of his land, Chr. 1112; Th. 369, 39, 41 : 1104; Th. 367, 11. Wearþ Eoda eorl and manege óðre belende earl Eudes and many others were deprived of their lands, 1096; Th. 362, 36. v. be-landian.

belene, beolone, belone, an; f. Henbell, henbane; hyoscyamus niger :-- Belenan meng wið rysele mix henbane with lard, L. M. 1, 31; Lchdm. ii. 72, 1. Dó belenan seáw apply the juice of henbane, 3, 3; Lchdm. ii. 310, 7. Genim beolonan sǽd take the seed of henbane, 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 38, 1. v. beolone, henne-belle. [Henbane is so called from the baneful effects of its seed upon poultry, of which Matthioli says that 'birds, especially gallinaceous birds, that have eaten the seeds perish soon after, as do fishes also.' The A. Sax. belene and beolone, Ger. bilse, O. Ger. belisa, Pol. bielún, Hung. belénd, Rus. belená are words derived (according to Zeuss, p. 34) from an ancient Celtic god Belenus, corresponding to the Apollo of the Latins : 'Dem Belenus war das Bilsenkraut heilig, das von ihm Belisa and Apollinaris hiess,' Prior 109.]

be-leógan; p. -leág, pl. -lugon; pp. -logen To belie, deceive by lies; fallere :-- Belogen beón falli, Gr. Dial. 1, 14. DER. leógan.

be-leólc flowed around, inclosed, Exon. 122 b; Th. 471, 26; Rä. 61, 7; the reduplicated p. of be-lácan, v. lácan, and Goth. cognates at the end of lácan.

be-leóran to pass over. v. bi-leóran.

be-leósan, bi-leósan; p. -leás, pl. -luron; pp. -loren [be, leósan to loose] To let go, to deprive of, to be deprived of, lose; privare, orbare, privari, amittere :-- Leóhte belorene deprived of light, Cd. 5; Th. 6, 9; Gen. 86 : Beo. Th. 2150; B. 1073 : Andr. Kmbl. 2159; An. 1081. Ðǽr is swíðe beleás hérum, ðám ðe ic hæfde there I was much deprived of the hairs, which I had, Exon. 107 a; Th. 407, 35; Rä. 27, 4. v. for-leósan.

be-léwa, an; m. A betrayer; proditor. v. be-léweda, lǽwa.

be-léweda, an; m. A betrayer; proditor :-- Mid Iudan úres Drihtenes beléwedan with Judas the betrayer of our Lord, Wanl. Catal. 137, 38. col. 1. v. beléwa, belǽwa.

bele-wite simple; simplex :-- Se wer wæs swíðe belewite and rihtwís erat vir ille simplex et rectus, Job 1, 1; Thw. 164, 2. v. bile-wit.

bel-flýs, es; n. [bell a bell, flýs a fleece] The BELL-WETHER'S FLEECE, the fleece of a sheep that carries the bell; tympani vellus, i. e. ducis gregis tintinnabulum gestantis vellus :-- Bel-flýs id est, tympani vellus, L. R. S. 14; Th. i. 438, 23.

BELG, belig, bylg, bylig, bilig, bælg, bælig, es; m. A BULGE, budget, bag, purse, bellows, pod, husk, BELLY; bulga, follis, siliqua, uter :-- Bylg bulga, Cot. 27. Bylig follis, Ælfc. Gl. 27; Wrt. Voc. 86, 15. Bilig uter, Ps. Spl. M. 118, 83. [Dut. balg, m : Ger. balg, m : M. H. Ger. balc, m : O. H. Ger. balg, m. follis, uter : Goth. balgs, m : Dan. bælg, m : O. Nrs. belgr, m.] DER. beán-belg, -bælg, blást-, mete-, wín-. v. ge-belg.

BELGAN, ic belge, ðu bilgst, bilhst, he bilgþ, bilhþ, bylgþ, pl. belgaþ; p. ic, he bealg, bealh, ðú bulge, pl. bulgon; pp. bolgen. I. v. reflex. acc. To cause oneself to swell with anger, to make oneself angry, irritate oneself, enrage oneself; ira se tumefacere, se irritare, se exasperare :-- Nelle ðú on écnesse ðé áwa belgan non in æternum indignaberis, Ps. Th. 102, 9. Ic bidde ðæt ðú ðé ne belge wið me ne, quæso, indigneris, Gen. 18, 30. Bealg hine swíðe folc-ágende the people's lord irritated himself greatly, Exon. 68 a; Th. 253, 25; Jul. 185. II. intrans. To swell with anger, to be angry, to be enraged; ira tumere, indignari, irasci :-- Ge belgaþ wið me mihi indignamini, Jn. Bos. 7, 23. [O. Sax. belgan, v. reflex; p. balg; pp. bolgan irasci, indignari : N. H. Ger. balgen pugnis certare : O. H. Ger. belgan tumere, irasci.] DER. a-belgan, ge-, bolgen-mód.

bel-hringes beácn, es; n. A sign by bell-ringing; signum sonitu campanæ datum, R. Ben. 43.

bel-hús, bell-hús, es; n. A BELL-HOUSE, a room or tower in the castle of a Thane, generally built between the kitchen and porter's lodge, where was a bell or bells to summon the inhabitants to prayers, and for other purposes; campanile vel campanarium, turris in qua pendent tintinnabulum vel tintinnabula, Du Cange, fol. 1681, col. 712; CAMPANA, col. 708 :-- Gif ceorl hæfde fíf hída ágenes landes cirican and cycenan, bell-hús ... ðonne wæs he þegen-rihtes weorþe if a freeman had five hides of his own land, a church and kitchen, a bell-house ... then was he worthy of thane-right, L. R. 2; Th. i. 190, 15.

be-libban; p. -lifde, pl. -lifdon; pp. -lifed, -lifd To deprive of life; vita privare :-- Líc cólode belifd under lyfte the corpse was lifeless cold in the air, Exon. 51 b; Th. 180, 19; Gú. 1282. v. libban.

be-licgan, he -ligeþ, -líþ, pl. -licgaþ; p. -læg, pl. -lǽgon, -lágon; pp. -legen; v. a. [be by, licgan to lie] To lie or extend by or about, to surround, encompass; circumdare, cingere :-- Hí belicgaþ us mid fyrde circumdabunt nos exercitu, Jos. 7, 9. Sió eá Etheopia land beligeþ úton the river encompasseth the Ethiopian land, Cd. 12; Th. 15, 7; Gen. 229. Me néd belæg want surrounded me, Ps. Th. 118, 153.

be-lidenes of the left or departed, Elen. Kmbl. 1752; El. 878; gen. pp. from be-líðan, q. v.

be-lífan, ic -lífe, ðú -lífest, -lífst, he -lífeþ, -lífþ; p. -láf, pl. -lifon; pp. -lifen To remain, abide, to be left; superesse, manere, remanere :-- Ne se rysel ne belífþ óþ morgen nec remanebit adeps usque mane, Ex. 23, 18. He ána beláf ðǽr bæfta mansit solus, Gen. 32, 24 : Ps. Spl. 105, 11. Hí námon ðæt of ðám brytsenum beláf, seofon wilian fulle sustulerunt quod superaverat de fragmentis, septem sportas, Mk. Bos. 8, 8. [Plat; bliven; p. bléf : Dut. blijven; p. bleef : Ger. bleiben; p. blieb : M. H. Ger. belíben; p. be-leip : O. H. Ger. pi-lípan; p. pi-leip : Dan. blive; p. blev : Swed. blifva, bli; p. blef, ble : in O. Nrs. the word is wanting, as well as in Goth.] v. lífan.

be-lifd = -lifed deprived of life, lifeless, inanimate; defunctus, Exon. 51 b; Th. 180,19; Gú. 1282; pp. of be-libban.

belig a bag. v. belg.

be-ligeþ encompasseth, Cd. 12; Th. 15, 7; Gen. 229. v. be-licgan.

be-limp an event; eventus, Lchdm. iii. 202, 28. v. gelimp.

be-limpan; p. -lamp, pl. -lumpon; sub. -lumpe; pp. -lumpen [be, limpan to appertain] To concern, regard, belong, pertain, appertain; curare, pertinere :-- Ne belimpþ to ðé non ad to pertinet, Mk. Bos. 4, 38. Hwæt ðæs to him belumpe what of that concerned him? Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 39. Hwæt belimpþ his to ðé what of it belongs to thee? Bt. 14, 2; Fox 42, 35. Hit belimpþ to ðære spræce it appertains to the discourse, Bt. 38, 2; Fox 198, 19. II. to happen, occur, befall; evenire, accidere, contingere :-- Ðá him sió sár belamp when that pain befell him, Beo. Th. 4928; B. 2468.

be-lisnian, -listnian; p. ode; pp. od; v. trans. [be from, lystan to desire] To evirate, emasculate, castrate; castrare. Part. p. belisnod, belistnod emasculated :-- Belisnod spadatus, eunuchizatus, Ælfc. Gl. 2; Som. 55, 53; Wrt. Voc. 16, 26. Used as a noun, - A eunuch :-- Belisnod spado, eunuchus, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 3; Som. 8, 32. Sóþlíce synd belistnode, ðe of hyra módor innoðum cumaþ, and eft synt belistnode ða men ðe man belistnaþ, and eft synd belistnode ðe híg sylfe belismodon for heofona ríce sunt enim eunuchi, qui de matris utero sic nati sunt, et sunt eunuchi, qui facti sunt ab hominibus, et sunt eunuchi, qui se ipsos castraverunt propter regnum cœlorum, Mt. Bos. 19, 12. v. a-fýran.

be-lisnod, -listnod a eunuch, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 3; Som. 8, 32 : Ælfc. Gl. 2; Som. 55, 53. v be-lisnian.

be-líþ surrounds, Cd. 12; Th. 15, 13; Gen. 232. v. be-licgan.

be-líðan; p. -láþ, pl. -liðon = -lidon; pp. -liðen = -liden [be from, líðan to go, sail] To go from, to leave; effugere, relinquere :-- Lífe belidenes líc the body of the left by life, i. e. the body of the lifeless, Elen. Kmbl. 1752; El. 878 : Exon. 52 a; Th. 182, 18, note; Gú. 1312 : Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 26; Jud. 280. Ða belidenan [MS. behlidenan] the dead; mortuos, Andr. Kmbl. 2179; An. 1091.

BELL,e; f : belle, an : f. A BELL; campana, tintinnabulum, cymbalum :-- Cyrice bell the church-bell. Hleóðor heora bellan a sound of their bell, Bd. 4, 23; S. 595, note 40. Belle tintinnabulum, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 39. Hériaþ hine on bellum laudate eum in cymbalis, Ps. Lamb. 150, 5. Seó lytle belle the little bell. Seó mycele belle the large bell; campana, Lye. [Plat. Dut. belle, bel.] v, bellan.

bell a bellowing, roar, cry? Cd. 148; Th. 185, 12; Exod. 121. v. bǽl-egesa.

BELLAN; part. bellende; ic belle, ðú bilst, he bilþ, pl. bellaþ; p. ic, he beal, ðú bulle, pl. bullon; pp. bollen To BELLOW, to make a hollow noise, to roar, bark, grunt; boare, latrare, grunnire :-- Bearg bellende a roaring [grunting] boar, Exon. 111 b; Th. 428, 10; Rä. 41, 106. [Ger. bellen : Swed. böla : O. Nrs. belja.]

belle, an; f. A bell; tintinnabulum :-- Hleóðor heora bellan a sound of their bell, Bd. 4. 23; S. 595, note 40 : Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 39. v. bell.

bell-hús a bell-house, L. R. 2; Th. i. 190, 15. v. belhús.

be-locen shut up, inclosed, Cd. 209; Th. 259; 24; Dan. 696; pp. of be-lúcan.

be-logen deceived, Gr. Dial. 1, 14. v. be-leógan.

be-lóh forbade, Bd. 5, 19; S. 638, 28, note. v. be-leán.

belone, an; f. Henbane :-- Henne-belone, óðrum naman belone henbane, by another name bane, Herb. 5, 1; Lchdm. i. 94, 5, note 9. v. hennebelle, belene.

be-loren deprived, Cd. 5; Th. 6, 9; Gen. 86; pp, of be-leósan.

BELT, es; m. A BELT, girdle; balteus, Cot. 25. [O. H. Ger. palz, balz, m ? a girdle : Ger. Belt, m. name of the narrow straits between the Danish isles : Dan. belte a belt : Swed. bälte, id : O. Nrs. belti, n. id : Lat. balteus.] v. gyrdel.

be-lúcan, he -lýcþ; p. -leác, pl. -lucon; pp. -locen; v. trans. [be, lúcan to lock] To lock up, inclose, surround, shut, shut up; concludere, recludere, includere, circumcludere, amplecti, obserare, claudere :-- Drihten hí beleác Dominus conclusit eos, Deut. 32, 30. Gif he ðone oxan belúcan nolde si non recluserit bovem, Ex. 21, 29. Ðá hét he hine gebringan on carcerne and ðǽr inne belúcan he gave an order to take him to prison and therein lock him up, Bt. 1; Fox 2, 26 : Ors. 4, 5; Bos. 81, 40 : Gen. 41, 49 : Ps. Spl. C. T. 16, 11. Belocen leoðu-bendum locked up in limb-bonds, Andr. Kmbl. 327; An. 164. Wealle belocen inclosed with a wall, Cd. 209; Th. 259, 24; Dan. 696. Ðæt man belúce ǽlc deofulgyld-hús that one should close every idol-temple, Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 127, 36.

be-lumpe concerned; pertineret, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 39. v. be-limpan.

belune henbane, Som. Lye. v. belene.

be-lýcþ locks, Hexam. 5; Norm. 8, 27; pres. of belúcan.

be-lytegan; p. ade; pp. ad; v. a. [lyteg crafty] To allure, inveigle, seduce; procare :-- He belytegade Créce he allured Greece, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 59, 39.

be-mǽnan, bi-mǽnan; p. de; pp. ed [be, mǽnan to moan, 111. q. v.] To BEMOAN, bewail, lament, mourn; lugere, dolere, congemere :-- Ða heófungdagas wǽron ðá gefyllede, ðe híg Moisen bemǽndon completi sunt dies planctus lugentium Moysen, Deut. 34, 8.

be-mǽtan = be-mǽton measured, compared, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 60, 43; p. pl. of be-metan.

Béme; nom. acc; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The Bohemians; Bohēmi :-- Riht be eástan syndon Béme right to the east are the Bohemians, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 33. v. Behémas.

béme, an; f. A trumpet; tuba, salpinx :-- Béman bláwan to blow the trumpet, Cd. 227; Th. 302, 19; Sat. 602. Béme barbita, Cot. 27. v. býme.

be-mearn mourned, Cd. 106; Th. 139, 14; Gen. 2309. v. be-meornan.

be-meornan; p. -mearn, pl. -murnon; pp. -mornen [be, meornan to mourn] To mourn, BEMOURN, bewail, deplore; lugere :-- Ðín ferhþ bemearn thy soul mourned, Cd. 106; Th. 139, 14; Gen. 2309. Nó ic ða stunde bemearn I bemourned not the time, Exon. 130 a; Th. 499, 12; Rä. 88, 14.

bémere a trumpeter, Lye. v. býmere.

be-metan; p. -mæt, pl. -mǽton; pp. -meten; v. trans. [be, metan to measure] To measure by, compare, estimate, consider; metiri, commetiri, comparare, æstimare :-- Ðæt hý ðá æt nihstan hý sylfe to nóhte bemǽtan that they at last compared themselves to nought, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 60, 43. Ðæt hý ná siððan nánes anwealdes hý ne bemǽtan, ne nánes freódómes that afterwards they did not consider themselves [possessed] of any power, nor of any freedom, 3, 7; Bos. 62, 11. Ðæt hý heora miclan ánwealdes and longsuman hý sylfe siððan wið Alexander to náhte [ne] bemǽtan that, in respect of their great and lasting power, they estimated themselves at nothing against Alexander, 3, 9; Bos. 65, 39 : 4, 6; Bos. 86, 17.

be-míðan, bi-míðan; p. -máþ, pl. -miðon; pp. -miðen [be, míðan to hide] To hide, conceal; abscondere, occultare :-- He ne mihte hit bemíðan non potuit latere, Mk. Bos. 7, 24. Hí ne mágon heortan geþohtas fóre Waldende bemíðan they cannot conceal their heart's thoughts before the Supreme, Exon. 23 a; Th. 65, 4; Cri. 1049. He his mǽgwlite bemiðen hæfde he had concealed his shape, Andr. Kmbl. 1712; An. 858.

be-murcnian; p. ode; pp. od [be, murcnian to murmur] To murmur, murmur greatly; obmurmurare :-- Hú ungemetlíce, ge Rómware, bemurcniaþ how immoderately, O Romans, do ye murmur, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 34, 9.

be-murnan, bi-murnan; p. -murnde; pp. -murned [be, murnan to mourn] To bemoan, bewail, mourn, to care for; lugere, curare, sollicitum esse de re :-- Hwæt bemurnest ðú why bemoanest thou? Exon. 10 b; Th. 11, 26; Cri. 176. Síþ ne bemurneþ he bewails not his lot, 117 a; Th. 449, 31; Dóm. 79. Feorh ne bemurndon grǽdige gúþrincas the greedy warriors cared not for the soul, Andr. Kmbl. 308; An. 154.

be-mútian to exchange for; commutare. v. bi-mútian.

be-myldan [molde mould] To cover with mould or earth, to bury, inter, hide or put under ground; inhumare, humare, Cot. 101.

BEN, benn, e; f. [connected with bana a slayer, murderer] A wound; vulnus :-- Ne ðǽr ǽnig com blód of benne nor came there any blood from the wound, Cd. 9; Th. 12, 6; Gen. 181. Heortan benne the wounds of heart, i. e. sadness, grief, Exon. 77 a; Th. 289, 17; Wand. 49. Blátast benna the palest of wounds, Exon. 19 a; Th. 48, 13; Cri. 771. Hí feóllon bennum seóce they fell sick with wounds, Cd. 92; Th. 118, 29; Gen. 1972. With this word the MSS. often confound the pl. of bend, as in Cd. 195; Th. 243, 12; Dan. 435, where benne stands for bende : and in Andr. Recd. 2077; An. 1040 : Exon. 73 a; Th. 273, 21, note; Jul, 519, where bennum stands for bendum. v. bend. [O. H. Ger. bana, f : Goth. banya, f : Icel. ben, f.] DER. bennian, ge-.

BÉN; gen. dat. béne; acc. bén; pl. nom. béna, béne; f. A praying, prayer, petition, an entreaty, a deprecation, supplication, demand. Hence in Chaucer bone and our BOON; precatio, deprecatio, oratio, preces, postulatio :-- Ðeáh ðe ðæs cyninges béne mid hine swíðode and genge wǽren [wæren, MS. T : wære, MSS. Ca. O.] though the king's prayers were powerful and effectual with him, Bd. 3, 12; S. 537, 18 : 1, 4; S. 475, 32 : 5, 1; S. 614, 15 : 5, 21; S. 643, 6. Be ryhtes béne of praying for justice, L. In. 8; Th. i. 106, 19. Ðín bén-ys gehýred exaudita est deprecatio tua, Lk. Bos. 1, 13. Ic underféng ðíne béne suscepi preces tuas, Gen. 19, 21. Hí heom ðæra béna forwyrdnon they gave to them a denial of their requests, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 40, 34. Micelra béna dæg litania major, Martyr. 25, April. [O. Nrs. bón, f. a petitioner.]

bén, bénn summoned; p. of bannan.

béna, an; m. A petitioner, demander; rogator, supplex :-- Gehýr me helpys bénan exaudi me auxilii supplicem, Ps. Th. 101, 2. Hý béna wǽron they were demanders, or they demanded, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 73, 36. Hence béna wesan to demand, request, Beo. Th. 6272; B. 3140 : Cd. 107; Th. 142, 6; Gen. 2357.

be-nacian; p. ode; pp. od, ed [be, nacian nudare] To make naked; denudare :-- Ðú benacodest grundweall óþ hneccan denudasti fundamentum usque ad collum, Cant. Abac. Lamb. fol. 190 a; 13.

be-nǽman, be-néman; p. -nǽmde, -némde; pp. -nǽmed, -némed [be, niman to take] To deprive, take away; auferre, privare :-- He ne meahte hí ðæs landes benǽman he could not deprive them of their land, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 35 : Cd. 98; Th. 129, 32; Gen. 2152. Ealdre benǽman to deprive of life, Judth. 10; Thw. 22, 24; Jud. 76. Wuldre benémed deprived of glory, Cd. 215; Th. 272, 18; Sat. 121.

BENC, e; f. A BENCH; scamnum, abacus :-- Bugon to bence they turned to a bench, Beo. Th. 659; B. 327. On bence wæs helm a helm was on the bench, Beo. Th. 2491; B. 1243. [Plat. O. Sax. Dut. Ger. bank, f : M. H. Ger. banc, m. f : O. H. Ger. panch, f : Dan. Swed. bänk : O. Nrs. bekkr, m.] DER. ealu-benc, meodu-.

benc-sittende; part. Sitting on a bench; in scamno sedens, Judth. 10; Thw. 21, 20; Jud. 27 : Exon. 88 a; Th. 332, 1; Vy. 78.

benc-swég, es; m. A bench-noise, noise from the benches, convivial noise; clamor in scamnis ad convivium sedentium, Beo. Th. 2326; B. 1161.

benc-þel, es; pl. -þelu; n. A bench floor, a floor on which benches are put; scamnorum tabulatum, Beo. Th. 976; B. 486 : 2482; B. 1239.

bend, bænd, e; f : es; m. What ties, binds, or bends, - A band, bond, ribbon, a chaplet, crown, ornament; vinculum, ligamen, diadema :-- Ðæt benda onlýseþ that looseneth bonds, Exon. 8 b; Th. 5, 12; Cri. 68. On láþne bend in a loathsome bond, Cd. 225; Th. 298, 27; Sat. 539. Heora bendas towearp vincula eorum disrupit, Ps. Th. 106, 13 : 115, 7 : 149, 8. Ða benda sumes gehæftes vincula cujusdam captivi, Bd. 4, 22; S. 590, 28. Ðá Iohannes on bendum gehýrde Cristes weoruc Joannes cum audisset in vinculis opera Christi, Mt. Bos. 11, 2. Bend agimmed and gesmiðed diadema, Ælfc. Gl. 64; Som. 69, 12; Wrt. Voc. 40, 46. Mid golde gesiwud bend nimbus, 64; Som. 69, 13. DER. ancor-bend, fýr-, hell-, hyge-, íren-, searo-, wæl-, wíte-.

bendan; p. bende; pp. bended; v. trans. [bend a band]. I. to BEND; flectere, tendere, intendere :-- He his bogan bendeþ intendit arcum suum, Ps. Th. 57, 6. He bende his bogan arcum suum tetendit, 7, 13. II. to bind, fetter; vincire :-- Sume hí man bende some they bound, Chr. 1036; Th. 294, 6, col. 2; Ing. 208, 28; Ælf. Tod. 4. DER. ge-bendan.

bend-feorm, e; f. A feast for the reaping [binding] of corn, a harvest-feast; firma ad congregandas segetes, firma messis :-- On sumere þeóde gebyreþ bend-feorm [bén-feorm] for rípe in some one province a harvest-feast is due for reaping the corn, L. R. S. 21; Th. i. 440, 26.

béne; gen. dat. s; nom. acc. pl. of bén a prayer, q. v.

be-neah he requires, Elen. Kmbl. 1233; El. 618. v. be-nugan.

be-neced naked :-- Of hæftnede benecedes de captivitate nudati, Cant. Moys. Isrl. Lamb. 194 b, 42; pp. of be-nacian.

be-néman; p. -némde; pp. -némed To deprive; privare :-- Wuldre benémed deprived of glory, Cd. 215; Th. 272, 18; Sat. 121. v. benǽman.

be-nemnan; p. -nemde; pp. -nemed [be, nemnan to name] To affirm, declare, stipulate; asserere, stipulari :-- Áþe benemnan to declare by oath, Exon. 123 b; Th. 475, 18; Bo. 49. Fin Hengeste áþum benemde Fin declared to Hengest with oaths, Beo. Th. 2199; B. 1097 : 6131; B. 3069 : Ps. Th. 88, 3 : 94, 11 : 88, 42.

be-neótan, bi-neótan; p. -neát, pl. -nuton; pp. -noten [be, neótan to enjoy, use] To deprive of the enjoyment or use of anything; privare :-- Aldre beneótan to deprive of life, Beo. Th. 1364; B. 680. Heáfde beneótan to deprive of the head, to behead, Apstls. Recd. 92; Ap. 46 : Cd. 50; Th. 63, 32; Gen. 1041 : 89; Th. 110, 1; Gen. 1831.

be-neoðan, be-nyðan; prep. dat. [be, neoðan under] BENEATH, below, under; infra :-- Hió biþ swíðe fior hire selfre beneoðan she is very far beneath herself, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 444; Met. 20, 222. Gif se sconca biþ þyrel beneoðan cneówe if the shank be pierced beneath the knee, L. Alf. pol. 63; Th. i. 96, 16, 17 : 66; Th. i. 96, 31. Nis nán wuht benyðan [him] no creature is beneath him [beneath God's notice], Bt. 36, 5; Fox 180, 18.

Benesing-tún Bensington, Chr. 571; Th. 33, 28, col. 1. v. Bensingtún.

bén-feorm, e; f. Food required from a tenant; firma precum, L. R. S. 21; Th. i. 440, 26, for MS. bend-feorm, q. v.

ben-geat, es; pl. nom. acc. -geato; n. A wound-gate, the opening of a wound; vulneris porta :-- Bengeato burston the wound-gates burst open, Beo. Th. 2246; B. 1121.

be-niman, bi-niman; p. -nam, pl. -námon; pp. -numen [be, niman to take] To deprive, bereave; privare :-- Sceolde hine yldo beniman ellen-ðǽða age should deprive him of bold deeds, Cd. 24; Th. 31, 12; Gen. 484. He hine his ríces benam eum regno privavit, Bd. 3, 7; S. 529, 31. He us hæfþ heofonríce benumen he has bereft us of heaven's kingdom, Cd. 19; Th. 23, 20; Gen. 362.

be-niðan; adv. [be, neoðan under] Beneath, below, under; infra, subter :-- Ðú bist ǽfre bufan and ná beniðan eris semper supra et non subter : thou shalt be above only, and thou shalt not be beneath, Deut. 28, 13.

benn, e; f. A wound; vulnus, Cd. 9; Th. 12, 6; Gen. 181. v. ben.

bennian, bennegean; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad [ben a wound] To wound; vulnerare :-- Mec ísern bennade iron wounded me, Exon. 130 a; Th. 499, 7; Rä. 88, 12. Ic geseah winnende wiht wído bennegean [benne gean, Th.] I saw a block [wood] wound [lit. to wound = wounding] a striving creature, 114 a; Th. 438. 4; Rä. 57, 2. DER. ge-bennian.

be-nohte, pl. -nohton enjoyed, Andr. Kmbl. 3407; An. 1707; p. of be-nugan, q. v.

be-norþan; adv. In the north; partibus borealibus :-- Ofer eall benorþan everywhere in the north, Chr. 1088; Th. 357, 10.

be-notian; p. ode; pp. od [be, notian to use] To use, consume; uti :-- Hie hæfdan heora mete benotodne they had consumed their provisions, Chr. 894; Th. 166, 15, col. 2.

bén-ríp, e; f. The reaping of corn by request; ad preces messio. Originally the tenant came to reap corn etc. at his lord's request : in time, it grew into a custom or duty, but its old designation bén-ríp was still used :-- Eác he sceal hwíltídum geára beón on manegum weorcum to hláfordes willan, to-eácan bényrþe and bénrípe and mǽdmǽwecte etiam debet esse paratus ad multas operationes voluntaris domini sui, et ad bényrþe, id est, araturam precum, et bénrípe, id est, ad preces metere, et pratum falcare, L. R. S. 5; Th. i. 436. 3-5.

bénsian; part. ende; p. ode; pp. od [bén a prayer, sian or sigan to fall down] To fall down in prayer, to pray, entreat in prayer; supplicare, deprecari, orare :-- Ðrihten bénsian Dominum deprecari, Bd. 4, 25; S. 601, 4. He wæs bénsiende ða uplícan árfæstnesse mínra gesynta supplicans erat supernæ pietati pro sospitate mea, 5, 6; S. 619, 35 : 3, 12; S. 537, note 20.

Bensing-tún, Benesing-tún, Bænesing-tún, es; m. BENSINGTON or Benson in Oxfordshire; Bensington in agro Oxoniensi : Hér Cuðulf feówer túnas genam, Liggeanburh, and Æglesburh, and Bensingtún, and Egoneshám here, in 571, Cuthwulf took four towns, LENBURY, and AYLESBURY, and BENSON, and ENSHAM, Chr. 571; Th. 32, 29, Col. 2; 33, 28, col. 1; 32, 29, col. 1 : 777; Th. 92, 12, col. 2.

benst, he benþ summonest, summons; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of bannan.

bén-tíd, e; f. [bén a prayer, tíd time] Prayer-time, rogation-days, time for supplication; rogationum dies :-- Ðæt is heálíc dæg, bén-tíd brému that is a high day, a celebrated time for supplication, Menol. Fox 148; Men. 75.

bén-tíðe, bén-tigðe, bén-tiðige; adj. [bén a prayer; tíða, tíðe possessing, having obtained; compos]. I. having obtained a prayer, benefitted, favoured,successful; precum vel supplications compos, fortunatus :-- Hie ðǽr, Godes þances, swíðe béntíðe [béntiðige, col. 2; béntigðe, p.153, 10, cols. 1, 2] wurdon æfter ðam geháte there, God be thanked, they were very successful after that vow, Chr. 883; Th. 152, 9, col. 3. II. accepting a prayer, exorable, gracious; deprecabilis :-- Beó ðú béntýðe vel gehlystfull ofer ðíne þeówan deprecabilis esto super servos tuos, Ps. Lamb. 89, 13.

be-nugan, he be-neah, pl. be-nugon; p. be-nohte; subj. pres. benuge [Goth. binauhan, binah; pp. binauht, δεî, oportet] To need, want, require, enjoy; indigere, frui :-- Ðonne he bega beneah when he requires both, Elen. Kmbl. 1233; El. 618 : Exon. 123 b; Th. 475, 12; Bo. 46. Gif hí ðæs wuda benugon if they enjoy [have enjoyment of] the wood, Bt. 25; Fox 88, 19. Wið ðan ðe mín wíf ðǽr benuge inganges dummodo uxor mea fruatur ingressu, Hick. Thes. ii. 55, 32. And sið nó frófre benohte and never since he enjoyed comfort, Andr. Kmbl. 3407; An. 1707 : 2320; An. 1161. v. nugan.

be-numen deprived, Cd. 19; Th. 23, 20; Gen. 362; pp. of be-niman.

bén-yrþ, e; f. Ploughed land; precum aratura :-- Eác he sceal hwíltídum geára beón on manegum weorcum to hláfordes willan, to-eácan bényrþe and bénrípe and mǽdmǽwecte etiam debet esse paratus ad multas operationes voluntatis domini sui, et ad bényrþe, id est, araturam precum, et bénrípe, id est, ad preces metere, et pratum falcare, L. R. S. 5; Th. i. 436, 3-5.

be-nyðan beneath, under; infra, Bt. 36, 5; Fox 180, 18. v. be-niðan.

BEÓ; indecl. in s; pl. nom. acc. beón; gen. beóna; dat. beóum, beóm; f. A BEE; apis. The keeping of bees was an object of much care in the economy of the Anglo-Saxons. The great variety of expressions, taken from the flavour of honey, sufficiently account for the value they placed upon it. While the bee-masters [beó-ceorlas, v. beó-ceorl] enjoyed their own privileges, they had to pay an especial tax for the keeping of bees :-- Swá swá seó beó sceal losian as the bee shall perish, Bt. 31, 2; Fox 112, 26. Sió wílde beó sceal forweorþan, gif hió yrringa awuht stingeþ the wild bee shall perish, if she angrily sting anything, Bt. Met. Fox 18, 9; Met. 18, 5. Ða beón beraþ árlícne anleofan and ǽterne tægel the bees carry a delicious food and a poisonous tail, Frag. Kmbl. 34; Leás. 19. Be ðám ðe beón bewitaþ concerning those, who keep bees, L. R. S. 5; Th. i. 434, 35. Ymbtrymedon me swá swá beón circumdederunt me sicut apes, Ps. Spl. 117, 12 : Ps. Th. 117, 12. [Dut. bij, bije, f : Ger. biene, beie, f : M. H. Ger. bíe, f : O. H. Ger. pía, f : Dan. Swed. bi, n : O. Nrs. bý, n; generally bý-fluga, f. a bee fly.] DER. beó-breád, -ceorl, -gang, -þeóf, -wyrt.

beó I am or shall be; sum, ero : be thou; sis :-- Gefultuma me fæste, ðonne beó ic fægere hál adjuva me, et salvus ero, Ps. Th. 118, 117. Ic beó ero, Ælfc. Gr. 32; Som. 36, 29. Beó ðú sis : Beó he sit, 32; Som. 36, 30 : Beo. Th. 777; B. 386. v. beón.

beó-breád, bió-breád, bí-breád, es; n. I. BEE-BREAD, the pollen of flowers collected by bees and mixed with honey for the food of the larvæ; apum panis. ☞ Quite distinct from weax beeswax; cera = κηρόs : and hunig-camb honey-comb; favus :-- Ic eom swétra ðonne ðú beóbreád blénde mid hunige I am sweeter than if thou blendedst bee-bread with honey, Exon. 111 a; Th. 425, 20; Rä. 41, 59. Hí synt swétran ðonne hunig oððe beóbreád they are sweeter than honey or bee-bread, Ps. Th. 18, 9. Þynceþ bíbreád swétre; gif he ǽr bitres onbyrgeþ bee-bread seems sweeter, if he before has had a taste of bitter, Bt. Met. Fox 12,17; Met. 12, 9. Hit is hunige micle and beóbreáde betere and swétre it is better and sweeter than much honey and bee-bread, Ps. Th. 118,103. II. sometimes, from a deficient knowledge of natural history, beó-breád is used for hunig-camb honey-comb; favus :-- Swétran [MS. swetra] ofer hunig and beóbreáde dulciora super mel et favum, Ps. Lamb. 18, 11. Híg brohton him-dǽl gebrǽddes fisces, and beóbreád illi obtulerunt ei partem piscis assi, et favum mellis; oί έπέδωκαν αύτψ ίχθύos όπτoύ μέρos, καì άπò μελισσίoυ κηρίoυ and from a honey-comb, Lk. Bos. 24, 42.

beóce a beech-tree. v. béce, bócce, bóc.

beó-ceorl, beó-cere, es; m. A BEE-CEORL, bee farmer or keeper; bocherus, apum custos :-- Be ðám ðe beón bewitaþ. Beóceorle gebyreþ, gif he gafolheorde healt, ðæt he sylle ðonne lande gerǽd beó. Mid us is gerǽd ðæt he sylle v sustras huniges to gafole concerning those who keep bees. It behoves a keeper of bees, if he hold a taxable hive [stock of bees], that he then shall pay to the country what shall be agreed. With us it is agreed that he shall pay five sustras of honey for a tax; 'bochero, id est, apum custodi, pertinet, si gavelheorde, id est, gregem ad censum teneat, ut inde reddat sicut ibi mos [MS. moris] erit. In quibusdam locis est institutum, reddi v [MS. VI] mellis ad censum,' L. R. S. 5; Th. i. 434, 35-436, 2. Swá ic ǽr be beócere cwæþ sicut de custode apum dixi, L. R. S. 6; Th. i. 436, 17. [beócere = Barbarous Lat. bocherus = beó a bee, cherus = herus a master.] DER. þeów-beócere.

BEÓD, es; m. A table; mensa :-- Ðá ða gebróðru æt beóde sǽton sedentibus ad mensam fratribus, Bd. 3, 2; S. 525, 9. Ðú gearcodest befóran mínre gesihþe beód vel beódwyste vel mýsan parasti in conspectu meo mensam, Ps. Lamb. 22, 5. Beódas lances, Cot. 123. [O. Sax. biod : O. H. Ger. piot : Goth. biuds : O. Nrs. bjóðr.]

BEÓDAN, biódan; ic beóde, bióde, ðú beódest, býtst, býst, he beódeþ, být, pl. beódaþ; p. ic, he beád, ðú bude, pl. budon; pp. boden; v. trans. I. to command, BID, order; jubere, mandare :-- Ðás þing ic eów beóde hæc mando vobis, Jn. Bos. 15, 17. He beád Iosepe ðæt he bude his bróðrum dixit ad Joseph ut imperaret fratribus suis, Gen. 45, 17 : Ors. 6, 7; Bos. 119, 38 : Andr. Kmbl. 692; An. 346. II. to announce, proclaim, inspire, bode, threaten; nuntiare, annuntiare, nuntium vel mandatum deferre, prædicare, significare, inspirare, minari alicui aliquid :-- He him friþ beódeþ he announces peace to them, Exon. 27 b; Th. 82, 20; Cri. 1341. Geácas geár budon cuckoos announced the year, 43 b; Th. 146, 27; Gú. 716. Him wæs hild boden to him was war proclaimed, Elen. Kmbl. 36; El. 18. Hwæt seó rún bude what that mystery boded, Cd. 202; Th. 250, 6; Dan. 542. Geác monaþ geómran reorde, sorge beódeþ bitter in breósthord the cuckoo exhorts with mournful voice, inspires bitter sorrow to the heart, Exon. 82 a; Th. 309, 9; Seef. 54. Ðeáh him feónda hlóþ feorhcwealm bude though the band of fiends threatened death to him, 46 a; Th. 157, 6; Gú. 887 : Mk. Bos. 10, 48. III. to offer, give, grant; offerre, præbere :-- Beód him ǽrest sibbe offerres ei primum pacem, Deut. 20, 10. Hafa árna þanc ðara, ðe ðú unc bude have thanks for the kindnesses, which thou host offered us, Cd. 111; Th. 147, 7; Gen. 2435. [Plat. béden to command, offer : O. Sax. biodan to offer : O.Frs. biada id : Dut. bieden id : Ger. bieten id : M. H. Ger. biuten id : O. H. Ger. biotan id : Goth. biudan id : Dan. byde to bid, offer : Swed. bjuda id : O. Nrs. bjóða id.] DER. a-beódan, be-, bi-, for-, ge-, on-.

beódas; pl. m. Dishes, plates, scales; lances, Cot. 123. v. beód.

beód-bolla, an; m. A table-bowl, a cup, bowl; cupa, Som.

beód-cláþ, es; m. A table-cloth, carpet, hanging; gausape = γαυσάπηs, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 2; Som. 8, 28.

beódende commanding, R. Ben. 5; part. of beódan.

beódendlíc gemet the imperative mood. v. be-beódendlíc gemet.

beód-ern, es; n. [beód a table, ern a place] A refectory, a dining-room; refectorium, Ælfc. Gl. 107; Som. 78, 94; Wrt. Voc. 58, 9.

beód-fers, es; m. [beód a table, fers a verse] A song or hymn sung during meal-time; ad mensam carmen, hymnus, Dial. 1, 19.

beód-gæst, es; m. A guest at table; mensæ consors, convictor, Andr. Kmbl. 2177; An. 1090.

beód-geneát. es; m. A table-companion; mensæ socius, convictor, Beo. Th. 691; B. 343 : 3431; B. 1713.

beód-gereordu; pl. n. [beód a table, gereord a feast] A table-meal, a feast; convivium, Cd. 74; Th. 91, 27; Gen. 1518.

beód-hrægl, beód-rægl [beód a table, hrægl clothing] A table-cloth; gausape = γαυσάπηs, Ælfc. Gl. 30; Som. 61, 61; Wrt. Voc. 26, 60.

beód-sceát, es; m : beód-scýte, es; m. A table-cloth, table-napkin, hand-towel; mantile, mappa, Cot, 136.

beód-wist, beód-wyst, e; f. [beód a table, wist food] Food placed on a table, board, a table; mensa :-- Ðú gearcodest befóran mínre gesihþe beód vel beód-wyste vel mýsan parasti in conspectu meo mensam, Ps. Lamb. 22, 5.

beofer, beofor, es; m. A beaver; castor, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 13. v. befer.

Beofer-lic, Beofor-lic, es; m. [beofer, lic ? = lie, leá, leáh, q. v. Ric. A. D. 1184, Beverli : Brom. 1330, Beverlith] BEVERLEY, Yorkshire; Beverlea in agro Eboracensi :-- Hér forþférde se hálga biscop Iohannes, and his líc resteþ [MS. restad] in Beoferlic here, A. D. 721, the holy bishop John died, and his body resteth at Beverley, Chr. 721; Erl. 45, 25; Th. 73, 15, col. 2; Beoforlic, col. 1.

beofian; p. ode; pp. od To tremble, quake, be moved; tremere, contremere, commoveri :-- Beofaþ eal beorhte gesceaft all the bright creation shall tremble, Exon. 116 b Th. 448, 22; Dóm. 58. Seó eorþe beofode the earth trembled, 24 b; Th. 70, 27; Cri. 1145. Beofaþ middangeard the mid-earth shall quake, 20 b; Th. 55, 12; Cri. 882. For his ansýne sceal eorþe beofian commoveatur a facie ejus universa terra, Ps. Th. 95, 9 : 103, 30. v. bifian.

beofung, e; f. A trembling, quaking; tremor. DER. eorþ-beofung an earthquake. v. bifung.

beó-gang, es; m. A swarm of bees; examen, Cot. 15, 164.

beógol, beógul; adj. Agreeing, consenting, bending wholly to; consentiens. v. ge-býgel.

beo-háta? Cd. 156; Th. 193, 27. v, beót-háta.

beolone, an; f. Henbane; hyoscyamus niger :-- Genim beolonan sǽd take seed of henbane, L. M. 1, 6; Lchdm. ii. 50, 17 : 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 38, 1 : 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 42, 15 : 1, 63; Lchdm. ii. 136, 26 : 3, 37; Lchdm. ii. 328, 23. v. belene.

beóm am, Exon. 30 a; Th. 91, 13; Cri. 1491. v. beón.

beóm a beam, Chr. 1137; Erl. 262, 13. v. beám.

beó-móder; f. A BEE-MOTHER, queen-bee; chosdrus? vel castros? Ælfc. Gl. 22; Som. 59, 104; Wrt. Voc. 23, 61.

BEÓN [bión], to beónne; part. beónde; ic beó [beóm], ðú bist, byst, he biþ, byþ, pl. beóþ; impert. beó, pl. beóþ; subj. beó, pl. beón To BE, exist, become; esse, fieri :-- Hí ne tweódon férende beón to ðam écan lífe non dubitabant esse transituros ad vitam perpetuam, Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 38, 18. Ðe ðǽr beón noldon who would not be there, Byrht. Th. 137, 13; By. 185 : Exon. 100 a; Th. 376, 29; Seel. 162 : Cd. 24; Th. 31, 15; Gen. 485 : Mt. Bos. 19, 21 : Bt. 5, 3; Fox 12, 12 : Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 26, 48. Ic ðæs folces beó hyrde I am the people's pastor, Cd. 106; Th. 139, 24; Gen. 2314. Ic beó gearo sóna I shall be soon ready, Beo. Th. 3655; B. 1825 : Exon. 71 a; Th. 264, 17; Jul. 365 : Andr. Kmbl. 144; An. 72. Ic beó hál I shall be safe, Mt. Bos. 9, 21 : Mk. Bos. 5, 28 : Ex. 3, 12. Ðonne ic stille beóm when I am still, Exon. 102 b; Th. 387, 5; Rä. 4, 74 : 72 a; Th. 268,,26; Jul. 438 : Mt. Lind. Rush. Stv. 9, 21. Ðú ána bist eallra déma thou alone art judge of all, Hy. 8, 38; Hy. Grn. ii. 291, 38 : Bt. Met. Fox 24, 53; Met. 24, 27 : Exon. 8 b; Th. 4, 24; Cri. 57 : Cd. 26; Th. 34, 16; Gen. 538 : Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 43 : Mk. Lind. War. 14, 70 : Lk. Lind. Rush. War. 1, 76. Ðú yrre byst tu terribilis es, Ps. Th. 75, 5 : 101, 24 : Lk. Bos. 1, 76 : Deut. 23, 22. Hiora birhtu ne biþ to gesettane their brightness is not to be compared, Bt. Met. Fox 6, 11; Met. 6, 6. Biþ ealles leás he will be void of all, Cd. 217; Th. 276, 1; Sat. 182 : 109; Th. 144, 19; Gen. 2392 : Beo. Th. 604; B. 299 : Ps. Th. 118, 142 : Andr. Kmbl. 3383; An. 1695 : Mt. Bos. 5, 19, 22, 37 : Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 18 : Bt. 37, 3; Fox 190, 15. Fela biþ many there are, Exon. 78 a; Th. 293,14; Crä. 1 : 26 a; Th. 76, 5; Cri. 1235. Ne byþ lang it shall not be long, Elen. Grm. 433 : Beo. Th. 3529; B. 1762. Sélre biþ ǽghwám it is better for every one, Andr. Kmbl. 640; An. 320 : Ps. Th. 111, 9 : Beo. Th. 2009; B. 1002 : Mt. Bos. 5, 14, 19, 21, 22. Yldo beóþ on eorþan ǽghwæs cræftig age is on earth powerful of everything, Salm. Kmbl. 583; Sal. 291 : Exon. 36 b; Th. 118, 27; Gú. 246. Ðǽr wit tú beóþ where we two are, Exon.125 a; Th. 480, 21; Rä. 64, 5 : Beo. Th. 3681; B. 1838 : Cd. 133; Th. 168, 20; Gen. 2785 : Hy. 7, 88; Hy. Grn. ii. 289, 88 : Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 21 : Bd. 4, 16; S. 585, 2 : Bt. 10; Fox 30, 14 : Nicod. 17; Thw. 8, 23 : Mt. Rush. Stv. 26, 31. Beó ðú sunum mínum gedéfe be thou gentle to my sons, Beo. Th. 2457; B. 1226 : Andr. Kmbl. 428; An. 214 : Exon. 81 a; Th. 305, 18; Fä. 90 : Cd. 229; Th. 310, 25; Sat. 733 : Jn. Bos. 3, 2. Ne beóþ ge tó forhte be not ye too terrified, Andr. Kmbl. 3216; An. 1611 : Ps. Th. 104, 4. Ne beó ic gescynded non confundar, Ps. Th. 118, 6. Beón ða oferhydegan ealle gescende confundantur superbi, Ps. Th. 118, 78 : 148, 12. [Orm. beon; pres. beo, best, beoþ, beþ; subj. beo, be, ben : Laym. beon; pres. beo, beost, bist, beoþ, beþ, biþ, biðe; subj. beo : O. Sax. bium, bist : O. Frs. bem, bim, ben, bin : Dut. ben : O. Dut. bem : Ger. M. H. Ger. bin : O. H. Ger. pim : Slav. byti : Zend bū : Sansk. bhū, bhavāmi.] v. eom I am, wesan to be.

beón bees, Ps. Spl. 117, 12 : L. R. S. 5; Th. i. 434, 35. v. beó.

beón, beónn commanded, assembled; p. of bannan.

beón-breád bee-bread, Ps. Spl. 18, 11. v. beó-breád.

beón-broþ, es; n. Perhaps mead, a drink of water and honey mingled and boiled together; melicratum, L. M. 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 216, 12.

beónde being, Cot. 77; part. of beón.

be ongewyrhtum freely; gratis, Ps. Spl. C. 34, 8.

BEÓR, es; m. I. BEER, nourishing or strong drink; cerevisia, sicera. Beer, made from malted barley, was the favourite drink of the Anglo-Saxons. In their drinking parties, they pledged each other in large cups, round at the bottom, which must be emptied before they could be laid down, hence perhaps the name of a tumbler. We are speaking of the earliest times, for beer is mentioned in Beowulf :-- Gebeótedon beóre druncne oret-mecgas, ðæt hie in beór-sele bídan woldon Grendles gúðe the sons of conflict, drunk with beer, promised that they would await in the beer-hall the attack of Grendel, Beo. Th. 965; B. 480. Æt beóre at the beer, 4088; B. 2041. ☞ Beer was the common drink of the Anglo-Saxons, hence a convivial party was called Gebeórscipe, q. v : a place of entertainment, beórsele a beer-hall, or beórtún a beerenclosure. Hence also the other compounds, as beór-scealc a beer-server, beór-setl a beer-bench or SETTLE, and beór-þegu a beer-serving. The following remark seems to be as applicable to the Anglo-Saxons as to the Icelanders, - Öl heitir með mönnum, en með Ásum bjór ale is called, by men and by gods, BEER, Alvismál. - Beóre druncen drunk with beer, Beo. Th. 1066; B. 531 : Exon. 72 b; Th. 271, 22; Jul. 486. He ne drincþ wín ne beór vinum et siceram non bibet, Lk. Bos. 1, 15 : Deut. 14, 26. Ðæt mon geselle twelf seoxtres beóras that they give twelve sesters of beer, Th. Diplm. A. D. 901-909; 158, 22. II. a beverage made of honey and water, mead; metheglin, hydromeli, ĭtis, n. = ύδρόμελι, ydromellum, mulsum :-- Beór ydromellum, Ælfc. Gl. 32; Som. 61, 114; Wrt. Voc. 27, 43. Beór mulsum, Ælfc. Gl. 32; Som. 61, 118; Wrt. Voc. 27, 46. [Plat. beer, n : Frs. biar, n : Dut. Ger. bier, n : Icel. bjór, bjórr, m : O. H. Ger. pier, n : Sansk. pā to drink.] DER. beór-hyrde, -scealc, -scipe, -sele, -setl, -þegu, -tún : gebeór, -scípe.

beora, an; m. A grove; lucus vel nemus, Ælfc. Gl. 110; Som. 79, 39; Wrt. Voc. 59, 11. v. bearo.

beoran to bear :-- Ic sceal beoran I shall bear, Cd. 216; Th. 274, 22; Sat. 158 : 217; Th. 277, 17; Sat. 206. v. beran.

beorc, e; f. I. a birch-tree; betula. v. birce, byrc. II. the Anglo-Saxon Rune Runic-Beorc = b, the name of which letter in Anglo-Saxon is beorc a birch-tree, hence this Rune not only stands for the letter b, but for beorc a birch-tree, as, - Runic-Beorc byþ blǽda leás a birch-tree is void of fruit, Hick. Thes. i. 135; Runic pm. 18; Kmbl. 342, 27.

BEORCAN, ic beorce, he byrcþ; p. bearc, pl. burcon; pp. borcen [Icel. barki, m. guttur]. I. to make a sharp explosive sound; latratum vel sonum edere. v. gebeorc. II. to BARK; latrare :-- Ða dumban húndas ne mágon beorcan. We sceolon beorcan and bodigan ðám lǽwedum dumb dogs cannot bark. We ought to bark and preach to the laymen, L. Ælfc. C. 23; Th. ii. 350, 34. Ic hwílum beorce swá húnd I sometimes bark as a dog, Exon. 106 b; Th. 406, 16; Rä. 25, 2. Húndbyrcþ canis latrat, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Som. 24, 8. Ne mæg he fram húndum beón borcen he may not be barked at by dogs, Herb. 67, 2; Lchdm. i. 170, 17. [O.Nrs. berkja.] DER. gebeorc, borcian.

beorcen birchen; tiliaceus [Kil. bercken]. v. bircen.

Beordan íg, e; f. [íg an island, beordan = bridan = bridum with the young of birds] BARDNEY in Lincolnshire; cœnobii locus in agro Lincolniensi, Som.

beorende bringing forth; part. of beoran.

beorg, beorh, biorg, biorh; gen. beorges; dat. beorge; pl. nom. acc. beorgas; gen. beorga; dat. beorgum; m. I. a hill, mountain; collis, mons :-- On Sýne beorg on Sion's hill, Exon. 20 b; Th. 54, 29; Cri. 876. Óþ ða beorgas ðe man hǽt Alpis to the mountains which they call the Alps, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 44; 16, 17. Ǽlc múnt and beorh byþ genyðerod omnis mons et collis humiliabitur, Lk. Bos. 3, 5. Æt ðæm, beorge ðe man Athlans nemneþ at the mountain which they call Atlas, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 16, 6. II. a heap, BURROW or barrow, a heap of stones, place of burial; tumulus :-- Worhton mid stánum ánne steápne beorh him ofer congregaverunt super eum acervum magnum lapidum, Jos. 7, 26. Bæd ðæt ge geworhton in bǽlstede beorh ðone heán he commanded [bade] that you should work the lofty barrow on the place of the funeral pile, Beo. Th. 6186; B. 3097 : 5606; B. 2807 : Exon. 50 a; Th. 173, 26; Gú. 1166 : 119 b; Th. 459, 31; Hö. 8. [Laym. berhʒe : Piers bergh; still used in the dialect of Yorkshire : Plat. barg : O. Sax. berg : O. Frs. berch, birg : Ger. berg : M. H. Ger. berc : O. H. Ger. perac : Goth. bairga-hei a mountainous district : Dan. bjærg, n : Swed. berg, n : O. Nrs. berg, n : derived from beorgan.] DER. ge-beorg, -beorh, heáh-, mund-, sǽ-, sand-, stán-.

beorg, berg a protection, refuge; præsidium, refugium. DER. heáfod beorg, ge-beorg, scúr-beorg : cin-berg.

BEORGAN; ic beorge, ðú byrgst, byrhst, he byrgeþ, byrgþ, byrhþ, pl. beorgaþ; p. ic, he bearg, bearh, ðú burge, pl. burgon; impert. beorg, beorh, pl. beorgaþ, beorge ge; pp. borgen; v. a. I. cum dat. To save, protect, shelter, defend, fortify, spare, preserve; servare, salvare, custodire, tueri, parcere :-- Beorh ðínum feore salva animam tuam, Gen. 19, 17. Woldon feore beorgan they would save their lives, Andr. Kmbl. 3075; An. 1540. Beorh me, Drihten, swá swá man byrhþ ðám æplum on his eágum mid his brǽwum custodi me, Domine, ut pupillam oculi, Ps. Th. 16, 8. Ðæt se bittra bryne beorgan sceolde ǽfæstum þrím that the bitter burning should spare the pious three, Exon. 53 b; Th. 189, 10; Az. 57. II. dat. of the pers. acc. of the thing or following wið, - To defend, secure, guard against, avoid; defendere, arcere, cavere, vitare :-- Hý him hryre burgon they secured him from fall, Exon. 43 a; Th. 145, 30; Gú. 702 : 55 a; Th. 195, 21; Az. 159. Hý beorgaþ him bealoníþ they guard themselves against baleful malice, 44 b; Th. 150, 19; Gú. 781. Druncen beorg ðé from drunkenness guard thyself, 80 b; Th. 302, 10; Fä. 34. Ðæt preóstas beorgan wið ofer-druncen that priests avoid [over-drinking] drunkenness, L. Edg. C. 57; Th. ii. 256, 13. [Orm. berrʒhenn : Plat. bargen : O. Sax. gi-bergan : M. H. Ger. bergen : O. H. Ger. perkan, bergan : Goth. bairgan : Dan. bjerge : Swed. berga : O. Nrs. biarga : Grm. Wrtbch. i. 1507 refers to Grk. φράγνυμι, φάργνυμι to hedge round, to secure.] DER. be-beorgan, ge-, ymb-.

beorgan to taste; gustare :-- Fénix of ðám wyll-gespryngum brimcald beorgeþ æt baða gehwylcun the Phoenix tastes ocean-cold [water] from the well-springs at every bath, Exon. 57 b; Th. 205, 9; Ph. 110. v. byrgan.

Beorg-ford, Beorh-ford, es; m. [beorg a hill, ford a ford; collis ad vadum] BURFORD in Oxfordshire :-- Hér Cúþréd, Wæst-Seaxna cining, gefeaht ðý xxii geára his ríces, æt Beorgforda [MS. Beorhforda], wið Æðelbald, Myrcena cing, and hine geflýmde here, in 752, Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, fought in the twenty-second year of his reign, at Burford, with Æthelbald, king of the Mercians, and conquered him, Chr. 752; Erl. 49, 13.

beorg-hleoþ, es; n. A mountain-brow; montis fastigium :-- Ofer beorghleoða over the mountain-brows, Exon. 114 a; Th. 438, 27; Rä, 58, 2. v. beorh-hliþ.

beorg-seðel, es; n. A mountain-dwelling; habitaculum in monte :-- He ongan beorgseðel búgan he began to inhabit a mountain-dwelling, Exon. 34 a; Th. 108, 15; Gú. 73.

beorh; gen. beorges; m. A hill, mountain; collis, mons :-- Ǽlc múnt and beorh byþ genyðerod omnis mons et collis humiliabitur, Lk. Bos. 3, 5. v. beorg.

beorh save, Ps. Th. 16, 8; impert. of beorgan.

beorh-hliþ, -hleoþ, es; n. A mountain-height, mountain-brow; montis clivus vel fastigium :-- Under beorhhliðe under the mountain-height, Elen. Kmbl. 1572; El. 788 : 2015; El. 1009. Wǽron beorhhliðu blóde bestémed the mountain-brows were besteamed with blood, Cd. 166; Th. 206, 7; Exod. 448. Under beorhhleoðum among the mountain-heights, 98; Th. 130, 13; Gen. 2159.

beorh-stal, -stól, es; m. [beorh a hill, stal a place, seat, dwelling] A hill-seat, dwelling on a hill; sedes super collem vel clivum. v. burg-stal.

beorh-stede, es; m. A mountain-place, place on a mountain, a mountain, mound; locus in monte, mons, collis :-- On beorhstede on the mound, Exon. 60 a; Th. 217, 22; Ph. 284.

beorht, es; n. Brightness, a glistening, light, sight, glance, twinkling; splendor, lumen, lux :-- Ðis leóhte beorht cymeþ morgna gehwám this pure brightness cometh each morn, Exon. 93 a; Th. 350, 6; Sch. 59. Onféng ðam beorhte hire eágena received the sight [full sight, sparkling] of her eyes, Bd. 4, 10; S. 578, 2. Ðæt biþ an eágan beorht that is in the twinkling of an eye, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, note 20. v. bearhtm.

BEORHT, berht, byrht, bryht; adj. BRIGHT, light, clear, lucid, splendid, excellent; splendidus, lucidus, coruscus, clarus, formosus :-- Eall ðín líchama biþ beorht totum corpus tuum lucidum erit, Mt. Bos. 6, 22. Beorht éðles wlite the land's bright beauty, Exon. 27 b; Th. 82, 32; Cri. 1347. Beorht sumor bright summer, 54 b; Th. 191, 29; Az. 95. To ðære beorhtan byrg to the bright city, 15 a; Th. 33, 1; Cri. 519. Beorhte burhweallas beorhte scínaþ the lucid city-walls shine brightly, Cd. 220; Th. 282, 31; Sat. 295. Ðá cwom sunnan beorhtra líg then came a fire, brighter than the sun, Elen. Kmbl. 2218; El. 1110. Hí módes eágan beorhtran gedón they make the mind's eye clearer, Bt. Met. Fox 21, 54; Met. 21, 27. Sum hafaþ beorhte stefne one has a clear voice, Exon. 79 b; Th. 298, 32; Crä. 94. II. bright, brilliant, magnificent, noble, glorious, sublime, divine, holy; clarus, præclarus, eximius, augustus, divus, sanctus :-- In ða eástor-tíd, on ðone beorhtan dæg in the Easter-time, on that bright day, Exon. 48 b; Th. 168, 17; Gú. 1079. Meotud ælmihtig, beorht cyning Almighty God, noble king, Andr. Kmbl. 1804; An. 905. Ne wolde him beorht fæder bearn ætniman the glorious father [God] would not take the child from him, Cd. 162; Th. 204, 4; Exod. 414. Se án déma is gestæððig and beorht the only judge is steadfast and sublime, Bt. 36, 2; Fox 174, 20 : Exon. 14 b; Th. 30, 22; Cri. 483. Mid ðý beorhtan gebéde with the holy prayer. [the Lord's prayer], Salm. Kmbl. 87; Sal. 43. [Wyc. bright : Plat. Brecht a proper name, f : O. Sax. berht, beraht : Ger. preserved in proper names as Bertha, Albrecht : M. H. Ger. berht : O. H. Ger. peraht : Goth. bairhts : O. Nrs. biartr : Lat. fulgeo, flagrare : Grk. ωλέγειν to burn, from the Sansk. root bhrāj to shine; bhargas splendour, brightness.] DER. æl-beorht, eall-, efen-, gold-, heáfod-, heofon-, híw-, ródor-, sadol-, sigel-, sigor-, sun-, swegl-, þurh-, wlite-.

beorhtan, berhtan, byrhtan; p. -te; pp. ed To shine; lucere, Ps. Th. 143, 7.

beorhte; adv. Distinctly, clearly, lucidly, brightly; clare :-- He geseah Egypta heábyrig beorhte blícan he saw the Egyptians' cities brightly glitter, Cd. 86; Th. 109, 13; Gen. 1822. Ðonne seó sunne beorhtost scíneþ when the sun shines brightest, Bt. 9; Fox 26, 15 : Beo. Th. 3039; B. 1517.

beorht-hwíl, e; f. A glance; ictus oculi, Lye. v. bearhtm-hwíl.

beorhtian, beorhtigan; p. ode; pp. od. I. to shine, brighten; clarere :-- Ðǽr his geearnunge oft miclum mægenum scínaþ and beorhtigaþ there his earnings often shine and brighten,with great virtues, Bd. 3, 19; S. 550, 17. II. to sound clearly or loudly; clare sonare :-- Beorhtode bencswég the bench-noise sounded loudly, Beo. Th. 2326; B. 1161.

beorht-líc; adj. Bright, light, clear, lucid, splendid; lucidus, clarus, splendidus, Runic pm. 6; Hick. Thes. i. 135; Kmbl. 340, 19 : Ps. Th. 67, 3.

beorht-líce; adv. Clearly, distinctly, splendidly; clare, splendide :-- Ðæt he beorhtlíce eall geseah ut clare videret omnia, Mk. Bos. 8, 25 : Ps. Th. 118, 98 : 147, 7.

beorhtm, es; m. Tumult; tumultus :-- Hwǽr ahangen wæs heriges beorhtme ródera waldend where the Lord of glory was hung up by the tumult of the host, Elen. Kmbl. 410; El. 205. v. breahtm a noise, brecan to break.

beorht-nes, byrht-nes, -ness, -nys, -nyss, e; f. [beorht bright] BRIGHTNESS, clearness, splendour; splendor, claritas, nitor :-- Godes beorhtnes him ymbesceán claritas Dei circumfulsit illos, Lk. Bos. 2, 9 : Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 54 : Ps. Th. 118, 130. Eágena beorhtnes brightness of the eyes, Herb. 31, 2; Lchdm, i. 128, 13 : Hy. 7, 31; Hy. Grn. ii. 287, 31.

beorht-ródor, es; m. The bright firmament, heaven; æther, Cd. 146; Th. 183, 19; Exod. 94.

beorhtu, beorhto, birhtu, byrhtu, e; f. Brightness, splendour; claritas, splendor :-- Gif hæleþa hwilc mæg ǽfre ofsión heofones leóhtes hútre beorhto if any man may ever behold the clear brightness of heaven's light, Bt. Met. Fox 21, 78; Met. 21, 39.

beór-hyrde, es; m. A beer-keeper, butler; cerevisiæ custos, pincerna :-- Sum biþ gewittig æt wínþege, beórhyrde gód one is witty at wine-bibbing, a good beer-keeper, Exon. 79 b; Th. 297, 28; Crä. 75.

BEORMA, an; m : bearm, es; m. Barm, leaven, yeast, froth; fermentum :-- Se beorma awent ða gesceafta of heora gecynde barm changes creatures from their nature, Homl. Th. ii. 278, 21. Wistfullian on yfelnysse beorman to feast on the barm of evil, ii. 278, 25. Heofena ríce is gelíc ðam beorman cœlorum regnum simile est fermento, Mt. Bos. 13, 33 : Lk. Bos. 13, 21. Nim ele and hunig and beorman take oil and honey and barm, Lchdm. i. 398, 6 : Exon. 71 b; Th. 266, 11; Jul. 396. [Plat. Dut. barm, m. fæx : Ger. barme, bärme, f : Dan. Swed. bærme dregs, lees, barm.] v. and-, andbita.

Beormas; gen. a; pl. m. The Biarmians. - The Biarmians inhabited the country on the shores of the White Sea, north-west of the river Dwina. Alfred calls them Beormas. They were called Biarmians by Icelandic historians, and Permiaki by the Russians, and now Permians. In the Middle Ages, the Scandinavian pirates gave the name of Permia to the whole country between the White Sea and the Ural, Malte-Brun's Univer. Geog. vol. vi. p. 419. In an Icelandic MS. on geography, written in the 14th century, Beormia and two Cwenlands are located together. Kvenlönd II, ok ero þau norþr frá Bjarmalandi. Duæ Quenlandiæ, quæ ulterius quam Bjarmia boream versus extenduntur, Antiquitates Americanæ, p. 290. - Haldorson's Lexicon Islandico-Latino-Danicum, edited by Rask, has - 'Biarmaland, Biarmia, quæ ob perpetuas nives albicatur, Bjarmeland, Permien. Biarmia ortum versus ad mare album vel gandvikam sita est :' - Fela spella him sǽdon ða Beormas, ǽgþer ge of hyra ágenum lande, ge of ðǽm landum, ðe ymb hý útan wǽran; ac he nyste hwæt ðæs sóðes wæs, forðæm he hit sylf ne geseah. Ða Finnas, him þuhte, and ða Beormas sprǽcon neáh án geþeóde the Biarmians told him many stories, both about their own country and about the countries which were around them; but he knew not what was true, because he did not see it himself. The Finns and the Biarmians, as it seemed to him, spoke nearly the same language, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 11-15. Ðá Beormas hæfdon swíðe well gebún hyra land the Biarmians had very well inhabited their land, 1, 1; Bos. 20, 7.

beorn children, Th. Diplm. A. D. 830; 466, 5. v. bearn.

beorn for bearn burned, Beo. Th. 3764, note; B. 1880; p. of beornan.

BEORN, birn, es; m. [this word is only used by poets]. I. a man; vir :-- Se beorn on waruþe scip gemétte the man found a ship on the strand, Andr. Kmbl. 478; An. 239 : 1203; An. 602. Boétius wæs beorn bóca Boethius was a man skilled in books, Bt. Met. Fox 1, 103; Met. 1, 52 : Exon. 83 a; Th. 313, 22; Mód. 4. Beornes blóde with man's blood, Bt. Met. Fox 8, 67; Met. 8, 34. Beornas Baðan nemnaþ men name Bath, Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 12; Edg. 5. Beornas geonge young men, Cd. 184; Th. 230, 13; Dan. 232. Beorna sélost the best of men, 162; Th. 203, 10; Exod. 401 : Bt. Met. Fox 21, 82; Met. 21, 41. II. a prince, nobleman, chief, general, warrior, soldier; princeps, vir nobilis, dux, miles :-- Se beorn ageaf teóðan sceát the prince gave a tenth portion, Cd. 97; Th. 128, 1; Gen. 2120 : 176; Th. 222, 3; Dan. 99. Þurh ðæs beornes cyme through the chief's coming, Exon. 15 b; Th. 33, 24; Cri. 530. He ðam beorne oncwæþ he answered the warrior, Byrht. Th. 138, 65; By. 245. Me on beáme beornas sticedon soldiers pierced me on the cross, Cd. 224; Th. 297,1; Sat. 510. Beorna beáhgyfa bracelet-giver of warriors or a rewarder of heroes, Chr. 937; Erl. 112, 2; Edg. 30. III. rich; dives :-- Beornum and þearfum to rich and poor, Runic pm. 12; Hick. Thes. i. 135; Kmbl. 341, 25, [Dan. Swed. Icel. björn, m. a bear; ursus.] DER. folc-beorn, gúþ-, sige-.

BEORNAN, byrnan; ic beorne, byrne, ðú beornest, beornst, byrnest, byrnst, he beorneþ, beornþ, byrneþ, byrnþ, pl. beornaþ; p. ic, he bearn, barn, born, ðú burne, pl. burnon; pp. bornen. I. v. n. To BURN, be on fire; ardere, exardere, comburi :-- Ðonne beorneþ [byrneþ, Spl.] eorre his cum exarserit ira ejus, Ps. Surt. 2, 13. Se ðe ǽfre nú beorneþ on bendum he who now ever burns in bonds, Cd. 222; Th. 290, 12; Sat. 414. Bearn [MS. beorn] breóstsefa [their] spirit burned, Exon. 15 b; Th. 34, 10; Cri. 540. Heofoncandel barn the heavenly candle burnt, Cd. 148; Th. 184, 31; Exod. 115. Hreðer innan born his spirit burned within, Exon. 46 b; Th. 158, 18; Gú. 910. Him sorga burnon on breóstum sorrows burned in their breasts, Cd. 37; Th. 48, 17; Gen. 777. II. v. trans. To BURN; urere, comburere :-- Swá fýr wudu byrneþ sicut ignis comburit silvas, Ps. Th. 82, 10. [O. Sax. M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. brinnan : Ger. brennen : Swed. O. Nrs. brenna.] DER. a-beornan, for-, ge-. v. bærnan, byrnan, on-brinnan.

beorn-cyning, es; m. A king of men; virorum rex :-- Máðmas ic ðe, beorncyning, bringan wylle I will bring thee treasures, king of men, Beo. Th. 4302; B. 2148.

beorne, an; f. A coat of mail; lorica, Cod. Dipl. 716; A. D. 996-1006; Kmbl. iii. 351, 26. v. byrne.

Beornica ríce, es; n : mægþ, e; f. The kingdom or province of the Bernicians, that part of Northumbria which lies between the river Tees and the Scottish sea or frith; regnum vel provincia Berniciorum, a Tesi ad fretum Scoticum olim pertingens :-- Oswio ðone óðerne dǽl Norþanhymbra ríces hæfde, ðæt is Beornica Oswi possessed the other part of the Northumbrian kingdom, that is Bernicia, Bd. 3, 14; S. 539, 35 : 5, 14; S. 635, 6.

Beornice; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The Bernicians; Bernicii :-- Man gehálgode twegen biscopas on his stal, Bosan to Derum and Eátan to Beornicum two bishops were hallowed in his stead, Bosa over the Deirians and Eata over the Bernicians, Chr. 678; Th. 61, 17, col. 1 : Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 45.

beorn-þreát, es; m. A band of men or warriors; virorum turma :-- Monig beornþreát many a band of warriors, Exon. 96 a; Th. 358, 24.

beorn-wíga, an; m. [wíga a warrior] A soldier, hero; loricatus bellator, Menol. Fox 447; Men. 225.

beór-scealc, es; m. A beer-server, a butler; cerevisiæ minister :-- Beórscealca sum some one of the beer-servers, Beo. Th. 2485; B. 1240.

beór-scipe a feast. v. gebeór-scipe.

beór-sele, biór-sele, es; m. A beer-hall, feasting-hall, hall, mansion, palace; cerevisiæ aula, convivis recipiendis locus, aula, mansio, palatium :-- In [on] beórsele in the beer-hall, Beo. Th. 968; B. 482 : 988; B. 492 : Runic pm. 14; Hick. Thes. i. 135; Kmbl. 342, 5. Gesittaþ beórselas beorna they shall inhabit the beer-halls of chieftains, Cd. 170; Th. 214, 2; Exod. 563.

beór-setl, es; n. A BEER-SETTLE or bench; scamnum cerevisiam bibentium :-- Ofer beórsetle [MS. -sele] on the beer-bench, Exon. 75 b; Th. 283, 28; Jul. 687.

beor-swinig; adj. [= bær-synnig] Openly-wicked, a publican, Lk. Rush. War. 19, 2. v. bær-synnig.

beorþ, berþ, byrþ, e; f : es; n? [beorþ bears, from beoran, as byrþ birþ from beran] A BIRTH, the act of coming into life, the thing born; nativitas, partus, fetus, Cot. 87. Found in the compounds berþ-estre, berþ-ling : v. also beorþor, beorþor-cwelm, -þínen; hyse-beorþor. [O. Sax. gi-burd, f : O. Frs. berthe, f : O. H. Ger. burt, f : Goth. ga-baurþs, f : O. Nrs. burðr, m.] v. ge-byrd.

beór-þegu, e; f. A beer-receiving, beer-serving, beer-drinking; cerevisiæ acceptio vel ministratio, cerevisiæ potatio :-- Ðæt wæs biter beórþegu that was a bitter beer-serving, Andr. Grm. 1533; An. 1535. Æfter beórþege after the beer-drinking, Beo. Th. 234; B. 117 : 1239; B. 617.

beorþor, byrþor, berþor, borþor, es; n? Child-birth, that which is born, a fetus; partus, fetus :-- Æfter beorþre after child-birth, Med. ex Quadr. 4, 6; Lchdm. i. 344, 1 : L. M. 3, 37; Lchdm. ii. 330, 1. Ðe him hyra beorþor losie quibus fetus pereat, Med. ex Quadr. 4, 4; Lchdm. i. 342, 21. Mid beorþre fetu, Cot. 87. DER. ge-beorþor, hyse-.

beorþor-cwelm, es; m. A dead birth, an abortion, a miscarriage; fetus mortuus vel abortivus, abortus, Cot. 11.

beorþor-þínen, e; f. A midwife; obstetrix [beorþor child-birth, þínen a maid-servant]. v. bróðor-þínen.

beór-tún, es; m. A beer-hall; convivis recipiendis locus vel aula, Mann. v. beór-sele.

Beorwíc [wíc a village or residence, Beornica of the Bernicians; Berniciorum vicus] BERWICK on Tweed, Som.

beosmriende deceiving, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 31, note, = bysmriende. v. bysmerian.

BEÓST, býst, býsting, es; m? BIESTINGS, the first milk of a cow after calving; colostrum :-- Beóst biestings; obesta, Ælfc. Gl. 31; Som. 61, 102. Býst colostrum, Ælfc. Gl. 31; Som. 61, 102. Býsting, þicce meolc biest, biestings, thick milk, Ælfc. Gl. 33; Som. 62, 20. [Plat. beest, beest-melk : Dut. Ger. biest : O. H. Ger. biost : Goth. beist.]

BEÓT, es; n. I. a threatening, threat, command, menace; comminatio, minæ :-- He ne wæs ondredende ða beótunge [beót, MSS. B. C.] ðæs ealdormannes minas principis non metuit, Bd. 1, 7; S. 477. 23 : Exon. 68 a; Th. 253, 7; Jul. 176. II. peril; periculum :-- Ðenden [ðen, MS.] in ðam beóte wǽron while they were in that peril, Cd. 187; Th. 232, 25; Dan. 265. III. a boasting, boasting promise, promise; jactantia, promissio gloriosa, promissum :-- Wæs him gylp forod, beót forborsten their vaunt was broken, their boasting shattered, Cd. 4; Th. 5, 11; Gen. 70. He beót eal wið ðé sóðe gelǽste he truly fulfilled all his promise to thee, Beo. Th. 1051; B. 523 : 160; B. 80. [Ger. M. H. Ger. butze, m. larva, terriculamenta.] DER. ge-beót, word-.

beót beat, hurt, Cd. 187; Th. 232, 24; Dan. 265; p. of beátan.

beóþ is, are, shall be, Exon. 44 a; Th. 149, 28; Gú. 768 : 96 b; Th. 361, 20; Wal. 22 : Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 26, 14 : Th. Diplm. A. D. 743-745; 28, 27. v. beón.

beóðan are, Mt. Rush. Stv. 5, 11, = beóþ. v. beón.

beót-háta, an; m. [MS. beo = beót, gebeót a command, decree, háta a caller, commander] A commander, leader; imperator, dux :-- Ahleóp ðá fór hæleðum hilde calla, bald beót-háta bord upahóf then the herald of war leaped before the warriors, the bold commander [Moses] upraised his shield, Cd. 156; Th. 193, 27; Exod. 253.

beó-þeóf, es; m. A thief or stealer of bees; apum fur, L. Alf. pol. 9; Th. i. 68, 6.

beótian, beótigan; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed [beót I. a threatening]. I. to threaten; minari, minitari :-- Agustinus is sǽd, ðæt he beótigende fórecwǽde Augustinus fertur minitans prædixisse, Bd. 2, 2; S. 503, 29 : Exon. 67 b; Th. 250, 35; Jul. 137. II. to boast, vow, promise; magna loqui, polliceri, spondere :-- Swá he beótode ǽr wið his beáhgifan as he boasted before towards his ring-giver, Byrht. Th. 140, 18; By. 290. Ful oft wit beótedan, ðæt unc ne gedǽlde nemne ðeáþ ána full oft we two vowed, that naught should part us save death alone, Exon. 115 a; Th. 442, 32; Kl. 21.

beótian; p. ode; pp. od [from bót a restoring, cure] To become or grow better; melius fieri, convalescere :-- Ðá sóna gefélde ic me beótiende and wyrpende then I felt myself soon getting better and turning; confestim me melius habere sentirem, Bd. 5, 6; S. 620, 12.

beót-líce; adv. In a threatening manner, threateningly; minaciter, Jos. 8, 10 : Num. 14, 44.

beótung, e; f. A threatening, raging; comminatio, minæ :-- Beótunge dǽdum gefyldon [they] followed the threatening with deeds, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 39. Ðá wæs his mód mid ðám beótungum gebreged then was his mind frightened by the threatenings, 2, 12; S. 513, 14 : 1, 7; S. 477, 23. DER. ge-beótung.

beót-word, es; n. I. [beót I. a threat] a word of threatening, threats; minæ :-- Beótwordum spræc folcágende the people's lord spake in words of threatening, Exon. 68 a; Th. 253, 24; Jul. 185. II. [beót III. a boasting] a word of boasting; jactationis verbum :-- Beówulf beótwordum spræc Beowulf spake in words of boasting, Beo. Th. 5014; B. 2510.

Beó-wulf, es; m. [= Beado-wulf a war-wolf, = Icel. Böðúlfr a warwulf] BEOWULF, a celebrated warrior of the Scyldings' race, a record of whose heroic deeds is given in the Anglo-Saxon poem bearing his name. It appears most probable that Beowulf was originally an Old Norse heathen Saga, written in the language common at the earliest age in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, but now only spoken in Iceland. This Saga it is hoped may yet be found in some Swedish library. The story informs us that Hrothgar built a splendid palace at Heorot in the north of Jutland. This palace was soon made a scene of slaughter, in consequence of the nightly attacks of a monster called Grendel, who carried off at one time no less than thirty thanes, for the purpose of devouring them in his retreat. These dreadful visitations are continued during a period of twelve years. Intelligence of this calamity having reached the heroic Beowulf, a relation of Hrothgar, Beowulf resolves to rid the Danish land of this monster; and, in pursuance of this design, sails from home with a company of fifteen warriors. In terrific conflicts he kills Grendel and his mother. - It was the first heroic poem by any Germanic nation, and must have been translated into Anglo-Saxon by a Christian, as is evident by Grendel's mother being spoken of as a descendant of Cain, and numerous Christian allusions, when the Danish sovereignty in England was at its height, perhaps in the reign of Canute, about A. D. 1020. If it were originally written in the Old Norse or Icelandic the Saga would be called Böðúlfr, and the translator into Anglo-Saxon would naturally write it Beado-wulf contracted to Beó-wulf :--

Beówulf wæs bréme,Beowulf was renowned,
blǽd wíde sprang the glory of Scyld's offspring
Scyldes eaferanwidely spread
Scede-landum in,in the Swedish lands.
Beo. Th. 35-38; B. 18, 19.
Heorot [Hróþgár] eardode[Hrothgar] occupied Heorot,
sincfáge seld [MS. sel],the richly variegated seat.
Beo. Th. 335; B. 166.
[Grendel] atol æglǽca;[Grendel] the fell wretch;
him on eaxla wearþa deadly wound was manifest
syndolh sweotol,in his shoulder,
seonowa onsprungon,the sinews sprang asunder,
burston bánlocan :the bone-inclosures burst :
Beówulfe wearþto Beowulf
gúþhréþ gyfeðe;warlike fierceness was given;
scolde Grendel ðonanGrendel, death-sick,
feorhseóc fleón,must thence flee.
Beo. Th. 1636-1644; B. 816-820.
Geféng ðá be eaxlaThe War-Goths' lord
Gúþ-Geáta leódseized then by the shoulder
Grendles módor.Grendel's mother.
Brægd ðá beadwe heard,Then the fierce warrior dragged
feorhgeníðlan,the mortal foe,
ðæt heó on flet gebeáh :so that she bowed on the place :
Beo. Th. 3078-3085; B. 1537-1540.
- - bil eal þurhwód,-- the falchion passed through all
fǽgne flǽschoman,her fated carcase,
heó on flet gecrong.she sank on the ground.
Beo. Th. 3139-3141; B. 1567, 1568.

beó-wyrt, e; f. [beó a bee, wyrt a plant] BEE-WORT, balm mint, sweet flag; apiastrum, acorus = άκoρos, acorus calamus, Lin :-- Beówyrt apiastrum, Cot. 12 : Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 55; Wrt. Voc. 30, 9. Ðeós wyrt, ðe man on Léden veneriam, and on úre geþeóde beówyrt, nemneþ, heó biþ cenned on begánum stówum, and on wyrtbeddum, and on mǽdum this plant, which in Latin is called veneria, and in our language bee-wort, is produced in cultivated places, and in wort-beds, and in meads, Herb. 7, 1; Lchdm. i. 96, 21 : L. M. 1, 26; Lchdm. ii. 68, 4.

be-pǽcan; part. be-pǽcende; p. be-pǽhte; pp. be-pǽht; v. a. [be by, pǽcan to deceive] To deceive, entice, seduce, draw away; decipere, pellicere, illudere, seducere :-- Seó næddre bepǽhte me serpens decepit me, Gen. 3, 13 : Mt. Bos. 2, 16 : Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 32, 1. Ic bepǽce oððe forlǽde seduco, 47; Som. 48, 53 : Jud. 16, 5.

be-pǽcestre, an; f. She who deceives, flatters, or entices, a harlot; pellex, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 32, 1.

be-pǽcung, e; f. Lewd practice; lenocinium, Som. v. be-pǽcan.

be-pǽht deceived, Mt. Bos. 2, 16; pp. of be-pǽcan.

be-prenan, be-preðan To wink; nictare :-- Tele nú ða lenge ðære hwíle, ðe ðú ðín éage on beprenan [bepreðan, Cott.] mǽge compare now the length of the time, wherein thou mayest wink thine eye, Bt. 18, 3; Fox 66, 7.

bér, beer, e; acc. bé, bére; f. A bed; lectus, grabatus :-- Nim bér ðín tolle grabatum tuum, Jn. Lind. War. 5, 12. Nim bére ðíne, Jn. Rush. War. 5, 12. v. bǽr.

BERA, an; m. A BEAR; ursus :-- Dauid gewylde ðone wíldan beran David subdued the wild bear, Ælfc. T. 13, 26. Eofor oððe beran onginnan to attack a boar or bear, Exon. 92 a; Th. 344, 21; Gn. Ex. 177. Sceall gyldan án beran fel shall pay one bear's skin, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 37. Bera ursus, Ælfc. Gl. 21; Som. 59, 69 : L. Ecg. P. iv. 28; Th. ii. 212, 22. [Laym. beore : Plat. baar, m : Dut. beer, m : Ger. bär, m : M. H. Ger. ber : O. H. Ger. pero : Dan. biörn, c : Swed. biörn, m : O. Nrs. björn, m.]

be-rǽcan to cause to smoke, Herb. 14, 2; Lchdm. i. 106, note 24. v. be-récan.

be-rǽdan; p. -rǽdde; pp. -rǽd [be- dis-, rǽdan to possess] To dispossess, deprive of; privare :-- He hine ríces berǽdde he deprived him of his realm, Andr. Kmbl. 2653; An. 132 8: 266; An. 133. Hie unscyldigne feore berǽddon they deprived the guiltless of his life, Elen. Kmbl. 993; El. 498. Earnulf hine berǽdde æt ðam ríce Arnulf deprived him of the kingdom, Chr. 887; Th. 156, 32, col. 1; 33, col. 2, 3 : Bt. titl. 1; Fox x. 3.

be-rǽsan; p. de; pp. ed [be, rǽsan to rush] To rush into; irruere :-- Ðá ðonne hie berǽsaþ on swelce weámódnesse when they then rush into such anger, Past. 40, 5; Hat. MS. 55 a, 25 : Gen. 14, 15.

be-rafan; p. -róf, pl. -rófon; pp. -rafen To bereave; spoliare :-- Ða ðe Sodoma golde berófon [MS. berofan] those that had bereaved Sodom of gold, Cd. 95; Th. 125, 13; Gen. 2078. v. be-reáfian, be-reófan.

BERAN, beoran, ic bere, beore, ðú birest, birst, byrst, he bireþ, byreþ, birþ, byrþ, pl. beraþ; p. ic, he bær, ðú bǽre, pl. bǽron; pp. boren; v. a. I. to BEAR, carry, bring, bear or carry a sacrifice, offer, bear off, carry out, extend, wear, support, endure, suffer; ferre, portare, afferre, offerre, deferre, proferre, extendere, gerere, tolerare :-- Ðú eall þing birest thou bearest all things, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 551; Met. 20, 276. Heó gár bireþ she beareth the javelin, Salm. Kmbl. 876; Sal. 437. Eft byreþ ofer lagustreámas leófne mannan shall bear back over the water-streams the beloved man, Beo. Th. 598; B. 296 : 4117; B. 2055. Se ðæt wicg byrþ he whom the horse carries, Elen. Kmbl. 2390; El. 1196. On handum hí beraþ ðé in manibus portabunt te, Ps. Spl. 90, 12. Secgas bǽron beorhte frætwa the warriors bare bright arms, Beo. Th. 432; B. 213. Ðe bǽron byrðena on ðises dæges hǽtan qui portavimus pondus diei et æstus, Mt. Bos. 20, 12 : Lk. Bos. 11, 27. Ne bere ge sacc nolite portare sacculum, Lk. Bos. 10, 4 : Ex. 22, 13. Him wæs ful boren to him the cup was borne, Beo. Th. 2388; B. 1192 : Cd. 6; Th. 8, 7; Gen. 120. Deóflum onsægdnesse bær dæmonibus hostias offerebat, Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, 13. Byreþ blódig wæl will bear off my bloody corpse, Beo. Th. 900; B. 448. Ða wiccungdóm wídest bǽron who carried the magic art furthest, Cd. 178; Th. 223, 18; Dan. 121. Ðæt ða hætt beran móston that they might wear [bear] a hat, Ors. 4, 10; Bos. 96, 20, 18. Ic nelle beran eówre gýmeleáste I will not endure your negligence, L. Ælf. C. 1; Th. ii. 342, 10. II. to BEAR, produce, bring forth; facere, ferre, edere, parere :-- Ǽlc gód treów byrþ góde wæstmas every good tree produces [facit] good fruits, Mt. Bos. 7, 17 : 7; 18. Ðæt wæs deáþes beám se bær bitres fela that was the tree of death which bare much of bitter, Cd. 24; Th. 31, 2; Gen. 479 : 30; Th. 40, 26; Gen. 645. Gif he to ðæm ríce wæs on rihte boren if he to that kingdom was rightly born, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 92; Met. 26, 46. [O. Sax. beran ferre, portare : O. Frs. bera : O. H. Ger. beran ferre, parere, gignere, generare : Goth. bairan; p. bar, pl. berum; pp. bairans to bear, carry, bring, bear children : O. Nrs. bera ferre, portare, sustinere, tolerare : Grk. φέρειν : Sansk. bhri to bear, hence Goth. barn a child : A. Sax. bearn a child.] DER. a-beran, æt-, be-, for-, fór-, forþ-, ge-, in-, on-, óþ-, to-, under-, up-, upa-, upge-, ymb- : berende, deáþ-, feorh-, gár-, helm-, leóht-, reord-, sǽd-, sweord-, un-, wæstm- : berend, gár-, gást-, helm-, reord-, sáwl-, segn-, tácn- : berendnis, un- : bere, -ærn, -corn, -flór, -gafol, -græs, -hláf, -sǽd, -tún, -wíc : berie, berige, berge, blæc-, byrig-, hind-, streów-, wín- : brid : bearn, cyne-, dryht-, folc-, freó-, frum-, god-, hǽlu-, húsul-, steóp-, sweostor-, world-, þryþ- : -cennung, -eácen, -eácnung, -gebyrdo, -gestreón, -lést, -lufe, -myrþra, -teám : bearm, -cláþ, -rægl : beorma, bearm, gebyrman : byre : ge-byrd, -dæg, -tíd, -wiglǽre, -witega : byrde, ge-, in- : frum-byrdling, in-byrdling : beorþ, berþ, berþ-estre, berþ-ling; hyse- : beorþor, -cwelm, -þínen, hyse- : bǽr, bǽran, bǽr-disc : bǽre, æppel-, corn-, cwealm-, cwyld-, hlís-, horn-, leóht-, lust-, wæstm-, unwæstm- : bǽrnes, lust-, wæstm-, unwæstm- : byrðen, mægen-, sorg-, syn- : bora, cǽg-, horn-, mund-, rǽd-, rǽs-, segen-, sóþ-, sweord-, tácn-, wǽg-, wǽpen-, wíg-, wóþ-, wróht- : boren, æðel-.

Beran burh; gen. burge; dat. byrig; f. [Hunt. Beranbiri : Kni. Banbyry] BANBURY, Oxfordshire :-- Hér Cynríc and Ceawlin fuhton wið Brettas æt Beran byrig here, A. D. 556, Cynric and Ceawlin fought with Britons at Banbury, Chr. 556; Th. 30, 9, col. 1, 2, 3.

berbéna, æ; f. Latin : berbéne, an; f. Vervain; verbēna :-- Berbéna [berbéne MS. H.] Ðeós wyrt, ðe man περιστερεών, and óðrum naman berbénam, nemneþ, heó ys culfron swíðe híwcúþ. Vervain. This plant, which they call vervain, and by another name verbena, in colour is very like to doves, Herb. 67, 1; Lchdm. i. 170, 11-14. Verbēna officinalis is intended by the drawing in MS. V. and by περιστερεών in Dioskorides. v. æsc-þrote.

berc a birch-tree; betula :-- Nim birc rinde take birch-tree rind, L. M. 3, 39; Lchdm. ii. 332, 9. v. birce.

bere, an; f. A female bear; ursa. v. bera ursus.

BERE, es; m. Barley; hordeum :-- Ðá hét he him bere sǽd bringan inde hordeum jussit afferri, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 36 : Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 63. Hira flex and hira beras [MS. bernas] wǽron fordóne eorum linum et hordea læsa sunt, Ex. 9, 31. [Scot. and North E. bear, bere barley : Goth. barizeins, adj. made of barley; hordeaceus : Swed. Norw. Icel. barr, n. I. spina abietis vel pinus, II. granum, semen, hordeum.]

bére a bed; acc. sing. of bér.

bere-ærn, ber-ern, beren, bern, bearn, es; n. A barley-place, a corn-place, a barn; horreum :-- He gegaderaþ his hwǽte on his bern congregabit triticum suum in horreum, Mt. Bos. 3, 12 : 13, 30. He feormaþ hys berenes flóre purgabit aream suam, Lk. Jun. 3, 17. Ic towurpe míne berenu destruam horrea mea, 12, 18 : 12, 24 : Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 3, 12 : Leo 103 : 110.

be-reáfian, bi-reáfian, -reáfigean, ic -reáfige; p. -reáfode; pp. -reáfod; v. a. To BEREAVE, seize, spoil, take away; eripere, spoliare, privare :-- Heó hit ne mæg his gewittes bereáfian she cannot bereave it of its faculty, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 12, 25. Hú mæg man hys fata hyne bereáfian quomodo potest quisquam vasa ejus diripere? Mt. Bos. 12, 29 : Mk. Bos. 3, 27. Ic ondréd, ðæt ðú me bereáfodest ðínra dóhtra timui, ne violenter auferres filias tuas, Gen. 31, 31 : 43, 18 : 43, 14 : Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 61, 16 : Cd. 40; Th. 53, 11; Gen. 859.

be-récan, -rǽcan [récan to smoke] To cause to smoke; facere ut fumet aliquid :-- Beréc hit on hátum ahsum make it smoke on hot ashes, Herb. 14, 2; Lchdm. i. 106, 17.

be-reccan, -reccean; p. -reahte, -rehte; pp. -reaht, -reht. I. to relate, recount, explain; narrare, exponere :-- Nú wille we sum þing scortlíce eów be him bereccan now will we relate to you shortly something concerning him, Nat. S. Greg. Els. 3, 2. II. to explain one's conduct, justify one's self; se excusare, se purgare, accusatorum criminibus respondere :-- Hí simle séceaþ endleáse ládunga, hú hie bereccan [MS. C. bereccean] mǽgen they always seek endless excuses, how they may justify themselves, Past. 35, 2; Hat. MS. 45 a, 19. Him wæs lýfnesse seald ðæt he him móste scyldan and besecgan [MS. B. bereccan] accepit locum se defendendi, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 11, note. v. reccan.

bere-corn, es; n. [bere barley, corn a grain] BARLEY-CORN, a grain of barley; hordei granum :-- IX bere-corna nine barley-corns, L. Ath. iv. 5; Th. i. 224, 11.

bere-flór, es; m. A BARLEY-FLOOR, barn foor; hordei area, Lk. Lind. Rush. War. 3, 17.

bere-gafol, es; n. Barley-rent, a tribute of barley; hordei tributum. One of the rents paid in kind, which, by the following enactment, is fixed at the rate of six pounds weight for every labourer employed in the barley harvest :-- Mon sceal simle to bere-gafole agifan æt ánum wyrhtan six púnd-wǽga a man shall always give for barley-rent for every labourer six pounds weight, L. In. 59; Th. i. 140, 5.

bere-græs, es; n. BARLEY-GRASS, a farrago; hordei gramen :-- Gréne beregræs green fodder for cattle [farrago], Ælfc. Gl. 59; Som. 67, 124.

bere-hláf, es; m. A BARLEY-LOAF, barley-bread; hordeaceus panis. v. bere barley, hláf a loaf.

beren, es; n. [bere-ærn, q.v.] A barley-place, a barn; horreum, Lk. Jun. 3, 17 : 12, 18, 24.

beren; adj. Barley, made of barley; hordeaceus :-- Genim smæl beren mela take fine barley-meal, L. M. 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 24. Hæfþ fíf berene hláfas habet quinque hordeaceos, Jn. Bos. 6, 9 : 6, 13. v. bere.

beren, byren; adj. [bera a bear] Belonging to a bear, ursine; ursinus :-- Se byrdesta sceall gyldan berenne cyrtel [kyrtel MS.] oððe yterenne the richest must pay a bear - or otter-skin vest, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 37.

berende; part. Bearing, fruitful; ferens, gerens, abundans, ferax :-- Wíneard berende vitis abundans, Ps. Spl. 127, 3 : Cot. 85. Berende bóh germen, Ælfc. Gl. 60; Som. 68, 32. v. beran.

berendlíc; adj. Bearable, tolerable. v. a-berendlíc.

berendnis, -niss, e; f. Fertility, fruitfulness; fertilitas, Leo 110. v. un-berendnis.

be-rénian; p. ode; pp. od [regnian, rénian to arrange] To cause; moliri :-- Heó wroht berénodon [berenedon MS.] they caused strife, Cd. 149; Th. 187, 6; Exod. 147.

be-reófan, bi-reófan; p. -reáf, pl. -rufon; pp. -rofen [be, reófan to reave, rob] To bereave, deprive; spoliare, privare :-- Since berofene deprived of treasure, Cd. 144; Th. 179, 30; Exod. 36 : Beo. Th. 5855; B. 2931.

be-reótan; p. -reát, pl. -ruton; pp. -roten To deplore; deplorare :-- Æðelinges deáþ bereótan to deplore the death of the noble, Exon. 119 b; Th. 459, 27; Hö, 6.

ber-ern a barley place, a barn; horreum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 3, 12. v. bere-ærn.

bere-sǽd, es; n. Barley-seed, barley; hordeum, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 36. v. bere.

bereþ bears, brings forth, produces, 3rd pres. of beran, Mt. Rush. Stv. 1, 21 : Hick. Thes. i. 135; Runic pm. 18; Kmbl. 342, 28.

bere-tún, es; m. [bere barley, corn; tún an inclosure, a place shut in] A barley-enclosure, court-yard, threshing-floor, corn-farm, grange, corn-village, BARTON; hordei area, villa frumentaria. 'BARTON, Prædium dominicum, vel terræ quas vocant Dominicales, hoc est, quas in distributione manerii dominus non elocavit hæreditarie, sed alendæ familiæ suæ causâ propriis manibus reservavit : Dominicum, Gallice Domaine. Vox in Devonia, inquit Spelmannus, et plaga Angliæ Occidentali bene note,' Du Cange Glos :-- Þerh-clǽnsade beretún his permundavit aream suam, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 3, 12.

bere-wíc, es; n. A barley-village, a corn-village; hordeaceus vel frumentarius vicus, Th. Diplm. A. D. 1060; 382, 12 : A. D. 1093; 443, 31. v. bere-tún.

berg a hill, mountain, Som. DER. berg-ælfen. v. beorg.

berg-ælfen mountain-elves; oreades. v. ælf, -ælfen.

bergan to taste; gustare :-- Ða ðe ne bersaþ deáþ qui non gustabunt mortem, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 16, 28. v. byrgan.

berge, an; f. A berry, grape, Deut. 23, 24, v. berie II.

bergels-leóþ, es; n. A burial ode; sepulcrale carmen, Leo 116. v. byrgen-leóþ.

bergel-song, es; m. A burial song; sepulcralis cantus, Leo 116. v. byrgen-song.

bergena of berries, Deut. 23, 24; g. pl. of berie.

Berghám-styde, es; m. BERHAM, near Canterbury :-- In ðære stówe, ðý hátte Berghámstyde in the place which is called Berham, L. Wih. pref; Th. 1. 36, 6.

bergyls, es; m. A burial-place, a sepulchre; sepulcrum, Coll. Monast. Th. 32, 33. v. byrgels.

berh for bearh shunned; vitavit, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 28; p. of beorgan.

berht; adj. Bright; splendidus, clarus, Bt. Met. Fox 22, 43; Met. 22, 22. v. beorht.

berhtan to shine; lucere. DER. ge-berhtan. v. beorhtan.

Berhte, an; f. Bertha; Bercta, the daughter of Cariberht, king of Paris, and granddaughter of Clotaire, king of the Franks and Burgundians. In the year 570, she married Æðelbryht, king of Kent. By the queen's Christian conduct, the heathen predilections of the king were removed, and the way made clear for the preaching of Augustine in 597. v. Æðelbryht :-- Ǽr ðam, becom hlísa to him ðære cristenan ǽfestnysse, for ðon he cristen wíf hæfde, seó wæs him forgifen of Francena cyningcynne, Berhte wæs háten. Ðæt wíf he onféng fram hire yldrum ðære arédnesse, ðæt heó his leáfnysse hæfde ðæt heó ðone þeáw ðæs cristenan geleáfan, and hire ǽfestnysse, ungewemmedne healdan móste, mid ðý biscop, ðone ðe hí hire to fultume ðæs geleáfan sealdon, ðæs nama wæs Leodheard before that, a report of the Christian religion had come to him. [Æðelbryht] for he had a Christian wife, who was given to him from the royal kin of the Franks, her name was Bertha. He received his wife from her parents on condition, that she should have his leave that she might hold the manner of the Christian belief, and of her religion, unspotted, with the bishop, whose name was Liudhard, whom they gave her for the help of that faith, Bd. 1, 25; S. 486, 30-36.

berhtm-hwæt; adj. Swift as an eye-blink; celer ut oculi nictus :-- Ðec lígetu bláce, berhtmhwate ða ðec bletsige the pale lightnings, swift as an eye-blink, these shall bless thee, Cd. 192; Th. 240, 3; Dan. 381. v. bearhtm.

berhtra, acc. berhtre brighter, Bt. Met. Fox 22, 43; Met. 22, 22; comp. of berht, beorht, q. v.

berian berries, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 30; pl. of berie.

berian; p. ode, ede; pp. od [bær bare] To bare, make naked, expose, exhibit, make a shew of; nudare, denudare, in medium proferre, ostentare :-- Benc-þelu beredon they made bare the bench floor, Beo. Th. 2482; B. 1239. Ða ðe me fór werode wisdóm bereþ who to me make a shew of wisdom before the people, Cd. 179; Th. 224, 27; Dan. 142. v. barenian, a-barian.

berian to taste. v. bergan, byrgan, on-berian.

berian = byrian to happen. DER. ge-berian.

be-rídan, he -rít; p. -rád, pl. -ridon; pp. -riden; v. a. I. to ride round, to surround, besiege; perequitare, præcingere :-- Ðæt he his gefán beríde that he besiege his enemy, L. Alf. pol. 42; Th. i. 90, 4. II. to ride after, pursue; persequi :-- Ðá berád mon ðæt wíf then they pursued the wife, Chr. 901; Ing. 125, 14. He hine berád he rode after him, 755; Ing. 70, 1.

BERIE, berge, berige, berigie, an; f. I. a BERRY; bacca :-- Berian berries, Cot. 36. Bergan berries; baccæ, Cot. 23. Nym wínberian, ðe beóþ acende after óðre berigian take grapes, which are formed after other berries, Lchdm. iii. 114, 5. II. a grape; uva. Though wín-berie, q. v. a wine-berry, is generally used in Anglo-Saxon for a grape, yet berge, berige are sometimes found, as, - Gif ðú gange binnan ðínes freóndes wíneard, et ðæra bergena swá fela, swá ðú wylle, and ne ber ðú ná má út mid ðé if thou shalt go within thy friend's vine-yard, eat as many of the grapes as thou wilt, and carry not out with thee any more, Deut. 23, 24. Beóþ ðínes wífes wélan gelíce swá on wíngearde weaxen berigean, and on ðínes húses hwommum genihtsum the riches of thy wife shall be like as grapes may grow in a vineyard, and abundant on the corners of thy house, Ps. Th. 127, 3. [O. Sax. beri, n : Dut. bes, f : O. H. Ger. beri, n : Goth. basi, n : O. Nrs. ber, n. The Goth. Plat. and Dut., says Grimm [i. 1243], do not allow us to derive these words from the root of Goth. bairan, A. Sax. beran to bear, but it is probably connected with bær bare, naked, signifying the bare fruit, which can be eaten immediately. Bopp derives the Teutonic words and the Lat. bacca from Sansk. bhaksh edere; so the Goth. basi = bhakshya cibus, eatable fruit.] DER. blæc-berie, byrig-, hind-, streów-, streáw, wín- [-berie, -berge, -berige, -berigie].

berig to a city, Wrt. Voc. 84, 45, = byrig; dat. of burh.

berig-drenc, es; m. [berige a berry, drenc a drink] Drink made of mulberries; diamoron, Wrt. Voc. 20, 23.

berige, an; f. A berry, grape, Ps. Th. 127, 3. v. berie II.

berigea, an; m. A surety, L. H. E. 6; Th. i. 30, 5. v. byriga.

berigean berries, grapes, Ps. Th. 127, 3; nom. pl. of berige. v. berie.

berigie a berry, Lchdm. iii. 114, 5. v. berie I.

be-rindan; p. de; pp. ed [be off rind the bark] To bark, peel or strip off the bark; decorticare :-- Berende decorticavit, Cot. 62.

be-riówsian to repent, Ælfc. Gr. 33, MS. D; Som. 37, 22. v. behreówsian.

bern, es; n. A barn; horreum :-- Nabbaþ ða hrefnas héddern ne bern the ravens have not store-house nor barn [cellarium neque horreum], Lk. Bos. 12, 24 : 12, 18 : 3, 17 : Mt. Bos. 3, 12 : 13, 30. Bern horreum, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 78, 131. v. bere-ærn.

bernan to burn; ardere, Ælfc. Gr. 35; Som. 38, 5. v. beornan.

berne-lác, es; n. A burnt offering; holocaustum :-- Ic ðé bernelác brengan móste I must bring thee a burnt offering, Ps. C. 50, 123; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 123.

bernes a burning, Bd. 4, 21; S. 590, 21. v. bærnes.

bernet, bernett, es; n. A burning; incendium, R. Ben. interl. 28. v. bærnet.

berning, e; f. A burning; combustio, ustio, Som. Lye. v. bærning.

be-rofen bereaved, Beo. Th. 5855; B. 2931. v. be-reófan.

béron might bear, carry, bring, for bǽren, perf. subj. of beran, Byrht. Th. 133, 49; By. 67.

be-rówan; p. -reów, pl. -reówon; pp. -rówen To row round; remigando circumnavigare, Chr. 897; Th. 176, 41.

berst loss; damnum, malum, ruina, Lupi Serm. i. 2 : Wulfstani Archiepiscopi Ebor. Admonitio sive Parænesis, 8. etc. DER. berstan. v. byrst.

BERSTAN; part. berstende; ic berste, ðú birst, he birsteþ, biersteþ, birst, byrst, bierst, pl. berstaþ; p. ic, he bærst, ðú burste, pl. burston; pp. borsten. I. to BURST, break, fail, fall; cum fragore dissilire, corruere, rumpi, frangi :-- Heofonas berstaþ the heavens burst, Exon. 21 b; Th. 58, 10; Cri. 933. Burston bán-locan the bone-inclosures burst, Beo. Th. 1640; B. 818. Wǽgas burston the waves broke, Cd. 167; Th. 208, 15; Exod. 483. Ðá burston ða weallas muri illico corruerunt, Jos. 6, 20 : Ors. 1, 7; Bos. 29, 38. Gif him áþ burste if an oath failed them, L. Ed. 3; Th. i. 160, 20. II. to make the noise of a bursting or breaking, to crash, dash, crack; fragorem edere, sonare, crepare :-- Brim berstende blód-egesan hweóp the dashing sea threatened bloody horrors, Cd. 166; Th. 208, 2; Exod. 477. Fingras burston his fingers cracked, Beo. Th. 1525; B. 760. [Laym. bersten : Wyc. berste, breste : Plat. barsten : O. Sax. brestan : O. Frs. bersta : Dut. Ger. bersten : M. H. Ger- bresten : O. H. Ger. brestan : Dan. bröste : Swed. brista : O. Nrs. bresta.] DER. a-berstan, æt, for-, óþ-, to-, út-.

bersting, e; f. A BURSTING, rent; ruptura. DER. múþ-bersting, q. v.

berþ a birth. v. berþ-estre, berþ-ling, beorþ.

Berþa Bertha; Bercta, Lat. f. the queen of Æðelbryht, king of Kent. v. Berhte.

berðen, e; f. A burthen, load; sarcina :-- Seám vel berðen sarcina, Wrt. Voc. 16, 27. v. byrðen.

berþ-estre, an; f. A bearer of children; genetrix, Leo 110. v. -estre.

berþ-ling, es; m. Child-birth. v. hyse-berþling.

berþor child-birth. v. beorþor, hyse-beorþor.

bert-hwíl a moment; momentum, R. Ben. 5. v. beorht-hwíl.

berwe; dat. of bearo a grove, q. v.

be-rýfan [= be-reófan] to bereave; spoliare, privare :-- Ðá hí þohton þeóden-stóles rícne berýfan then they thought to bereave the powerful of his throne, Exon. 84 a; Th. 317, 9; Mód. 63. DER. reófan to reave, rob, bereave.

be-rýpan; p. -rýpde, -rýpte, pl. -rýpton; pp. -rýped, -rýpt To spoil; spoliare :-- Berýpton, Bt. Met. Fox 2, 23; Met. 2, 12. v. rýpan to rip, tear.

be-sacan; p. -sóc, pl. -sócon; pp. -sacen To dispute about anything; in controversiam vocare. DER. un-besacen. v. sacan.

be-sæncan; p. -sæncte; pp. -sænct to sink; mergere, L. Ælf. P. 13; Th. ii. 368, 27. v. sencan.

be-sænct sunk; mersus; pp. of be-sæncan.

be-sæt, be-sǽton besieged, Ors. 1, 14; Bos. 37, 15; p. of be-sittan.

be-sanc sank; submersit, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 75. 32; p. of be-sincan.

be-sárgian; p. ode; pp. od To lament, bewail, to mourn or be sorry for, to condole; lamentari, condolere, compati, deflere :-- Ic besárgige compatior, Ælfc. Gr. 29; Som. 33, 52 : Ælfc. T. 42, 1 : Scint. 45. 50.

be-sárgung, e; f. A sorrowing, Hymn. Surt. 126, 24. v. sárgung.

be-sárigende condoling. v. be-sárgian, sárgian.

be-sáwan to sow; conserere. v. sáwan.

be-sáwe, pl. -sáwen looked, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 170, 9; p. subj. of be-seón.

be-scær,-scear, pl. -scǽron,-sceáron sheared, shaved; p. of be-sceran.

be-sceadan; p. ede; pp. ed To shadow; obumbrare :-- For hwám besceadeþ heó múntas and móras why shadoweth it mountains and moors? Salm. Kmbl. 680; Sal. 339. v. sceadian, ofer-.

be-sceáden separated, L. E. I. 32; Th. ii. 430, 9; pp. of be-sceádan.

be-sceáf cast, Andr. Kmbl. 2384; An. 1193; p. of be-scúfan.

be-sceát shot into, precipitated one's self, Ors. 3, 3; Bos. 56, 5; p. of be-sceótan.

be-sceáwian; p. ode; pp. od To look round upon, look on, consider, regard, watch; circumspicere, intueri, considerare, respicere, perscrutari, providere :-- Hí besceáwigende circumspiciens eos, Mk. Bos. 3, 5. Ic onlócige, oððe ic besceáwige intueor, Ælfc. Gr. 27; Som. 29, 60. Besceáwiaþ æcyres lílian considerate lilia agri, Mt. Bos. 6, 28. Ðú ne besceáwast nánes mannes hád non respicis personam hominum, Mt. Bos. 22, 16. Ðæt he Alexandres [wisan] besceáwode that he might watch Alexander's conduct, Ors. 4, 5; Bos. 82, 22 : R. Ben. 55. DER. sceáwian.

be-sceáwigere, be-sceáwere a beholder; spectator, Som.

be-sceáwodnes, -ness, e; f. A seeing, vision, sight; visio, Ps. Spl. T. 9, 11.

be-scencan to give to drink. v. bi-scencan.

be-sceoren shorn, Bd. 5, 7; S. 621, 15, = be-scoren; pp. of be-sceran.

be-sceótan; he -sceóteþ, -scýt; p. -sceát, pl. -scuton; pp. -scoten To shoot into, inject, precipitate one's self, to be sent, go; injicere, se præcipitare, mitti, ire :-- Ne bescýt se deófol nǽfre swá yfel geþóht in to ðám men nunquam diabolus tam pravas cogitationes in hominem injicit, Alb. resp. 40. Curtius besceát Curtius se præcipitavit, Ors. 3, 3; Bos. 56, 5. Ðæt hí on grúnd ne bescuton ut in abyssum ne irent, Lk. Bos. 8, 31.

be-sceran, bi-sceran, -sciran, -scyran; p. -scær, -scear, pl. -scǽron, -sceáron; pp. -scoren To shear off, to shave, cut off; attondere, amputare, præcidere :-- Hý eall heora heáfod besceáron they all shaved their heads, Ors. 4, 11; Bos. 96, 37; capitibus rasis, Ors. Hav. 4, 20; p. 270, 5. Ðæt he to preóste bescoren beón mihte that he might be shorn as a priest, Bd. 4, 1; S. 564, 24. Iulianus ðeáh to preóste bescoren wǽre though Julian had been shorn for a priest, Homl. Th. i. 448. 29. Ic næs nǽfre ge-efsod ne nǽfre bescoren, and gif ic beó bescoren, ðonne beó is unmihtig óðrum mannum gelíc ferrum nunquam ascendit super caput meum, si rasum fuerit caput meum, recedet a me fortitudo mea et deficiam eroque sicut ceteri homines, Jud. 16, 17. Man ne mót hine besciran a man must not shear him, Jud. 13, 5. Gif he hine to preóste bescire [bescyre MSS. B. H.], mid xxx scillinga gebéte if he shave him like a priest, let him make amends with thirty shillings, L. Alf. pol. 35; Th. i. 84, 7, 9. Biscær, Reim. 26. v. sceran.

be-scerian, -scirian, -scyrian, -scyrigan; p. ede; pp. ed To deprive, separate, defraud; privare, separare, fraudare :-- Hér, A. D. 821, wærþ Ceolwulf his ríces bescered here Ceolwulf was deprived of his kingdom, Chr. 821; Erl. 63, 10. Ðonne ic bescired beó fram túnscíre when I am deprived of my stewardship, Lk. Bos. 16, 4. Ðone we sceoldan bescyrian ðære onfangenan ealdorlícnysse quem nos privare auctoritate percepta debemus, Bd. 1, 27; S. 492, 14. Ne syndon hí to bescyrianne gemǽnsumnysse Cristes líchoman and blódes non corporis ac sanguinis Domini communione privandi sunt, 1, 27 S. 491, 27. He bescyraþ hine sylfne fram ðære écan méde he separates himself from the everlasting reward, Homl. Th. ii. 534, 34. Ná bescyreþ of gódum hí ða gangendan on unscyldignysse non privabit bonis eos qui ambulant in innocentia, Ps. Spl. 83, 13. Mec bescyrede Scyppend eallum the Creator deprived me of all, Exon. 111 b; Th. 427, 34; Rä. 41, 101. He wæs eallra his lima þénunge bescyred he was deprived of the use of all his limbs, Bd. 5, 5; S. 617, 38. He hæfþ us ðæs leóhtes bescyred he hath deprived us of the light, Cd. 21; Th. 25, 12; Gen. 392 : 21; Th. 25, 16; Gen. 394. Ðæt ic meahte ongitan Godes ágen bearn, scyldum bescyredne that I might comprehend God's own child, separated from protections [shields], Exon. 83 b; Th. 314, 2; Mód. 8. Wuldre bescyrede from glory separated, Andr. Kmbl. 3235; An. 1620 : Cd. 221; Th. 285, 26; Sat. 343 : Exon. 8 a; Th. 3, 7; Cri. 32 : 45 b; Th. 155, 29; Gú. 867 : Ps. Th. 77. 29. Syndon hí to bescyriganne Cristes líchoman and blódes corporis et sanguinis Domini privandi sunt, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 34. Híg ne synt bepǽhte oððe bescyrede fram heora gewilnunge non sunt fraudati a desiderio suo, Ps. Lamb. 77, 30; thei weren not defraudid of her desier, Wyc. v. bi-scerian.

be-scerwan to deprive; privare :-- Ne ðínra árna me bescerwe do not deprive me of thy mercy, Ps. C. 50, 98; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 98.

be-sciered deprived, Chr. 821; Erl. 62, 11, = be-scired; pp. of be-scirian.

be-scínan; p. -scán; pp. -scinen To shine upon, illuminate; collustrare, illuminare :-- Mec heaðosigel bescíneþ the glorious sun shines upon me, Exon. 126 b; Th. 486, 18; Rä. 72, 17.

be-sciran to shear, shave, Jud. 13, 5 : L. Alf. pol. 35; Th. i. 84, 7, 9. v. be-sceran.

be-scirian to deprive, Lk. Bos. 16, 4. v. be-scerian.

be-scítan; p. -scát; pp. -sciten To bedaub; cacare :-- Besciten caccabatum, Cot. 189. v. scítan.

be-scofen thrust off, precipitated, Mk. Bos. 5, 13; pp. of be-scúfan.

be-scoren shorn, shaved, Jud. 16, 17; pp. of be-sceran.

be-screádian to cut off; descindere. DER. screádian.

be-screopan; p. -scræp, pl. -scrǽpon; pp. -screpen To scrape, BESCRAPE, make level; radere. v. screopan.

be-scrifen; part. Confessed, that hath undergone confession; confessus. v. scrífan.

be-scúfan; p. -sceáf, pl. -scufon; pp. -scofen; v. a. To shove, thrust, cast, hurl or throw, to precipitate; intrudere, immittere, detrudere, præcipitare :-- Hét hine ðá niman, and ðǽr on bescúfan then ordered to take him, and to shove him in there, Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 36, 38. Wá biþ ðǽm, ðe sceal sáwle bescúfan in fýres fæðm woe shall be to him, who shall thrust a soul into the fire's embrace, Beo. Th. 371; B. 184. Se mihtiga cyning niðer bescúfeþ in súsla grúnd the mighty king casteth thee down into the abyss of sulphur, Elen. Kmbl. 1883; El. 943. Ðé se Ælmihtiga heolstor besceáf the Almighty cast thee into darkness, Andr. Kmbl. 2384; An. 1193. Seó heord wearþ on sǽ bescofen grex precipitatus est in mare, Mk. Bos. 5, 13. v. scúfan, sceófan.

be-scuton went, Lk. Bos. 8, 31; p. pl. of be-sceótan.

be-scyldigian; p. ode; pp. od To accuse; accusare, criminari. v. scyldigian, ge-.

be-scylian; p. ede; pp. ed To look upon, to regard; intueri :-- Ðú bescylst mid óðre eágan on ða heofenlícan þing, mid óðre ðú lócast on ðás eorþlícan thou lookest with one eye on the heavenly things, and with the other thou lookest on these earthly [things], Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 18.

be-scyran to shave, L. Alf. pol. 35; Th. i. 84, 7, 9, MSS. B. H. v. be-sceran.

be-scyre should shave; attonderet, L. Alf. pol. 35; Th. i. 84, 7. 9; 3rd pers. pres. subj. of be-scyran.

be-scyred deprived, Bd. 5, 5; S. 617, 38; pp. of be-scyrian.

be-scyrednes, -ness, e; f. An abdication, a casting off, depriving; abdicatio, Cot. 14.

be-scyrian to deprive, separate, defraud, Bd. 1, 27; S. 492, 14 : 1, 27; S. 491, 27 : Homl. Th. ii. 534, 34 : Ps. Spl. 83, 13 : Exon. 111 b; Th. 427, 34; Rä. 41, 101 : Bd. 5, 5; S. 617, 38 : Cd. 21; Th. 25, 12; Gen. 392 : 21; Th. 25, 16; Gen. 394 : Exon. 83 b; Th. 314, 2; Mód. 8 : Andr. Kmbl. 3235; An. 1620 : Cd. 221; Th. 285, 26; Sat. 343 : Exon. 8 a; Th. 3, 7; Cri. 32 : 45 b; Th. 155, 29; Gú. 867 : Ps. Th. 77. 29 : Ps. Lamb. 77, 30. v. be-scerian.

be-scyrigan to deprive, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 34, v. be-scerian.

be-scyrþ shaves; 3rd pers. pres. of be-sceran.

be-scyrung, e; f. [be from, scerung from sceran to tonsure or consecrate] A deposing, degrading, putting from holy orders; exauctoratio, desecratio, exordinatio. DER. be-scyrian?

be-scýt injects, Alb. resp. 40; 3rd pers. pres. of be-sceótan.

be-seah looked about, Gen. 24, 63; p. of be-seón.

be-seald surrounded, Cd. 2; Th. 3, 27; Gen. 42; pp. of be-sellan.

be-secgan; p. -sægde, -sǽde, pl. -sægdon, -sǽdon; pp. -sægd, -sǽd [be, secgan to answer] To defend; defendere :-- Him wæs lýfnesse scald, ðæt he him móste scyldan and besecgan on andweardnesse his gesacena leave was given him, that he might shield and defend himself in the presence of his accusers, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 11. v. be-reccan.

be-sellan; p. -sealde, -salde, pl. -sealdon, -saldon; pp. -seald [be by, about, sellan to give] To surround, bring on; circumdare, obducere :-- Sinnihte beseald surrounded with perpetual night, Cd. 2; Th. 3, 27; Gen. 42.

besema, an; m. A besom; scopæ :-- He gemét hyt [hús] geclǽnsod mid besemum invent eam [domum] scopis mundatam, Mt. Foxe 12, 44. v. besma.

be-sencan, bi-sencan; p. -sencte; pp. -senced To sink, immerge; mergere, demergere :-- Ic besence mergo, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 4; Som. 31, 36. Hreóhnys besencte me tempestas demersit me, Ps. Spl. 68, 3 : Ps. Th. 68, 2 : Menol. Fox 421; Men. 212. Ðe-læs me besencen ne me demergant, Ps. Th. 68, 14. Sí besenced on sǽs grúnd demergatur in profundum maris, Mt. Bos. 18, 6 : Lk. Bos. 10, 15. Ðæt he gesáwe Satanan besencedne on ðám grúndum helle that he saw Satan sunk in the depths of hell, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 25. DER. sencan.

be-sengan; p. -sengde; pp. -senged, -sengd To singe, scorch, burn; ustulare, urere, æstuare :-- Beren ear beseng singe a barley ear, L. M. 1, 51; Lchdm. ii. 124, 18. Óðra wéron forberned oððe besenged [MS. besenced] alia æstuaverunt, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 13, 6. Hí besáwon on ða besengdan burh and on ða wéstan they looked on the burnt and wasted city, Ors. 2, 8; Bos. 51, 42.

be-seón, -sión, bi-seón; ic -seó, ðú -sihst, he -sihþ, -syhþ, pl. -seóþ; p. ic, he-seah, ðú -sáwe, pl. -sáwon; impert. -sih; pp. -sewen [be by, near, about; seón to see]. I. to look about or around; circumspicere :-- Sóna ðá hí besáwon hí, nánne hí mid him ne gesáwon suddenly when they looked about them, they saw no one with him, Mk. Bos. 9, 8. Ðá he beseah, ðá geseah he olfendas when he looked about, then he saw the camels, Gen. 24, 63. II. to see, look, behold; videre, aspicere :-- Abraham beseah upp and geseah þrí weras Abraham looked up and saw three men, Gen. 18, 2. Eágan his on þearfena beseóþ oculi ejus in pauperem respiciunt, Ps. Spl. 10, 5. Besih on me aspice in me, Ps. Lamb. 118, 132. III. to go to see, visit; visere, visitare :-- Beseoh wíngeard ðisne visita vineam istam, Ps. Th. 79. 14.

be-serian; p. ode; pp. od To rob, plunder, deprive, deceive; spoliare, fraudare :-- He hine feore [MS. fere] beserode he deprived him of life, Ps. C. 50, 22; Ps. Grn. ii. 277, 22. v. be-syrwan.

be-seten beset; circumdatus, Ps. Th. arg. 19; pp. of be-sittan.

be-settan; p. -sette, pl. -setton; pp. -seted, -sett; v. a. [be by, settan to set] To BESET, set near, appoint, to place, own, possess; circumdare, collocare, ponere :-- Seó cwén ða róde héht mid eorcnanstánum besettan [MS. besetton] the queen commanded them to beset the cross with jewels, Elen. Kmbl. 2049; El. 1026. Ic ðé mægene besette I beset thee with strength, Andr. Kmbl. 2866; An. 1435. Wǽpna smiþ besette swínlícum hine the armour-smith beset it with figures of swine, Beo. Th. 2910; B. 1453. Se hálga wæs searoþancum beseted the saint was beset with various thoughts, Andr. Kmbl. 2511; An. 1257 : Exon. 60 a; Th. 218, 19; Ph. 297. Domicianus ða réðan éhtnyssa besette on ðám cristenum Domitian appointed the cruel persecutions of the Christians, Ælfc. T. 32, 10. Sǽd þeówna his besetton ða semen servorum ejus possidebit eam, Ps. Spl. 68, 42.

be-sih see, look, behold; aspice, Ps. Lamb. 118, 132; impert. of be-seón.

be-sincan; p. -sanc, pl. -suncon; pp. -suncen To sink; submergere, demergere :-- Seó burh besanc on eorþan the city sank into the earth, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 75, 32. Twá byrig on eorþan besuncon two cities sunk into the earth, Ors. 3, 2; Bos. 54. 43. Wæs ic swíðe besuncen I was, deeply sunk, Exon. 103 b; Th. 392, 5; Rä. 11, 3. v. sincan.

be-singan; p. -sang, -song, pl. -sungon; pp. -sungen To utter enchantments, to enchant, charm, bewail; excantare incantationibus, deplorare :-- Ne sceal nán man mid galdre wyrte besingan no man shall enchant a herb with magic, Homl. Th. i. 476, 9. Besing enchant, Herb. 93, 2; Lchdm. i. 202, 13. Ge sceolon weán wópe besingan ye shall bewail torment with weeping, Exon. 41 b; Th. 139, 3; Gú. 587.

besining, e; f. A bending; sinuatio :-- Besining sinuatio, Ælfc. Gl. l00; Som. 77, 8; Wrt. Voc. 55, 11.

be-sión to look about :-- Ðæt he hine ne besió that he look not about him, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 170, 17. v. be-seón I.

be-sittan, to be-sittanne; p. -sæt, -sætt, pl. -sǽton; pp. -seten [be by, near, sittan to sit]. I. to sit round, surround, beset, besiege; circumdare, cingere, obsidere :-- Ða Læcedemonian besǽton ða burh Mæsiane tyn winter the Lacedæmonians surrounded the city of Messene for ten years, Ors. 1, 14; Bos. 37, 15. Se cyng lét [hí] besittan ðone castel the king permitted [them] to beset the castle, Chr. 1087; Erl. 226, 9. He besæt ða sinherge sweorda láfe circumdedit magno exercitu ensium reliquias [superstites], Beo. Th. 5864; B. 2936. He fór to Hrofe ceastre, and besætt ðone castel he went to Rochester, and beset the castle, Chr. 1087; Erl. 226, 5. Hie hine besǽton on ǽlce healfe on ánum fæstenne they beset it [the army] on every side in a fastness, Chr. 894; Erl. 92, 23 : 918; Erl. 102, 35. He wæs beseten mid his feóndum on ðære byrig he was beset by his enemies in the city, Ps. Th. arg. 19 : Chr. 894; Erl. 92, 7. Ic eom beseten obsideor, Ælfc. Gr. 37; Som. 39, 8. Cassander hý hét ðǽr besittan Cassander commanded to besiege them there, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 74, 16. Hí þohton [MS. þohtan] hine inne to besittanne they thought to besiege him therein, Chr. 1094; Erl. 230, 22. Antigones hine bedráf into ánum fæstenne and hine ðǽr besæt Antigonus drove him into a fastness and besieged him there, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 73, 18 : Chr. 1l06; Erl. 241, 8. Gif he ðæs mægenes ne hæbbe ðæt he hine inne besitte if he have not sufficient power that he may besiege him within, L. Alf. pol. 42; Th. i. 90, 11. II. to be in session, to hold sessions, to be able to sit as master of, be in possession, to possess; considere, considere ad aliquid, possidere :-- Fira bearn æht besittaþ filii hominum ad deliberationem considunt, Andr. Kmbl. 820; An. 410. Ealdormen æht besǽton princes sat in council, Andr. Kmbl. 1216; An. 608 : 1254; An. 627: Elen. Kmbl. 944; Fl. 473. Wálá wá! ðæt is sárlíc, ðæt swá leóhtes andwlitan men sceolan ágan and besittan þýstra ealdor alas! it is a woful thing, that the prince of darkness should own and possess [have influence over by sitting or being near, hold, be in possession of] men of so bright a countenance; heu, proh dolor! quod tam lucidi vultus homines tenebrarum auctor possidet, Bd. 2, 1; S. 501, 16.

be-siwian; p. ede; pp. ed To sew together, to join; jungere :-- Besiwed feðergeweorc opus plumarium, Cot. 145. v. siwian.

be-slægen slain, cut off, Chr. 937; Th. 205, 28, col. 2, = be-slagen; pp. of be-sleán.

be-slǽpan; p. -slép; pp. -slǽpen [be, slǽpan to sleep] To sleep; dormire :-- He oft beslép he often slept, L. Pen. 16; Th. ii. 284. 3.

be-slagen slain, taken away, Chr. 937; Th. 204, 28, col. 1; pp. of be-sleán.

be-sleán; p. -slóh, pl. -slógon; pp. -slagen; -slægen, -slegen; instr. To beat, strike or cut off, take away, bereave; decollare, cædendo orbare, privare :-- Ðǽr wæs heáfde beslagen se strengesta martyr sanct Albanus decollatus itaque martyr fortissimus sanctus Albanus, there the bravest martyr, St. Alban, was beheaded, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478, 33. He beslóh synsceaðan gewealde he bereft the impious of power, Cd. 4; Th. 4, 17; Gen. 55. Wuduwan freóndum beslægene widows bereft of friends, 94; Th. 121, 15; Gen. 2010.

be-slegen slain, Chr. 937; Th. 205, 28, col. 1, = be-slagen; pp. of be-sleán.

be-slép slept, L. Pen. 16; Th. ii. 284, 3; p. of be-slǽpan.

be-slépan; p. -slépte; subj. pl. -slépen; pp. -sléped, -slépt To slip, lay, place, put, and with the preposition on on, upon, - to slip, put or lay on, to impose, clothe; ponere, imponere, induere :-- Hú hefig geoc he beslépte on ealle how heavy a yoke he laid on all! Bt. 16, 4; Fox 58, 16. Beslépen hí on hý bysmor induantur confusione! Ps. Th. 34, 24. Beslépte mid gyldnum fnasum in fimbriis aureis circumamicta, 44, 15. v. slépan.

be-slítan; p. -slát, pl. -sliton; pp. -sliten To slit, tear; findere, lacerare :-- Ðec sculon moldwyrmas monige seonowum beslítan many mould-worms shall tear thee from thy sinews, Exon. 99 a; Th. 371, 9; Seel. 73. Hér sculon abídan bán besliten seonwum here shall abide the bones torn from the sinews, Exon. 99 a; Th. 370, 20; Seel. 62. v. slítan.

be-slógon, be-slóh bereft, Cd. 4; Th. 4, 17; Gen. 55; p. of be-sleán.

BESMA, besema, an; m. A BESOM, broom, an instrument of punishment made of twigs, a rod; scopæ, virga :-- Geclǽnsod mid besmum scopis mundatam, Mt. Bos. 12, 44; clensid with bismes, Wyc. He hit [hús] gemét mid besmum afeormod invenit eam [domum] scopis mundatam, Lk. Bos. 11, 25; he fyndith it [hous] clensid with beesmes, Wyc. He [Brutus] hý [his fíf suna] hét gebindan, and mid besman swingan he [Brutus] gave orders to bind them [his five sons], and scourge them with rods [virgis cecidit, Hay.], Ors. 2, 3; Bos. 42, 3. [Frs. besma, m : Dut. bézem, m : O. Dut. besem, bessem, m : Ger. besen, m : O. H. Ger. besamo : Bret. bezo, m : a birch.]

be-smítan; p. -smát, pl. -smiton; pp. -smiten [be, smitta smut] To BESMUT, defile, dirty, pollute, contaminate; polluere, inquinare, coinquinare, contaminare :-- Ðæt hine besmítan mǽge quod possit eum coinquinare, Mk. Bos. 7, 15 : Cd. 127; Th. 162, 14; Gen. 2681 : Judth. 10; Thw. 22, 12; Jud. 59 : Exon. 81 a; Th. 305, 8; Fä. 85. Ic besmíte polluo, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 3; Som. 30, 49 : Ps. Spl. C. 88, 34. Ðis synt ða þing ðe ðone mann besmítaþ; ne besmít ðone mann, ðeáh he unþwogenum handum etc hæc sunt quæ coinquinant hominem; non lotis autem manibus manducare, non coinquinat hominem, Mt. Bos. 15, 20 : 15, 18 : Ps. Th. 54, 20. Besmiten mid synne defiled with sin, Cd. 74; Th. 91, 30; Gen. 1520 : Jos. 7, 12 : Bt. Met. Fox 8, 65; Met. 8, 33. Ðæt hýg nǽron besmitene ut non contaminarentur, Jn. Bos. 18, 28 : Ps. Th. 52, 1 : 106, 16 : Mk. Bos. 7, 2, 5.

be-smitenes, -ness, -nyss, e; f. Dirtiness, SMUTTINESS, filthiness, pollution, abomination, infection; sordes, inquinamentum, pollutio, coinquinatio :-- Tilode se Drihtnes wer ða stówe fram unsyfernyssum geclǽnsian ðara ǽrrena mána and besmitenessa the man of God toiled to cleanse the place from the impurities of former misdeeds and abominations, Bd. 3, 23; S. 554, 28. Ðæt of wyrtruman besmitenysse acenned biþ quod ex pollutionis radice generatur, Bd. 1, 27; S. 494, 38, 41. Bútan ǽlcere besmitennysse without any pollution, Homl. Th. i. 538, 28.

be-smiðian; p. ode; pp. od; v. trans. To forge, to make or work as a smith does; excudere, fabricare, fabrefacere :-- Innan and útan íren-bendum searoþoncum besmiðod within and without, cunningly forged with iron bands, Beo. Th. 1554; B. 775. DER. smiðian.

be-smyred; pp. Besmeared; interlitum, Cot. 108. DER. smyrian.

be-snǽdan; p. de; pp. ed To cut, lop; amputare :-- Engel hét besnǽdan an angel commanded to cut it, Cd. 200; Th. 248, 16; Dan. 514. Ðæt ðæt treów sceolde, telgum besnǽded, afeallan that the tree, lopped of its branches, should fall, Cd. 202; Th. 250, 34; Dan. 556.

be-sníwod; pp. BESNOWED, covered with snow, snowy; nive tectus, ninguidus :-- Besníwod ninguidus, Ælfc. Gl. 93; Som. 75, 94; Wrt. Voc. 52,. 44. DER. sníwan.

be-snyðian; p. ede; pp. ed To deprive; privare :-- Ongénþeów ealdre besnyðede Hǽþcyn Ongentheow had deprived Hæthcyn of life, Beo. Th. 5841; B. 2924 : Andr. Kmbl. 2650; An. 1326 : Exon. 107 a; Th. 407, 29; Rä. 27, 1.

be-solcen; pp. Slow, inactive, dull, stupefied; deses, torpidus :-- Ðýlæs he weorþe besolcen lest he becomes stupefied, Past. 35, 1; Hat. MS. 45 a, 15. v. solcen.

be-sóne; adv. Soon, immediately; mox, statim :-- Cweðe se preóst besóne let the priest immediately say, L. Ælf. C. 36; Th. ii. 358, 24. v. sóna.

beso-reádian; p. ode; pp. od [baso red, purple, reádian to redden] To make a reddish purple; rubefacere :-- Besoreáda ða rinda ealle útan make all the rinds on the outside a reddish purple [by soaking in chalybiate water?], L. M. 1, 47; Lchdm. ii. 116, 3.

be-sorg, -sorh; adj. Anxious, careful, dear, beloved; sollicitns, carus : Ðǽr wǽron ofslægene hyre þægna feówer ðe hyre besorge wǽron there were slain four of her thanes which were dear to her, Chr. 917; Erl. 105, 25. Papinianus wæs ealra his deorlinga besorgost Papinianus was the most beloved of all his favourites, Bt. 29, 2; Fox 104, 25. Besorh carus, R. Ben. 72.

be-sorgian, bi-sorgian; p. ode; pp. od To be sorry for, to care for, be anxious about, fear; curare :-- Gif ðú me lufodest, ðú hit besorgodest if thou lovedst me, thou wouldst be sorry for it, Apol. Th. 20, 27. He deáþ ne bisorgaþ he cares not for death, Exon. 61 a; Th. 223, 32; Ph. 368. Ðú hæfst gesúnd gehealden eall ðæt deórwyrðoste, ðætte ðú ðe besorgod hæfdest thou hast kept entire everything most precious, which thou wast anxious about, Bt. 10; Fox 28, 10. Ne bisorgaþ he synne to fremman he feareth not to perpetrate sin, Exon. 30 b; Th. 95, 12; Cri. 1556.

be-sorh anxious, dear, beloved, R. Ben. 72. v. be-sorg.

be-spanan, bi-spanan; p. -spón, -speón; pp. -spanen, -sponen; v. trans. To allure, entice, incite, urge, induce, bring on any one; allicere, illicere, incitare, provocare, inducere :-- He deriende leóda bespeón to ðysan earde he allured pernicious people to this land, Chr. 959; Th. 219, 18. Gif he ǽnigne man on synne bespeón if he have enticed any man to sin, L. Pen. 16; Th. ii. 284, 13. Ðæt gewin ðe hió hint on bespón mid manigfealdon firen-lustum the war which she brought upon him by her manifold wicked desires, Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 26, 40.

be-sparrad shut, Cot. 145. v. sparran.

be-speón, be-spón allured, enticed, Chr. 959; Th. 219, 18; p. of be-spanan.

be-spirian, -spirigan, -spyrigan; p. ode; pp. od To inquire, trace; inquirere, investigare :-- Be ðon ðe yrfe bespirige of him who traces cattle, L. Ath. iv. 2; Th. i. 222, 13. Se ðe bespyrige [bespirige, Wilk.] yrfe innan óðres land, aspirige hit út, se ðe ðæt land áge, gif he mǽge he who traces cattle into another's land, let him trace it out, who owns that land, if he can, iv. 2; Th. i. 222, 14.

be-spræc, pl. -sprǽcon spoke to, charged; p. of be-sprecan.

be-sprǽcen spoken to, charged, L. Eth. ii. 9; Wilk. 105, 47, = besprecen; pp. of be-sprecan.

be-sprængan; p. de; pp. ed To besprinkle; aspergere, Herb. 86, 4; Lchdm. i. 190, 11, note, v. be-sprengan.

be-sprecan; part. -sprecende, ic -sprece, ðú -sprecest, -sprycst, he -spreceþ, -sprycþ, pl. -sprecaþ; p. -spræc, pl. -sprǽcon; pp. -sprecen, -spræcen [be by, sprecan to speak] To speak to, to tell, pretend, plead, speak against, to complain, charge, accuse, impeach; obloqui :-- Fram stefne besprecendre oððe ofersprecendes a voce obloquentis, Ps. Lamb. 43, 17. Cristene Róma besprycþ Christian Rome complains, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 45. Hú ge besprecaþ how ye complain! Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 34, 9. Hit besprecen biþ it is charged, L. Eth. ii. 8; Th. i. 288, 16 : Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 36, 39.

be-sprengan; p. de; pp. ed To besprinkle; aspergere :-- Bespreng me mid ysopon, ðæt ic beó geclǽnsod asperges me hyssopo, et mundabor, Ps. Th. 50, 8. Besprengc hyne mid ðam wætere besprinkle him with the water, Herb. 86, 4; Lchdm. i. 190, 11.

be-sprycþ tells, complains, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 45; 3rd pers. pres. of be-sprecan.

be-spyrigan to inquire, trace, L. Ath. iv. 2; Th. i. 222, 14. v. be-spirian.

best; adv. sup. BEST, most; optime :-- Ðe helpes best behófaþ who most wants help, L. C. S. 69; Th. i. 412, 3; MS. A. [Plat. Dut. Ger. best, beste.] The usual form is wel well, bet better, betst best = most. In the text the preceding passage has betst behófaþ most wants.

besta; m : seó, ðæt beste the BEST; optimus :-- Scipio, se besta Rómána witena Scipio, the best of the Roman senators, Ors. 5, 4; Bos. 104, 38; Cot. MS. Tib. B. I. fol. 85 b. v. betst; adj.

be-stæl, pl. -stǽlon stole upon, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 33 : Chr. 876; Erl. 79, 13; p. of be-stelan.

be-stæpþ steps, steps upon, treads, Jos. 1, 3; pres. of be-stapan.

be-standan; p. -stód, pl. -stódon; pp. -standen To stand by or near, to stand around, surround, to stand on or upon, occupy, detain; adstare, circumstare, circumdare, detinere :-- Him bestande man adstet quis ei, L. Alf. P. 48; Th. ii. 384, 35. Abraham híg bestód on ða ealdan wísan Abraham stood by her after the old custom, Gen. 23, 2. Fæderas and móddru bestandaþ heora bearna líc fathers and mothers stand around the corpses of their children, Homl. Th. ii. 124, 17. Ðá bestódon ða Iudeas hyne útan circumdederunt ergo eum Judæi, Jn. Bos. 10, 24 : Byrht. Th. 133, 51; By. 68. Ahrede me æt ðám ðe me habbaþ útan bestanden redime me a circumdantibus me, Ps. Th. 31, 8. Ðæs wíf wæs hú hugu xl daga mid grimre ádle bestanden cujus conjux quadraginta ferme diebus erat acerbissimo languore detenta, Bd. 5, 4; S. 617, note 6.

be-stapan; he -stæpþ; p. -stóp, pl. -stópon; pp. -stapen To step, step upon, tread with the foot, go, enter; gradi, calcare, ire, inire :-- Eall ðæt rýmet, ðe eówer fótswaðu on bestæpþ omnem locum, quem calcaverit vestigium pedis vestri, Jos. 1, 3. Se deófol into Iudan bestóp the devil went [entered] into Judas, Homl. Th. ii. 242, 14.

be-stelan, bi-stelan; p. -stæl, pl. -stǽlon; subj. p. -stǽle, pl. -stǽlen; pp. -stolen To steal away or upon; fugere, obrepere :-- Gif hwá on óðre scíre hine bestele if any one steal himself away into another shire, L. In. 39; Th. i. 126, 10. Bestelan on Theodosius hindan to steal upon Theodosius behind, Ors. 6, 36; Bos. 131, 25. Hannibal bestæl on Marcellus Hannibal stole upon Marcellus, Ors. 4, 10; Bos. 94, 19 : Past. 28, 6; Hat. MS. 38 a, 6. Ðá he nihtes on ungearwe hí on bestæl, and hí swíðe forslóh and fordyde then he stole upon them unawares by night, and grievously slew and destroyed them, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 33. Hí nihtes bestǽlon ðære fyrde they stole upon the army by night, Chr. 876; Erl. 79, 13. Ðý-læs he on niht onweg fluge and bestǽle lest he should have fled and stole away by night, Bd. 4, 22; S. 591, 11.

be-stéman, -stýman; p. de; pp. ed To BESTEAM, bedew, make damp, make wet; humectare, madefacere, circumfundere :-- Wǽron beorhhliðu blóde bestémed the mountain-brows were besteamed with blood, Cd. 166; Th. 206, 8; Exod. 448. Wæs ðæs hálgan líc swáte bestémed the body of the saint was besteamed with blood, Andr. Kmbl. 2480; An. 1241. Usses Dryhtnes ród blóde bestémed our Lord's rood bedewed with blood, Exon. 23 b; Th. 67, 10; Cri. 1086. Hwílum hit [beácen] wæs mid wǽtan bestémed at times it [the beacon] was damped with wet, Rood Kmbl. 44; Kr. 22. Ic wæs mid blóde bestémed begoten of ðæs guman sídan I was wet with blood poured from the man's side, 96; Kr. 48. Hú ðú wǽgflotan wǽre bestémdan sund wisige how thou directest the sailing of the wave-floater [ship] wetted with the sea, Andr. Kmbl. 974; An. 487. Dreóre bestémed wet with blood, 2949; An. 1477. DER. stéman.

be-stingan; p. -stang, pl. -stungon; pp. -stungen To besting, thrust, push; trudere, immittere, Med. ex Quadr. 5, 1; Lchdm. i. 348, 4.

be-stód, pl. -stódon stood by or near, stood around, surrounded, Gen. 23, 2 : Byrht. Th. 133, 51; By. 68; p. of be-standan.

be-stolen stolen, Exon. 103 b; Th. 393, 7; Rä. 12, 6; pp. of be-stelan.

be-stóp stepped, stepped into, entered, Homl. Th. ii. 242, 14; p. of be-stapan.

be-streddon heaped up; aggeraverunt, Bd. 3, 2; S. 524, note 20. v. be-styrian.

be-streówian; p. ode; pp. od To BESTREW; superspargere :-- Hí mid duste heora heáfod bestreówodon sparserunt pulverem super caput suum, Iob Grn. 2, 12.

be-streðan, -stryðan; p. ede, de; pp. ed To heap up, erect; aggerare, obducere :-- Stánum bestreðed heaped up with stones, Exon. 128 b; Th. 493, 28; Rä. 81, 38. Bestryðed fæste firmly erected, Exon. 93 b; Th. 351, 29; Sch. 87 : Bd. 3, 2; S. 524, note 20.

be-strídan, he -strít, pl. -strídaþ; p. -strád, pl. -stridon; pp. -striden To BESTRIDE; ascendere :-- Bestrídan hors to bestride a horse; equum ascendere, Lye. v. be, strídan to stride.

be-stroden bespoiled, confiscated, robbed, Cot. 108; pp. of be-strúdan.

be-strúdan; p. -streád, pl. -strudon; pp. -stroden To bespoil, spoil, confiscate, rob; spoliare, privare, confiscare :-- Ða ðe Sodoma and Gomorra golde berófan bestrudon stigwitum qui Sodoma et Gomorra auro spoliarunt, incolis privarunt, Cd. 95; Th. 125, 14; Gen. 2079. Bestroden confiscatus, Cot. 108.

be-strýpan; p. -strýpte; pp. -strýped To strip, rob, spoil, bereave; exuere, spoliare :-- Bestrýpan widuwan viduas spoliare vel exuere, Off. Episc. 8. Ealle ða bestrýpte he æt lande he bereaved all those of land, Chr. 1065; Erl. 196, 11.

be-stryðan; p. ede, de; pp. ed To heap up, erect; aggerare, obducere :-- Bestryðed fæste firmly erected, Exon. 93 b; Th. 351, 29; Sch. 87 : Bd. 3, 2; S. 524, note 20. v. be-streðan.

be-stungen pushed :-- On næsþyrl bestungen pushed into the nostril, Med. ex Quadr. 5, 1; Lchdm. i. 348, 4; pp. of be-stingan.

be-stýman; p. de; pp. ed To besteam, bedew, make damp, make wet; humectare, madefacere, circumfundere :-- Drihtsele blóde bestýmed the princely hall besteamed with blood, Beo. Th. 977; B. 486. v. be- stéman.

be-styrian; p. ede; pp. ed [be, styrian to move] To heap up, pile up; aggerare :-- His þegnas mid moldan hit bestyredon and gefæstnedon his thanes heaped up with mould and fastened it, Bd. 3, 2; S. 524, 20.

be-styrman; p. de; pp. ed To BESTORM, storm, agitate; flatibus agere, agitare :-- Ðonne hit bestyrmaþ ðisse worulde ungeþwǽrnessa quando ipsam agitant hujus mundi inquietudines, Bt. 3, 2; Fox 6, 8. DER. styrman.

be-suncen sunk, Exon. 103 b; Th. 392, 5; Rä. 11, 3; pp. of besincan.

be-swác deceived, enticed, seduced, Andr. Kmbl. 1226; An. 613; p. of be-swícan.

be-swælan; p. de; pp. ed To burn, sweal, scorch, singe; adurere, ustulare :-- Næs hyra feax fýre beswæled nor was a hair of them burned by the fire, Cd. 195; Th. 243, 18; Dan. 438. Glédum beswæled scorched by gleeds, Beo. Th. 6075; B. 3041. DER. swelan.

be-swápan; p. -sweóp, pl. -sweópon; pp. -swápen [be, swápan to sweep] To clear up, persuade, cover over, clothe, protect; suadere, cooperire, amicire, munire :-- Gif hwylc Rǽdwolde on mód beswápe si gui Redualdo suadeat, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 3. Hí hí mid scýtan besweóp she covered herself over with a sheet, 3, 9; S. 534, 13. Beswápen [beswapyn MS.] leóhte swá swá of rægle amictus lumine sicut vestimento, Ps. Spl. C. 103, 2. Ðæt he bió wið ǽlce orsorgnesse beswápen that he shall be protected against every pleasure, Past. 14, 3; Hat. MS. 17 b, 21.

be-swemman; p. -swemde; pp. -swemmed, -swemd To make to swim; natare facere :-- Ðeáh hí beswemde weorþon though they be made to swim, Bt. 37, 4; Fox 192, 28.

be-sweóp covered over, clothed, Bd. 3, 9; S. 534, 13; p. of be-swápan.

be-sweðian, bi-sweðian; p. ede; pp. ed To bind up, swathe; ligare :-- Mid ácumban besweðe bind up with tow, L. M. I, 1; Lchdm. ii. 22, 21. v. sweðian, ge-sweðian.

be-swíc, big-swíc, bí-swíc, es; m. [be, big, bí intensive; swíc deceit, swícan to deceive] Deceit, a deceiving, treachery, snare; fraus, deceptio, dolus = δόλos, decipula :-- Bútan bræde and beswíce [bigswíce, bíswíce, Th. i. 160, 7, note 6] absque frgmento et fraude, L. Ed. 1; Wilk. 48, 38. Bíswícum deceptionibus, Mone B. 1174. Philippus ealle ða cyningas mid bíswíce ofslóh Philip slew all the kings by treachery, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 60, 13. To bíswíce his nýhstan in dolo proximo suo, Ps. Th. 23, 4. Beswíc decipula, Cot. 61. Ða woruldwélan synt gesceapene to bíswíce monnum worldly riches are created for a snare to men, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, 3.

be-swícan, bi-swícan; ic -swíce, ðú -swícest, -swícst, he -swíceþ, -swícþ, pl. -swícaþ; p. -swác, pl. -swicon; pp. -swicen; v. a. [be by, swícan to deceive] To deceive, entice, seduce, delude, betray, offend, supplant, weaken, evade; decipere, illicere, seducere, illudere, prodere, scandalizare, supplantare, deficere, evadere :-- He ongan sirwan hú he hine beswícan mihte he began to plot how he might deceive him, Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 35, 19 : Cd. 23; Th. 29, 17; Gen. 451. Hý beswícaþ weardas the guardians deceive them, Exon. 116 a; Th. 446, 2; Dóm. 16 : Ps. Th. 61, 9. Ne beswíc ðú ðínne néxtan deceive not thy neighbour, Lev. 19, 11. Me nædre beswác the serpent deceived me, Cd. 42; Th. 55, 20; Gen. 897 : Exon. 61 b; Th. 226, 30; Ph. 413 : Andr. Kmbl. 1226; An. 613. We beswicon [MS. beswican] us sylfe we have deceived ourselves, Exon. 121 a; Th. 464, 31; Hö. 96. Hycgaþ hú ge hí beswícen think how ye may deceive them, Cd. 22; Th. 28, 9; Gen. 433. Mid gedwolan beswicen errore deceptus, Deut. 30, 17 : Exon. 97 a; Th. 363, 20; Wal. 56. Ge sind beswicene ye are deceived, Andr. Kmbl. 1489; An. 746. Ic beswíce illicio, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 31, 67. Gif hwá fǽmnan beswíce unbeweddode if any one entice an unbetrothed woman, L. Alf. 29; Th. i. 52, 5. Feóndas sóþfæstra sáwle willaþ beswícan fiends will seduce the souls of the righteous, Exon. 41 a; Th. 136, 12; Gú. 540. Wæs he beswicen fram his wífe ab uxore sua seductus est, Bd. 2, 15; S. 518, 29 : Cd. 26; Th. 33, 32; Gen. 529. Hiora ealdormen wǽron beswicene principes eorum seducti sunt, Ps. Th. 106, 39. Forðamðe ðú me beswice quia illusisti mihi, Num. 22, 29. Sindon ge beswicene ye are deluded, Exon. 41 b; Th. 139, 22; Gú. 597. Us Godríc hæfþ beswicene Godric has betrayed us, Byrht. Th. 138, 51; By. 238. Ðæt eów beswícþ hoc vos scandalizat? Jn. Bos. 6, 61 : Mt. Bos. 18, 6. Ða ðe þohton beswícan færelde míne qui cogitaverunt supplantare gressus meos, Ps. Spl. 139, 5. Úton acræftan hú we heora mágon [MS. magan] beswícan let us plan how we can weaken them, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 47, 20. Ne mæg hit wildeór beswícan a wild beast cannot evade it, Salm. Kmbl. 572; Sal. 285. Ðú hafast ðínra feónda handa beswicene hostium manus evasisti, Bd. 2, 12; S. 515, 23.

be-swícende, an; f. A deceiver, harlot; pellex, Cot. 170.

be-swícian; p. ode, ede, ade; pp. od, ed, ad [be, swícian to wander] To go from, evade, escape, be without, be free from; evadere, carere :-- Ða ðe ðone deáþ beswícian myhton [myhtan MS.] qui mortem evadere poterant, Bd. 1, 12; S. 481, 1. Ðæt he ðone écan deáþ beswícode ut ipse mortem evaderet æternam, Bd. 3. 23; S. 555, 36 : 2, 12; S. 512, 36. Ðæt heó ðære langan untrumnesse beswícede se infirmitate longa carere, Bd. 5, 4; S. 617, 24. Torhtgyþ ðære tungan onstyrenesse be-swícade Torctgyd linguæ motu caruit, 4, 9; S. 577, 17.

be-swincan; p. -swanc, pl. -swuncon; pp. -swuncen To toil, labour, make with toil; laborare :-- Ic sende eów to rípanne, ðæt ðæt ge ne be-swuncon; óðre swuncon, and ge eódon on hyra geswinc ego misi vos metere quod vos non laborastis; alii laboraverunt, et vos in labores eorum introistis, Jn. Bos. 4, 38. Ðæt hrægl is beswuncen laboratur vestis, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Som. 22, 48.

be-swingan; p. -swang, pl. -swungon; pp. -swungen To scourge, beat; flagellare, verberare :-- Ic wæs beswungen ealne dæg fui flagellatus tota die, Ps. Lamb. 72, 14 : Bt. Met. Fox 25, 91; Met. 25, 46. Híg ne beóþ beswungene non flagellabuntur, Ps. Lamb. 72, 5 : Ex. 5, 16. Ic eom beswungen verberor, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 3, 32. Ic eom be-swungen I am beaten; vapulo, 19; Som. 23, 3.

be-swuncen made with toil, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Som. 22, 48; pp. of be-swincan.

be-swungen beaten, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 20; pp. of be-swingan.

be-swylian; p. ede; pp. ed To soil, stain; polluere, inficere :-- Hit wæs beswyled mid swátes gange it was soiled with running of blood, Rood Kmbl. 45; Kr. 23.

be-sylfred; pp. [seolfer silver] Silvered, BESILVERED; deargentatus, Ps. 67, 14, Lye. v. ofer-sylfrian.

be-sylian; p. ede; pp. ed To soil, stain; maculare, inquinare :-- Besyled stained; maculatus, Bt. 16, 4; Fox 58, 18 : Elen. Kmbl. 1390; El. 697. v. selian.

be-syrewian; p. ede; pp. ed To ensnare, deceive; circumvenire, decipere, machinare :-- Hí woldon hine besyrewian they would deceive him, Chr. 1002; Erl. 137, 34. v. be-syrwan.

be-syrian; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed To rob, plunder, deprive, deceive; spoliare, fraudare, dejicere :-- Ðæt hí mǽgon besyrian ðone earman ut dejiciant inopem, Ps. Th. 36, 13. Cirus hý besyrode Cyrus ensnared them, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 45, 20. Hine Rodbeard besyrede Robert deceived him, Chr. 1093; Erl. 229, 5. Ða Scottas heora cyng Dunecan besyredon the Scots ensnared their king Duncan, 1094; Erl. 230, 40. v. be-syrwan.

be-syrwan, -syrewian, -syrian, -serian; p. -syrwde; pp. -syrwed To ensnare, deceive; circumvenire, decipere, machinari :-- Ðæt híg woldon ðone Hǽlend mid fácne besyrwan ut Iesum dolo tenerent, Mt. Bos. 26, 4. Mynte se mánscaða manna cynnes sumne besyrwan the wicked spoiler expected to ensnare one of the race of men, Beo. Th. 1430; B. 713 : 1888; B. 942 : Cd. 127; Th. 162, 13; Gen. 2680. v. syrwan.

BET, bett; adv. [? from bet well; comp. betor better? contracted to bet; sup. betost contracted to betst, q. v.] BETTER; melius :-- Ðá acsode he, to hwylcum tíman him bet wǽre interrogabat ergo horam ab eis in qua melius habuerit, Jn. Bos. 4, 52. Ðæt se hwǽte mǽge ðý bet weaxan that the wheat may grow the better, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 24. Hwonne his horse bett wurde till his horse should be better, Bd. 3, 9; S. 533, 34. [Chauc. Piers bet : Scot. bet : O. Sax. bet : Frs. O. Frs. bet : M. Dut. N. Dut. bet : Ger. basz : M. H. Ger. baz : O. H. Ger. baz : O. Nrs. betr.] DER. abet. v. wel well.

be-tǽcan; p. -tǽhte, pl. -tǽhton; pp. -tǽeht; v. a. [be by, tǽcan to teach, shew]. I. to shew; ostendere :-- He eów betǽcþ mycele healle ipse ostendet vobis cænaculum magnum, Lk. Bos. 22, 12. II. to BETAKE, impart, deliver, commit, put in trust; impertire, adsignare, tradere, commendare :-- Ic betǽce híg ðam yrþlincge adsigno eos aratori, Coll. Monast. Th. 20, 31. Sum man clypode hys þeówas, and betǽhte hym hys ǽhta homo vocavit servos suos, et tradidit illis bona sua, Mt. Bos. 25, 14; a man clepide his seruauntis, and bitoke to hem his goodis, Wyc : Gen. 9, 2 : Ps. Th. 104, 17 : Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 48, 6. Swá us be-tǽhton, ða ðe hit of frymþe gesáwon sicut tradiderunt nobis, qui ab initio ipsi viderunt, Lk. Bos. 1, 2 : Elen. Kmbl. 1167; El. 585. Man hý ðære abedissan betǽhton they committed her to the abbess, Chr. 1052; Ed. 181, 28. Ðæt we móton ðé betǽcan sáwle úre that we may commit our souls to thee, Hy. 7, 82; Hy. Grn. ii. 289, 82 : Runic pm. 20 : Kmbl. 343, 18; Hick. Thes. i. 135. III. to send, follow, pursue; mittere, insequi, amandare :-- Betǽcan [MS, betæcen] cildru on scóle to send children to school; mittere pueros in scholam, Obs. Lun. § 4; Lchdm. iii. 184, 28. Mid swiftum húndum ic betǽce wildeór with swift hounds I pursue wild beasts; cum velocibus canibus insequor feras, Coll. Monast. Th. 21, 27. Ic betǽce fram me amando, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 48, 35.

be-tǽcung, e; f. A betaking; traditio. v. be, tǽcung, be-tǽcan.

be-tǽhte, pl. -tǽhton delivered, committed, Gen. 9, 2 : Chr. 1052; Erl. 181, 28; p. of be-tǽcan II.

be-táht betrothed, Mt. Lind. Stv. 1, 18, = be-tǽht; pp. of be-tǽcan II.

be-táhten, Chr. 654; Erl. 29, 11, = betǽhton committed; p. of betǽcan II.

bétan, ic béte; p. bétte; pp. béted; v. trans. [Goth. ó = A. Sax. ó, é, thus Goth. bótyan = bótan = A.Sax. bétan]. I. to make better, to improve, amend, repair, restore; emendare, reparare, reficere, mederi, expiare :-- Ðæt he bétte that he should improve, Bd. 5, 13; S. 632, 11 : Ex. 21, 22. Hú ðú meaht ðíne æceras bétan how thou mayest improve thy fields, Lchdm. i. 398, 1. II. joined with fýr to mend or repair a fire, to light, or make a fire, to kindle; focum reparare. [In this sense böten is used in Low German at the present day :-- Böt füer make the fire. So in Frs. fiúr boetsje struere focum.] Ðá hét he bétan micel fýr then he ordered a great fire to be lighted, Ors. 6, 32; Bos. 129, 10. III. to remedy, compensate, make amends; compensare :-- Ic hit béte I will remedy it, Deut. 1, 17. [Chauc. bete : Piers bete : R. Glouc. bete : Laym. beten, bæten : Orm. betenn : O. Sax. bótean : Plat. betern to repair; böten to mend the fire : Dut. baten to profit; beteren to amend : O. Frs. beta, beteria to repair : Ger. bessern to repair : Goth. bótyan : Dan. böde : Swed. böta : Icel. bæta; bet better.] DER. gebétan, gebétung, unbéted.

betast best; optimus :-- Betast hereféðan blícaþ best martial bands shine, Exon. 22 b; Th. 62, 36; Cri. 1012. v. betst; adj.

BÉTE, an; f : béte, an; n ? BEET, a root from which sugar is often extracted; bēta = σεύτλoν, n :-- Sindon eáþ begeátra béte and mealwe beet and mallow are more easily procured, L. M. 2, 30; Lchdm. ii. 226, 25 : iii. 12, 26. Wyrc drænc of ðære bétan [MS. beton] work a drink of the beet, Lchdm. iii. 22, 6. Beðe mid bétan leáfum foment with leaves of beet, L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 100, 12 : iii. 2, 8 : 44, 8 : 114, 13. Nim ða bétan, ðe gehwǽr weaxaþ take the beet, which groweth anywhere, L. M. 2, 33; Lchdm. ii. 238, 3 : iii. 22, 12. Nim béte [acc. n.] ðe biþ ánsteallet take beet, which is one-stalked, iii. 70, 2. [Dut. beet, biet, f : Ger. beete, f : O. H. Ger. bieza, f : Fr. bette, f : Ital. bieta, f : Lat. beta, f.]

be-teáh accused; accusavit, Chr. 1096; Th. 362, 32; p. of be-teón.

be-teldan, bi-teldan; p. -teald, pl. -tuldon; pp. -tolden [be, teldan to cover, teld a tent]. To cover, cover over, surround, overwhelm; tegere, supertegere, circumdare, obruere :-- He ðæt wælreáf wyrtum biteldeþ he covers the dead spoil with herbs, Exon. 59 b; Th. 217, 1; Ph. 273. Láme bitolden covered with clay [buried], 64 a; Th. 235, 11; Ph. 555 : 64 b; Th. 238, 25; Ph. 609. Hæfde sigora weard betolden leófne leódfruman mid lofe sínum the lord of triumphs had surrounded the dear chieftain with his praise, Andr. Kmbl. 1976; An. 990. Fuglas hringe beteldaþ Fénix the birds surround the Phœnix in a ring, Exon. 6o b; Th. 221, 24; Ph. 339. Wæs wópes hring torne bitolden the weeping circle was overwhelmed with grief, 15 b; Th. 34, 6; Cri. 538.

be-tellan; p. -tealde, -telede, pl. -tealdon, -teledon; pp. -teald, -teled, -tæled; v. a. [be, tellan to tell] To speak about, to answer, excuse, justify, clear; excusare :-- Ðæt he móste hine betellan that he might answer him, Chr. 1048; Erl. 180, 12. Godwine betealde hine Godwin cleared himself, 1052; Ing. 238, 22.

bétende; part. [from bétan to make better, atone] Amending, atoning; reparans, expians :-- Bétende [MS. betend] crungon hergas to hrusan the atoning bands sank to earth, Exon. 124 a; Th. 477, 24; Ruin. 29.

be-teón; p. -teáh, pl. -tugon; pp. -togen. I. to draw over or round, cover, surround, inclose, protect; obducere, superinducere, circumducere, concludere, munire :-- Heora scyldas wǽron betogene mid hýdum their shields were covered with hides, Ors. 5, 7; Bos. 107, 8. Betogen [betogan MS.] cræt a covered carriage; capsus, Ælfc. Gl. 49; Wrt. Voc. 34, 23. Híg betugon mycele menigeo fixa concluserunt copiosam multitudinem piscium, Lk. Bos. 5, 6. Se reáda æppel biþ betogen mid ánfealdre rinde, and monig corn on-innan him hæfþ in malo punico uno exterius cortice multa interius grana muniuntur, Past. 15, 5; Hat. MS. 19 b, 22. v. teón I. II. to leave by law, bequeath; legare, Th. Diplm. A. D. 1037; 567, 9. III. to bring a charge against any one, accuse; criminari, accusare :-- Beteáh Gosfrei Bainard Willelm of Ou Geoffrey Bainard accused William of Eu, Chr. 1096; Th. 362, 32. Se ðe biþ betogen he who is accused, L. In. 54; Th. i. 136, 10 : 71; Th. i. 148, 2. v. teón II.

betera, betra; m : betere, betre; f. n. adj. [from bet good, v. bet-líc good-like, comp. betera, betra better; sup. betest, betst best, v. besta, gód] BETTER; melior :-- Ðæt hý wǽron beteran þegnas that they were better thanes, Ors. 4, 9; Bos. 92, 23. Ða betran tída the better times, 4, 9; Bos. 92, 18. To beteran tíde to a better time, Bd. 3. 14; S. 539, 39. Wítodlíce micle má mann ys sceápe betera? Mt. Bos. 12, 12; hou moche more is a man betre than a sheep? Wyc. Hit is betre it is a better [thing], Bt. 38, 7; Fox 210, 5 : 29, 1; Fox 102, 6.

beterian; p. ode; pp. od [betera better] To make better, ameliorate; meliorari, emendare. v. ge-beterian.

betesta best :-- Se betesta the best, Cot. 153. v. betst; adj.

beþ is, Chr. 675; Erl. 38, 8, = biþ; 3rd pers. pres. of beón.

be-þæht covered, Bd. 3, 10; S. 534. 32, = be-þeaht; pp. of be-þeccan.

be-þærfeþ expedit, Mt. Rush. Stv. 19, 10, = be-þearfeþ. v. be-þearfan.

be-þeaht, -þeht covered, Exon. 117 a; Th. 451, 4; Dóm. 98 : Elen. Kmbl. 2593; El. 1298; pp. of be-þeccan.

be-þearf, ic, he, ðú be-þearft I have, thou hast, he has need, Elen. Kmbl. 1082; El. 543 : Ps. Spl. 15, 1; pres. of be-þurfan.

be-þearfaþ he needs, wants; opus habet :-- Hwæt helpeþ vel beþearfeþ [MS. beþearfaþ] menn what does it help to a man or what needs a man [of what use is it to a man]? quid prodest homini? Mt. Rush. Stv. 16, 26. v. þearfan, þurfan, be-þurfan.

be-þeccan, bi-þeccan; p. -þeahte, -þehte, pl. -þeahton, -þehton; pp. -þeaht, -þeht To cover, cover over, conceal; tegere, contegere, operire :-- Ða róde earme beþeahte he covered the cross with his arm, Elen. Kmbl. 2470; El. 1236 : Cd. 185; Th. 230, 26; Dan. 239. Ǽghwæðer óðerne earme beþehte each covered the other with his arm, [each embraced the other], Andr. Kmbl. 2030; An. 1017. Mec mon biþeahte mid wǽdum one covered me with weeds, Exon. 28 b; Th. 87, 10; Cri. 1423 : 51 b; Th. 179, 1; Gú. 1255. Hie heora líchoman leáfum beþeahton they covered their bodies with leaves, Cd. 40; Th. 52, 18; Gen. 845 : Elen. Kmbl. 1669; El. 836. Se wæs beþeaht mid þæce quod erat fæno tectum, Bd. 3, 10; S. 534, note 32 : Exon. 117 a; Th. 451, 4; Dóm. 98. Biþeaht covered, Exon. 47 b; Th. 163, 36; Gú. 1004. Heó helltregum wunodon þýstrum beþeahte they dwelt in hell-torments covered with darkness, Cd. 4; Th. 5, 23; Gen. 76. Synfulle beóþ þrosme beþehte the sinful shall be covered with foulness, Elen. Kmbl. 2593; El. 1298. Me beþeahton [Spl. C. beþehton] þeóstru contexerunt me tenebræ, Ps. Th. 54. 5.

beðen, e; f? A fomentation, embrocation; fomentum :-- Mid beðenum with fomentation, Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 20. v. beðing.

be-þencan, bi-þencan; p. -þohte, pl. -þohton; pp. -þoht To consider, bear in mind, BETHINK, remember, trust, confide, entrust; considerare, recordari, in se reverti, meminisse, fidere, confidere :-- Scyle gumena gehwylc georne biþencan, ðæt us bicwom meahta Waldend each man should well consider, that the Lord of might came to us, Exon. 19 b; Th. 51, 27; Cri. 822. Ðæt we gǽstes wlite biþencen that we bear in mind the spirit's beauty, Exon. 20 a; Th. 53, 14; Cri. 850 : 51 b; Th. 179, 32; Gú. 1270. Ðá beþohte he hine then he bethought himself; in se autem reversus, Lk. Bos. 15, 17 : Ælfc. T. 35, 21. Híg beþohton ðæt híg hym seofon weras gecuron they bethought that they would choose them seven men, Nicod. 20; Thw. 10, 4. He beþohte swíðost to Arpelles he trusted most in Harpalus, Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 35, 34. Gif ðú to sǽmran gode biþencest if thou confidest in a worse god, Exon. 66 b; Th. 245, 30; Jul. 52. Beþohton [MS. beþohtan] hý ealle heora wígcræftas to Exantipuse they entrusted all their military forces to Xantippus, Ors. 4, 6; Bos. 85, 16. Cassander hæfde hys wisan beþoht to Seleucuse Cassander had entrusted his affairs to Seleucus, 3, 11; Bos. 74. 45.

be-þénede served : substituted by Thorpe, Beo. Th. 4077, for bewenede. v. be-wenian.

be-þennan; p. ede; pp. ed To cover; obducere :-- He mec beþenede he covered me, Exon. 107 a; Th. 408, 15; Rä. 27, 12.

beðian, beðigean to bathe, foment; fovere :-- Beða ða eágan foment the eyes, Herb. 1, 3; Lchdm. i. 72, 3 : Med. ex Quadr. 4, 18; Lchdm. i. 346, 20. v. baðian.

beðigean to wash, foment; fovere :-- Ða eágan to beðigeanne to foment the eyes, Med. ex Quadr. 4, 18; Lchdm. i. 346, 20; MS. H. Ic beðige foveo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 5; Som. 28, 66. v. baðian.

beðing, e; f. A fomentation, an assuaging or nourishing medicine; fomentum, Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 20; MS. B. v. beðen.

be-þoht, -þohte, -þohton bethought, trusted, entrusted, Ælfc. T. 35, 21 : Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 74. 45; p. and pp. of be-þencan.

be-þorfte, -þorfton did need, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 14; p. of be-þurfan.

be-þridian, -þrydian; p. ede; pp. ed [þrýdian from þryþ power, force] To force, overpower; cogere, vi superare :-- Ðæt hine man wolde beþridian mid ðam ilcan wrence that they would overpower him by the same stratagem, Ors.6, 36; Bos. 132, 4. Ðæt hý án cyning swá ýðelíce on his geweald beþrydian sceolde that one king should so easily force them under his power, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 59, 42 : 2, 5; Bos. 47, 11.

be-þringan, bi-þringan; p. -þrang, pl. -þrungon; pp. -þrungen To throng or press around, encompass, surround; undique urgere, circumvenire, circumdare :-- Ic wæs bísgum beþrungen I was encompassed with misery, Elen. Kmbl. 2488; El. 1245 : 1896; El. 950. Se sceal wesan wyrmum beþrungen he shall be surrounded with worms, Exon. 84 a : Th. 316, 30; Mód. 56. Fénix biþ on middum þreátum biþrungen the phœnix is in the midst surrounded by multitudes, 60 b; Th. 221, 27; Ph. 341.

be-þrungen encompassed, Elen. Kmbl. 2488; El. 1245; pp. of beþringan.

be-þryccan to press on, impress. v. bi-þryccan.

be-þuncan To consider, look out; consulere, prospicere, Exon. 113 a; Th. 432, 29; Rä. 49, 7.

be-þurfan, bi-þurfan, ic, he -þearf, ðú -þearft, pl. -þurfon; p. -þorfte, pl. -þorfton; subj. -þurfe, pl. -þurfen; p. -þorfte, pl. -þorften; gen. or acc. or v. n. To need, have need, want, to be in want, to require; opus habere, egere, indigere :-- Wísdómes beþearf he requires wisdom, Elen. Kmbl. 1082; El. 543. Ic árna biþearf I need mercy, Exon. 76 a; Th. 285, 17;. Jul. 715 : Ælfc. Gr. 26, 2; Som. 28, 48. Góda mínra ðú ne beþearft bonorum meorum non eges, Ps. Spl. 15, 1. Ge beþurfon indigetis, Mt. Bos. 6, 32. We bicgaþ ða þing ðe we beþurfon ememus necessaria, Gen. 43, 4, 8. Máre ðonne he beþurfe more than he has need of, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 21.

be-þweán, ic -þweá; p. -þwóh, pl. -þwógon; pp. -þwegen To wet, bedew, wash; rigare :-- Mid mínum teárum strecednysse míne oððe míne beddinge ic beþweá oððe ic gelecce lacrimis nleis stratum meum rigabo, Ps. Lamb. 6, 7.

be-þwyr; adj. [be, þwir wicked] Perverse, depraved; depravatus, Cot. 63.

be-þýan; p. -þýde, -þýdde, pl. -þýddon; pp. -þýed, -þýd To thrust; trudere :-- Hí beþýddon they thrust, Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 78, 8.

be-þýddon thrust, Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 78, 8; p. pl. of be-þýan.

be-tiénan to shut, shut up; concludere, Ps. Spl. T. 34, 3 : Cot. 58. v. be-týnan.

betigean to be or make better; meliorare :-- Sóna hý betigeaþ [MS. batigeaþ] they will be better soon, Lchdm. iii. 54, 33. v. beterian, betrian.

be-tíhan; p. -táh, pl. -tigon; pp. -tigen, -tygen [be, tíhan, II. to bring a charge against any one] To accuse, impeach; criminari, accusare :-- Gíf he oft betygen wǽre if he has often been accused, L. In. 18; Th. i. 114, 6 : 37; Th. i. 124, 21 : 52; Th. i. 134, 12. v. be-teón, III.

be-tíhtlian, -týhtlian; p. ode, ede, ade; pp. od, ed, ad To accuse, charge; accusare, criminari :-- Gif he betíhtlod weorþe if he be accused, L. C. S. 31; Th. i. 396, 1. Ðe oft betíhtlede wǽron who have often been accused, L. Ath. i. 7; Th. i. 202, 25. Ǽlc mynetere ðe betíhtlad sí every moneyer who is accused, L. Eth, iii. 8; Th. i. 296, 15. Gif he betýhtlad wurðe if he should be accused, L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 280, 8, 16.

be-tilldon, be-teldon, Bd. 4, 26; S. 602, 19, for betǽldon deceived. v. tǽlan.

be-timbran; p. ede; pp. ed To build, construct with timber; ædificare, construere :-- Hí betimbredon bécn they constructed a beacon, Beo. Kmbl. 6312; B. 3160.

béting a cable, Bt. 41, 3; Fox 250, 15. v. bǽting.

bétl, es; m. A BEETLE; blatta :-- Ða blacan bétlas blattæ nigro colore, Cot. 141. v. bítel.

bet-líc; adj. sup. bet-lícast Good-like, excellent; eximius :-- Bold wæs betlíc the mansion was excellent, Beo. Th. 3854; B. 1925. Betlícast, Exon. 8 b; Th. 5, 7; Cri. 66.

bet-nes, -ness, e; f. [bet better] Satisfaction, amends, amendment, recompence; satisfactio, compensatio :-- Ðæt ic búton betnesse beó mínra synna that I am, without amendment of my sins, L. De Cf. 10; Th. ii. 264, 16.

betoce the herb betony, L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 104, 4. v. betonice.

be-togen. I. drawn over, covered, inclosed, Ors. 5, 7; Bos. 107, 8. II. accused, L. In. 54; Th. i. 136, 10; pp. of be-teón.

betogenes, -ness, -niss, e; f. An accusation; accusatio :-- Be cierlisces monnes betogenesse [MS. H. betogenisse] of a churlish man's accusation, L. In. 37, titl; Th. i. 124, note 50.

be-tolden surrounded, Andr. Kmbl. 1976; An. 990; pp. of beteldan.

betonice, an; f : also Lat. betonĭca, æ; f. The herb BETONY; betonĭca officinālis. This species is the common wood-betony, the betonĭca officinālis of Linnæus. It is a species of the genus Stachys, but it was formerly a species of the genus Betonica. It is very plentiful in Great Britain, and formerly much used in medicine. The leaves have a rough bitter taste, and are slightly aromatic. The roots are nauseous and very bitter, and when taken act as purgatives and emetics :-- Genim betonican gódne dǽl take a good deal of betony, Lchdm. iii. 22, 16. Nim betonican sǽd take seed of betony, iii. 72, 6. Wyl on ealaþ betonican boil betony in ale, L. M. 1, 16; Lchdm. ii. 58, 24. Wyrc betonican and pipores seofon and xx corna tosomne getrifulad work betony and twenty-seven corns of pepper triturated together, 1, 21; Lchdm. ii. 64, 6 : 1, 22; Lchdm. ii. 64, 16. Latin, Betonĭca, æ; f :-- Ðis is seó gréne sealf, - betonĭca, rude, etc. this is the green salve, - betony, rue, etc. Lchdm. iii. 6, 8. Genim ðás ylcan wyrte and betonĭcam take this same wort and betony, Herb. 135, 3; Lchdm. i. 252, 4. [Betonĭca, quæ et Vettonĭca dicitur, quod eam Vettones = Oύέττoνεs, in Hispania invenerunt, Plin. 25, 8 : Prior 20.]

betost; adj. Best; optimus :-- Nú is ófost betost, ðæt we þeódcyning ðǽr sceáwian now is speed best, that we may see there the great king, Beo. Th. 6007; B. 3007. v. betst.

be-træppan, -treppan [be, treppan to trap] To BETRAP, to entrap; circumvallare :-- Meahton hí ðone here betræppan [betreppan, col. 1] they might entrap the army, Chr. 992; Th. 238, 40, col. 2.

betre better :-- Hit is betre it is better, Bt. 38, 7; Fox 210, 5. v. betera.

be-tredan; p. -træd, pl. -trǽdon; pp. -treden To tread upon, cover; conculcare :-- Þýstru betredaþ me tenebræ conculcabunt me, Ps. Spl. C. 138, 10.

be-treppan to entrap, Chr. 992; Th. 238, 40, col. 1. v. be-treppan.

betrian, betrigan; p. ode; pp. od [bet well, betra better] To be better, to excel, to make better, to grow better; meliorari, emendare :-- Ic betrige melioror, Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 27, 13. v. beterian, gebeterian.

betrung, bettrung, e; f. [betrian to be better] A BETTERING, amending; emendatio :-- Ðæt hit wǽre heora betrung that it was their amendment, Bt. 38, 7; Fox 210, 13.

be-trymian; p. ede; pp. ed [be, trymian to fortify] To besiege, environ; circumdare vallo :-- Ðíne fýnd ðé betrymiaþ circumdabunt te inimici tui vallo, Lk. Bos. 19, 43. Ge geseóþ Hierusalem mid here betrymede ye shall see Jerusalem besieged with an army, 21, 20.

betst, betest; adj. sup. def. se betsta, betesta; seó, ðæt beteste; pos. gód [bet good; v. bet-líc good-like] Best, the best, first; optimus, primus :-- Ða þing ðe ge betstan gelífaþ [MS. betst ongelifaþ] ea quæ vos optima credebatis, Bd. 1, 25; S. 487, note 12. Scipio, se besta [Laud MS. betsta] Rómana witena Scipio, the best of the Roman senators, Ors. 5, 4; Bos. 104, 38; Cot. MS. Tib. B. I. fol. 85 b. Se betesta the best, Cot. 153. He sealde ðæt betste hors he gave the best horse, Bd. 3, 14; S. 540, 16. Ðara betstena sumes of some one of the best, Bt. 30, 1; Fox 110, 5. [Goth. bats? good; comp. batiza better; sup. batists best : O. Nrs. comp. betri better; sup. beztr best.]

betst; adv. sup. of wel [?bet well, q. v.] Best, most; optime :-- Ðæt betst lícaþ that pleases.best, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 23. Ic him betst truwode I most trusted them, Bt. 2; Fox 4, 12. Albínus wæs betst gelǽred Albinus was most learned, Bd. pref; S. 471, 23.

betst-boren; pp. Best-born, eldest; major natu :-- Moises clipode ða betstborenan Moyses vocavit majores natu, Lev. 9, 1 : Gen. 50, 7 : Deut. 5. 23.

bett better, Bd. 3, 9; S. 533, 34. v. bet.

bétte corrected, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 25; p. of bétan.

bettonice, an; f. The herb betony; betonĭca officinālis :-- Genim bettonican and pipor take betony and pepper, Lchdm. i. 380, 24. v. betonice.

bettrung, e; f. A bettering, ameliorating; emendatio :-- To his bettrunge [Cot. betrunge] to his amelioration, Past. 31, 1; Hat. MS. 39 b, 8. v. betrung.

be-tugon shut in, inclosed; concluserunt, Lk. Bos. 5, 6; p. pl. of be-teón.

be-tuh; prep. dat. acc. Between; inter :-- He bewícode betuh ðám twám hergum he encamped between the two armies, Chr. 894; Ing. 115, 4; Th. 164, 23, col. 2; 165, 22, col. 1; 23, col. 2. Betuh Arabia and Palestína between Arabia and Palestine, Ors. 1, 3; Bos. 27, 20 : Cd. 37; Th. 47, 26; Gen. 766. v. be-tweoh.

be-tux between. v. betux-sittan, be-tweoh.

betux-sittan to insert, interpose, to set, put or bring in; interserere. v. betux, sittan.

be-tweoh, be-tweohs, be-tweox, be-twih, be-twyh, be-twyx, be-twyxt, be-twuh, be-twuht, be-twux, be-twuxt, be-tuh, be-tux; prep. dat. acc. [be by, with; twi, twihs, tweox, twux duo] Between, BETWIXT, among, amid, in the midst; inter, in medio. I. dat :-- Men and nétenu habbaþ andan betweoh him men and beasts have enmity between them, Bt. Met. Fox 28, 104; Met. 28, 52. Betweohs him among them; in cujus medio, Ex. 34, 10. Betwyh him among them, Bt. 39, 12; Fox 230, 27. Betwuh ðám wæs seó Magdalenisce Maria, and Maria Iacobes móder inter quas erat Maria Magdalene, et Maria Iacobi mater, Mt. Bos. 27, 56. Betwuht him between them, Bt. 39, 13; Fox 234. 5. Betwux wífa bearnum inter natos mulierum, Lk. Bos. 7, 28. Betwuxt ðám warum among their wares [merchandise], Nat. S. Greg. Els. 11, 14. Hǽðe stent betuh Winedum and Seaxum and Angle Haddeby stands in the midst of the Winedi, Saxons and Angles, Ors. 1, 19; Bos. 21, 30. II. acc :-- Swá lamb betweox wulfas sicut agnos inter lupos, Lk. Bos. 10, 3. Betwih ða mægen inter virtutes, Bd. 4. 9; S. 576, 28. Ne byþ swá betweox eów non ita erit inter vos, Mt. Bos. 20, 26. III. the case sometimes precedes the prep. or is separated from it :-- Hí him healdaþ betwuh sibbe they keep peace between themselves, Bt. Met. Fox 29, 8; Met. 29, 4. Him betuh between them, Cd. 37; Th. 47, 26; Gen. 766.

be-tweohs among :-- Betweohs him among them, Ex. 34, 10. v. be-tweoh.

be-tweonan; prep. dat. acc. Between; inter :-- Unc betweonan between us two, Cd. 91; Th. 114, 10; Gen. 1902. v. be-tweonum.

be-tweonum, be-tweonan, be-twinum, be-twinan, be-twynan, bi-tweon, bi-tweonum; prep. I. dat. II. acc. [be, bi by, with, tweo two; dat. tweonum, twinum, tweon, twin, twyn] BETWEEN, betwixt, among, amid, in the midst; inter, in medio. I. dat. Betweonan ðám between them, Ps. Th. 102, 12. Betweonum ðissum þingum amid these things, Bd. 1, 27; S. 488, note 26. Ðá Iudeas cwǽdon betweonan him sylfum then the Jews said among themselves, Jn. Bos. 7, 35. II. acc. Ðú hí betweonum wætera weallas lǽddest thou ledest them between waterwalls, Ps. Th. 105, 9. Ðá seó cwén ongan lǽran ðæt hie sybbe swá same sylfra betweonum freóndrǽdenne gelǽston then the queen began to teach that they should hold peace also amid their friendly band, Elen. Kmbl. 2412; El. 1207. III. sometimes betweonum follows its case, or is separated from it :-- Ðá gewearþ hí him betweonum they then agreed between themselves, Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 126, 24. Léton him ða betweonum tán wisian they let the lot decide between them, Andr. Kmbl. 2199; An. 1101. Ne sceólon unc betweonan teónan weaxan injury shall not wax between us two, Cd, 91; Th, 114, 10; Gen. 1902. Hluton hell-cræftum, hǽðengildum teledon betwinum they cast lots, counted, with hellish arts, amid heathen gods, Andr. Kmbl. 2207; An. 1105. Gif ge habbaþ lufe eów betwynan si dilectionem habueritis ad invicem, Jn. Bos. 13, 35. Friþ freóndum bitweon peace between friends, Exon. 32 a; Th. 101, 15; Cri. 1659. IV. sometimes the case is placed between be and tweonum, as, - Be sǽm tweonum between the seas, Cd. 163; Th. 205, 28; Exod. 442 : 170; Th. 214, 1; Exod. 562. v. bi-tweonum.

be-tweonum; adv. Between; inter, in medio :-- Ne sí lang fæc be-tweonum ne sit longum spatium in medio, Bd. 4, 9; S. 577, 27.

be-tweox between; inter :-- Nú ic eów sende swá swá lamb betweox wulfas ecce ego mitto vos sicut agnos inter lupos, Lk. Bos. 10, 3 : 11, 51 : Ps. Th. 87, 4 : 88, 5 : Bt. Met. Fox 11, 90; Met. 11, 45 : 11, 168; Met. 11, 84 : 24, 25; Met. 24, 13, v. be-tweoh.

be-twih between. v. betwih-licgan, be-tweoh.

betwih-licgan, he -ligeþ To lie between; interjacere :-- Gif mycel feornys síþfætes betwihligeþ si longinquitas itineris magna interjacet, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 39. v. be-tweoh.

be-twinan; prep. dat. Within, among; intra, inter :-- Cwǽdon sume bóceras him betwinan some scribes said among themselves, Mt. Bos. 9, 3. v. be-tweonum III.

be-twinum between, amid; inter, in medio, Andr. Kmbl. 2207; An. 1105. v. be-tweonum.

be-twion; adj. [be by, with; twám, twǽm, dat. of twá two] Double, folding, twofold; duplex :-- Mid betwion mentle with a folding mantle; diploide, Ps. Spl. T. 108, 28.

be-twuh; prep. dat. acc. Between, among; inter :-- He gewícode betwuh ðǽm twám hergum he encamped between the two armies, Chr. 894; Th. 164, 23, col. 1. He betwuh him wunaþ he dwells among them, Bt. 39, 13; Fox 234, 10 : Bt. Met. Fox 29, 8; Met. 29, 4. v. betweoh.

be-twuht; prep. dat. Between; inter :-- Betwuht him between them, Bt. 39, 13; Fox 234, 5. v. be-tweoh.

be-twux between, among; inter :-- Nis betwux wífa bearnum, nán mǽrra wítega, ðonne Iohannes se Fulluhtere major inter natos mulierum propheta nemo est Ioanne Baptista, Lk. Bos. 7, 28 : Gen. 3, 14. v. be-tweoh.

betwux-alegednes, -nyss, e; f. [betwux between; aleged, alegd laid] What is laid or placed between, an interposition, interjection; interjectio :-- Interjectio mæg beón gecweden betwuxalegednyss on Englisc, forðanðe he líþ betwux wordum an interjection may be called a laying between in English, because it lies between words, Ælfc. Gr. 48; Som. 48, 61. v. betwyx-aworpennyss.

betwux-aworpennys an interjection; interjectio. v. betwyx-aworpennyss.

be-twuxt among; inter :-- Ðá geseah Grégŏrius betwuxt ðám warum, cýpecnihtas gesette then Gregory saw among their wares, youths set for sale, Nat. S. Greg. Els. 11, 14. v. be-tweoh.

be-twyh between, among; inter, in medio :-- Betwyh ðás þing between these things, in the mean while, whilst; interea, Bd. 1, 27; S. 488, 26. Betwyh him among them, Bt. 39, 12; Fox 230, 27. v. be-tweoh.

betwyh-geset interposed; interpositus, Bd. 4, 9; S. 576, 42.

be-twynan; prep. dat. Between, among; inter :-- Him betwynan among them, Mt. Jun. 9, 3 : Jn. Bos. 16, 17. Ge habbaþ lufe eów betwynan dilectionem habueritis ad invicem, Jn. Bos. 13, 35. v. be-tweonum.

be-twyx betwixt, between :-- Betwyx wífa bearnum inter natos mulierum, Mt. Bos. 11, 1l : Chr. 1126; Th. 377, 10. v. betwyx-sendan, betweoh.

betwyx-aworpennyss, e; f. An interjection; interjectio :-- Interjectio is betwyxaworpennyss. Se dǽl líþ betwux óðrum wordum, and geswutelaþ ðæs módes styrunge. Heu geswutelaþ módes sárnesse an interjection is a throwing between. This part of speech lieth between other words, and denotes a stirring of the mind. Heu denotes a soreness of mind, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 3, 55. v. betwux-alegednes.

betwyx-sendan to send between; intermittere, R. Conc. Proœm.

be-twyxt betwixt, between; inter, Hemm. p. 403. v. be-tweoh.

be-tygen accused, L. In. 14; Th. i. 110, 16; pp. of be-tíhan.

be-týhþ accuses, L. In. 46; Th. i. 130, 12; pres. of be-teón.

be-týhtlian to accuse, L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 280, 8, 16. v. be-tíhtlian.

be-týnan, -tiénan, bi-týnan; p. -týnde, pl. -týndon; impert. -týn, -tiéne; pp. -týned, -tiéned, -týnd; v. a. [be, týnan to hedge in]. I. to inclose or surround with a hedge, inclose, close, shut, shut up; sepem circumdare, sepire, intercludere, claudere, occludere, concludere :-- Sum hírédes ealdor wæs, se plantode wíngerd, and betýnde hyne homo erat paterfamilias, qui plantavit vineam, et sepem circumdedit ei, Mt. Bos. 21, 33 : Mk. Bos. 12, 1. Ceorles weorþig sceal beón betýned a churl's close ought to be surrounded with a hedge, L. In. 40; Th. i. 126, 13. Hí hine betýndon in án nearo fæsten they inclosed him in a narrow fastness, Bd. 4, 26; S. 602, note 19. Háteþ heáhcyning helle betýnan the mighty king shall command to close hell, Salm. Kmbl. 348; Sal. 173. Ðæs heán biscopes leoma on ðysse byrigenne syndon betýnde [MS. betyned] pontificis summi hoc clauduntur membra sepulchro, Bd. 2, 1; S. 500, 22 : Exon. 110 b; Th. 422, 25; Rä. 41, 11. Wearþ se hálga wong bitýned the holy plain was closed, 61 b; Th. 227, 7; Ph. 419. He hine inne betýnan nolde he would not shut it in, L. Alf. 21; Th. i. 48, 31. He ðæt folc úte betýnde he shut the people out, Ors. 4, 5; Bos. 81, 40. Hý betýndon Ianes duru they shut the doors of Janus, 6, 7; Bos. 120, 5 : 5, 14; Bos. 113, 42. Gif hwá wæterpyt betýnedne ontýne, and hine eft ne betýne, gelde swelc neát swelc ðǽron befealle if any one open a water-pit [that is] shut up, and close it not again, let him pay for whatever cattle may fall therein, L. Alf. 22; Th. i. 50, 6, 7. Betiéne togeánes híg conclude adversus eos, Ps. Spl. T. 34, 3. II. to end, finish, conclude; finire :-- Heó ðus ðæt word betýnde thus she ended the speech; ita sermonem conclusit, Bd. 4, 9; S. 577, 28.

be-tyran [be, tyrwa tar] To BETAR, to smear over, to stain a dark colour; pice liquida inficere, q. d. pullo vel bætico colore imbuere, Æqu. vern. 2.

be-ufan; adv. [be, ufan] Above; supra :-- Swá we hér be-ufan cwǽdon as we here have said above, L. Ath. iv. 4; Th. i. 224, 4. v. búfan.

be-útan; prep. dat. [be, útan out] Without; extra :-- Wundorlíc is geworden ðín wísdóm eall, se is be-útan me mirabilis facta est scientia tua ex me, Ps. Th. 138, 4. Gif ic míne fiðeru gefó, fleóge ǽr leóhte, óþ ðæt ic be-útan wese eallum sǽwum si sumpsero pennas meas ante lucem, et habitavero in postremo maris, 138, 7. Ða be-útan beóþ earce bordum who shall be without the boards of the ark, Cd. 67; Th. 81, 32; Gen. 1354. v. bútan.

be-waden; part. p. A quo aliquid abiit? - Of wombe bewaden, Exon. 130 b; Th. 499. 32; Rä. 88, 24. DER. be, wadan.

be-wǽfan; p. de; pp. ed [wǽfan to cover] To befold, wrap round, cover, clothe; obvolvere, amicire, operire, induere :-- Mid ánre scýtan bewǽfed amictus sindone, Mk. Bos. 14, 51 : Homl. Th. ii. 242, 24. Heó nam hyre wǽfels and bewǽfde híg illa sustulit pallium et operuit se, Gen. 24, 65. Martinus me bewǽfde mid ðyssere wǽde Martin clothed me with this garment, Homl. Th. ii. 500, 34. His cempan mid wolcnreádum wǽfelse hine bewǽfdon his soldiers clothed him in a scarlet robe, ii. 252, 25. Ic eom réáde bewǽfed I am clothed with red, Exon. 126 a; Th. 484. 2; Rä. 70, 1 : Past. 14, 3; Hat. MS. 17 b, 19. [Goth. bi-wáibyan to wind, put round.]

be-wæg surrounded, Bt. 39, 4; Fox 216, 25; p. of be-wegan.

be-wǽgan; p. de; pp. ed To deceive, disappoint; frustrari :-- Ne bewǽgde him non frustratus est eum, Ps. Spl. C. 131, 11. v. bi-wǽgan.

be-wægnan; p. ede; pp. ed To offer; offerre :-- Him wæs freónd-laðu bewægned a friendly invitation was offered to him, Beo. Th. 2390; B. 1193.

be-wǽlan; p. de; pp. ed To afflict; undique vexare, affligere, cruciare :-- Wítum bewǽled afflicted with torments, Andr. Kmbl. 2721; An. 1363.

be-wǽpnian, -wépnian; p. ede; pp. ed [be, wǽpen a weapon] To take away arms, disarm; armis spoliare :-- Be ðam ðe óðerne bewépnaþ de eo qui alium armis spoliaret, L. C. S. 61, titl; Th. i. 408, 16. Gif man æt unlagum man bewǽpnige [bewepnie MS. B.] if any one unlawfully disarm a man, 61; Th. i. 408, 18.

be-wand wrapped, enwrapped, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 9 : Lk. Bos. 2, 7; p. of be-windan.

be-warenian, -warnian; p. ode; pp. od To guard, beware; custodire, cavere :-- He wel ne bewarenaþ wið ða unþeáwas he does not well guard against the vices, Bt. Met. Fox 16, 45; Met. 16, 23. Ða ðe hie wið ða læssan scylda bewareniaþ those who guard themselves against the lesser sins, Past. 57, 1; Hat. MS.

be-warian, -warigan; p. ode; pp. od To keep, guard, preserve; custodire, arcere :-- Bisceopas godcunde heorda bewarian and bewerian sceolon bishops ought to guard and defend their spiritual flocks, L. C. E. 26; Wilk. 133, 22; Th. i. 374, 24. Ðæt ðú meaht wíte bewarigan that thou mayest ward off punishment, Cd. 27; Th. 35, 31; Gen. 563. v. warian.

be-warnian to beware, R. Ben. 7. v. be-warenian.

be-weallan; p. -weóll, pl. -weóllon; pp. -weallen, To boil away; decoquere :-- Óþ-ðæt þrydda dǽl sý beweallen till the third part be boiled away, Med. ex Quadr. 1, 3; Lchdm. i. 328, 17 : 8, 10; Lchdm. i. 360, 1.

be-wealwian; p. ode; pp. od To wallow; volutare :-- Swín on ða solu bewealwiaþ swine wallow in the mire, Bt. 37, 4; Fox 192, 29.

be-weardian, -weardigan; part. -weardigende; p. ode; pp. od To ward, protect, keep; custodire; protegere, observare :-- Ðú, Drihten, beweardast us tu, Domine, custodies nos, Ps. Spl. 11, 8. Hálige englas ða dǽda beweardiaþ holy angels protect the deeds, L. C. E. 4; Th. i. 360, 31. Beweardigende observantes, Ps. Spl. 30, 7.

be-wearp cast, Bt. 7, 2; Fox 16, 25; p. of be-weorpan.

be-weaxan, bi-weaxan; p. -weóx, pl. -weóxon; pp. -weaxen To overgrow, cover over; obducere, obserere :-- Sindon burgtúnas brérum beweaxene [MS. beweaxne] the city-dwellings are overgrown with briers, Exon. 115 b; Th. 443,17; Kl. 31. Scyllum biweaxen overgrown with scales, 60 a; Th. 219, 21; Ph. 310.

be-weddian, -weddigan; p. ede, ode; pp. ed, od To espouse, wed; spondere, despondere :-- Ic beháte oððe ic beweddige [MS. bewedige] spondeo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 6; Som. 29, 10. Gif he híg his suna beweddap si filio suo desponderit eam, Ex. 21, 9. v. weddian.

be-weddung, e; f. A betrothal, wedding; oppigneratio, connubium :-- Be wífmannes beweddunge of a woman's betrothal, L. Edm. B. titl; Th. i. 254, 1.

be-wefan; p. -wæf, pl. -wǽfon; pp. -wefen To cover over, envelope; obtexere, obducere :-- Biþ ðæt brægen mid reáman bewefen the brain is covered over with a membrane, Lchdm. iii. 146, 4.

be-wegan; p. -wæg, pl. -wǽgon; pp. -wegen To cover, cover over, surround; obducere, circumdare :-- Bewegen wælmiste covered with the mist of death, Exon. 87 b; Th. 329, 30; Vy. 42. He hí bewæg mid wuda útan he surrounded them with wood, Bt. 39, 4; Fox 216, 25.

be-wendan; p. -wende; pp. -wended, -wend To turn, turn round or about, convert; vertere, convertere :-- Bewend to ðære menigu conversus ad turbam, Mk. Bos. 5, 30. Se Hǽlend bewende hyne the Saviour turned himself about, Mt. Bos. 9, 22 : Mk. Bos. 8, 33. Æt sumum cyrre bewend aliquando conversus, Lk. Foxe 22, 32. v. wendan.

be-wenian; p. ede; pp. ed [be, wenian to accustom, draw to one's self, honour] To entertain, take care of; hospitio accipere :-- We wǽron hér tela bewenede we were here kindly entertained, Beo. Th. 3646, note; B. 1821. Dryht-bearn Dena duguþa bewenede [MS. and Thorpe's note, 4077; bí werede, B. 2035] a noble offspring of the Danes entertained the knights, 4077, note.

be-weópon wept over, bewailed, Num. 20, 30; p. pl. of be-wépan.

be-weorcean to adorn, Elen. Kmbl. 2045; El. 1024, v. be-wyrcan.

be-weorpan, -wyrpan; ic -weorpe, ðú -wyrpst, he -weorpeþ, -wyrpþ, pl. -weorpaþ; p. -wearp, pl. -wurpon; pp. -worpen. I. to cast, cast down, throw; projicere, dejicere :-- Seó cwén hét [híg] ðam cyninge heáfod ofaceorfan, and bewyrpan on ánne cylle the queen commanded [them] to cut off the king's head, and to cast it into a vessel, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 45, 33. Hwæt bewearp ðé on ðás gnornunga what has cast thee into these lamentations? Bt. 7, 2; Fox 16, 25. He hæfþ us beworpen on ealra wíta mǽste he hath cast us down into the greatest of all torments, Cd. 21; Th. 25, 13; Gen. 393. Ic wæs hér unscildig on pytt beworpen I was thrown here innocent into a dungeon, Gen. 40, 15. II. to cast about or over, cover over, surround; conjicere, supertegere, cingere :-- Hláford, lǽt hine [fíctreów] gyt ðis geár, óþ ic hine bedelfe, and ic hine beweorpe mid meoxe Lord, suffer it [the fig-tree] yet this year, till I dig about it, and cast it about [surround it] with dung, Lk. Bos. 13, 8 : Oft beweorpeþ ánre þecene wundrum gewlitegad often casts over with a covering wondrously adorned, Exon. 128 b; Th. 493, 20; Rä. 81, 34. Hafaþ fægerne eard wætre beworpen it hath a fair dwelling surrounded with water, Runic pm. 28; Kmbl. 345, 8; Hick. Thes. i. 135. DER. weorpan.

be-weotian; p. ode; pp. od To observe, watch over; observare, curæ habere :-- Draca hord beweotode a dragon watched over the hoard, Beo. Th. 4431; B. 2212. v. be-witian.

be-wépan; p. -weóp, pl. -weópon; pp. -wópen To weep, weep over, bewail; flere, deflere, plorare :-- Ic bewépe defleo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 1; Som. 28, 28. Hí beweópon Aarones forþsíþ they bewailed Adron's death, Num. 20, 30. Wyduwan heora nǽron bewópene viduæ eorum non plorabantur, Ps. Lamb. 77, 64 : Ors. 2, 8; Bos. 51, 41.

be-wépnian to unweapon, disarm, L. C. S. 61, titl; Th. i. 408, 16. v. be-wǽpnian.

be-werenes, -ness, e; f. [be-wered forbidden] A forbidding; prohibitio :-- Óþ bewerenesse to onfónne ðam hálgan gerýne usque ad prohibitionem percipiendi sancti mysterii, Bd. 1, 27; S. 496, 43.

be-werian, bi-werian, -wergan; p. ede, ode; pp. ed, od To defend restrain; defendere, prohibere, tueri :-- Bisceopas godcunde heorda bewarian and bewerian sceolon bishops ought to guard and defend [tueri debent] their spiritual flocks, L. C. E. 26; Wilk. 133, 22; Th. i. 374, 25. Bewerede coercuit, Cot. 56. Bewered prohibitus, Bd. 1, 27; S. 493, 10. Bewerode defendit, Ex. 2, 17. Bewerod prohibitus, Ælfc. Gl. 63; Som. 68, 104. DER. werian.

be-werigend, es; m. A defender; protector, Ps. Spl. 27, 11.

be-werung, e; f. A defence, fortification; tutamen :-- Bewerung strang a strong defence, Scint. 64.

be-wícian; p. ode; pp. od To encamp; castra metari :-- Ælfréd cyning bewícode betuh ðám twám hergum king Alfred encamped between the two armies, Chr. 894; Gib. 92, 21.

be-wimman; g. -wimmannes; f. [be-wimmen, Wrt. Voc. 72, 36] A niece; neptis, Som. Lye. v. wimman.

be-windan, bi-windan; p. -wand, -wond, pl. -wundon; pp. -wunden; v. a. To wind or bind around or about, entwine, wrap, enwrap, encircle, surround, wind, turn; amplecti, involvere, cingere, circumdare, volvere :-- Hí ísene næglas mid flexe bewundon they wound iron nails round with flax, Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 78, 8. Wæs bewunden was wound round, Andr. Kmbl. 38; An. 19. Wírum bewunden bound round with wires, Beo. Th. 2066; B. 1031. Iosep bewand hyne mid clǽnre scýtan Ioseph involvit illud in sindone munda, Mt. Bos. 27, 59 : Lk. Bos. 2, 7 : Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 9. Geseah heó monnes líchoman mid scýtan bewundenne vidit corpus hominis sindone involutum, Bd. 4, 9; S. 576, 32. Wæs Cristes lof on fyrhþlocan bewunden Christ's praise was entwined within his breast, Andr. Kmbl. 116; An. 58 : Beo. Th. 6283; B. 3146. Bi-wunden entwined, Exon. 69 a; Th. 256, 20; Jul. 234. Sum gǽstes þearfe móde bewindeþ one wraps his spirit's need in his mind, 79 b; Th. 298, 18; Crä. 87 : Ps. Th. 102, 12. Wæs feorh æðelinges flǽsce bewunden the prince's soul was wrapped in flesh, Beo. Th. 4840; B. 2424. Mec mon folmum biwond, and mec ðá on þeóstre alegde biwundenne mid wonnum cláðum one with hands enwrapped me, and then laid me in darkness enwrapped in dusky clothes, Exon. 28 b; Th. 87, 9-12; Cri. 1422-1424. He wæs cláðum biwunden he was enwrapped with clothes, 18 b; Th. 45, 27; Cri. 725. Ðǽr is geat gylden wynnum be-wunden there is the golden gate encircled with joys, Cd. 227; Th. 305, 21; Sat. 650 : Beo. Th. 6097; B. 3052. He is wuldre biwunden he is encircled with glory, Exon. 65 b; Th. 241, 34; Ph. 666. Ða þreó wæter steápe stánbyrig streámum bewindaþ the three waters surround lofty cities of stone with their streams, Cd. 100; Th. 133, 18; Gen. 2212. Hwonne us líffreá tíre bewinde when the Lord of life may surround us with honour, Exon. 8 a; Th. 3, 1; Cri. 29. Ic eom bewunden mid wuldre I am surrounded with glory, 108 a; Th. 412, 18; Rä. 31, 2. He geseah Sennera feld sídne bewindan he saw Shinar's field wide winding, Cd. 205; Th. 253, 28; Dan. 602. Abraham bewand ða hleóðorcwydas on hige sínum Abraham turned the revelations in his mind, 107; Th. 140, 34; Gen. 2337.

be-wiste governed, presided, Gen. 24, 2; p. of be-witan.

be-witan; ic. he -wát, ðú -wást, pl. -witon; p. -wiste, pl. -wiston; pp. -witen; v. trans. [be near, witan to know, see, take care of] To overlook, watch over, superintend, preside, govern, administer; præesse, administrare :-- Ðe ealle his þing bewiste qui præerat omnibus quæ habebat, Gen. 24, 2. Ne miht ðú leng tún-scíre bewitan jam non poteris villicare, Lk. Bos. 16, 2 : Ex. 3, 7 : 5, 14 : Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 41, 33 : 2, 4; Bos. 43, 21 : 6, 37; Bos. 132, 21. Fæder ealle gesceafte bewát the father watches over all creatures, Exon. 128 a; Th. 492, 5; Rä. 81, 9. To bewitanne, Gen. 39, 4.

be-witian, -witigan, -weotian; p. ode; pp. od To observe, take care of, administer, perform; observare, curæ habere, exsequi, peragere :-- Ne mágon hí tunglu bewitian they may not observe the heavenly bodies, Exon. 89 b; Th. 335, 31; Gn. Ex. 40. Hí oft bewitigaþ sorgfulne síþ they often perform a sorrowful journey, Beo. Th. 2861; B. 1428 : Exon. 12 b; Th. 22, 18; Cri. 353.

be-wlát looked, beheld, Cd. 142; Th. 177, 6; Gen. 2925; p. of be-wlítan.

be-wlátian; p. ode; pp. od To see, look, behold; videre, conspicere :-- Eágan ðíne geseón oððe bewlátion [MS. bewlatiun] efnysse oððe rihtwísnesse oculi tui videant æquitates, Ps. Lamb. 16, 2. To gescyldnysse mínre beseoh oððe bewláta ad defensionem meam conspice, 21, 20.

be-wlátung, e; f. Show, sight, pageant; spectaculum. DER. be-wlátian.

be-wlítan; p. -wlát, pl. -wliton; pp. -wliten To look, behold; spectare, respicere :-- Se eádega bewlát rinc ofer exle the happy man looked over his shoulder, Cd. 142; Th. 177, 6; Gen. 2925.

be-wópen bewailed, Ors. 2, 8; Bos. 51, 41; pp. of be-wépan.

be-worht made, built, covered, Jos. 2, 1; pp. of be-wyrcan.

be-worpen cast, cast down, thrown, cast about, surrounded, Cd. 21; Th. 25, 13; Gen. 393 : Gen. 40, 15 : Runic pm. 28; Kmbl. 345, 8; Hick. Thes. i. 135; pp. of be-weorpan.

be-wrǽcon exiled, sent forth, Cd. 189; Th. 235, 12; Dan. 305; p. pl. of be-wrecan.

be-wreáh covered, covered over, protected, Ps. Th. 104, 34; p. of be-wreón.

be-wrecan, bi-wrecan; p. -wræc, pl. -wrǽcon; pp. -wrecen. I. to exile, send forth; pellere, propellere :-- Ðú úsic bewrǽce in ǽhtgewealda thou hast exiled us into bondage, Exon. 53 a; Th. 186, 25; Az. 25. Ða us bewrǽcon they have sent us forth, Cd. 189; Th. 235, 12; Dan. 305. II. to strike or beat around, afflict; circum pulsare :-- We land gesóhton wære bewrecene we sought the land beaten round [afflicted] with the sea, Andr. Kmbl. 537; An. 269. III. to drive or bring to; appellere :-- Ceólas léton sande bewrecene they let the keels [ships] be driven to the sand [shore], Elen. Kmbl. 502; El. 251. DER. wrecan.

be-wrencan; p. -wrencte; pp. -wrenced [be about, wrenc deceit] To deceive; occultis machinationibus circumvenire, Prov. Kmbl. 34.

be-wreón; p. -wreáh, pl. -wrugon; pp. -wrogen To cover, cover over, protect, clothe; tegere, contegere, operire, protegere, velare :-- Bewrugon [bewreogon MS.] me þýstru contexerunt me tenebræ, Ps. Spl. 54. 5. Mid mínum bysmre ic eom bewrogen confusio vultus mei operuit me, Ps. Th. 43, 17. Ðú bewruge me fram gemétinge awyrgedra protexisti me a conventu malignantium, Ps. Spl. 63, 2. He hí wolcne bewreáh he protected them with a cloud, Ps. Th, 104, 34. Ic wæs nacod, and ge me noldon bewreón I was naked, and ye would not clothe me, Past. 44, 7; Hat. MS. 62 b, 21.

be-wrigen, -wrigon covered, concealed, Bt. Met. Fox 4, 93; Met, 4, 47; pp. and p. pl. of be-wríhan.

be-wrigennes, -ness, e; f. A hiding, keeping close or concealing; occultatio. DER. be-wríhan.

be-wríhan, bi-wríhan; p. wráh, pl. -wrigon; pp. -wrigen To cover over, conceal, wrap up; velare, operire :-- Se snáw bewríhþ wyrta cíþ the snow covers over the germ of herbs, Salm. Kmbl. 605; Sal, 302, Ic :goldwine mínne hrusan heolstre biwráh I covered my bounteous patron in a cave of the earth, Exon. 76 b; Th. 287, 32; Wand. 23. Bewrigen mid wrencum concealed by frauds, Bt. Met. Fox 4, 93; Met. 4, 47 : Cd. 8; Th. 10, 14; Gen. 156. Bewrigenum wrapped up, instr. Cd. 77; Th. 95, 28; Gen. 1585. DER. be-wrigennes, wríhan.

be-wríhþ covers over, Salm. Kmbl. 605; Sal. 302; 3rd pers. pres. of be-wríhan.

be-wrítan, bi-wrítan; p. -wrát, pl. -writon; pp. -writen To write down, inscribe; inscribere, Exon. 92 b; Th. 347, 27; Sch. 19.

be-wríðan, he -wríþ; p. -wráþ, pl. -wriðon; pp. -wriðen To bind, bind round, begird; ligare, redimire :-- Meotud bewríþ mid his wuldre eall eorþbúend the Creator shall wreathe with his glory all earth's inhabitants, Exon. 18 a; Th. 45, 12; Cri. 718. Duru wundurclommum bewriðen the door bound with wondrous bands, 12 a; Th. 19, 33; Cri. 310. DER. wríðan.

be-wrogen covered, covered over; opertus, Ps. Th. 43, 17; pp. of be-wreón.

be-wruge hast protected; protexisti, Ps. Spl. 63, 2; 2nd pers. sing. p. of be-wreón.

be-wunden wrapped, enwrapped, Beo. Th. 4840; B. 2424 :-- wundon wound or bound round, Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 78, 8; pp. and p. pl. of be-windan.

be-wyddod betrothed; desponsatus, L. Ethb. 83; Th. i. 24, 5, = beweddod; pp. of be-weddian.

be-wyrcan, -weorcean, bi-wyrcan; p. -worhte, pl. -worhton; pp. -worht To work, work in, insert, make, build, cover, adorn; elaborare, immittere, facere, ædificare, inducere, exornare :-- Bewyrc us on heortan Háligne Gást work the Holy Ghost into our hearts, Hy. 7, 79; Hy. Grn. ii. 288, 79. Ne wát ic mec beworhtne wulle flýsum I know not that I was made with fleeces of wool, Exon. 109 a; Th. 417, 11; Rä. 36, 3. He lǽmen fæt biwyrcan hét he commanded to make an earthen vessel, 74 a; Th. 277, 3; Jul. 575. Babylónia is mid stǽnenum wíghúsum beworht Babylon is built with stone towers, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 30 : Jos. 2, 1. Se mid weaxe beworhte he covered it with wax, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 46, 30. Ða téþ on golde bewyrc cover the teeth with gold, Med. ex Quadr. 1, 1; Lchdm. i. 326, 16. Seó cwén ða róde héht golde beweorcean the queen commanded to adorn the cross with gold, Elen. Kmbl. 2045; El. 1024.

be-wyrpan to cast, throw, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 45, 33. v. be-weorpan.

be-yrnan, -irnan; he -yrnþ; p. -arn, pl. -urnon; pp. -urnen [be by, yrnan to run] To run by, to come in, occur, incur; percurrere :-- Be-arn me on móde it occurred to my mind, Homl. Th. i. 2, 6. Án wundor me nú on mód be-arn one wonder now [runs by me into the mind] occurs to me, Dial. 1, 20. He ne be-arn on leásunga synne he incurred not the sin of [leasing] lying, Dial. 1, 2 : Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 7, 1; Lchdm. iii. 244, 20.

bezera, an; m : bezere, es; m. The baptist :-- Se bezera, Mt. Rush. Stv. 3, 1. v. bædzere.

bi by, near, concerning. v. be, bí.

a bee; apis : found in the compound bí-breád.

; prep. dat. [Bí is more frequently shortened into be. In compounds it is generally written be- or bi-; but bí- is long where it is used for big, or is a contraction, thus, - bí-spell for big-spell, and as bí-breád for beó-breád. v. be.] 1. dat. By, near to, at, in, upon; juxta, prope, apud, in :-- Arás bí ronde oretta the champion arose by his shield, Beo. Th. 5069; B. 2538. He bí sesse geóng he went by the seat, 5506; B. 2756. Bí staðe fæste fast by the shore, Exon. 96 b; Th. 361, 11; Wal. 18. Hwearf bí bence turned by the bench, Beo. Th. 2380; B. 1188. 2. dat. Of, about; de, quoad :-- Ðæt bí ðé sóþfæst sægde Esaias what Isaiah said truly of thee, Exon. 12 a; Th. 19, 16; Cri, 301. Hýrde ic secgan gén bí sumum fugle I have yet heard tell of a certain bird, 97 b; Th. 365, 17; Reb. 1. Bí ðon se wítga song of whom the prophet sang, 17 a; Th. 41, 4; Cri. 650. 3. dat. By, through, because of, after, according to, in comparison with; per, secundum, pro, ex :-- Bí hwon scealt ðú lifgan by what art thou to live? Exon. 36 b; Th. 118, 23; Gú. 244. Bí noman gehátne called by name, 23 b; Th. 66, 16; Cri. 1072. Bí heofonwóman through the crash of heaven, 20 a; Th. 52, 18; Cri. 835. Leán cumaþ werum bí gewyrhtum retribution shall come to men according to their works, 27 b; Th. 84, 3; Cri. 1368 : 76 a; Th. 286, 8; Jul. 728. Ðisses fugles gecynd fela gelíces bí ðám gecornum Cristes þegnum the nature of this bird is much like to the chosen servants of Christ, 61 b; Th. 225, 12; Ph. 388. 4. sometimesis separated from its case :-- Bí wædes ófre by the shore of the sea, Exon. 96 b; Th. 360, 22; Wal. 9.

biágian; p. ode; pp. od [beág a crown] To crown; coronare :-- Ðú biágodyst hine coronasti eum, Ps. Spl. C. 8, 6. v. beágian.

biaþ are; for bióþ, Mt. Lind. Stv. 26, 31; pl. pres. of bión = beón.

bi-baðian, p. ode; pp. od To bathe, wash; lavare :-- Se æðela fugel hine bibaðaþ in ðam burnan the noble fowl bathes itself in the brook, Exon. 57 b; Th. 205, 3; Ph. 107. v. be-baðian.

bi-beódan; p. -beád, pl. -budon; pp. -boden To order, command, bid; jubere, mandare, Exon. 56 a; Th. 200, 6; Ph. 36 : 93 a; Th. 349, 13; Sch. 45. v. be-beódan.

biblio-þéce, an; f. [βιβλιοθήκη = βιβλίον a book, θήκη repository, a library]. I. a library; bibliotheca, C. R. Ben. 50. II. a collection of books in one volume, hence, - The Bible; biblia :-- Hieronimus, se wurþfulla and se wísa bócere, úre Biblioþécan gebrohte to Lédene of Gréciscum bócum and of Ebréiscum Jerome, the worthy and wise author, translated our Bible out of the Greek and Hebrew books into Latin, Ælfc. T. Grn. 16, 6-8. Se saltere ys án bóc on ðære Biblioþécan the psalter is one book in the Bible, Ælfc. T. 14, 25. Iohannes awrát ða bóc, Apocalipsis geháten, and ðeós bóc ys æftemyst on ðære Biblioþécan John wrote the book called Revelation, and this book is the last in the Bible, Ælfc. T. 31, 23.

bi-bod, es; n. A command, decree, an order; mandatum, jussum, Exon. 25 a; Th. 71, 22; Cri. 1159 : Hy. 4, 34; Hy. Grn. ii. 283, 34. v. be-bod.

bí-breád, es; n. Bee-bread; apium panis :-- Þynceþ bíbreád swétre, gif he ǽr bitres onbyrgeþ bee-bread seemeth sweeter, if he before has a taste of bitter, Bt. Met. Fox 12, 17; Met. 12, 9. v. beó-breád I.

bí-búgan; p. -beág, pl. -bugon; pp. -bogen To avoid; avertere, Exon. 45 a; Th. 154, 9; Gú. 840. v. be-búgan.

bi-bycgong, e; f. [be, bycg from bycgan to buy] A selling away; venditio. v. bebycgean.

bi-byrgan; p. de; pp. ed To bury, Exon. 24 b; Th. 71, 21; Cri. 1159. v. be-byrgan.

BICCE, bice, bicge, an; f. A BITCH, a female of the canine kind; canicula :-- Biccean [biccan MS. B.] meolc bitch's milk, Med. ex Quadr. 9, 8, 9; Lchdm. i. 362, 15, 18. [Piers P. bicche; Ger. bätze, betze, petze, f : Icel. bikkja, f.]

biccen; adj. Belonging to a bitch; caninus; the adj. of bicce.

bi-cerran to pass by; præterire, Mk. Lind. Rush. War. 6, 48. v. becerran.

bicgan to buy, procure, Jn. Bos. 4, 8 : Beo. Th. 2615; B. 1305 : Exon. 120 b; Th. 463, 11; Hö. 68 : Salm. Kmbl, 403; Sal. 202 : Exon. 114 a; Th. 436, 37; Rä. 55, 12. v. bycgan.

bicge a bitch; canicula, Ælfc. Gl. 21; Wrt. Voc. 23, 33. v. bicce.

bi-clyppan; p. -clypte; pp. -clypt To clip, embrace, inclose, clasp; amplecti, Exon. 59 b; Th. 217, 8; Ph. 277. v. be-clyppan.

bícnian, bícnigan; part. bícniende; he bícneþ; p. ode; pp. od; v. a. I. to beckon, nod; innuere :-- He wæs bícniende him erat innuens illis, Lk. Bos. 1, 22. Bícnodon hí to his fæder innuebant patri ejus, 1, 62 : 5, 7. II. to indicate, signify, announce, shew; indicare, significare :-- He sceal mid bellan bícnigan ða tída he shall with bells announce the times, L. Ælf. C. 11; Th. ii. 346, 29. v. beácnian.

bícnung a sign; signum, signatio. v. beácnung.

bi-cowen gnawed, Exon. 99 b; Th. 373, 20; Seel. 111; pp. of bi-ceówan. v. be-ceówan.

bi-cweðan; p. -cwæþ, pl. cwǽdon; pp. -cweden To say; dicere, Exon. 37 b; Th. 123, 32; Gú. 331. v. be-cweðan.

bí-cwide a proverb, Prov. 22. v. big-cwide.

bi-cwom, pl. -cwómon came, entered :-- Ðá ic to hám bicwom when I came home, Exon. 86 a; Th. 324, 14; Wíd. 94 : 20 b; Th. 53, 32; Cri. 859 : 17 a; Th. 39, 33; Cri. 631 : 48 b; Th. 168, 2; Gú. 1071. Út bicwómon [MS. bicwoman], 24 a; Th. 69, 1; Cri. 1114. v. be-com, p. of be-cuman.

bíd, es; n. Delay, abiding; mora :-- Wearþ on bíd wrecen was driven to delay [on delay], Beo. Th. 5917; B. 2962. On bíd wriceþ drives on delay, Exon. 101 b; Th, 382, 29; Rä. 4, 3. DER. an-bíd, on- : bíd-fæst, -steal.

bi-dǽlan; p. -dǽlde; pp. -dǽled To deprive, bereave of anything, to deliver, release, free front anything; privare, sejungere, expertem reddere :-- Duguþum bidǽled bereft of honours, Exon. 16 a; Th. 35, 24; Cri. 563. v. be-dǽlan.

BÍDAN, ic bíde, ðú bídest, bítst, bíst, he bídeþ, bít, pl. bídaþ; p. ic, he bád, ðú bide, pl. bidon; pp. biden; acc. gen. To BIDE, abide, continue, remain, tarry, wait, await, expect, endure; manere, remanere, morari, habitare in aliquo loco, expectare, consequi, sustinere :-- Ic in wíte sceal bídan in bendum I in torment must abide in bonds, Cd. 214; Th. 268, 2; Sat. 49. Seó eorþe gíniende bád the earth continued yawning, Ors. 3, 3; Bos. 56, 4. Ðonne ðæt he ðǽr leng bide than that he should abide there longer, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 48, 4. Mere stille bád the sea remained still, Cd. 158; Th. 197, 2; Exod. 300. Bídaþ assan on þurste expectabunt onagri in siti sua, Ps. Th. 103, 11. Swá mín sáwl bád sicut expectavit anima mea, 55, 6. He geþyldum bád he waited patiently, Exon. 46 a; Th. 157, 4; Gú. 886. Utan we well ðære tíde bídan bene expectemus horam illam, Bd. 4, 24; S. 599, 5. Bídaþ Dryhtnes dómes they await the Lord's doom, Exon. 23 a; Th. 63, 17; Cri. 1021. Bád sóþra geháta he awaited the faithful promises, Cd. 71; Th. 86, 2; Gen. 1424. Hie ðæs bidon for this they waited, Exon. 10 a; Th. 10, 4; Cri. 147. In helle heó bryne welme bídan sceolden in hell they must abide [endure] scorching heat, Cd. 213; Th. 266, 25; Sat. 27. Ðá seó circe hér eahtnysse bád then the church here endured persecution, Exon. 18 a; Th. 44, 18; Cri. 704. [Laym. biden, ibiden; p. ibæd, ibad, pl. biden; pp. ibiden, ibede : O. Sax. bídan : N. Frs. bida : O. Frs. bidia : N. Dut. N. L. Ger. beiden : N. Ger. dial. beiten : M. H. Ger. bíten : O. H. Ger. bítan : Goth. beidan : Dan. bie : Swed. bida : O. Nrs. bíða [for bída] : Ir. Gael. feith.] DER. a-bídan, ge-, ofer-, on-.

BIDDAN, ic bidde, ðú biddest, bidst, bitst, he biddeþ, bit, byt, bitt, pl. biddaþ; impert. bide, pl. biddaþ; p. ic, he bæd, ðú bǽde, pl. bǽdon; pp. beden : followed by an acc. of the person, or by the prep. to, and a gen. of the thing; v. trans. To ask, pray, intreat, beseech, BID, order, require; petere, poscere, orare, quærere, precari, deprecari, rogare, postulare, præcipere, requirere :-- Ic bidde peto, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 1; Som. 30, 41. Eádréd, cyning, biddeþ and hálsaþ Eadred, king, prayeth and intreateth, Cod. Dipl. 433, A. D. 955; Kmbl. ii. 304, 24 : Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 31. Ic bidde precor, 25; Som. 27, 11. Andreas ongann merelíðendum miltsa biddan Andrew began to ask mercy for the sea faring men, Andr. Kmbl. 706; An. 353. Hú hí hine bǽdon [MS. bædan] rihtes geleáfan and fullwihtes bæðes how they had asked him the favour of a right belief and of a font of baptism, Ors. 6, 34; Bos. 130, 30. Ongunnon ealle biddan ðæs ðe he bæd all began to pray that which he prayed, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 168, 30. Hý him to eów árna bǽdun they prayed to you for compassion, Exon. 27 b; Th. 83, 9; Cri. 1353. Bide hine ora eum, Ps. Spl. 36, 6. Ic bidde ðé mín Drihten quæso Domine mi, Gen. 19, 18. We biddaþ quæsumus, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 41. Ðone alwaldan ára biddan to intreat the all-powerful for benefits, Cd. 217; Th. 277, 24; Sat. 209. Gehýr, God, gebéd mín ðon is bidde exaudi, Deus, orationem meam cum deprecor, Ps. Spl. 63, 1. Biddaþ rogate, Ps. Th. 121, 6. He bitt sibbe rogat ea quæ pacis sunt, Lk. Bos. 14, 32. Gif he bit æg si petierit ovum, 11, 12. Gif hit [cild] æges bitt if he ask for an egg, Homl. Th. i. 250, 9. Gif hit [cild] hine hláfes bitt if he ask him for bread, 250, 8. Gif he byt fisces if he ask for a fish, Lk. Bos. 11, 11. Bide me postula a me, Ps. Th. 2, 8. Hí dóþ swá ic bidde they do as I bid, Beo. Th. 2467; B. 1231. He bæd him hláfas wyrcan he bade him make loaves, Cd. 228; Th. 307, 1; Sat. 673. Ðú bitst me ðæt ic lǽde út ðis folc præcipis ut educam populum istum, Ex. 33, 12. Bide his me eft de manu mea require illum, Gen. 43, 9. [Orm. bidden : Laym. bidde, bidden; he biddeþ, pl. biddeþ; impert. bide, bid : O. Sax. biddean : Frs. bidde : O. Frs. bidda : Dut. bidden : N. Ger. M. H. Ger. bitten : O. H. Ger. bitjan : Goth. bidyan : Dan. bede : Swed. bedja : O. Nrs. poet. biðja petere, rogare.] DER. a-biddan, ge-, on- : v. bedd.

biddende praying, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 47, 40; part. of biddan.

biddere, es; m. A petitioner; petitor vel petax, Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, 19. v. biddan.

bide pray; ora :-- Bide ðínne fæder ora tuum patrem, Mt. Bos. 6, 6; sing. impert. of biddan.

bi-deáglian to hide, cover, conceal, keep close or secret, Exon. 51 a; Th. 177, 12; Gú. 1226. v. be-deáglian.

bi-déglad hidden, obscured :-- Bidéglad on dægréd obscured at dawn, Exon. 57 a; Th. 204, 15; Ph. 98; pp. of bi-déglian. v. be-déglad.

bídende abiding, Elen. Kmbl. 966; El. 484; part. of bídan.

bíd-fæst; adj. [bíd an abiding, delay; fæst fast, firm] Stationary, firm; stabilis :-- Hyre fóta wæs bídfæst [biidfæst MS.] óðer one of its feet was stationary, Exon. 114 a; Th. 438, 13; Rä. 57, 7.

bíding, e; f. A BIDING, abode; mansio, statio :-- Ðǽr hý bídinge móstun tídum brúcan where they might at times enjoy a biding, Exon. 35 b; Th. 114, 30; Gú. 180.

bi-droren deprived; orbatus, Exon. 77 b; Th. 291, 8; Wand. 79; pp. of bi-dreósan. v. dreósan, be-droren.

bíd-steal, -steall, es; m. [bíd an abiding, delay; steal a stall, place] A stand, halt; statio, mora :-- He, beald in gebéde, bídsteal gifeþ he, bold in prayer, maketh a stand, Exon. 71 a; Th. 265, 29; Jul. 388. Ic eofore eom cénra, ðonne he, gebolgen, bídsteal giefeþ I am bolder than a wild boar, when he, enraged, makes a stand, 110 b; Th. 423, 11; Rä. 41, 19.

bi-dyrnan; p. de; pp. ed To hide, conceal; occultare, Exon. 24 a; Th. 67, 16; Cri. 1089. v. be-dyrnan.

bie be, Mk. Lind. War. 10, 44, for bió; subj. of bión to be.

biécn a beacon, wonder, Ps. Spl. C. 104. 25. v. beácen.

Bieda, an; m. Bieda the son of Port :-- Hér com Port on Brytene, and his twegan sunan, Bieda and Mægla here, A. D. 501, Port came to Britain, and his two sons, Bieda and Mægla, Chr. 501; Erl. 15, 14.

Biedan heáfod; gen. heáfdes; dat. heáfde; m. [Biedan Bieda's, heáfod head : Flor. Bidanheafod, A.D. 1114] BIEDA'S HEAD = Bedwin, Wilts? - Hér Wulfhere and Æscwine gefuhton æt Biedan heáfde here, A. D. 675, Wulfhere and Æscwine fought at Bedwin, Chr. 675; Erl. 36, 9; Th. 58, 15, col. 1, 3.

Biedcan ford Bedford, Chr. 571; Th. 32, 26, col. 2. v. Bedan ford.

bién-codd beanpod, Lk. Foxe 15, 16. v. beán-belgas.

bi-eóde venerated, Exon. 68 b; Th. 255, 3; Jul. 208; p. of bi-gán.

biereþ bears, carries, Exon. 58 b; Th. 211, 18; Ph. 199; for bireþ; 3rd pres. of beran.

bierm a bosom, Ps. Spl. C. 73, 12. v. bearm.

biernende burning, for byrnende. v. byrnan.

biersteþ, bierst bursts, Exon. 102 a; Th. 386, 16; Rä. 4, 62; 3rd pres. of berstan.

bieþ are, for bióþ, Mk. Lind. War. 10, 43. v. bión.

bi-fǽrende; part. Passing by, Lk. Lind. War. 18, 36. v. be-féran.

bi-fæstan; p. -fæste; pp. -fæsted To fasten, make fast, fix, commit, intrust; infigere, committere, tradere, Exon. 97 a; Th. 362, 2; Wal. 30 : 50 a; Th. 173, 26; Gú. 1166. v. be-fæstan.

bi-fangen surrounded, Exon. 15 b; Th. 33, 18, note; Cri. 527; pp. of bi-fón. v. be-fón.

bi-fealdan; p. -feóld, pl. -feóldon; pp. -fealden To infold, involve, inwrap, cover, overwhelm; implicare, involvere, circumdare, Exon. 9 b; Th. 8, 14; Cri. 117. v. be-fealdan.

bi-felgan; p. -fealh, pl. -fulgon; pp. -folgen To deliver, transmit, consign; tradere, committere, Exon. 72 b; Th. 271, 13; Jul. 481. v. be-felgan.

bi-féng, pl. -féngon held, seized; apprehendit, Exod. 415; Grn. i. 88, 415; p. of bi-fón. v. be-fón.

bi-feohtan; p. -feaht, pl. -fuhton; pp. -fohten To deprive by fighting; pugnando privare :-- Feore bifohten deprived of life, Exon. 101 b; Th. 384, 23; Rä. 4, 32.

bi-feolan; p. -fæl, pl. -fǽlon; pp. -folen To commit, commend, deliver; immittere, commendare, tradere :-- Bifolen in foldan committed to earth, Exon. 71 b; Th. 267, 18; Jul. 417 : 17 b; Th. 42, 5; Cri. 668. v. be-feolan.

bifgende, bifigende trembling, trembling with a fever :-- Bifgende febricitantem, Mt. Rush, Stv. 8, 14. v. bifian.

BIFIAN, bifigan, byfian, beofian; p. ode; pp. od To tremble, shake, be moved; tremere, contremere, commoveri :-- Drihten besihþ eorþan and déþ hýg bifian Dominus respicit terram et facit eam tremere, Ps. Lamb. 103, 32 : Rood Kmbl. 72; Kr. 36. He, bifiende, feóll to Iohannes fótum he, trembling, fell at John's feet, Ælfc. T. 37, 10 : Cd. 92; Th. 118, 25; Gen. 1970. Ic bifige tremo, Ælfc. Gr. 35; Som. 38, 8. Eorþe [eorþan MS.] bifode terra tremuit, Ps. Spl. 75, 8 : Rood Kmbl. 83; Kr. 42. Ða wudas bifodon the woods shook, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 168, 8. [O. Sax. biƀón : Frs. bibbe, bibje : O. Frs. beva : Dut. beven : Ger. beben : M. H. Ger. biben : O. H. Ger. bibén : Dan. bäve : Swed. bäfwa : O. Nrs. bifast : Lat. pavere : Grk. φέβομαι : Sansk. bhī to fear.] DER. a-bifian.

bifigan to tremble; tremere, Ælfc. Gr. 35; Som. 38, 8. v. bifian.

bi-fleón; part. -fleónde To escape, to pass by or under, to go away privately; subterfugere, Cot. 192. v. be-fleón.

bi-folen committed, commended, Exon. 71 b; Th. 267, 18; Jul. 417; pp. of bi-feolan.

bi-fón; p. -féng, pl. -féngon; pp. -fangen, -fongen. I. to comprehend, grasp, seize, take hold of, attach, catch, ensnare; comprehendere, apprehendere, reprehendere, deprehendere, capere :-- Folm mec mæg bifón the hand may grasp me, Exon. 111 a; Th. 425, 6; Rä. 41, 52. II. to surround, encompass, encircle, envelop, contain, invest, clothe, case, receive, conceive; circumdare, amplecti, capere, cingere, tegere, operire, accipere, concipere :-- Flǽsce bifongen surrounded with flesh, Exon 98 a; Th. 368, 33; Seel. 34. v. be-fón.

bi-fongen surrounded, Exon. 98 a; Th. 368, 33; Seel. 34. pp. of bi-fón v. be-fón.

bi-fóran; prep. dat. Before; ante, coram :-- Wineleás guma gesihþ him bifóran fealwe wegas the friendless mortal sees before him seared ways, Exon. 77 a; Th. 289, 10; Wand. 46: 47 a; Th. 160, 22; Gú. 947. v. be-fóran; prep.

bi-fóran; adv. Before, of old; antea :-- Swá ǽr bifóran as ere of old, Exon. 14 b; Th. 29, 26; Cri. 468. v. be-fóran; adv.

bifung, beofung, e; f. [bifian to tremble] A trembling, shaking; tremor :-- Fyrhto oððe bifung begráp híg tremor apprehendit eos, Ps. Lamb. 47, 7: 54, 6. DER. eorþ-bifung.

bí-fylc, es; n. [bí by, near to; fylc a tribe, country, province] A neighbouring people, province, or region; provincia vel populus adjacens :-- Of eallum ðyssum bífylcum de cunctis prope provinciis, Bd. 3, 14; S. 540, 11.

big; prep. dat. Of, about, concerning; de, quoad :-- Big ðam ðe ic ðé ǽr sægde de qua tibi ante dixi, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 35. v. be 2.

bi-gǽþ commits, Exon. 27 a; Th. 80, 18; Cri. 1308; pres. of bi-gán.

bi-gán, he gǽþ; p. -eóde, pl. -eódon; pp. -gán. I. to commit, exercise, observe, enjoy; committere, exercere, observare, frui, Exon. 27 a; Th. 80, 18; Cri. 1308. II. to honour, worship, venerate; colere, Exon. 68 b; Th, 255, 3; Jul. 208. v. be-gán.

bígan; p. de; pp. ed; v. trans. To bow, bend, bend down, turn, turn back; flectere, deflectere, incurvare, retorquere :-- His cneów bígde on eorþan genua flexit in terram, Bd. 5, 21; S. 643,15: 3, 2; S. 524, 14: Mt. Bos. 27, 29: Exon. 62 b; Th. 229, 23; Ph. 459: Bd. 3, 19; S. 548, 8: Lev. 1, 15. v. býgan.

bi-gang, -gong, es; m. I. a course, way, passage, circuit; cursus, via, tenor, circuitus :-- Tída bigong the course of seasons, Exon. 11 a; Th. 15, 13; Cri. 235. II. an undertaking, business, exercise, religious worship; negotium, exercitatio, cultus, Bd. 5, 1; S. 613, 9. v. be-gang.

bi-gangan to go round, go to, attend, commit, practise, exercise, worship; exercere, incumbere, colere, Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, 33. v. bi-gongan, be-gangan.

big-cwide, bí-cwide, es; m. [be, big by; cwide a saying] A by-saying, by-word, proverb, fable, tale; proverbium, fabula :-- Ge forwurðaþ þurh bigspell and bigcwidas eris perditus in proverbium et fabulam, Deut. 28, 37. Bícwide proverbium, Prov. 22.

bige, es; n? [bycgan, bicgan to buy] A buying, exchange, commerce, traffic; emptio, permutatio, commercium, mercatus :-- Gif gebyrige ðæt for neóde heora hwilc wið úre bige habban wille, oððe we wið heora, mid yrfe and mid ǽhtum, ðæt is to þafianne if it happen that from necessity any of them will have traffic with us, or we with them, with cattle and with goods, that is to be allowed, L. A. G. 5; Th. i. 156, 2-4.

bige buy, Jn. Bos. 13, 29; impert. of bicgan.

bíge, es; m. A bending, turning, bend, an angle, a corner; flexus, sinus, angulus :-- Se engel eóde into ánum nyrwette, ðe he ne mihte forbúgan on náðere healfe, forðamðe ðǽr nán bíge næs angelus ad locum angustum transivit, ubi nec ad dexteram nec ad sinistram poterat deviare, Num. 22, 26. Bíge limes fractura membri, Fulg. 19. v. býge.

bígean to bow, bend; flectere :-- His cneówu bígean genua flectere, Bd. 4, 31; S. 610, 23: 3, 2; S. 524, 21: Ps. Th. 94, 6. v. býgan.

bi-geat obtained, seized, Exon. 81 b; Th. 306, 12; Seef. 6; p. of bi-gitan. v. be-gitan.

bi-gegnes, bi-gegnys, -ness, e; f. A going about or applying one's self to anything, the pursuit or study of anything; studium :-- Bigegnes vel smeágung studium, Ælfc. Gl. 90; Wrt. Voc. 51, 27: Gr. Dial. 1, 10. DER. eorþ-bi-gegnys.

bi-gellan; p. -geal, pl. -gullon; pp. -gollen To celebrate by song, to scream; canendo celebrare, exclamare :-- Ful oft ðæt earn bigeal the eagle screamed that often, Exon. 81 b; Th. 307, 16; Seef. 24.

bígels, es; m. An arch, a vault, an arched roof; arcus, fornix, camera, Ælfc. Gl. 93; Som. 75, 91; Wrt. Voc. 52, 41: Cot. 201. DER. for-bígels.

bi-gencg worship, observation, Scint. 7. v. be-gang II.

bi-geng, es; m. Observation, worship, service; cultus :-- Bigeng cultus, Ælfc. Gr. 11; Som. 15, 18, MSS. C. D. He bæd híg ðá georne, ðæt híg búgan ne sceoldon fram Godes bigengum he bade them then earnestly, that they should not decline from the services of God, Jos. 23, 7. v. be-gang.

bi-genga, an; m. An inhabitant, dweller, cultivator; incola, cultor :-- Ðæt ðæt Eálond Wiht onféng Cristene bigengan ut Vecta insula Christianos incolas susceperit, Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 2. Se árfæsta bigenga ðæs gástlícan landes pius agri spiritalis cultor, 2, 15; S. 519, 8: Deut. Grn. 4. 3. DER. land-bigenga. v. be-ganga.

bi-geongende, bi-gongende; part. [part. of bi-gongan, v. be-gongan, be-gangan] Passing by; præteriens, Mk. Lind. War. 15, 21: Mk. Rush. War. 15, 21.

bí-gerdel a purse, public purse, Ælfc. Gl. 65; Som. 69, 35; Wrt. Voc. 40, 63. v. big-gyrdel.

biggencere, es; m. A worker; operator :-- Ic hæbbe smiþas ... and manega óðre mistlícra cræfta biggenceras habeo fabros ... et multos alios variarum artium operatores, Coll. Monast, Th. 30, 3.

big-geng observation, worship; cultus :-- Biggeng [MS. biggend] cultus, Ælfc. Gr. 11; Som. 15, 18. v. begang.

big-gyrdel, bí-gyrdel, -gerdel; g. -gyrdles, -gerdles; m. [big, bí, gyrdel a girdle, belt, purse] A belt, girdle, and as girdles were used to carry money, hence, a purse, public purse, treasury; zōna = ζώνη, saccus = σάκκos, fiscus :-- Næbbe ge feoh on eówrum bígyrdlum nolite possidere pecuniam in zonis vestris, Mt. Bos. 10, 9. Bígerdel saccus, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 68; Wrt. Voc. 16, 41. Cyninges [MS. kinges] gafoles bígerdel saccus vel fiscus, 65; Som. 69, 35; Wrt. Voc. 40, 63. Biggyrdel fiscus vel saccus publicus, 17; Som. 58, 94; Wrt. Voc. 22, 11.

big-hydig, bí-hydig; adj. Careful, watchful, solicitous, anxious; sollicitus, sollers :-- Wæs seó móder ðære gesomnunge bíhydig [MS. B. byghydig = bighydig] sollicita est mater congregationis, Bd. 4, 7; Whel. 277, 27. v. be-hydig.

big-hydiglíce, -hydilíce, -hydlíce, -hidiglíce; adv. Carefully; sollicite, sollerter :-- Ðe he bighydiglíce heóld which he carefully held, Bd. 4, 31; S. 611, 2. Heó hine bighydilíce [bighydlice, Whel. 324, 8] sóhte she carefully sought him, 4, 23; S. 595, 4. Bighidiglíce sollicite, 1, 27; S. 489, note 39. v. be-hydelíce.

bi-gitan, -gytan to get, obtain, seize; assequi, acquirere, arripere, corripere, Exon. 32 b; Th. 103, 19; Cri. 1690. v. be-gitan.

big-leofa, bí-leofa, an; m. [big, bí for, líf life, leofen living, nourishment]. I. provision by which life is maintained, Food, victuals, nourishment; cibus, victus, alimentum :-- Ðú nimst witodlíce of eallum mettum ... ðæt híg beón ǽgðer ge ðé ge him to bigleofan tolles igitur ex omnibus escis ... et erunt tam tibi quam illis in cibum, Gen. 6, 21. Hwæt begytst ðú of ðínum cræfte? Bigleofan, and scrúd, and feoh quid adquiris de tua arte? Victum, et vestitum, et pecuniam, Coll. Monast. Th. 23, 3-6. Bigleofa victus, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 32, 6. Bíleofa alimentum, C. R. Ben. 49. II. that by which food is procured, Money, wages; stips, stipendium :-- Scipe vel bigleofa stipendium, Ælfc. Gl. 12; Som. 57, 92; Wrt. Voc. 20, 33. v. an-leofa, and-leofen.

big-leofan; part. ende; p. ede; pp. ed To nourish, feed, support; cibare. v. big-leofa.

bi-glídan to glide or disappear from any one, to desert any one; evanescere ab aliquo, derelinquere, Exon. 94 a; Th. 353, 18; Reim. 14.

bíg-nes, -ness, e; f. A bending, bowing; flexio :-- Se earm nǽnige bígnesse on ðam elnbogan hæfde brachium nihil prorsus in cubito flexionis habuit, Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 23. v. býgan.

bi-gong a course, Exon. 54 b; Th. 193, 29, Az. 129. v. be-gang.

bi-gongan to attend, practise, observe, worship, Exon. 44 b; Th. 150, 11; Gú. 777. v. be-gangan.

bi-grafan to bury; sepelire, Exon. 29 a; Th. 89, 33; Cri. 1466. v. be-grafan.

bigsen an example, Bd. 3, 28, MS. B; S. 560, note 35. v. býsen.

big-sittan; p. -sæt, pl. -sǽton; pp. -seten To sit by or near; adsidere :-- Se bisceop ðæt geseah ðe him bigsæt the bishop who sat by him saw it; quo viso pontifex qui adsidebat, Bd. 3, 6; S. 528, 22.

big-spæc, e; f. A by-speech, deceiving; supplantatio. DER. big. spæc.

big-spell, bí-spell; g. -spelles; pl. nom. acc. -spell, -spellu; n. [big, bí, spell a history] A by-history, a parable, fable, example, proverb, story; parabola, fabula, exemplum, proverbium, narratio :-- Gehýre ge ðæs sáwendan bigspell vos audite parabolam seminantis, Mt. Bos. 13, 18. Ic ahylde on bigspelle eáre mín inclinabo in parabolam aurem meam, Ps. Spl. 48, 4. Ealle ðás þing se Hǽlend spræc mid bigspellum to ðám weredum; and nán þing ne spræc he bútan bigspellum hæc omnia locutus est Iesus in parabolis ad turbas; et sine parabolis non loquebatur eis, Mt. Bos. 13, 34, 35: Ps. Lamb. 48, 5. Bigspellu, acc. pl. Lchdm. iii. 214, 15. He him rehte bíspell bí ðære sunnan he related to him a parable of the sun, Bt. titl. vi; Fox x. 12. Ðeáh we sculon manega and mistlíce bísna and bíspell reccan though we should relate many and various examples and fables, Bt. 35, 5; Fox 166, 13, 19. Gehýr sum bíspell hear an example, 37, 3; Fox 190, 21: 39, 6; Fox 220, 21. Þurh bigspell and bigcwidas in proverbium et fabulam, Deut. 28, 37. We sculon ðé sum bíspell reccan we will relate a story to thee, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 166, 27: Bt. Met. Fox 23, 17; Met. 23, 9. [Kil. bijspel: Ger. beispiel, n: M. H. Ger. bíspel, n.] DER. bigspell-bóc.

bigspell-bóc, e; f. [bigspell parabola, proverbium, bóc liber] A book of parables, the Book of Proverbs; proverbiorum liber :-- Salomon gesette þreó béc þurh his snoternisse: án ys bigspellbóc Solomon wrote three books by his wisdom: one is the Book of Proverbs, Ælfc. T. 14, 26.

big-standan; p. -stód, pl. -stódon; pp. -standen [big = bí by, near, standan to stand] To stand by or near one, to support; stare cum aliquo, adstare, adjuvare :-- Bigstandaþ me, strange geneátas stand by me, strong associates, Cd. 15; Th. 18, 36; Gen. 284. Ða ðe him bigstódon those who stood by him, Byrht. Th. 137, 7; By. 182: Beo. Th. 6086; B. 3047.

big-swíc, es; m. Deceit, guile; fraus :-- Bútan brede and bigswíce without fraud and guile, L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 160, 7. v. be-swíc.

big-wist, bí-wist, e; f. [wist subsistence, victuals, food; wesan to be, exist] Food, nourishment, provision; pabulum, alimentum, commeatus :-- Bigwist alimentum, pabulum, Abus. 4. We lǽraþ, ðæt hí habban þreóra daga bíwiste we enjoin, that they have provision for three days, L. Edg. C. 3; Th. ii. 244, 12. He habban sceal ðám þrím geférscipum bíwiste he must have provisions for the three classes, Bt. 17; Fox 60, 3, 4.

bí-gyrdel a girdle, purse, Mt. Bos. 10, 9. v. big-gyrdel.

bi-gytan to get, obtain, seize; assequi, acquirere, arripere, corripere, Exon. 32 b; Th. 103, 19; Cri. 1690. v. be-gitan.

bi-healden; p. -heóld, pl. -heóldon; pp. -healden. I. to hold by or near, guard, observe, preserve; tenere, inhabitare, custodire, servare, præservare :-- Ðǽr se ánhaga eard bihealdeþ there the lonely [bird] holds its dwelling, Exon. 57 a; Th. 203, 21; Ph. 87. Mec sáwelcund hyrde bihealdeþ a spiritual shepherd guardeth me, Exon. 37 a; Th. 121, 15; Gú. 289. Hine weard biheóld of heofonum a guardian from heaven guarded him, Exon. 34 a; Th. 108, 22; Gú. 76: 54 b; Th. 193, 22; Az. 125. Se sceal ðære sunnan síþ bihealdan he shall observe the sun's course, Exon. 57 a; Th. 203, 27; Ph. 90: 57 b; Th. 205, 17; Ph. 114. Háteþ mec heáh-cyning bihealdan the high king commands [them] to preserve me, Exon. 1l0 b; Th. 424, 15; Rä. 41, 39. II. to see, look on, behold; videre, intueri, aspicere :-- Freó ðæt bihealdeþ hú me of hrife fleógaþ hylde pílas my master beholds how the shafts of battle fly from my belly, Exon. 105 a; Th. 399, 3; Rä. 18, 5. v. be-healdan.

bi-heáwan; p. -heów; pp. -heáwen To hew or cut off, to deprive of; cædendo privare :-- Iohannes bibeád heáfde biheáwan commanded to cut off John's head, Exon. 70 a; Th. 260, 10; Jul. 295. v. be-heáwan.

bi-helan; p. -hæl, pl. -hǽlon; pp. -holen To conceal; occultare, Exon. 27 a; Th. 80, 23; Cri. 1311. v. be-helan.

bi-helian to hide, conceal, Exon. 52 b; Th. 183, 14; Gú. 1327. v. be-helian.

bi-helmian; p. ade; pp. ad To cover over, to cover, shroud; cooperire :-- Heolstre bihelmad shrouded with darkness, Exon. 69 a; Th. 257, 2; Jul. 241. v. be-helman.

bi-heonan on this side. v. be-heonan.

bi-hlǽman to overwhelm with noise, to fall upon; strepitu obruere :-- Ðonne foldbúende se micla dæg meahtan Dryhtnes mægne bihlǽmeþ then the great day of the mighty Lord will fall with might upon the earth's inhabitants, Exon, 20 b; Th. 54, 18; Cri. 870. [O. Sax. O. H. Ger. hlamón crepitare.]

bi-hlǽnan; p. de; pp. ed To surround or beset by leaning anything against another; acclinando circumdare :-- Lǽmen fæt wudu-beámum, holte bihlǽnan [bilænan MS.] an earthen vessel with forest trees, with wood beset, Exon. 74 a; Th. 277, 7; Jul. 577.

bi-hlemman; v. a. [be, hlemman to dash together] To dash together; collidere cum strepitu :-- He ða grimman goman bihlemmeþ fæste togædre he dashes the grim jaws [gums] fast together, Exon. 97 b; Th. 364, 26; Wal. 76.

bi-hlyhhan; p. -hlóh, pl. -hlógon; pp. -hlahen, -hleahen To laugh at, deride; ridere aliquid, exultare de aliqua re, Exon.73 b; Th. 274, 1; Jul. 526. v. be-hlehhan.

bi-hófian; p. ode; pp. od To have need of, to need, require; egere, indigere, Exon. 37 b; Th. 123, 33; Gú. 332. v. be-hófian.

bi-hongen behung, hung round, Exon. 81 b; Th. 307, 1; Seef. 17; pp. of bi-hón. v. be-hón.

bi-hreósan; p. -hreás, pl. -hruron; pp. -hroren To rush down, cover; ruere, obruere, incidere :-- Hríme bihrorene covered with rime, Exon. 77 b; Th. 291, 4; Wand. 77.

bi-hroren rushed, Exon. 77 b; Th. 291, 4; Wand. 77. v. bi-hreósan.

bi-hýdan; p. -hýdde; pp. -hýded To hide, conceal, cover; abscondere, occultare, operire, Exon. 61 b; Th. 227, 4; Ph. 418. v. be-hýdan.

bí-hydig careful, Bd. 4, 7; S. 574, 33. v. be-hydig, big-hydig.

bii; prep. dat. [= big = bí = be] By, near to; juxta, prope :-- Se eádiga ærcebiscop Sanctus Laurentius bii his fóregengan Sancte Agustine bebyrged wæs beatus archiepiscopus Laurentius juxta prædecessorem suum Augustinum sepultus est, Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 6. v. be 1.

BIL, bill, es; n. An old military weapon, with a hooked point, and an edge on the back, as well as within the curve, a BILL or a broad two-edged sword, a falchion. Whatever its shape, it must have had two edges; as, in the earliest poem, an envoy is attacked, billes ecgum, with the edges of a bill; falx, marra, falcastrum, ensis curvus. Hitherto this word has only been found in poetry :-- Ðá ic, on morgne, gefrægn mǽg óðerne billes ecgum on bonan stælan then on the morrow, I have heard of the other kinsman setting on the slayer with the edges of a bill, Beo. Th. 4963; B. 2485. Geseah ðá sige-eádig bil, eald sweord eótenisc then he saw a victorious bill, an old giant sword, Beo. Th. 3119; B. 1557. Abrægd mid ðý bille he brandished with his sword, Cd. 142; Th. 177, 17; Gen. 2931. Billa ecgum with the edges of swords, Cd. 210; Th. 260, 14; Dan. 709. Billum abreótan to destroy with swords, Cd. 153; Th. 190, 14; Exod. 199. [Laym. bil a falchion: O. Sax. bil, n: Dut. bijl, f: Ger. beil, beihel, n: M. H. Ger. bíle, bíl, n: O. H. Ger. bihal, bial, n: Sansk. bil to divide; findere.] DER. gúþ-bil, hilde-, stán-, twí-, wíg-, wudu-.

bí-lage [bí by, near, lagu a law] A BYE-LAW; lex privata, Chr. W. Thorn. an. 1303.

bile, es; m? A BILL, beak of a bird, a proboscis, the fore part of a ship; rostrum, proboscis = πρoβoσκίs :-- Bile rostrum, Wrt. Voc. 77, 26. Ylpes bile vel wrót an elephant's proboscis, Ælfc. Gl. 18; Som. 58, 128; Wrt. Voc. 22, 42.

bíle a bile, carbuncle, sore; ulcus, Som. Lye. v. býl.

bi-leác locked up, shut up, Exon. 124 b; Th. 479, 1; Rä. 62, 1, = be-leác; p. of be-lúcan.

bi-lecgan; p. -legde, -léde; pp. -legd, -léd To lay or impose upon, to lay round, cover, load, afflict, charge; imponere, afficere, onerare, accusare, Exon. 107 a; Th. 409, 6; Rä. 27, 25. v. be-lecgan.

bi-légan; p. -légde; pp. -légd To surround with flame; circumflagrare flamma :-- Lége bilégde surrounded with flame [Ger. umlodert mit lohe], Exon. 53 a; Th. 186, 7; Az. 16. v. be-légan.

bile-hwít; adj. [bile the beak, hwít white, referring to the beaks of young birds, then to their nature, Junius] Simple, sincere, honest, without fraud or deceit, meek, mild, gentle; simplex, mitis :-- Arnwi munec wæs swíðe gód man and swíðe bilehwít monk Arnwi was a very good man and very meek, Chr. 1041; Erl. 169, 12. v. bilewit.

bile-hwítlíce; adv. Honestly, simply; honeste, simpliciter :-- Andswarede Dryhthelm bilehwítlíce, forðon he wæs bylehwítre gleáwnesse and gemetfæstre gecynde man Drycthelme respondebat simpliciter, erat namque homo simplicis ingenii ac moderatæ naturæ, Bd. 5, 12; S. 631, 30.

bí-leofa food, C. R. Ben. 49. v. big-leofa.

bí-leofen, -lifen, e; f. [bí, leofen living, livelihood] Food, provisions; annona, pulmentum :-- Bí-leofene [MS. bileouene] annona, C. R. Ben. 43. Bílifen pulmentum, Cot. 171. v. big-leofa.

bi-leóran; p. de, ade; pp. ed To pass by or over; transire, præterire :-- Gif bileórade fram [MS. from] him seó [MS. ðio] tíd si transiret ab eo hora, Mk. Skt. Lind. 14, 35, 36. Se bileórde qui præterivit, Ps. Surt. 89, 4. v. leóran.

bi-leósan; p. -leás, pl. -luron; pp. -loren To bereave, deprive; orbare, privare :-- Ðá afyrhted wearþ ár, elnes biloren then the messenger was affrighted, bereft of courage, Exon. 52 a; Th. 181, 30; Gú. 1301. v. be-leósan.

bile-wit, bele-wit, bil-wit; adj. [bile, wit mind, wit] Merciful, mild, gentle, simple, honest; æquanimus, mansuetus, mitis, simplex, honestus :-- Bilewit Dryhten merciful Lord, Ps. C. 50, 99; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 99: Bt. Met. Fox 20, 138; Met. 20, 69: 20, 510; Met. 20, 255: 20, 538; Met. 20, 269. We bletsiaþ bilewitne feder we bless the merciful father, Hy. 8, 8; Hy. Grn. ii. 290, 8. Gehýran ða bilewitan [MS. bylewitan] audiant mansueti, Ps. Spl. 33, 2. Beóþ eornustlíce gleáwe swá nædran, and bilwite [MS. bilwyte] swá culfran estote ergo prudentes sicut serpentes, et simplices sicut columbæ, Mt. Bos. 10, 16: 11, 29.

bile-witness, bil-witness, e; f. Mildness, simplicity, innocence; simplicitas :-- Se God wunaþ simle on ðære heán ceastre his ánfealdnesse and bilewitnesse God dwells always in the high city of his unity and simplicity, Bt. 39, 5; Fox 218, 19. Hý on bilwitnesse hyra líf alyfdon they passed their lives in simplicity, Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 27, 5.

bil-gesleht, bill-gesliht, -geslyht, es; n. [bil, bill a sword, gesleht a clashing, conflict, slaughter; from sleán to slay, kill] A clashing of swords, battle; ensium concutio, pugna :-- Gelpan ne þorfte beorn blandenfeax bilgeslehtes [billgeslyhtes, Cott. Tiber. A. vi; billgeslihtes, Cott. Tiber. B. i: Cott. Tiber. B. iv] the grizzly-haired warrior needed not boast of the clashing of swords, Chr. 937; Th. 204, 35, col. 1; Æðelst. 45.

bilgst, bilhst, he bilgþ, bilhþ art angry, is angry; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of belgan to be angry.

bil-hete, bill-hete, es; m. [bil, bill ensis, hete odium] The hate of swords; odium ope ensium manifestatum :-- Æfer billhete after the hate of swords, Andr. Kmbl. 156; An. 78.

bí-libban; p. -lifde; pp. -lifed, -lifd [bí 1. by, upon, libban to live] To live by or upon, to be sustained or supported; vesci, sustentari :-- Sciððium wearþ emleóf, ðæt hý gesáwon mannes blód agoten, swá him wæs ðara nýtena meolc, ðe by mǽst bílibbaþ it was as agreeable to the Scythians to see [lit. that they saw] man's blood shed, as it was [to see] the milk of their cattle, upon which they mostly live, Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 26, 31-33. God ðás eorþan, ðe ealle cwice wihta bílibbaþ, ealle hire wæstmbǽro gelytlade God lessened this earth, all its fruitfulness, by which all living creatures are supported, 2, 1; Bos. 38, 8.

bi-liden left, departed, Exon. 52 a; Th. 182, 18, = be-liden; pp. of be-líðan, q. v.

bí-lifen food, Cot. 171. v. bí-leofen.

bilig a bag, bottle, skin; uter, Ps. Spl. M. 118, 83. v. belg.

bi-lihþ dishonours, defames, Exon, 90 a; Th. 337, 16; Gn. Ex. 65, = be-hlíþ; pres. of be-hlígan, q. v.

biliþ, es; n. An image, a representation, resemblance, likeness, pattern, example; imago, effigies :-- Biliþe wǽron eorlas Ebréa the men were the images [likenesses] of the Hebrews, Cd. 187; Th. 232, 7, note a. [O. Sax. biliði, n: Frs. O. Frs. bilethe, byld, n: Dut. beeld, n: Ger. bild, n: M. H. Ger. bilde, n: O. H. Ger. biladi, bilidi, n: Dan. billed, billede, n: Swed. bild, m; beläte, n: O. Nrs. bílldr, m. forma, aspectus; bílæti, n. effigies, statua, Rask Hald.]

bill a bill, falchion; falcatus ensis :-- Bill falcastrum, Ælfc. Gl. 51; Som. 66, 1; Wrt. Voc, 34, 61: Beo. Th. 5548; B. 2777. v. bil.

bill-gesliht, -geslyht a clashing of swords, Chr. 937; Th. 205, 35; Æðelst. 45. v. bil-gesleht.

bi-locen locked up, Exon. 26 a; Th. 77, 21; Cri. 1260, = be-locen; pp. of be-lúcan.

bilod having a bill, nib or snout; rostratus, Som. DER. bile a bill, beak. v. ge-bilod.

bi-loren deprived, Exon. 52 a; Th. 181, 30; Gú. 1301, = be-loren; pp. of be-leósan.

bilst, he bilþ bellowest, bellows; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of bellan.

bil-swæþ; gen. -swæðes, pl. nom. -swaðu; n. A bill or sword track :-- Bilswaðu blódige bloody sword tracks, Cd. 160; Th. 198, 27; Exod. 329. v. swæþ, n.

bi-lúcan to lock up, inclose, surround, Exon. 31 b; Th. 99, 14; Cri. 1624. v. be-lúcan.

bil-wetnes innocence, Bd. 3, 27; S. 559, 28. v. bile-witness.

bil-wit mild, Cd. 40; Th. 53, 4; Gen. 856. v. bile-wit.

bil-witness simplicity, Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 27, 5. v. bile-witness.

bi-mǽnan; p. de; pp. ed To bemoan, bewail, lament, mourn; lugere :-- Woldan wíf wópe bimǽnan æðelinges deáþ the women would with weeping bewail the noble's death, Exon. 119 b; Th. 459, 24; Hö. 4. v. be-mǽnan.

bi-míðan; p. -máþ, pl. -miðon; pp. -miðen To hide, conceal; occultare, abscondere, Exon. 34 b; Th. 110, 33; Gú. 118: Ps. Th. 68, 6. v. be-míðan.

bi-murnan; p. -murnde; pp. -murned To mourn, be troubled about, care for; lugere, curare, sollicitum esse de re, Exon. 87 a; Th. 328, 7; Vy. 14; 34 a; Th. 110, 1; Gú. 101. v. be-murnan.

bi-mútian; p. ade; pp. ad [mútung mutuum, Cot. 136] To exchange for; commutare :-- Swá ðás woruldgestreón on ða mǽran gód bimútad weorþaþ so these world-treasures shall be exchanged for the greater good, Exon. 33 b; Th. 106, 17; Gú. 42.

BIN, binn, e; f. A manger, crib, BIN, hutch; præsepe, præsepium :-- Binn præsepe, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 2; Som. 8, 27. Heó hine on binne aléde reclinavit eum in præsepio, Lk. Bos. 2, 7, 12, 16: Exon. 18 b; Th. 45, 25; Cri. 724. On heora assena binne in the manger of their asses, Homl. Th. i. 30, 13, 31. [Chauc. binn: Dut. ben, f: Ger. benne, binne, f.]

BINDAN, to bindenne; ic binde, ðú bindest, bintst, binst, he bindeþ, bint, pl. bindaþ; p. ic, he band, bond, ðú bunde, pl. bundon; pp. bunden; v. a. To BIND, tie; ligare, alligare :-- Hió bindan þenceaþ cyningas she thinks to bind kings, Ps. Th. 149, 8. Fæste binde swearte wealas I bind the swart strangers fast, Exon. 103 b; Th. 393, 21; Rä. 13, 3. Hrusan [MS. hruse] bindeþ wintres wóma the winter's violence binds the earth, Exon. 78 a; Th. 292, 21; Wand. 102. Híg bindaþ hefige byrðyna alligant onera gravia, Mt. Bos. 23, 4. He band hine he bound him, Gen. 42, 24. Hrím hrusan bond frost bound the earth, Exon. 81 b; Th. 307, 31; Seef. 32. Úser Hǽlend [MS. hælendes] wæs bunden fæste our Saviour was bound fast, Exon. 116 b; Th. 449, 5; Dóm. 66. [Chauc. binde: Laym. binde, binden: Orm. bindenn: O. Sax. bindan: Frs. bynnen: O. Frs. binda: Dut. Ger. M. H. Ger. binden: O. H. Ger. bintan: Goth. bindan: Dan. binde: Swed. binda: O. Nrs. binda.] DER. an-bindan, be-, for-, ge-, in- [= un-], on- [= un-], un-, ymb-.

binde, an; f. [bindan to bind] A band, wreath, head-band, fillet; corolla, fascia :-- Hió an Ceoldryþe hyre betstan [MS. betsðan] bindan she gives to Ceoldryth her best band, Cod, Dipl. 1290; A. D. 995; Kmbl. vi. 133, 18, 20.

bindele, byndele, byndelle, an; f. A binding, tying, fastening with bands; vinculis constrictio :-- Be mannes bindelan concerning [the] binding [putting in bands] of a man. L. Alf. pol. 35; Th. i. 84, 1, note 2.

bindere, es; m. [bindan to bind] One who binds, a BINDER; ligator :-- Ic eom bindere and swingere I am a binder and a scourger, Exon. 107 b; Th. 409, 25; Rä. 28, 6.

bi-neótan; p. -neát, pl. -nuton; pp. -noten To deprive of the enjoyment or use of anything :-- On hyge hálge heáfde bineótan to deprive the holy one in spirit of his head, Exon. 74 b; Th. 278, 28; Jul. 604. He hine ealdre bineát he deprived him of life, Beo. Th. 4784; B. 2396. v. be-neótan.

bi-niman [Goth. bi-niman auferre, furari; κλέπτειν] to deprive. v. be-niman.

binn a manger, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 2; Som. 8, 27. v. bin.

binnan [be-innan]; prep. dat. acc. Within, in, into; intra, infra, in :-- Ðe binnan ðam fæstenne wǽran who were within the fastness, Ors. 4, 11; Bos. 97, 39: Mt. Bos. 2, 16. Gyt ne com se Hǽlend binnan ða ceastre nondum Iesus venerat in castellum, Jn. Bos. 11, 30. [Northumb. binna, bionna: Frs. binnen: O. Frs. binna, binnia: Dut. Kil. Ger. M. H. Ger. binnen.] DER. innan.

bi-nom, pl. bi-nómon deprived, Exon. 100 a; Th. 378, 15; Deór. 16: 37 b; Th. 122, 30; Gú. 313, = be-nam, -námon; p. of be-niman. v. niman.

bi-noten deprived, Exon. 45 b; Th. 156, 10; Gú. 872; pp. of bi-neótan.

bintst, binst, he bint bindest, binds; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of bindan to bind.

bió I am or shall be, Bt. 40, 5; Fox 240, 24; pres. of bión. v. beó, beón.

bió-breád honey-comb, Bt. 23; Fox 78, 25. v. beó-breád.

biódan to command, announce, offer, Beo. Th. 5777; B. 2892: Bt. 25; Fox 88, 18. v. beódan.

bióm I am, shall be; sum, ero :-- Ic beóm hál vel gehǽled ic bióm salva ero, Mk. Lind. Rush. War. 5, 28: Jn. Rush. War, 7, 34; 1st pers. pres. of bión. v. beón.

bión, ic bió, bióm, he bióþ, pl. bióþ, bieþ, biaþ; subj. bió, bie to be; esse, existere, fieri :-- Ic bió swíðe fægn I shall be very glad, Bt. 40, 5; Fox 240, 24. Bióm, Jn. Rush. War. 7, 34. Hwæt iów ðý bet bió oððe þince what is or appears to you the better? Bt. Met. Fox 10, 130; Met. 10, 65: Beo. Th. 5487; B. 2747: Mk. Lind. War. 10, 44. Ne mæg hira ǽnig bútan óðrum bión nor can any of them exist without the others, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 290; Met. 20, 145: 11, 102; Met. 11, 51: Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 26: Th. Diplm. A. D. 804; 459, 16. Ðonne bióþ brocene then will be broken, Beo. Th. 4132; B. 2063: Andr. Kmbl. 815; An. 408: Elen. Grm. 1289: Bt. Met. Fox 7, 46; Met. 7, 23: 24, 121; Met. 24, 61: Ps. C. 50, 80; Ps. Grn. ii. 278, 80: Mk. Lind. War. 10, 43: Mt. Lind. Stv. 26, 31. v. beón.

biór beer, Prov. 31. v. beór.

biorg a hill, mountain; collis, mons, Exon. 35 a; Th. 112, 20; Gú. 146. v. beorg.

biorhto brightness, Bt. 41, 1; Fox 244, 7. v. beorhtu.

biorn, es; m. A warrior, soldier, hero; bellator, miles, heros :-- Biorn under beorge bordrand onswáf wið Geáta dryhten the hero under the mount turned his shield's disc against the lord of the Goths, Beo. Th. 5111, note; B. 2559. DER. folc-biorn. v. beorn II.

biór-sele, es; m. A beer-hall, feasting-hall, Beo. Th. 5263; B. 2635. v. beór-sele.

bióþ is, are, Bt. Met. Fox 7, 46; Met. 7, 23: 24, 121; Met. 24, 61; 3rd pers. pres. of bión. v. beón.

biótian to threaten; intentare, Cot. 108. v. beótian I.

biótul a beetle, staff, Cot. 28. v. býtl.

bió-wyrt bee-wort; apiastrum, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 153, 20. v. beó-wyrt.

BIRCE, ean; f: berc, beorc, byrc, e; f. A birch-tree; betula alba :-- Genim bircean take of the birch-tree, L. M. 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 7: Wrt. Voc. 285, 22. [Scot. birk: Plat. barke, f: Dut. berke-boom, m: Kil. berck: Ger. birke, f: M. H. Ger. birke, birche, f: O. H. Ger. bircha, f: Dan. birk, m. f: Swed. O. Nrs. biörk, f. betula vel quæcunque arbor viridis.]

bircen, beorcen; adj. BIRCHEN, belonging to birch; betulaceus, Som. Lye. [Kil. bercken.]

birc-holt, es; n. A birch holt or grove; betuletum. v. byrc-holt.

bird the young of any of the feathered tribe; pullus :-- Birdas pullos, Lk. Lind. Rush. War. 2, 24. v. brid.

bi-reáfian; p. ode; pp. od To bereave; privare, Exon. 87 b; Th. 328, 30; Vy. 25. v. be-reáfian.

bi-reófan; p. -reáf, pl. -rufon; pp. -rofen To bereave, deprive; spoliare, privare :-- Rǽdum birofene bereft of counsel, Exon. 30 a; Th. 93, 14; Cri. 1526: 104 a; Th. 394, 22; Rä. 14, 7. v. be-reófan.

birest, he bireþ bearest, bears, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 551; Met. 20, 276: L. In. 57; Th. i. 138, 15; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of beran.

birgan; p. de; pp. ed To cover with a mound, to bury; sepelire :-- Birge man hine ðæs ilcan dæges sepelietur in eadem die, Deut. 21, 23: Gen. 49, 31. DER. be-birgan. v. byrgan.

birgean to bury :-- Iosue hét hí birgean Joshua ordered to bury them, Jos. 10, 27. v. birgan.

birgels, es; m. A burial-place, sepulchre; sepulcrum :-- Him sylfum to birgelse in possessionem sepulcri, Gen. 23, 9. v. byrgels.

birgen, birgenn, e; f. A burying-place, sepulchre; sepulcrum, Gen. 23, 4, 6: 49, 30: 50, 5: Num. 11, 34. v. byrgen.

bírg-nes, -ness a taste, Cot. 97. v. býrignes.

birhtu brightness, splendour; claritas, splendor, Bt. Met. Fox 6, 11; Met. 6, 6: 20, 537; Met. 20, 269. v. beorhtu.

birig to a city, for byrig, Gen. 13, 12: Deut. 14, 27; d. s. of burh.

birigan to bury. v. be-birigan, byrigan.

birigh-man a city officer; ædilis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 29. v. byrig-man.

bí-rihte, -ryhte; prep. dat. Near, close by; juxta :-- Geseh he on greóte gingran síne bíryhte [Kmbl. birihte] him swefan on slǽpe he saw his disciples near him slumbering in sleep on the sand, Andr. Recd. 1699;An. 850.

birihto brightness, L. E. I. 20; Th. ii. 414, 11. v. beorhtu.

birilian, birlian, byrlian; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad To draw, bear; haurire, Jn. Lind. Rush. War. 2, 8, 9.

bi-rinnan; p. -ran; pp. -runnen to run as a liquid, hence,-To wet, bedew; fluere, perfundere, irrigare :-- Ðá wearþ beám monig blódigum teárum birunnen, sæp wearþ to swáte then many a tree became bedewed with bloody tears, their sap became [turned to] blood, Exon. 25 a; Th. 72, 19-23; Cri. 1175-1177.

Birínus, i; m. Latin: Biríne, Byríne, es; m. Birīnus, the first bishop of Wessex, sent by pope Honorius to Britain in A. D. 634 :-- Ðære tíde ðá West-Seaxna þeód mid Cynigelse heora cyninge Cristes geleáfan onféng, bodade him and lǽrde Godes word Birīnus biscop, se mid Honorius geþeahte ðæs Papan com on Breotene.... He ðá lǽrde ðǽr godcunde láre, and ðone cyning to Cristes geleáfan gecyrde, and hine gecristnade, and hine eft æfter fæce mid fulluhtbæðe aþwógh mid his þeóde West-Seaxum. Hit gelamp on ða sylfan tíd ðe mon ðone cyning fullade, ðæt ðǽr wæs se halgesta and se sigefæstesta cyning Norþan Hymbra Oswald andweard.... Ðá sealdon hí and geáfon ðam bisceope begen ða cyningas eardungstówe and biscopsetl on Dorceceastre, and he ðǽr, se bisceop, Gode lifde and cyricean worhte and hálgode ... and he ðǽr his dagas ge-endode and to Drihtne férde, and in ðære ylcan ceastre bebyriged wæs, and eft æfter monigum geárum Hædde bisceop hét his líchoman up adón and lǽdan [MS. lædon] to Winton ceastre eo tempore [A. D. 634] gens Occidentalium Saxonum, (qui antiquitus,Gevissæ vocabantur,) regnante Cynigilso fidem Christi suscepit, prædicante illis verbum Birīno episcopo, qui cum consilio papæ Honorii venerat Brittaniam.... Itaque evangelizante illo in præfata provincia, cum rex ipse catechizatus, fonte baptismi cum sua gente ablueretur, contigit tunc temporis sanctissimum ac victoriosissimum regem Nordanhymbrorum Osualdum adfuisse.... Donaverunt autem ambo reges eidem episcopo civitatem quæ vocatur Dorcic [Dorchester], ad faciendum inibi sedem episcopalem; ubi factis dedicatisque ecclesiis ... migravit ad Dominum, sepultusque est in eadem civitate, et post annos multos Hædde episcopatum agente translatus inde in Ventam civitatem [Winchester], Bd. 3, 7; S. 529, 4-6; 12-16; 18-21; 22-24, Hér forþférde Birīnus se biscop here, A. D. 650, Birinus the bishop died, Chr. 650; Th. 51, 1, col. 2. Hér Ægelbryht of Galwalum æfter Biríne [Byríne, col. 2, 3] ðam Rómániscan bisceope onféng Wesseaxna bisceopdóme here, A. D. 650, Ægelbyrht of Gaul succeeded to the bishopric of the West-Saxons after Birinus the Roman bishop, 650; Th. 50, 1-5, col. 1.

birst, he birsteþ, birst burstest, bursts; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of berstan.

birþ bears; 3rd pers. pres. of beran.

bí-sæc a bag, Mt. Rush. Stv. 10, 10. v. sæc, codd.

bí-sǽce, es; n? m? I. a visit; visitatio :-- Bád bísǽce betran hyrdes waited the visit of a better keeper, Exon. 35 b; Th. 115, 11; Gú. 188. II. persecution, dispute, litigation; controversia, litigatio :-- Bísǽce in litigation, L. Edg. C. 62; Th. ii. 258, 3. Gif ðǽr hwæt bísǽces sý, seme se biscop if there be somewhat of dispute, let the bishop settle it, Const. vii; Th. ii. 258, note a. DER. sǽcan, sécan to seek, visit, persecute, dispute.

bi-scær sheared or cut off, Reim. 26; p. of bi-sceran. v. be-sceran.

bi-scencan; p. -scencte, pl. -scencton; pp. -scenced [scencan to give drink, scenc drink] To give to drink; ad potionem dare :-- Ge in wræcsíðe longe lifdon, lége biscencte ye [fallen spirits] have long lived in exile, flame being given [you] to drink, Exon. 41 b; Th. 139, 21; Gú. 596.

bisceop, biscop, biscep, es; m. I. a BISHOP, prelate; episcopus :-- Se bisceop is gecweden episcopus and is ofersceáwigend on Englisc, ðæt he ofersceáwige symle his underþeóddan the bishop is called episcopus, that is in English, overseer, because he constantly oversees his subordinates, L. Ælf. P. 37; Th. ii. 378, 28. Nis ná máre betwyx mæsse-preóste and bisceop, búton ðæt [Th. ii. 348, 24] se bisceop is geset to máran bletsunge ðonne se mæsse-preóst sý; ðæt is, circan to hálgigenne, and to hádigenne preóstas, to bisceopgenne cild [Th. ii. 348, 26: MS. men to biscopienne], and to bletsigenne ele there is no difference between a mass-priest and a bishop, but that the bishop is appointed for greater benediction [blessing] than is the mass-priest; that is, to hallow churches, and to ordain priests, to confirm children, and to bless oil, 36; Th. ii. 378, 20; v. mæsse-preóst. Seó mǽgþ hafþ twegen bisceopas the province has two bishops, Bd. 4, 5; S. 573, 33. II. a chief priest of the Jews; pontifex :-- Se forma biscop, ðe God silf gesette, wæs Aaron geháten the first high priest, whom God himself appointed, was called Aaron, L. Ælf. P. 38; Th. ii. 378, 32. Scrídde ðone bisceop mid línenum reáfe vestivit pontificem subucula linea, Lev. 8, 7. Ðá astyredon ða bisceopas ða menegu pontifices autem concitaverunt turbam, Mk. Bos. 15, 11. Se bisceop acsode ðone Hǽlend pontifex interrogavit Iesum, Jn. Bos. 18, 19, 22, 24. III. a heathen priest of the Romans and Egyptians; the chief priest of the Romans was called Pontifex Maximus, which was a title assumed by the Consuls and Emperors, v. yldest-bisceop :-- Sǽdon ða Égyptiscan bisceopas, ðæt ða Godes wundor hiora ágnum godum getealde wǽron, ðæt sint deófol-gild the Egyptian priests said, that the godlike wonders were ascribed to their own gods, which are idols, Ors. 1, 5; Bos. 28, 25. Bisceopas on Róme sǽdon, ðæt heora godas bǽdon ðæt him man worhte anfiteatra the priests in Rome said, that their gods ordered them to build an amphitheatre, Ors. 3, 3; Bos. 55, 26. Lucinius Crassus, se consul, wæs eác Rómána yldesta bisceop Lucinius Crassus, the consul, was also the chief priest [pontifex maximus] of the Romans, Ors. 5, 4; Bos. 104, 16. IV. the rank of an Anglo-Saxon bishop was equal to that of the Ealdorman, or highest nobleman, being only inferior to the Æðeling or prince, for they had equal power as judges in civil courts of law,-and their burh-brice and wér-gyld were the same :-- Bisceope gebyreþ ǽlc rihting, ge on godcundan þingan ge on woruldcundan to a bishop belongs every direction [righting] both in divine and worldly things, L. I. P. 7; Th. ii. 312, 9. Sculon bisceopas, mid woruld-déman, dómas dihtan ðæt hí ne geþafian, gyf his waldan magan, ðæt ǽnig unriht up-aspringe bishops, with temporal judges, should so direct judgments that they never permit, if it be in their power, that any injustice spring up, 7; Th. ii. 312, 35-37. And séce man hundred-gemót swá hit ǽr geset wæs; and hæbbe man þríwa on geáre burh-gemót; and túwa scír-gemót; and ðǽr beó on ðære scíre bisceop and se ealdorman, and ðǽr ǽgðer tǽcan ge Godes riht ge woruld-riht and let the hundred-moot be attended as it was before fixed; and thrice in the year let a city-moot be held; and twice a shire-moot; and let there be present the bishop of the shire and the ealdorman, and there each expound both God's law [right] and the world's law, L. Edg. ii. 5; Th. i. 268, 2-5: L. C. S. 18; Th. i. 386, 4-8. Biscopes and ealdormannes burg-bryce biþ lx scillinga a bishop's and an ealdorman's burh-bryce shall be sixty shillings, L. Alf. pol. 40; Th. i. 88, 8, note 19, H. Biscopes and ealdormannes mund-brice gebéte mid ii pundum recompense a bishop's and an ealdorman's mund-brice with two pounds, L. Eth, vii. 11; Th. i. 332, 1. Biscopes and ealdormannes wér-gyld is viii þúsend þrymsa a bishop's and an ealdorman's wer-gild is eight thousand thrymsas, L. Wg. 3; Th. i. 186, 7. V. the bishops were the best educated men of their age, and often the most energetic, their advice and assistance were, therefore, naturally sought in every case of emergency in the cabinet or in the field,-Hence Ealhstan, the bishop of Sherborne for fifty years [Ealhstán hæfde ðæt biscopríce l wintra æt Scyreburnan, A. D. 817-867: Chr. 867; Ing. 98, 12-14], became a general of Egbert and of his son Æthelwulf :-- Ecgbryht, West-Seaxna cyning, sende Æðelwulf his sunu of ðære fyrde, and Ealhstán his bisceop, to Cent micele werede, and hý Baldréd ðone cyning norþ ofer Temese adryfon Egbert, king of the West-Saxons, sent his son Æthelwulf, and Ealhstan his bishop, into Kent, with a large part of the army,, and drove Baldred the king northward over the Thames, Chr. 823; Ing. 87, 6-15: 845; Ing. 92, 1. Æt Mere-túne wearþ Heáhmund biscop ofslegen, and feala gódra monna at Merton bishop Heahmund was slain, and many good men, 871; Ing. 101, 1-9. [Orm. bisskopp, bisscopp, bisshopp: Laym. biscop, bissop: Wyc. bischop: O. Sax. biskop: Dut. bisschop: Ger. M. H. Ger. bischof: O. H. Ger. piscof: Goth. aipiskaupus: Dan. bisp: Swed. biskop: O. Nrs. biskup: Fr. évêque: Span. obispo: It. vescovo: Wel. esgob: Gael. easbuig: Ir. easbog: Arm. eskop: Slav. biskup: Lith. wyskupas. From the Lat. episcopus [e-piscop-us, hence O. H. Ger. piscof: A. Sax. biscop: Orm. bisshopp: Laym. biscop: Wyc. bischop: Eng. bishop] = Grk. έπίσκoπos an overseer, guardian, from έπί upon, over,-σκoπós one who watches,-σκoπέω to look, watch, consider, contemplate.] DER. arce-bisceop, -biscop, ealdor-: bisceop-dóm, -gegyrelan,,hád, -hyrde, -líc, -ríce, -roc, -scír, -seld, -seðel, -setl, -stól, -þénung, -wíte, -wyrt: bisceopian.

bisceop-dóm, biscop-dóm, biscep-dóm, es; m. I. [bisceop a bishop, dóm judgment] a bishop's doom, excommunication; episcopi judicium, excommunicatio :-- Sýn hí begen ðæs bisceopdómes scyldige let them both be guilty of the bishop's doom [excommunication], Bd. 4, 5; S. 573, note 1. II. the province of a bishop, a bishopric; episcopi provincia, episcopatus :-- He onféng biscopdóm Parisiace hátte he received the bishopric called Paris; accepto episcopatu Parisiacæ civitatis, Bd. 3, 7; S. 530, note 10. Ps. Lamb. 108, 8. Wine heóld ðone biscep-dóm iii geár Wine held the bishopric three years, Chr. 660; Erl. 34, 7.

bisceop-gegyrelan episcopal robes. v. biscop-gegyrelan.

bisceop-hád, biscop-hád, es; m. [bisceop a bishop; hád hood, condition, state] BISHOPHOOD, the office or state of a bishop, the episcopate, a bishopric; munus episcopale, flaminium, episcopatus, episcopi provincia :-- Wæs se bisceophád befæsted the bishopric was established, Elen. Kmbl. 2422; El. 1212. Biscophád flaminium, Cot. 86: 186. On biscopháde ge ǽr bisceopháde in episcopatu et ante episcopatum, Bd. 4, 6; S. 574, 2, 3: 5, 6; S. 620, 19. His bisceophád [biscophád, Spl.] brúcan feóndas let his enemies enjoy his episcopate, Ps. Th. 108, 8.

bisceop-hyrde, biscop-hyrede, es; m. A bishop's shepherd or clergyman; episcopi clericus, Cot. 44. v. hyrde.

bisceopian, biscopgan; p. ode; pp. od To exercise the office of a bishop, to oversee, visit, confirm; episcopali munere fungi, visitare, confirmare :-- Se bisceop biþ gesett to hádigenne preóstas, and to bisceopgenne cild the bishop is appointed for the ordaining of priests, and confirming of children, L. Ælf. C. 17; Th. ii. 348, 26.

bisceop-líc, biscop-líc; def. se -líca, seó, ðæt -líce; adj. BISHOPLIKE, episcopal, belonging to a bishop; episcopalis, pontificalis :-- He ðæt biscoplíce líf be-eóde episcopalem vitam exercebat, Bd. 5, 18; S. 635, 23. On bisceoplícum gerece pontificali regimine, 2, 15; S. 519, 13.

bisceop-ríce, biscop-ríce, es; n. [bisceop a bishop, ríce a region] A BISHOPRIC, diocese, province of a bishop; episcopi provincia, diœcesis = διoίκησιs :-- Mellitus féng to ðam bisceopríce Mellitus succeeded to the bishopric, Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, note 8. Seaxulf his biscopríce onféng Saxulf succeeded to his bishopric, 4, 6; S. 573, 35.

bisceop-roc, -rocc a bishop's rochet. v. biscop-roc.

bisceop-scír, biscop-scír, e; f. [bisceop a bishop, scír a province]. I. the province of a bishop, a diocese; episcopi provincia, diœcesis = διoίκησιs, parochia = παρoικία :-- Bisceopscír diœcesis vel parochia, Ælfc. Gl. 68; Som. 69, 123; Wrt. Voc. 42, 4. Ðæt nǽnig bisceop óðres bisceopscíre onswóge ut nullus episcoporum parochiam alterius invadat, Bd. 4, 5; S. 572, 32: 4, 13; S. 582. 1: 4. 6; S. 573. 39. He todǽlde on twá biscopscíre West-Seaxna mǽgþe he divided the province of the WestSaxons into two dioceses, 3, 7; S. 530, 6, 10. II. the office of a bishop, episcopate; episcopatus :-- Seó biscopscír Wihte ðæs eálondes belimpeþ to Daniele Wintan ceastre bisceope episcopatus Vectæ insulæ ad Danihelem pertinet episcopum Ventæ civitatis, 5, 23; S. 646, 22. Se forlét ða bisceopscíre he left the episcopate; relicto episcopatu, 3, 21; S. 551, 38.

bisceop-seld a bishop's seat or residence, an episcopal see. v. biscop-seld.

bisceop-seðel a bishop's seat or residence, an episcopal see. v. biscop-seðel.

bisceop-setl, biscop-setl, biscep-setl, es; n. [bisceop a bishop, setl a seat]. I. a bishop's seat or residence; sedes episcopalis :-- Sæt he ðæt bisceopsetl xxxvii wintra and six mónaþ and feówertyne dagas he occupied the episcopal residence thirty-seven [of] years [winters] and six months and fourteen days, Bd. 5, 23; S. 646, 9. He ðam Wine gesealde biscop-setl on Wintan ceastre Vino in civitate Venta sedem episcopalem tribuit, 3, 7; S. 530, 7, 14. Se eádiga Petrus se apostol gesæt biscepsetl on Róme the blessed Peter the apostle occupied the episcopal residence in Rome, Chr. 45; Erl. 6, 19. II. a bishopric; episcopatus :-- Wine wæs adrifen of his bisceopsetle Wine was driven from his bishopric; pulsus est Vini de episcopatu, Bd. 3, 7; S. 530, 13.

bisceop-stól, biscop-stól, es; m. [stól a stool, seat] A bishop's seat or residence, an episcopal see, bishopric; sedes episcopalis, episcopatus, pontificatus :-- He ne mihte ðone Rómániscan bisceopstól eallunge forlǽtan he could not altogether neglect the Roman episcopal see, Nat. S. Greg. Els. 28, 8. Agefen to Wigorna cestre ðam bisceopstóle given to the episcopal see at Worcester, Th. Diplm. A. D. 883; 131, 27. Augustinus cyrde to his bisceopstóle Augustine returned to his bishopric, Nat. S. Greg. Els. 37, 5. Seó on setl biscopstóles wæs to ætýced quæ in sedem pontificatus addita est, Bd. 5, 23; S. 646, 32.

bisceop-þénung, e; f. [þénung duty, office] The duty or office of a bishop; episcopi officium :-- Þegnode se árwurþa bisceop Willferþ on ðám dǽlum ða bisceopþénunge árwurþlíce fif geár the venerable bishop Wilfrith exercised the office of a bishop in those parts honourably five years, Bd. 4, 13; S. 583, 15. Féng Eádulf to ðære bisceopþénunge Eadulf succeeded to the bishop's office, 5, 23; S. 645, 19.

bisceop-wíte a bishop's fee for visiting. v. biscop-wíte.

bisceop-wyrt, biscop-wyrt, biscep-wyrt, e; f. [wyrt a wort, herb, plant] BISHOP'S-WORT, bishop's weed, betony, vervain, marsh-mallow; ammi = άμμι [ammi majus, Lin.], betonica, verbena, hibiscum = ίβίσκos :-- Wyrc to drence æscþrotu, betonice, bisceopwyrt make into a drink ash-throat, betony, bishop's-wart, L. M. 1, 47; Lchdm. ii. 120, 10: 1, 23; Lchdm. ii. 66, 2, 10. Genim bisceopwyrt ða súðernan take the southern bishop's-wort, L. M. 2, 54; Lchdm. ii. 274, 27. To monnes stæmne nim biscopwyrt for a man's voice take bishop's-wort, Lchdm. iii. 46, 26: Ælfc. Gl. 40; Som. 63, 93; Wrt. Voc. 30, 43. Genim ða brádan biscopwyrt take the broad bishop's-wort, Lchdm. iii. 46, 2. Betonice, ðæt is, biscopwyrt betony, that is, bishop's-wort, Herb. cont. 1; Lchdm, i. 2, 1. Seó læsse biscopwyrt betonica, Ælfc. Gl. 43; Som. 64, 49; Wrt. Voc. 31, 59. Biscopwyrt [MS. biscopwyrtil] verbena, 41; Som. 64, 1; Wrt. Voc, 31, 14. Biscepwyrt hibiscum, Wrt. Voc. 286, 15.

biscep a bishop, Chr. 110; Erl. 8, 11: 636; Erl. 24, 14: 690; Erl. 42, 15, v. bisceop.

biscep-dóm the province of a bishop, a bishopric, Chr. 660; Erl. 34, 7. v. bisceop-dóm II.

biscep-setl an episcopal see, Chr. 45; Erl. 6, 19. v. bisceop-setl.

biscep-wyrt marsh-mallow, Wrt. Voc. 286, 15. v. bisceop-wyrt.

bi-scerian, -scirian, -scyrian; p. ede; pp. ed To deprive, separate; privare, separare :-- Wilna biscirede from desires separated, Exon. 48 b; Th. 166, 24; Gú. 1047. Dreámum biscyred from joys separated, 88 a; Th. 330, 23; Vy. 55. Faraþ nú, awyrgde, willum biscyrede engla dreámes, on éce fír go now, accursed, wilfully deprived of the joy of angels, into eternal fire, 30 a; Th. 93, 3; Cri. 1520: 95 a; Th. 355, 28; Reim. 84: 42 b; Th. 142, 17; Gú. 645. v. be-scerian.

bi-scirian to separate, Exon. 48 b; Th. 166, 24; Gú. 1047. v. bi-scerian.

biscop a bishop, Chr. 910; Erl. 100, 9, 10. v. bisceop.

biscop-dóm the province of a bishop, a bishopric, Bd. 3, 7; S. 530, note 10. v. bisceop-dóm II.

biscopgan to confirm, L. Ælf. C. 18; Wilk. 155, 51. v. bisceopian.

biscop-gegyrelan; pl. m. [gegyrela a garment, robe] Episcopal robes; indumenta episcopalia :-- He sende him biscopgegyrelan he sent him episcopal robes, Bd. 1, 29; S. 498, 10.

biscop-hád the office or state of a bishop, the episcopate, Cot. 86: Ps. Spl. 108, 7. v. bisceop-hád.

biscop-heáfod-lín a bishop's head linen, an ornament which bishops wore on their heads; infula :-- Biscop-heáfod-lín infula, Ælfc. Gl. 64; Som. 69, 10.

biscop-líc episcopal, Bd. 5, 18; S. 635, 23. v. bisceop-líc.

biscop-ríce a bishopric, Bd. 4, 6; S. 573, 35. v. bisceop-ríce.

biscop-roc, -rocc, es; m. [roc, rocc a tunic] A bishop's rocket; dalmatica :-- Mid biscoprocce scrýdan to clothe with a bishop's rocket, Lchdm. iii. 202, 26.

biscop-scír a diocese, Bd. 3, 7; S. 530, 6, 10. v. bisceop-scír.

biscop-seld, es; n. [seld a seat, residence] A bishop's seat or residence, an episcopal see; sedes episcopalis :-- Se cyning sealde him stówe and biscopseld on Lindesfearona eá rex locum sedis episcopalis in insula Lindisfarnensi tribuit, Bd. 3, 3; S. 525, 35.

biscop-seðel; g. -seðles; n. [seðel a seat] A bishop's seat or residence; sedes episcopalis :-- Mellitus féng to ðam biscopseðle Contwara burge cirican Mellitus succeeded to the episcopal residence of Canterbury church; Mellitus sedem Doruvernensis ecclesiæ suscepit, Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 8.

biscop-setl a bishop's residence, Chr. 604; Th. 38, 1. v. bisceop-setl.

biscop-stól an episcopal seat, Bd. 5, 23; S. 646, 32. v. bisceop-stól.

biscop-wíte, es; n. A bishop's fee for visiting, procuration; episcopo debita, Chr. 675; Erl. 38, 5.

biscop-wyrt bishop's-wort, betony, Lchdm. iii. 46, 26: Herb, cont. 1; Lchdm. i. 2, 1. v. bisceop-wyrt.

bi-scyrian to deprive, separate, Exon. 88 a; Th. 330, 23; Vy. 55: 30 a; Th. 93, 3; Cri. 1520: 95 a; Th. 355, 28; Reim. 84: 42 b; Th. 142, 17; Gú. 645. v. bi-scerian.

bi-seah looked about, Exon. 51 b; Th. 180, 8; Gú. 1276, = be-seah; p. of be-seón.

bísegu occupation, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 28. v. býsgu.

bísen; gen. bísne, bísene; f. An example, similitude, command, precept, Bt. 22, 2; Fox 78, 13: 29, 1; Fox 102, 12: Exon. 40 a; Th. 133, 33; Gú. 499: Lk. Rush. War. 13, 6: Cd. 27; Th. 36, 13; Gen. 571. v. býsen.

bi-sencan to sink, Exon. 25 a; Th. 72, 8; Cri. 1168. v. be-sencan.

bi-seón; p. -seah to see, Exon. 23 b; Th. 67, 13; Cri. 1088. v. be-seón, seón.

bises; indecl. m. A leap year; bisextile, bisextus :-- Bútan bises geboden weorþe, feorþan geáre unless a leap year is appointed, [being] the fourth year, Menol. Fox 64; Men. 32.

bi-settan; p. -sette, pl. -setton; pp. -seted, -sett To set, beset, surround; inserere, circumdare :-- Ðonne gim in goldfate smiþa orþoncum biseted weorþeþ when a gem has been set in a golden vessel by the artifice of smiths, Exon. 60 a; Th. 219, 9; Ph. 304. Mid wyrtum se wilda fugel his nest biseteþ útan the wild bird surrounds its nest without with herbs, 63 b; Th. 233, 26; Ph. 530. v. be-settan.

bísgian to occupy, busy, Cd. 64; Th. 76, 29; Gen. 1264: Bt. proœm; Fox viii. 6. v. býsgian.

bísgu, e; f. Occupation, toil, affliction, care, Bt. proœm; Fox viii. 5, 6: Exon. 114 a; Th, 438, 14; Rä. 57, 7: 82 b; Th. 311, 6; Seef. 88: 74 b; Th. 280, 7; Jul. 625: Beo. Th. 3490; B. 1743: Bt. Met. Fox 22, 127; Met. 22, 64. v. býsgu.

bísgung, e; f. [= a-bísgung = a-býsgung] Business, occupation; negotium, occupatio :-- Fint he ða ryhtwísnesse gehýdde mid his módes bísgunga he will find the wisdom concealed by the occupation of his mind, Bt. 35, 1; Fox 156, 12. Ne forlǽte se reccere ða inneran giémenne ðæs godcundan þiówdómes for ðære abísgunge ðara úterra weorca let not the ruler forsake the inner care of the divine ministration for the occupation of outer works, Past. 18, 1; Hat. MS. 25 a, 29, 27, 30. v. býsgu.

bísigu occupation, labour, Beo. Th. 567, note; B. 281. v. býsgu.

bisleásung, e; f. Fiction; figmentum, Ps. Spl. M. 102, 13. v. leásung.

bismærian; p. ede; pp. ed To revile; maledicere :-- Bismæredon uncit [Inscription, Bismærede ungket] men, bá ætgædre they [men] reviled us two, both together, Runic Inscrip. Kmbl. 354, 30. v. bysmerian.

bismær-word, es; n. [= bismer-word: bismer opprobrium, contumelia; word verbum] A disgraceful or abusive word, reproach, insult; ignominiosum vel contumeliosum verbum, opprobrium, insultatio :-- Mid bismærwordum with insults, L. H. E. 11; Th. i. 32, 5.

bismer, bismor, bysmer, bysmor; gen. bismeres, bysmres; n. [be, smeru fat, grease] Filthiness, pollution, abomination, disgrace, infamy, mockery, reproach, contumely, blasphemy, calumny; ludibrium, pollutio, abominatio, infamia, opprobrium, contumelia, blasphemia, calumnia :-- Hí amyrdon heora folc on bysmore they defiled their people with filthiness, Ælfc. T. 15, 21. Seó stów gewearþ swíðe mǽre for Rómána bismere the place became famous for the disgrace of the Romans, Ors. 3, 8; Bos. 62, 44. His mód wæs mid ðam bismre ahwæt his mind was whetted with that disgrace, Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 126, 17. Hí mængdon eced and geallan togædere and hit, on his bismer, Criste gebudon they mingled vinegar and gall together, and offered it to Christ, in mockery of him, L. Edg. C. 39; Th. ii. 252, 17. Ðú hí, Drihten, dést deópe to bysmre tu, Domine, deridebis eos, Ps. Th. 58, 8. He hálge láre brygdeþ on bysmer he turneth holy lore into mockery, Exon. 117 a; Th. 449, 14; Dóm. 71. Hí gefremedan óðer bysmer they made another reproach; irritaverunt eum, Ps. Th. 105, 25: 106, 10. Dracan ðú ðysne geheowadest, héte syððan him bysmere bráde healdan draco iste, quem formasti ad illudendum ei, Ps. Th. 103, 25. Ðæt he dóþ to bysmore ðínum feóndum he makes that for a reproach to thine enemies, 8, 3. Ge gehýrdon his bysmer audistis blasphemiam, Mk. Bos. 14, 64. Ðæt ðú mǽge þolie bysmor on ǽlcne tíman ut omni tempore calumniam sustineas, Deut. 28, 29. [O. Sax. bismer, n. opprobrium.] DER. bismer-full, -leás, -leóþ, -líc, -líce, -nes, -spræc, -sprecan, -word: bismerian, ge-: bismerung: bismeriend.

bismer-full; adj. Polluted, abominable, disgraceful; pollutus, detestabilis, turpis. v. bysmor-full.

bismerian; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed To mock, deride, irritate, reproach, blaspheme, defame, revile; illudere, deridere, irritare, irridere, blasphemare, calumniam facere, maledicere. DER. bismer. v. bysmerian.

bismeriend, es; m. A deceiver; illusor, Prov. 11, 4. DER. bismer.

bismer-leás; adj. Without pollution, spotless, blameless; sine pollutione, immaculatus, irreprehensus. v. bysmer-leás.

bismer-leóþ, es; n. [bismer mockery, reproach; leóþ a song] A reproachful song, an incantation; carmen invectivum, nenia, Cot. 188.

bismer-líc, bismor-líc; adj. [bismer, bismor disgrace, -líc] Disgraceful, ignominious, dirty, unpleasant; turpis, ignominiosus, fœdus :-- Mid ðam bismerlícestan áþe with the most disgraceful oath, Ors. 4, 3; Bos. 79, 39: 1, 7; Bos. 29, 35. We lǽraþ, ðæt man geswíce bismorlícra efesunga we enjoin, that a man abstain from ignominious tonsures, L. Edg. C. 20; Th. ii. 248, 16. On ðone bismerlícostan eard in the most unpleasant province, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 73, 34.

bismer-líce; adv. Disgracefully, indecently, irreverently, contemptuously, reproachfully; probrose, indecore, inverecunde, contumeliose. v. bismor-líce.

bismer-nes, -ness, e; f. [bismer filthiness, pollution, -nes] A polluting, staining or defiling; pollutio, Bd. 1, 27; S. 497, note 7.

bismer-spræc, -spæc, e; f. A speaking blasphemy, blasphemy; blasphemia. v. bysmor-spræc.

bismer-sprecan, -specan; p. -spræc, -spæc, pl. -sprǽcon, -spǽcon; pp. -sprecen, -specen [bismer blasphemia, sprecan, specan loqui] To speak blasphemy, blaspheme; blasphemiam loqui, blasphemare. v. bysmer-, specan.

bismerung, e; f. Blasphemy; blasphemia, Mk. Skt. Hat. 3, 28. v. bysmrung.

bismer-word, es; n. A disgraceful or abusive word, reproach, insult; ignominiosum vel contumeliosum verbum, opprobrium, insultatio. v. bismær-word.

bismiriende deriding; insultans, Greg. Dial. 2, 1, = bismeriende. v. bysmerian.

bismor a disgrace, Chr. 992; Erl. 131, 31. v. bismer, bismor-líc, -líce.

bismor-líc disgraceful, ignominious, L. Edg. C. 20; Th. ii. 248, 16. v. bismer-líc.

bismor-líce, bysmor-líce, bysmer-líce; adv. [bismer, bismor disgrace, -líce] Disgracefully, indecently, irreverently, contemptuously, reproachfully; probrose, indecore, inverecunde, contumeliose :-- Bysmerlíce disgracefully, Judth. 10; Thw. 23, 2; Jud. 100. Hí willaþ, binnan Godes húse, bysmorlíce plegian they will play irreverently within God's house, L. Ælf. C. 35; Th. ii. 356, note 2, line 20. Worpaþ hine deófol on dómdæge bismorlíce the devil shall cast him down contemptuously in the day of judgment, Salm. Kmbl. 53; Sal. 27.

bismrian to mock, Ps. Spl. 103, 28. v. bysmerian.

bísnian to give or set an example, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 20: 39, 11; Fox 230, 2. v. býsnian.

bísnung an example; exemplum, Ælfc. T. 5, 15. v. býsnung.

bi-sorgian to care for, fear, Exon. 61 a; Th. 223, 32; Ph. 368: 30 b; Th. 95, 12; Cri. 1556. v. be-sorgian.

bi-spanan; p. -spón, -speón; pp. -spanen, -sponen; v. trans. To allure, entice, incite, urge; allicere, illicere, seducere, incitare, impellere :-- Ic Herode in hyge bispeón, ðæt he Iohannes bibeád heáfde biheáwan I Herod in mind incited, that he commanded John's head to be cut off, Exon. 70 a; Th. 260, 8; Jul. 294. v. be-spanan.

bí-spell a fable, Bt. 35, 5; Fox 166, 19: Ors. 1, 6; Bos. 29, 11. v. big-spell.

bissexte a leap year; bisextus, Bd. 5, 23; S. 648, 19. v. bises.

bist art, shalt be; es, eris, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 43: Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 26, 28; 2nd pers. pres. and fut. of beón.

bi-stelan; p. -stæl, pl. -stǽlon; pp. -stolen To rob, deprive; furari, privare :-- Strengo bistolen deprived of strength, Exon. 107 b; Th. 410, 8; Rä. 28, 13. v. be-stelan.

bi-swác deceived, seduced, Exon. 70 a; Th. 260, 25; Jul. 302; p. of bi-swícan.

bi-sweðian; p. ede; pp. ed To bind, wind round, inwrap; ligare, involvere :-- Hí biwundon oððe bisweðedon [biuundun ɫ bisuéðdun MS.] hine ligaverunt eum, Jn. Lind. War. 19, 40. Sibbum bisweðede, sorgum biwerede inwrapt in peace, from cares protected, Exon. 32 a; Th. 100, 19; Cri. 1644. v. be-sweðian.

bí-swíc, es; m. Deceit; fraus, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 60, 13. v. be-swíc.

bi-swícan; p. -swác, pl. -swicon; pp. -swicen To deceive, seduce; decipere, seducere :-- Ic Néron biswác [MS. bisweac] I deceived Nero, Exon. 70 a; Th. 260, 25; Jul. 302. v. be-swícan.

bí-swícol; adj. [bí-swíc deceit; dolus] Deceitful; dolosus :-- We sculon geþencean ðæt ðís líf, ðæt we nú onlibbaþ, is bíswícol eallum ðǽm ðe hit lufiaþ we ought to think that this life, in which we now live, is deceitful to all those who love it, L. E. I. prm; Th. ii. 400, 16.

bit asks, prays, Lk. Bos. 11, 12; 3rd pers. pres. of biddan.

bita, an; m. [biten; pp. of bítan to bite]. I. a BIT, morsel, piece, fragment; frustum, buccella :-- Ne mihte hyra ǽlc ánne bitan of ðám gelæccan every one of them could not get a morsel, Homl. Th. i. 182, 10. Æfter ðam bitan post buccellam, Jn. Bos. 13, 27. II. anything that bites, a biter, an animal; ferus :-- Ǽnlíce [ænlige MS.] bita singularis ferus, Ps. Spl. 79, 14.

BÍTAN; part. bítende; ic bíte, ðú bítest, bítst, he bíteþ, bítt, bít, pl. bítaþ; p. ic, he bát, ðú bite, pl. biton; pp. biten. I. to BITE with the teeth; mordere :-- Ic bíte mordeo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 6; Som. 29, 10. Monnan ic ne bíte nymþe he me bíte I bite no man unless he bite me, Exon. 125 a; Th. 482, 9, 10; Rä. 66, 5. Ǽghwá bíteþ mec on bær líc every one bites me on the bare body, 125 a; Th. 482, 7; Rä. 66, 4. Monige mec bítaþ many bite me, 125 a; Th. 482, 12; Rä. 66, 6. Ðæt mǽden bát and totær ǽlcne ðe heó gerǽcan mihte the maiden bit and tore every one whom she could reach, Homl. Th. i. 458, 14: Beo. Th. 1488; B. 742. Biton [MS. byton] hine lýs lice bit him, Hexam. 17; Norm. 24, 30. Nim ðis ofæt, bít hit and byrge take this fruit, bite it and taste, Cd. 25; Th. 33, 12; Gen. 519. II. used metaphorically of the biting or wounding by a sword,-to cut, wound; cædere, vulnerare :-- Se gist onfand ðæt se beadoleóma bítan nolde the guest found that the war-beam [the sword] would not wound, Beo. Th. 3051; B. 1523: 2913; B. 1454. Sió ecg gewác, bát unswíðor the edge [of the sword] failed, cut less sharply, 5150; B. 2578. Ðeáh mec heard bite stíðecg stýle though the stiff-edge steel wounded me greatly, Exon. 130 a; Th. 499, 10; Rä. 88, 13. [Chauc. Wyc. bite: R. Glouc. byten: Laym. biten: Orm. bítenn: Northumb. bíta discerpere: Plat. biten: O. Sax. bítan: O. Frs. bita: Dut. bijten: Ger. beiszen: M. H. Ger. bízen: O. H. Ger. bízan: Goth. beitan: Dan. bide: Swed. bita: Icel. bíta: Sansk. bhid findere, perforare.] DER. a-bítan, on-.

bíte, es; m. [bítan to bite] A BITE, pain, the biting or pain of a wound, a biting disease or cancer; morsus, cancri morbus vel cancer :-- Hyt ða wédendan bítas gehǽleþ it heals the maddening bites, Med. ex Quadr. 13, 7; Lchdm. i. 370, 14. Wið apan bíte for the bite of an ape, 11, 7; Lchdm. i. 366, 24: L. Ethb. 35; Th. i. 12, 5: Beo. Th. 4126; B. 2060. Þurh sweordes bíte through the bite of the sword, Apstls. Kmbl. 68; Ap. 34. Bíte írena the bite of swords, Beo. Th. 4511; B. 2259. Gnættas cómon ofer ðæt land mid fýrsmeortendum bítum gnats came over the land with fire-smarting bites, Ors. 1, 7; Bos. 29, 30. Wið cancerádle, ðæt is, bíte, against cancer-disease, that is, a biting disease, L. M. 1, 44; Lchdm. ii. 108, 9. DER. láþ-bíte.

bítel, bítela, bétl; m. A beetle; blatta :-- Ða blacan bétlas the black s beetles, Cot. 141.

bi-teldan to cover, surround, overwhelm, Exon. 59 b; Th. 217, 1; Ph. 273: 64 b; Th. 238, 25; Ph. 609. v. be-teldan.

bítende biting; mordax, Cot. 134; part. of bítan.

BITER, bitor, bitter, bittor; g. m. n. biteres, bitres, bittres; f. bitre; sup. biteresta, bitresta; adj. BITTER, sharp, severe, dire; amarus, acerbus, acer, dirus, atrox :-- Ðæt bitereste [MS. biteroste] clyster botri amarissimi, Deut. 32, 32; the clustre most bittir, Wyc. Ðæt he bibúgan mǽge ðone bitran drync that he may escape the bitter drink, Exon. 45 a; Th. 154, 10; Gú. 840. Hí béheóldon bogan [MS. boga], þing [þingc MS.] biter intenderunt arcum, rem amaram, Ps. Spl. 63, 3: Ps. Th. 78, 5. Bitter, Exon. 82 a; Th. 309, 10; Seef. 55. Bittor, Exon. 47 a; Th. 161, 13; Gú. 958. Boda bitresta the bitterest messenger, Cd. 36; Th. 47, 19; Gen. 763. Bittres; g. Salm. Kmbl. 658; Sal. 328. Biteres; g. Rood Kmbl. 225; Kr. 114, [Orm. bitterr: O. Sax. bittar: Dut. Ger. M. H. Ger. bitter: O. H. Ger. bittar: Goth. baitrs: Dan. Swed. bitter: Icel. bitr.] DER. þurh-biter, -bitter, winter-.

bitere bitterly, sharply, Ps. Th. 101, 18: 128, 2. v. bitre.

biterian, biterigan; p. ode; pp. od To embitter, make sharp; acerbare :-- Ðætte us biterige sió hreówsung that the repentance may be bitter to us, Past. 54, 5. DER. a-biterian, ge-.

biter-líce, bitter-líce; adv. BITTERLY; amare :-- He weóp biterlíce [Bos. bityrlíce] he wept bitterly, Mt. Jun. 26, 75. He ongan biterlíce [Smith, 600, 29, bitterlíce] wépan he began to weep bitterly, Bd. 4, 25; Whelc. 337, 43.

biter-nys, -nyss, e; f. BITTERNESS; amaritudo :-- Híg cómon to ðære stówe, ðe ys Mara genemned, ðæt ys on úre lýden biternys; ðá ne mihton híg drincan ðæt wæter, forðamðe hit wæs biter: ðá héton híg ealle his naman Mara, ðæt ys on úre lýden biternys venerunt in Mara, nec poterant bibere aquas de Mara, eo quod essent amaræ, unde et congruum loco nomen imposuit vocans ilium Mara, id est amaritudinem, Ex. 15, 23. Heortan biternys bitterness of heart, Homl. Th. ii. 220, 18. Ðæs múþ full is biternysse cujus os plenum est amaritudine, Ps. Spl. second 9, 8. Nolde his onbyrian for ðære biternysse he would not taste it for its bitterness, Homl. Th. ii. 254, 18, 19.

biter-wyrde; adj. Inclined to bitterness; ad amaritudinem pronus :-- Ne he biterwyrde næs he was not inclined to bitterness, Homl. Th. i. 320, 15: ii. 44, 22.

biþ is, shall be; est, erit, Bt. Met. Fox 6, 11; Met. 6, 6: Cd. 217; Th. 276, 1; Sat. 182; 3rd pers, pres. and fut. of beón.

bi-þeahte, -þeaht covered over, Exon. 96 a; Th. 359, 11; Pa. 61: l01 a; Th. 382, l0; Rä. 3, 9; p. and pp. of bi-þeccan. v. be-þeccan.

bi-þearf ic I need, Exon. 76 a; Th. 285, 17; Jul. 715. v. bi-þurfan, be-.

bi-þeccan to cover, Exon. 28 b; Th. 87, 10; Cri. 1423: 51 b; Th. 179, 1; Gú. 1255. v. be-þeccan.

bi-þencan to consider, bear in mind, confide, Exon. 19 b; Th. 51, 27; Cri. 822: 20 a; Th. 53, 14; Cri. 850: 51 b; Th. 179, 32; Gú. 1270: 66 b; Th. 245, 30; Jul. 52. v. be-þencan.

bi-þringan to surround, Exon. 60 b; Th. 221, 27; Ph. 341. v. be-þringan.

bi-þryccan; p. -þrycte, pl. -þrycton; pp. -þrycced [þryccan to press] To press on; imprimere :-- Hí hwæsne beág ymb mín heáfod gebýgdon, þreám biþrycton they bent a sharp crown around my head, pressed it on with reproaches, Exon. 29 a; Th. 88, 26; Cri. 1446.

bi-þurfan to need, to have need, Exon. 76 a; Th. 285, 17; Jul. 715. v. be-þurfan.

bítl a mallet, hammer, Past. 36, 5; Cott. MS. v. býtl.

bit-mǽlum; adv. [bit, mǽlum, dat. pl. of mǽl, n.] Piecemeal, by bits; mordicus, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 42, 5.

bitol, es; n. A bridle; frænum :-- On gewealde and bitole ceácan heora gebind in camo et fræno maxillas eorum constringe, Ps. Spl. 31, 12.

bi-tolden covered, overwhelmed, Exon. 64 b; Th, 238, 25; Ph. 609; pp. of bi-teldan. v. be-teldan.

bitre, bitere, bittre; adv. [biter bitter] Bitterly, sharply, cruelly; amare, acriter, atrociter :-- Ic eom bitre abolgen I am bitterly vexed, Exon. 119 b; Th. 458, 31; Hy. 4, 109: 120 b; Th. 463, 4; Hö. 65: Beo. Th. 4651; B. 2331. Unc he bitere forgeald he bitterly requited us, Cd. 222; Th. 290, 21; Sat. 418. Hí gebléndon bittre tosomne unswétne drync ecedes and geallan they mingled bitterly together an unsweet drink bf vinegar and gall, Exon. 29 a; Th. 88, 11; Cri. 1438: 119 a; Th. 457, 4; Hy. 4, 78.

bitst, he bitt askest, he asks, Ex. 33, 12: Homl. Th. i. 250, 8, 9; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of biddan.

bítst, bíst, bít bidest, bides; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of bídan.

bitt a bottle; uter. v. byt.

bitter bitter; amarus, Exon. 82 a; Th. 309, 10; Seef. 55. v. biter.

bitter-líce bitterly, Bd. 4, 25; S. 600, 29. v. biter-líce.

bitter-nes bitterness, Scint. 61. v. biter-nys.

bittor bitter, Exon. 47 b; Th. 163, 23; Gú. 998. v. biter.

bittre bitterly, sharply, cruelly, Exon. 94 b; Th. 354, 24; Reim. 50. v. bitre.

bi-tweon; prep. dat. Between; inter, Exon. 32 a; Th. 101, 15; Cri. 1659. v. be-tweonum III.

bi-tweonum; prep. dat. Between; inter :-- Hornum bitweonum [horna abitweonum MS. Th.] between the horns, Exon. 107 b; Th. 411, 19; Rä. 30, 2. v. abi-tweonum, be-tweonum.

bi-týnan to close, shut up, Exon. 61 b; Th. 227, 7; Ph. 419. v. be-týnan.

bityr-líce bitterly; amare :-- Petrus weóp bityrlíce Petrus flevit amare, Mt. Bos. 26, 75. v. biter-líce.

bi-wǽgan; p. de; pp. ed; v. a. To disappoint; frustrari :-- Ne bi-wǽgde hine non frustratus est eum, Ps. Surt. 131, 11. v. be-wǽgan.

bi-wærlan; p. de; pp. ed [v. bí- in be- II] To pass by; præterire, Lk. Lind. War. 10, 31: 11, 42: Lk. Rush. War. 11, 42. DER. wærlan.

bi-wáwan; p. -weów; pp. -wáwen To blow against; afflare :-- Winde biwáwne [MS. biwaune] waved or shaken by the wind, Exon. 77 b; Th. 291, 2; Wand. 76. DER. wáwan.

bi-weaxan to overgrow, Exon. 60 a; Th. 219, 21; Ph. 310. v. beweaxan.

bi-weddian to espouse, betrothe, wed; desponsare :-- Wæs sió fǽmne wélegum biweddad the woman was betrothed to the rich one, Exon. 66 a; Th. 244, 25; Jul. 33. v. be-weddian.

bi-werian, -wergan to defend, restrain, forbid, Exon. 87 b; Th. 329, 23; Vy. 38: Exon. 45 a; Th. 153, 3; Gú. 820. v. be-werian.

bí-windan to entwine, enwrap, encircle, Exon. 69 a; Th. 256, 20; Jul. 234: 28 b; Th. 87, 9, 12; Cri. 1422, 1424: 18 b; Th. 45, 27; Cri. 725: 65 b; Th. 241, 34; Ph. 666. v. be-windan.

bí-wist food, provision, Bt. 17; Fox 60, 4: L. Edg. C. 3; Th. ii. 244, 12. v. big-wist.

bí-word, -wyrd, es; n. [be, bí by, word a word] A BYEWORD, proverb; proverbium :-- Man segþ [seið MS.] to bíworde, 'hæge sitteþ ða æceras dǽleþ' man saith for a proverb, 'the hedge abides which fields divides,' Chr. 1130; Erl. 259, 13. Bíword, bíwyrd proverbium, Cot. 157.

bi-worpen cast about, surrounded; cinctus :-- Is ðæt églond fenne biworpen the island is surrounded with a fen, Exon. 100 b; Th. 380, 9; Rä. 1, 5, = be-worpen; pp. of be-weorpan.

bi-wráh covered, Exon. 76 b; Th. 287, 32; Wand, 23; p. of biwríhan. v. be-wríhan.

bi-wrecan; p. -wræc, pl. -wrǽcon; pp. -wrecen To strike or beat around, to surround; circum pulsare, circumdare :-- Hí sculon onfón in fýrbaðe wælmum biwrecene wráþlíc andleán they must receive dire retribution in the fire-bath surrounded with flames, Exon. 20 a; Th. 52, 11; Cri. 832. v. be-wrecan.

bi-wríhan; p. -wráh, pl. -wrigon; pp. -wrigen To cover. v. be-wríhan.

bi-wrítan; p. -wrát, pl. -writon; pp. -writen [be by, wrítan to write] To write after, by, or out of, to copy; postscribere, exscribere, Past. pref; Hat. MS. v. be-wrítan.

bi-wyrcan to make, Exon. 74 a; Th. 277, 3; Jul. 575. v. be-wyrcan.

bixen; adj. [box the box-tree] Belonging to box, BOXEN, made of box-wood; buxeus :-- Bixen box a box made of box-wood; pyxis, Ælfc. Gl. 26; Som. 60, 96; Wrt. Voc. 25, 36.

blác; adj. I. bright, shining; lucidus, splendidus :-- On bryne blácan fýres into the burning of the bright fire, Cd. 186; Th. 231, 13; Dan. 246. Lígetta hérgen bláce dýrne Dryhten lightnings bright praise the beloved Lord, Exon. 54 b; Th. 192, 16; Az. 107. Engel ða burh oferbrægd blácan lýge, hátan heaðowealme an angel spread over the town a bright flame, hot warlike floods, Andr. Kmbl. 3081; An. 1543. Blácum leóhte with bright light, Bt. Met. Fox 4, 15; Met. 4, 8. Lígetu bláce lightnings bright, Cd. 192; Th. 340, 3; Dan. 381. II. BLEAK, pale, pallid, livid, as in death; pallidus, de moribundis et mortuis :-- Biþ his líf scæcen, and he blác his life is departed, and he pale, Exon. 87 b; Th. 329, 28; Vy. 41. Scylfing hreás blác Scylfing fell pale, Beo. Th. 4969; B. 2488: Runic pm. 29; Kmbl. 345, 16. Blácne pale, acc. Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 26; Jud. 278. He hæfde blæc feax and blácne andwlitan he had black hair and a pale countenance, Bd. 2, 16; S. 519, 34. Se móna mid his blácan leóhte the moon with her pale light, Bt. 4; Fox 6, 34. [Prompt. bleyke pallidus, subalbus, from blác, p. of blícan to shine.] ☞ Observe the difference between blác bright, shining, bleak, pale, and blæc black, se blaca the black.

blác shone, Exon. 52 a; Th. 182, 4; Gú. 1305; p. of blícan.

blace berian black berries; mori, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 30. v. blæc-berie.

blác-ern, es; n. [blác light, ærn, ern a place] A light place, a lamp, candlestick, lantern, light, candle; lucerna :-- Bæd ðæt hí ðæt blácern adwæseton prayed that they would put out the light [lucernam], Bd. 4, 8; S. 575, 40. Bærnaþ eówer blácern light your candle, Bd. 4, 8; S. 576, 6: Ps. Th, 131, 18.

blác-hleór; adj. [blác II. pale, hleór a face, cheek] Having a pale face, pale-faced, fair; pallidus vel candidus genis :-- Sceolde monig bláchleór ides bifiende gán many a pale-faced damsel must trembling go, Cd. 92; Th. 118, 23-25; Gen. 1969, 1970: Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 18; Jud. 128.

blácian, blácigan, to blácienne, blácigenne; p. ode; pp. od [blác pallid, bleak, pale] To grow pale; pallere, pallescere :-- Ic blácige palleo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 2; Som. 28, 42: 35; Som. 38, 5. Ic onginne to blácigenne [blácienne MS. C.] pallesco, 35; Som. 38, 6. Onsýn blácaþ his face grows pale, Exon. 82 b; Th. 311, 13; Seef. 91. DER. a-blácian.

blácung, e; f. Paleness, wanness; pallor :-- Blácung pallor, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 21; Som, 10, 27. On blácunge goldes in pallore auri, Ps. Lamb. 67, 14.

BLÆC, es; n. Ink; atramentum :-- Ðæt hí habban blæc and bócfel that they have ink and parchment, L. Edg. C. 3; Th. ii. 244, 11. Blæc atramentum, Wrt. Voc. 47, 3. [Plat. blak ink: O. H. Ger. blach ink: Dan. blæk, n. ink: Swed. blæck, n. ink: Icel. blek, n. atramentum.]

BLÆC; gen. m. n. blaces, f. blæcre; def. m. se blaca, f. n. blace: bleac; adj. BLACK, swarthy; niger, fuscus :-- He hæfde blæc feax, and blácne andwlitan he had black hair, and a pale [lean, thin] countenance; nigro capillo, facie macilenta, Bd. 2, 16; S. 519, 33. Forðonðe ðú ne mæht ǽnne loc hwítne gewirce oððe blæcne quia non potes unum capillum album facere aut nigrum, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 5, 36. Ofslógon ðone blacan Heawald they killed the black Heawald, Bd. 5, 10; S. 624, 40. Ða sind blace swíðe they are very black, Exon. 114 b; Th. 438, 28; Rä. 58, 2. Swearte wǽron lástas, swaðu swíðe blacu swart were their footsteps, their tracks very black, 113 b; Th. 434, 19; Rä. 52, 3. [Icel. blakkr niger, Egils. v. A. Sax. blæc ink.] [hand-pint] Observe the difference between blæc; gen. m. n. blaces, se blaca black, swarthy, and blác shining, pallid, bleak, pale, from blác; p. of blícan to shine; remark also blǽc pale, livid, from blǽcan to bleach, whiten. v. blícan, blǽcan.

blǽc; adj. Shining, pale, livid; lucidus, pallidus, lividus :-- Ís brycgade blǽce brimráde the ice bridged the pale water road, Grn. An. 1264. v. blǽcan to bleach.

blǽcan, blǽcean; p. de; pp. ed To BLEACH, whiten, fade; pallidum colorem inducere, albicare :-- Blǽced bleached, Exon. 107 b; Th. 410, 27; Rä. 29, 5. Ne mæg ne sunne blǽcan no sun can bleach, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 20: blǽcean, note 20. DER. blícan.

blæc-berie, an; f. A BLACKBERRY, mulberry; vaccinium, morus :-- Blace berian mori, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 30; Wrt. Voc. 33, 29. DER. blæc.

blæc-ern, es; n. An inkstand; atramentarium. DER. blæc ink, ærn a place.

blǽc-ern, es; n. [blǽc light, ærn a place] Literally a lamp or candlestick, also the light itself; verbum de verbo, candelabrum, etiam candela, lucerna :-- Bæd ðæt hí ðæt blǽcern acwencton prayed that they would put out the light [lucernam], Bd. 4, 8; S. 575, 40, note, MS. B. Ne menn blǽcern in beornaþ men do not light a candle [lucernam], Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 5, 15. Blǽcern fótum mínum lucerna pedibus meis, Ps. Th. 118, 105. v. blác-ern.

blæc-fexed; adj. [blæc black, feax, fex hair] Having black hair, black-haired; nigris capillis :-- He is blæcfexed [MS. blæcfexede] he is black-haired, Homl. Th. i. 456, 16.

blæc-gym; g. -gymmes; m. A black fossil, called jet; nigro-gem-meus, lapis gagates = γαγάτηs, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 24.

blǽco, es; n. [blǽc pale, livid; blǽcan to bleach] Paleness, leprosy; pallor, lepra = χέπρα :-- Blǽco pallor, Cot. 157. Lǽcedómas wið ðam yflan blǽce leechdoms against the evil leprosy, L. M. cont. 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 8, 1. Wíð blǽce genim góse smero for leprosy take goosegrease, L. M. 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 76, 9, 1, 4, 7, 18. v. blǽcþa.

blæc-teru; g. wes; n. Black-tar, tar, naphtha, a sort of bituminous fluid; pix fluida, naphtha, Som.

blǽcþa, an; m: blǽcþ-rust, es; m. Leprosy; vitiligo, Cot. 221. blǽco.

BLÆD; gen. blædes; nom. pl. blado, n. A leaf, BLADE; folium palmula :-- Brád blado broad leaves, Cd. 48; Th. 61, 8; Gen. 994. Róðres blæd the blade of an oar; palmula, Ælfc. Gl. 83; Som. 73, 77; Wrt. Voc. 48, 16. [O. Sax. blad, n: Frs. O. Frs. bled, n: Dut. blad, n: Ger. blatt, n: M. H. Ger. blat, n: O. H. Ger. blat, n: Dan. Swed. blad, n: Icel. blað, n. folium.] DER. ár-blæd.

blæd, e; f. A cup, bowl, goblet, vial; patera, phiala, Æthelfledæ Test. Lye. v. bledu.

blǽd, es; m. I. a blast, blowing, breath, spirit, life, mind; flamen, flatus, inspiratio? spiritus, vita, animus :-- Gif máre blǽd windes astág [MS. astahg] if a stronger blast of wind arose; si flatus venti major adsurgeret, Bd. 4, 3; S. 569, 8. Þurh gǽstes blǽd through the spirit's inspiration, Exon. 63 b; Th. 234, 33; Ph. 549. God ableów on his ansýne líflícne blǽd God blew into his face the breath of life, Hexam. 11; Norm. 18, 26. His blǽd forleósan to lose his life, Judth. 10; Thw. 22, 16; Jud. 63. Náh seó módor geweald bearnes blǽdes the mother hath not power over her child's life, Salm. Kmbl. 769; Sal. 384. Beorht on blǽde bright in life, Elen. Kmbl. 975; El. 489. II. enjoyment, prosperity, abundance, success, blessedness, gift, reward, benefit, glory, honour; fruitio, prosperitas, abundantia, successus, beatitudo, donum, præmium, beneficium, gloria, dignitas :-- Hyra blǽd leofaþ æt dómdæge their enjoyment shall exist [live] at doomsday, Exon. 31 b; Th. 100, 4; Cri. 1636. Blǽdes full full of enjoyment, Exon. 32 a; Th. 101, 13; Cri. 1658. Eorþan blǽdas the enjoyments of earth, 116 b; Th. 447, 28; Dóm. 46. He heóld blǽd mid bearnum he possessed prosperity with his children, Cd. 79; Th. 97, 5; Gen. 1608. Hie ne meahton blǽdes brúcan they might not enjoy prosperity, 90; Th. 113, 26; Gen. 1893. On his blǽde in his prosperity, 205; Th. 253, 26; Dan. 601. Sý him wuldres blǽd may there be to him abundance of glory, Exon. 65 b; Th. 241, 27; Ph. 662. Ða feóndas ðæs blǽdes gebrocen hæfdon the fiends had enjoyed their success, Exon. 38 b; Th. 127, 28; Gú. 393. Écan lífes blǽð the blessedness of eternal life, Exon. 82 b; Th. 310, 24; Seef. 79. Wæs his blǽd mid God his reward was with God, 39 a; Th. 128, 27; Gú. 410: 20 b; Th. 55, 4; Cri. 878. Wæs heora blǽd micel their glory was great, Cd. 1; Th. 2, 5; Gen. 14. Hie Iudéa blǽd forbrǽcon billa ecgum they destroyed the Jews' glory with the edges of swords, Cd. 210; Th. 260, 13; Dan. 709. [O. H. Ger. blát flatus.] DER. fér-blǽd, wuldor-: blǽd-ágende, -dæg, -fæst, -gifa, -horn, -wéla.

blǽd, bléd, e; f. What is produced,-A flower, blossom,fruit; flos, olus, fructus :-- His leáf and his blǽda ne fealwiaþ its leaves and its flowers shall not fall; folium ejus non decidet, Ps. Th. 1, 4. Wudu sceal blǽdum blówan a wood shall blow with flowers, Menol. Fox 527; Gn. C. 34. Geseh he geblówene bearwas standan, blǽdum gehrodene he saw blowing groves stand, adorned with blossoms, Andr. Kmbl. 2896; An. 1451. Bléda wyrta olera herbarum, Ps. Spl. 36, 2. He déþ ǽlc twíg aweg on me, ðe blǽda ne byrþ; and he feormaþ ǽlc ðara, ðe blǽda byrþ, ðæt hyt bere blǽda ðe swíðor omnem palmitem in me non ferentem fructum, tollet eum; et omnem, qui fert fructum, purgabit eum, ut fructum plus afferat, Jn. Bos. 15, 2. Beorc biþ blǽda leás the birch-tree is fruitless [void of fruit], Runic pm. 18; Kmbl. 342, 27; Hick. Thes. i. 135. Hærfest bryngþ rípa bléda harvest brings ripe fruits, Bt. 39, 13; Fox 234, 15: 34, 10; Fox 150, 5. Balsames blǽd fruit of balsam, Cot. 48.

blǽd-ágende; part. Possessing abundance, prosperous; abundantiam habens, prosper, Beo. Th. 2031; B. 1013.

blǽd-dæg; g. -dæges; pl. nom. -dagas; g. pl. -daga; m. A prosperousor happy day; prosperitatis dies, faustus dies :-- Ðǽr we mótun brúcan blǽddaga where we may enjoy prosperous days, Exon. 65 b; Th. 242, 16; Ph. 674: Cd. 60; Th. 73, 7; Gen. 1201.

blǽddre a blister, pimple, the bladder, Ex. 9, 9. 10: Ælfc. Gl. 75; Som. 71, 74; Wrt. Voc. 44, 56. v. blǽdre.

blǽd-fæst; adj. Prosperous; prosper :-- Heó abreát blǽdfæstne beorn she destroyed a prosperous hero, Beo. Th. 2602; B. 1299. DER. geblǽdfæst.

blǽd-gifa, an; m. A giver of prosperity, happiness, or glory; prosperitatis, beatitudinis, vel gloriæ largitor :-- Beorht blǽdgifa bright giver of prosperity, Andr. Kmbl. 167; An. 84: 1311; An. 656.

blǽd-horn, es; m. A blast-horn, a trumpet; classicum :-- Blǽdhornas classica, Ælfc. Gl. 52; Som. 66, 44; Wrt. Voc. 35, 32.

blǽdre, blǽddre, an; f. [bláwan to blow; flare] That which is blown out, hence I. an inflated swelling, blister, pimple, blain, pustule; pustula, papula :-- Be ǽghwylcum uncúþum blǽdrum ðe on mannes nebbe sittaþ of all strange blisters which exist on a man's face, Herb. cont. 2, 19; Lchdm. i. 6, 10: Herb. 2, 19; Lchdm. i. 86, 5. Eall folc wæs on, blǽdran, and ða wǽron swíðe hreówlíce berstende all the people had blisters [lit. was in blister], and they were very painfully bursting, Ors. 1, 7; Bos. 29, 37. On mannum and on nýtenum beóþ wunda and swellende blǽddran there shulen ben in men and yn beestis biles and bleynes swellynge, Wyc; Ex. 9, 9, 10. II. the BLADDER, receptacle for the urine; vesica :-- Báres blǽdre a boar's bladder, Med. ex Quadr. 8, 12; Lchdm. i. 360, 8. Wið sáre ðære lifre and ðære blǽdran for sore of the liver and of the bladder, Herb. cont. 145, 2; Lchdm. i. 54, 27: Herb. 41, 2; Lchdm. i. 142, 8: 80, 1; Lchdm. i. 182, 12. Gif weaxan stánas on ðære blǽdran if stones grow in the bladder, L. M. 3, 20; Lchdm. ii. 320, 6. Genim eoferes blǽdran take a boar's bladder, Med. ex Quadr, 8, 11; Lchdm. i. 360, 5. Blǽddre vesica, Ælfc. Gl. 75; Som. 71, 74; Wrt. Voc. 44, 56. Wið ðære blǽddran sáre for sore of the bladder, Herb. 107; Lchdm. i. 220, 15: 126; Lchdm. i. 238, 10: Med. ex Quadr. 8, 11; Lchdm. i. 360, 4. [Chauc. Wyc. bladder: Piers P. bleddere: Dut. blaar, f: O. Dut. blaeder, blaere: Ger. blatter, f: M. H. Ger. bláter, f: O. H. Ger. blátara, f: Dan. blære, m. f: Swed. blæddra, f: Icel. blaðra, f.]

blǽd-wéla, an; m. Fruitful riches; opes uberes :-- Ic ðé on ða fægran foldan gesette to neótenne neorxna wonges blǽdwélan I set thee on the fair earth to enjoy the fruitful riches of Paradise, Exon. 28 a; Th. 85, 16; Cri. 1392.

blǽge, an; f. A BLAY, bleak, the gudgeon; gobio = κωβιós :-- Blǽge gobio, Ælfc. Gl. 101; Som, 77, 59; Wrt. Voc. 55, 64. [Ger. bleie, bleihe, f. a blay.]

blǽ-hǽwen, blǽ-hwen, blǽwen; adj. [bleó blue, hǽwen hued] Of a blue hue, bluish, violet or purple colour; cæruleus, perseus :-- Moises scrídde ðone bisceop [Aaron] mid línenum reáfe, and girde hine, and dyde ymbe hine blǽhwene tunecan, and léde eaxlcláþ ofer hine Moses clothed the bishop [Aaron] with a linen garment, and girded him [with a girdle], and put around him a blue tunic, and laid a cope [lit, shouldercloth] upon him, Lev. 8, 7. Blǽwen perseus, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 94; Wrt. Voc. 46, 51.

blæse, blase, an; f. I. a BLAZE, flame; ardor, flamma. v. bǽl-blase. II. that which makes a blaze,-A torch, lamp; fax, facula, lampas = λαμπάs :-- Blæse fax, Greg. Dial. 2, 8: Glos. Prudent. Recd. 143, 33. Iudas com ðyder mid leóhtfatum, and mid blasum, and mid wǽpnum Iudas venit illuc cum laternis, et facibus, et armis, Jn. Bos. 18, 3. Blæsum faculis, Mone B. 3487. Blase lampas, Ælfc. Gl. 30; Som. 61, 54; Wrt. Voc. 26, 53. [M. H. Ger. blas, n. fax, lampas.]

blæsere, blasere, blysiere, es; m. [blæse I. a blaze, flame] A burner, incendiary; incendiarius :-- Be blæserum of incendiaries, L. Ath. i. 6; Th. i. 202, 18. We cwǽdon be ðám blaserum we have ordained concerning incendiaries, L. Ath. iv. 6; Th. i. 224, 13.

blæst, es; m. [blæse I. a blaze, flame] A burning, blaze, flame; ardor, flamma :-- Ne mæg ðǽr, rén ne snáw, ne fýres blæst, wihte gewyrdan there rain nor snow, nor flame of fire can aught injure, Exon. 56 a; Th. 198, 25; Ph. 15: Andr. Kmbl. 1674; An. 839. Ðæt he [Fénix] onfón móte, þurh líges blæst, líf æfter deáþe that it [the Phoenix] may, through the fire's flame, receive life after death, Exon. 62 a; Th. 228, 6; Ph. 434. Léges blæstas weallas ymbwurpon flames of fire overwhelmed the walls, Andr. Kmbl. 3103; An. 1554.

blǽst, es; m. [bláwan to blow; flare] A blowing, BLAST or gust of wind, a breeze; flatus :-- Sǽgrundas súþwind fornam, bæþweges blǽst the south wind, the sea breeze, dried up the depths of the sea, Cd. 158; Th. 196, 11; Exod. 290. [Chauc. blast: Laym. blæst: Ger. M. H. Ger. blast, m: O. H. Ger. blást, m: Icel. blástr, m.]

blǽst-belg bellows, Wrt. Voc. 286, 76. v. blást-belg.

blǽt, ðú blǽtst is livid, thou art livid; 3rd and 2nd pers. pres. of blátan.

blǽt, es; m. A bleating, a BLEAT like a sheep; balatus. DER. blǽtan.

BLǼTAN; p. blǽtte; pp. blǽtted; v. n. [blǽt a bleat] To BLEAT; balare :-- Ic blǽte swá gát I bleat as a goat, Exon. 106 b; Th. 406,17; Rä. 25, 2. Scǽp blǽt ovis balat, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Som. 24, 9. Hit biþ swíðe dyslíc ðæt se man beorce oððe blǽte it is very foolish that the man bark or bleat, 22; Som. 24, 12. [Piers P. blete: Orm. blætenn: Dut. bleeten, bláten: M. Dut. bleten: Ger. blaszen: O. H. Ger. blazan to cry as a sheep or goat, to bleat.]

blǽtesung, e; f. A flaming, blazing, sparkling; flagrantia, Ps. Spl. T. 76, 18.

blǽwen light blue; perseus, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 94; Wrt. Voc. 46, 51. v. blǽ-hǽwen.

blǽweþ, blǽwþ blows, Bt. Met. Fox 6, 15; Met. 6, 8: ðú blǽwest, blǽwst thou blowest; 3rd and 2nd pers. pres. of bláwan.

blan ceased, Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 17; p. of blinnan.

BLANC; adj. BLANK, white, grey; pallidus, albus, candidus :-- Gewiton mearum rídan beornas on blancum the warriors departed to ride on white horses, Beo. Th. 1716; B. 856. [Relq. Ant. W. i, 37, 30, blonc white: Dut. blank white, shining: Ger. blank albus: M. H. Ger. blanc: O. H. Ger. blanch candidus: Dan. Swed. blank bright: O. Nrs. blankr albus, Rask Hald: hence Span. blanco white: Fr. blanc: It. bianco.]

blanca, blonca, an; m. A white or grey horse; equus albus vel candidus :-- On blancan on a grey horse, Elen. Grm. 1185. [Laym. blank, blonk a horse, steed: O. Nrs. blakkr, m. equus.] DER. blanc.

bland, es; n. A mixture, confusion; mixtio :-- Swég swíðrode and sanges [MS. sances] bland sound prevailed and a confusion of song, Cd. 158; Th. 197, 19; Exod. 309. [Icel. bland, n.] DER. ge-bland, -blond, wind-.

BLANDAN, blondan, ic blande, blonde, ðú blandest, he blandeþ, blent, pl. blandaþ; p. ic, he bleónd, blénd, ðú bleónde, blénde, pl. bleóndon, bléndon; pp. blanden, blonden To mix, BLEND, mingle; miscere :-- Ic eom on góman gena swétra ðonne ðú beóbreád blénde mid hunige I am yet sweeter on the palate than if thou blendedst bee-bread with honey, Exon. 111 a; Th. 425, 21; Rä. 41, 59. [A strong verb in all the Teutonic dialects: Goth. blandan; p. baibland; pp. blandans: O. Sax. blandan: O. H. Ger. blandan: Swed. O. Nrs. blanda.] DER. ge-blandan: ge-blondan, on-: be-blonden: ge-bland: ge-blond, ær-, ár-, ear-, earh-, sund-, ýþ-: wind-blond.

blanden-feax, bionden-feax, -fex; adj. [blanden; pp. of blandan to mix; feax, fex hair] Having mixed or grizzly hair, grey-haired, old; comam mixtam vel canam habens, senex. Blanden-feax is a phrase which in Anglo-Saxon poetry is only applied to those advanced in life; and is used to denote that mixture of colour which the hair assumes on approaching or increasing senility, Price's Warton i. xcvi. note 20 :-- Gelpan ne þorfte beorn blandenfeax [MS. blandenfex, col. 2] bilgeslehtes the grizzly-haired warrior ought not to boast of the clashing of swords, Chr. 937; Th. 204, 34, col. 1; Æðelst. 45. Abraham ne wénde, ðæt him Sarra, brýd blondenfeax, bringan meahte on woruld sunu Abram thought not that Sarah, his grey-haired wife, could bring a son into the world, Cd. 107; Th. 141, 7; Gen. 2341: 123; Th. 157, 5; Gen. 2600: Beo. Th. 3586; B. 1791. Blondenfexa the grizzly-haired, 5916; B. 2962. Hruron teáras blondenfeaxum tears fell from the grizzly-haired [prince], 3750; B. 1873. Blondenfeaxe, gomele, ymb gódne ongeador sprǽcon the grizzly-haired, the old, spoke together about the good [warrior], 3193; B. 1594.

blann ceased, rested, Bd. 3, 20; S. 550, 28; p. of blinnan.

blase a torch, lamp, Ælfc. Gl. 30; Som. 61, 54; Wrt. Voc. 26, 53. v. blæse II.

blasere, es; m. An incendiary, L. Ath. iv. 6; Th. i. 224, 13. v. blæsere.

blást-belg, es; m. A blast-bag, bellows; follis, Cot. 86.

BLÁT; comp. blátra; superl. blátast; adj. Livid, pale, ghastly; lividus, pallidus :-- Þurh ðæs beornes breóst blát weóll waðuman streám a livid stream bubbled in waves through the man's breast, Andr. Kmbl. 2560; An. 1281. Hungres on wénum, blátes beódgæstes in expectation of hunger, of a pale table-guest, 2177; An. l090. Ðæt biþ frécne wund, blátast benna that is a dangerous wound, most ghastly of sores, Exon. 19 a; Th. 48, 13; Cri. 771. [O. H. Ger. bleizza livor.]

blátan; part. blátende; ic bláte, ðú blátest, blǽtst, he bláteþ, blǽt, pl. blátaþ; p. bleót, blét, ðú bléte, pl. bléton; pp. bláten; intrans. To be livid, pale, or dark as with envy; livere :-- Hygewælmas teáh beorne on breóstum blátende níþ darkening [livid, pale] envy drew agitations of mind to the breast of the man, Cd. 47; Gen. 981.

bláte; adv. Lividly, pallidly; livide, pallide :-- Helle fýr bláte forbærnþ biteran lége the fire of hell lividly burns up with a dire [bitter] flame, Bt. Met. Fox 8, 107; Met. 8, 54. Ðæt fýr ne mæg foldan and merestreám bláte forbærnan the fire cannot pallidly burn up earth and sea, 20, 229; Met. 20, 115.

blátende; part. Darkening, making livid or pallid; livens, Cd. 47; Th. 60, 14; Gen. 981. v. blátan.

BLÁWAN; part. bláwende; ic bláwe, ðú bláwest, bláwst, blǽwest, blǽwst, he bláweþ, bláwþ, blǽweþ, bláwþ, pl. bláwaþ; p. bleów, bléw, pl. bleówon; pp. bláwen To BLOW, breathe; flare, sufflare. I. v. intrans :-- Ge geseóþ súþan bláwan ye see the south [wind] blow, Lk. Bos. 12, 55. Ic bláwe flo, Ælfc. Gr. 24; Som. 25, 41. Wind wráðe bláweþ the wind fiercely blows, Bt. Met. Fox 7, 104; Met. 7, 52: Ps. Th. 147, 7. Blǽwþ gást his and flówaþ wæteru flabit spiritus ejus et fluent aquæ, Ps. Lamb. 147, 18: Bt. Met. Fox 6, 15; Met. 6, 8. Swógaþ windas, bláwaþ brecende, bearhtma mǽste winds shall howl, crashing blow, with the greatest of sounds, Exon. 21 b; Th. 59, 11; Cri. 951. Se wind súþan bleów the wind blew from the south, Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 27. Bleów he on hí he breathed on them, Jn. Bos. 20, 22. Bleówon [MS. bleowun] windas flaverunt venti, Mt. Bos. 7, 25, 27. Bláwen is on smiððan conflatur in conflatorio, Prov. 27. II. v. trans :-- Drihten háteþ héh-englas béman bláwan the Lord shall command the archangels to blow the trumpets, Cd. 227; Th. 302, 19; Sat. 602. Englas bláwaþ býman angels shall blow the trumpets, Exon. 20 b; Th. 55, 10; Cri. 881. Ne bláwe man býman befóran ðé let not a man blow a trumpet before thee, Mt. Bos. 6, 2. [Laym. blæwen, blauwen, blawen, blowen: Ger. blähen: M. H. Ger. blæjen: O. H. Ger. blájan: Lat. flo.] DER. a-bláwan, for-, ge, to-: bláwennys: bláwere: bláwung.

bláwen-nys, -nyss, e; f. A blowing or puffing up, a windy swelling; inflatio, sufflatio. DER. bláwan.

bláwere, es; m. [bláwan to blow; flare] A BLOWER; conflator :-- Ídel wæs se bláwere the blower was useless; frustra conflavit conflator, Past. 37, 3; Hat. MS. 50 a, 24.

bláwung, e; f. [bláwan to blow; flare] A BLOWING; flatus :-- Ðá hét Gedeon his geféran habban heora býman him mid to ðære bláwunge then Gideon commanded his companions to have their trumpets with them for the blowing, Jud. 7, 16. DER. a-bláwung.

bleac; def. se bleaca; adj. Black; niger :-- Wæs ðis gesceád ðæt for missenlíce heora feaxes hiwe, óðer wæs cweden se bleaca Heawold, óðer se hwíta Heawald ea distinctione ut pro diversa capillorum specie, unus niger Hewald, alter albus Hewald diceretur, Bd. 5, 10; S. 624, 16. v. blæc, blaca black.

BLEÁT; def. se bleáta, seó, ðæt bleáte; adj. Wretched, miserable; miser, miserabilis :-- Ǽnig ne wæs mon on moldan ðætte meahte bibúgan ðone bleátan drync deópan deáþwéges there was not any man on earth that could avoid the miserable drink of the deep death-cup, Exon. 47 a; Th. 161, 24; Gú. 963. [Scot. blait nudus: Frs. bleat nudus: O. Frs. blat nudus; thi blata pauper, miser: Dut. bloot: M. Dut. blót: Ger. blosz: M. H. Ger. blóz: Icel. blautr.]

bleáte; adv. Wretchedly, miserably; misere, miserabile :-- He geseah ðone leófestan lífes æt ende bleáte gebǽran he saw his dearest [friend] bearing [himself] wretchedly at life's end, Beo. Th. 5640, note; B. 2824.

BLEÁÞ; adj. Gentle, timid, peaceful, inactive; timidus, imbellis, ignavus :-- Ic eom to ðon bleáþ ðæt mec mæg gríma abrégan I am so timid that a phantom may frighten me, Exon. 110 b; Th. 423, 4; Rä. 41, 16. Ne wæs him bleáþ hyge his mind was not inactive, Andr. Kmbl. 462; An. 231. [Laym. blæð destitute: O. Sax. blóði: Dut. bloode: Ger. blöde: M. H. Ger. blœde: O. H. Ger. blódi: Dan. blöd: Swed. blöt: Icel. blauðr.] DER. here-bleáþ.

Blecinga ég, e; f. Blekingey, the sea-coast of the Blekingians, a province on the south-west of Sweden; in A. Sax. times belonging to Denmark, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 22, 1.

bled, e; f. A bowl, the dish of a balance, a scale. v. helur-bled, bledu.

bléd, e; f. A shoot, branch, flower, fruit; germen, ramus, frons, flos, fructus :-- Ðæt cymen [MS. cyme] gréne bléda that green shoots come, Cd. 200; Th. 248, 24; Dan. 518. On ðæs beámes blédum on the branches of the tree, Cd. 200; Th. 248, 5; Dan. 508. Ne dreósaþ beorhte bléde bright fruits fall not, Exon. 56 a; Th. 200, 3; Ph. 35: 62 b; Th. 230, 2; Ph. 466. God lǽteþ hrusan syllan beorhte bléda beornum and þearfum God lets earth give delightful fruits to rich and poor, Hick. Thes. i. 135, 24. DER. wudu-bléd. v. blǽd.

blédan; p. de; pp. ed [blód blood] To BLEED, emit blood; sanguinem emittere :-- Blédaþ ǽdran the veins shall bleed, Salm. Kmbl. 290; Sal. 144. Se blédenda fíc the bleeding fig or disease, Wanl. catal. 305, 4. Wið ðone blédende fíc nim murran for the bleeding fig or disease take myrrh, Lchdm. iii. 8, 1. [Dut. bloeden: Ger. bluten: O. H. Ger. bluotan: Dan. blöde: Swed. blöda.]

bléd-hwæt; g. -hwates; adj. [bléd a shoot, hwæt quick] A shoot growing quickly; germen velox :-- Ðonne ic hrére bearwas bléd-hwate then I shake the quick-growing groves, Exon. 101 a; Th. 381, 10; Rä. 2, 9.

bledsian; p. ode; pp. od To bless, consecrate; benedicere, consecrare. DER. ge-bledsian. v. bletsian.

bledsung a blessing, Chr. 813; Erl. 60, 21. v. bletsung.

bledu, bled, blæd, e; f. A bowl, vial, goblet, the dish of a balance, a scale; patera, phiala, lanx, trutinæ, scala, Ælfc. Gl. 25; Wrt. Voc. 24, 44: Æthelfledæ Test. Lye. DER. helur-bled.

BLÉGEN, e; f. A BLAIN, blister, bile or ulcer; pustula, ulcus :-- Wið ða blégene, genim nigon ægra and seóþ híg fæste for blains, take nine eggs and boil them hard, Lchdm. i. 380, 1. Wið ða blacan blégene against black blains, L. M. 1, 58; Lchdm. ii. 128, 21. [Tyndl. blain: Chauc. blein: Wyc. bleines, pl: Dut. blein, f: Dan. blegn.]

blencan; p. blencte; pp. blenced To deceive, cheat; decipere, fallere :-- He wrenceþ and blenceþ he deceives and cheats, Exon. 83 b; Th. 315, 18; Mód. 33. [Prov. Eng. blench: Icel. blekkja to impose upon.]

blénd mixed, blended, mingled; p. of blandan.

blendan, he blent; p. blende; pp. blended, blend; v. trans. [blind cærcus] To BLIND, deprive of sight, darken; cæcare, obscurare :-- Se dæg blent and þióstraþ hiora eágan the day blinds and darkens their eyes, Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 5. Man hine blende, and hine swá blindne brohte to ðám munecum they blinded him, and brought him thus blind to the monks, Chr. 1036; Th. 294, 17, col. 2; Ælf. Tod. 14. [Chauc. Piers blende: Laym. a-blenden: Orm. blendenn: O. Frs. blenda, blinda: Dut. blinden: Ger. M. H. Ger. blenden: O. H. Ger. blentjan: Goth. gablindyan: Dan. for-blinde: Swed. för-blinda: Icel. blinda.] DER. a-blendan, ge-.

blent blends; 3rd pers. pres. of blandan.

bleó a colour, hue, complexion, Ælfc. Gl. 79; Som. 72, 78; Wrt. Voc. 46, 35. v. bleoh.

bleó blue or azure colour; cæruleus, Som.

bleó-bord, es; n. [bleoh, bleó colour, bord a table] A coloured table on which games of chess are played; tabula colorata in qua prœlia latronum luduntur (Ettm. p. 311) :-- Dryhten dǽleþ sumum gúþe blǽd, sumum tæfle cræft, bleóbordes gebregd the Lord allots to one success in war, to another skill at the table, cunning at the coloured board, Exon. 88 a; Th. 331, 20; Vy. 71.

bleó-brygd, es; m? n? [bleó colour, bregdan to change] A variegated colour; color variegatus :-- Is se fugel fæger, bleóbrygdum fág the bird is fair, shining with variegated colours, Exon. 60 a; Tb. 218, 9; Ph. 292.

bleó-cræft, es; m. BLEE-CRAFT, the art of embroidering; ars plumaria, ars acupingendi :-- Bleócræft ars plumaria, Cot. 17.

bleó-fæstnes, -ness, -nyss, e; f. That which gives pleasure from its colour,-Pleasure, delight; jucunditas, deliciæ :-- Niht is onleóhtnes oððe onlíhting on bleófæstnessum [bleófæstnyssum, Spl.] oððe éstum mínum nox illuminatio est in deliciis meis, Ps. Lamb. 138, 11.

bleó-fág, -fáh; adj. [bleoh, bleó color; fág, fáh varius] Of various colours, party-coloured; versicolor :-- Byrne is mín bleófág my byrnie is party-coloured, Exon. 105 b; Th. 400, 18; Rä. 21, 3: Cot. 115. Oferslop bleófáh habban ǽrende fúllíc getácnaþ to have a party-coloured overcoat betokens an unpleasant message, Lchdm. iii. 200, 6.

BLEOH, bleó, blioh, blió; gen. bleós; n. A colour, hue, complexion; color, species :-- Bleoh color, Ælfc. Gl. 79; Som. 72, 70; Wrt. Voc. 46, 27. Mislíc bleó a mixed colour, 79; Som. 72, 78; Wrt. Voc. 46, 35. Blió color, Prov. 23. Ðæt wæs hwítes bleós swá cristalla it was of a white colour like crystal, Num. 11, 7. Ánes bleós of one colour; unicolor, concolor, Ælfc. Gl. 79; Som. 72, 76; Wrt. Voc. 46, 33: Ælfc. Gr. 9, 21; Som. 10, 35. Hwí is se rénboga mislíces bleós why is the rainbow of a mixed colour? Boutr. Scrd. 21, 25. Menn mágon cépan be ðæs mónan bleó hwylc weder toweard byþ men may observe by the moon's colour what weather is at hand, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 15, 9; Lchdm. iii. 268, 5. Hí brugdon on wyrmes bleó they changed to a worm's hue, Exon. 46 a; Th. 156, 32; Gú. 883: 71 a; Th. 264, 12; Jul. 363: Elen. Kmbl. 2210; El. 1106. Seolocenra hrægla mid mistlícum bleowum hí ne gímdon they cared not for silken garments of various colours, Bt. 15; Fox 48, 11. Mónan bleoh habban hýnþe getácnaþ for the moon to have colours betokens humility, Lchdm. iii. 206, 27. Hí habbaþ blioh and færbu ungelíce they have different colours and forms, Bt. Met. Fox 31, 7; Met. 31, 4. Bleóum with colours, Exon. 94 a; Th. 352, 31; Reim. 4: Salm. Kmbl. 301; Sal. 150. Secgaþ guman ðæt Iosephes tunece wǽre bleóm bregdende men say that Joseph's coat varied [lit. was varying] in colours, Exon. 95 b; Th. 357, 3; Pa. 23: 87 a; Th. 327, 14; Vy. 3. Geseah ic ðæt beácen wendan bleóm I saw the beacon change in colours, Rood Kmbl. 43; Kr. 22: Elen. Kmbl. 1515; El. 759. [Prov. Eng. blee: Chauc. blee: O. Sax. blí, n: North Frs. bläy: O. Frs. blie, bli, n.] DER. ge-bleoh, wundor-bleó.

bleóm in colours, Elen. Kmbl. 1515; El. 759; inst. pl. of bleoh.

bleónd, pl. bleóndon mixed, blended; p. of blandan.

bleónde hast mixed, blended; p. of blandan.

bleó-reád, -reód; adj. BLUE RED, purple, myrtle-coloured; cæruleorumber, myrteus :-- Bleóreád myrteus, Cot. 135. Bleóreód myrteus, Ælfc. Gl. 79; Som. 72, 89; Wrt. Voc. 46, 46.

bleó-stǽning, e; f. Coloured stone-work or pavement, Mosaic work; opus musivum, pavimentum segmentatum, Som. Lye: Cot. 131.

bleót was livid, pale; p. of blátan.

bleót, ðú bleóte, pl. bleóton sacrificed, sacrificedst, sacrificed; p. of blótan.

bleóum in colours, Salm. Kmbl. 301; Sal. 150; inst. pl. of bleoh.

bleów, bleówe, pl. bleówon blew, breathed, Jn. Bos. 20, 22; p. of bláwan.

bleów; ðú bleówe, pl. bleówon flourished, hast flourished, flourished, Ps. Surt. 27, 7; p. of blówan.

bleowum to or with colours, Bt. 18; Fox 48, 11; dat. pl. of bleoh.

blere, es; m? An onyx, gem; onyx = όνυξ, m. a nail :-- Blere onyx, Wrt. Voc. 288, 55.

blét, bléte, pl. bléton was livid, pale; p. of blátan.

blét sacrifices; 3rd pers. pres. of blótan.

bletsian, bletsigan; part. bletsiende, bletsigende; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad; v. a. To BLESS, wish happiness, consecrate; benedicere, consecrare :-- Ic Ismael éstum wille bletsian I will bless Ishmael with favours, Cd. 107; Th. 142, 5; Gen. 2357: 191; Th. 238, 23; Dan. 359; Gen. 17, 16. He, bletsiende [bletsigende, Jun.], bræc ða hláfas, and sealde his leorningcnihtum he, blessing, brake the loaves, and gave to his disciples, Mt. Bos. 14, 19. Ic bletsie ealle ða ðe hit healden I bless all who may observe it, Chr. 675; Erl. 39, 25. Ic bletsige oððe wel secge benedico, Ælfc. Gr. 37; Som. 39, 38. Ic bletsige ðé on mínum lífe benedicam te in vita mea, Ps. Lamb. 62, 5: Exon. 41 b; Th. 138, 22; Gú. 580. Ðú geáres hring mid gyfe bletsast benedices coronæ anni benignitatis tuæ, Ps. Th. 64, 12. We ðec bletsiaþ, Fæder ælmihtig we bless thee, Father almighty, Cd. 192; Th. 241, 6; Dan. 400: Exon. 64 b; Th. 239, 12; Ph. 620: Ps. Lamb. 128, 8. Ðú bletsodest [bletsadest, Th.] Drihten eorþan ðíne benedixisti Domine terram tuam, Ps. Spl. 84, 1. He bletsode hí benedicebat eos, Mk. Bos. 10, 16: Ps. Spl. 106, 38. Mid heora múþe híg bletsodon, and mid heora heortan híg wergdon ore suo benedicebant, et corde suo maledicebant, Ps. Lamb. 61, 5. Hí hine bletsadon meáglum wordum they blessed him in strenuous words, Exon. 43 a; Th. 146, 6; Gú. 705. Bletsa eálá ðú mín sáwl Drihtne benedic anima mea Domino, Ps. Lamb. 103, 1. Bletsiaþ Drihtne ealle englas his benedicite Domino omnes angeli ejus, 102, 20. Neáta gehwilc naman bletsic every [kind] of cattle bless [thy] name, Cd. 192; Th. 240, 22; Dan. 390. Bletsien ðec, Dryhten, deór and nýten beasts and cattle bless thee, O Lord, Exon. 55 a; Th. 194, 26; Az. 144. [Chauc. blisse, blysse: Wyc. blisse: Laym. bletseiʒen: Orm. blettcenn, blettsenn: Northumb. bletsia, bloetsia, bloedsia: Icel. bleza, bletza, blessa: Goth. bleiþs merciful, kind, bleiþyan to have mercy.] DER. ge-bletsian.

bletsing-bóc, e; f. A blessing-book; liber benedictionum formulas continens, Wanl. catal. 80, 33.

blétst sacrificest; 2nd pers. pres. of blótan.

bletsung, bledsung, e; f. A BLESSING; benedictio :-- Sí bletsung Drihtnes ofer eów sit benedictio Domini super vos, Ps. Spl. 128, 7: Exon. 9 a; Th. 7, 12; Cri. 100. He onfón sceal mínre bletsunge he shall receive my blessing, Cd. 106; Th. 140, 22; Gen. 2331. Cyn his on bletsunge byþ semen illius in benedictione erit, Ps. Lamb. 36, 26. Mid bletsunge [bledsunge, col. 1] ðæs pápan with the blessing of the pope, Chr. 813; Th. 108, 22, col. 2, 3. Brohte him bletsunge, se ðe him ǽ sette benedictionem dabit, qui legem dedit, Ps. Th. 83, 7: 113, 21. Him se beorn bletsunga leán ageaf the prince gave him the gift of his blessings, Cd. 97; Th. 128, 2; Gen. 2120.

bléwþ, ðú bléwst blows, thou blowest, Ps. Spl. 102, 14; 3rd and 2nd pers. pres. of blówan.

BLÍCAN, ic blíce, ðú blícest, blícst, he blíceþ, blícþ, pl. blícaþ; p. ic, he blác, ðú blice, pl. blicon; pp. blicen; v. n. I. to shine, glitter, dazzle, sparkle, twinkle; lucere, fulgere, coruscare, micare :-- Ðú ðære gyldnan gesihst Hierusalem weallas blícan thou seest the walls of the golden Jerusalem shine, Salm. Kmbl. 469; Sal. 235: Exon. 57 a; Th. 204, 10; Ph. 95. Móna swá seó Godes circe beorhte blíceþ the church of God shines brightly like the moon, 18 a; Th. 44, 11; Cri. 701: 58 b; Th. 210, 16; Ph. 186. Blícþ ðeós beorhte sunne this bright sun glitters, Cd. 38; Th. 50, 19; Gen. 811, Hý fóre leódum leóhte blícaþ they with light shall shine before the people, Exon. 26 a; Th. 76, 14; Cri. 1239. Heofoncandel blác ofer lagoflódas the sun [lit. heaven's candle] shone over the water-floods, Andr. Kmbl. 486; An. 243. Blicon bordhreóðan bucklers glittered, Cd. 149; Th. 187, 30; Exod. 160. Hwonne swegles tapur hǽdre blíce when the sun [lit. heaven's taper] serenely shines, Exon. 57 b; Th. 205, 20; Ph. 115. II. to shine by exposure, as the bones; denudando in conspectum dari :-- Hí twigena ordum hine weallaþ óþ ðæt him bán blícaþ they shall vex him with points of twigs until his bones appear [shine], Salm. Kmbl. 289; Sal. 144. [Laym. blikien: O. Sax. blíkan: Frs. blike apparere: O. Frs. blíka: Ger. er-bleichen pallescere: M. H. Ger. blíchen fulgere: O. H. Ger. ar-blíchan pallescere: O. Nrs. blika, blíkja: Lat. flag-ra-re: Grk. φλέγ-ω: Lith. blizg-ù I shine: Sansk. bhrāj to shine.] DER. a-blícan.

blíce, es; m. [blícan II. to shine by exposure, as the bones] An exposure; denudatio :-- Gif bánes blíce weorþeþ, þrím scillingum gebéte if there be an exposure of the bone [by wounding], let amends be made with three shillings, L. Ethb. 34; Th. i. 12, 4.

blícettan; p. blícette; pp. blícetted [blícan I. to shine, glitter] To glitter, quiver; vibrare :-- Blícette vibrabat, Cot. 178. [O. H. Ger. blechazan micare.]

blícettung, e; f. [blícettan to glitter] A coruscation, shining; coruscatio :-- Blícettunga coruscationes, Ps. Vos. 76, 18: 143, 8. [O. H. Ger. blechazunga, f. fulmen.]

blicon shone, glittered, Cd, 149; Th. 187, 30; Exod. 160; p. pl. of blícan.

blícst, he blícþ shinest, shines, Cd. 38; Th. 50, 19; Gen. 811; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of blícan.

blíds joy, gladness, Ps. C. 50, 99; Ps: Grn. ii. 279, 99. v blíþs.

blin, blinn, e; f. [= be-lin; v. linnan to cease] A ceasing, rest, intermission; cessatio, intermissio :-- Bútan blinne without ceasing; sine intermissione, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 20: Elen. Kmbl. 1648; El. 826. [Old Eng. blin, Ben. Jonson.] DER. un-ablinn. v. blinnan.

BLIND; def. se blinda, seó, ðæt blinde; adj. BLIND, deprived of sight; cæcus :-- Ðá wæs him broht án deófolseóc man, se wæs blind and dumb tunc oblatus est ei dæmonium habens, cæcus et mutus, Mt. Bos. 12, 22: Mk. Bos. 10, 46: Cd. 115; Th. 150, 13; Gen. 2491. Ðæt ðú grápie on midne dæg, swá se blinda déþ on þistrum ut palpes in meridie, sicut palpare solet cæcus in tenebris, Deut. 28, 29: Mt. Bos. 23, 26. Æt-hrán he ðæs blindan hand he took the hand of the blind [man], Mk. Bos. 8, 23. Hwá gewothte mannes múþ oððe hwá geworhte dumne oððe deáfne and blindne oððe geseóndne quis fecit os hominis aut quis fabricatus est mutum et surdum, cæcum et videntem? Ex. 4, 11: Chr. 1036; Erl. 165, 29; Ælf. Tod. 15. Híg synt blinde, and blindra látteówas: se blinda, gyf he blindne lǽt, híg feallaþ begen on ǽnne pytt cæci sunt, et duces cæcorum: cæcus si cæco ducatum præstet, ambo in foveam cadunt, Mt. Bos. 15, 14: 9, 27: 20, 30: Lk. Bos. 7, 22: Andr. Kmbl. 1162; An. 581. Blinde on geþoncum blind in thoughts, Exon. 24 b; Th. 69, 28; Cri. 1127: Bt. Met. Fox 19, 59; Met. 19, 30. Mæg wód man blindra manna eágan ontýnan numquid dæmonium potest cæcorum oculos aperire? Jn. Bos. 10, 21. Manegum blindum he gesihþe forgeaf cæcis multis donavit visum, Lk. Bos. 7, 21: 4, 18. Ðonne ðú gebeórscype dó, clypa þearfan, and wanhále, and healte, and blinde cum facis convivium, voca pauperes, debiles, claudos, et cæcos, Lk. Bos. 14, 13: Ps. Th. 145, 7. Drihten onleóhteþ ða blindan [MS. blinden] Dominus illuminat cæcos, Ps. Lamb. 145, 8. Eálá ge dysegan and blindan O ye foolish and blind, Mt. Bos. 23, 17, 19, 24. ¶ Blind slite or slyte a blind or inward wound, i.e. a bite, the wound of which does not appear because of the swelling of the part affected; morsus, cujus vulnus non apparet præ tumore partis affectæ, Herb. 4, 12; Lchdm. i. 92, 25. Seó blinde netele or netle the blind or dead nettle; archangelica [lamium album, Lin.], Ælfc. Gl. 43; Som. 64, 51; Wrt. Voc. 31, 61: L. M. 1, 23; Lchdm. ii. 66, 4. Blinda mann a parasite; palpo, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 46, 47. Blinde cweartern a blind or dark prison; cæcus vel tenebrosus carcer :-- Gebrohton hí hine binnan ðam blindan cwearterne they brought him into the dark prison, Homl. Th. i. 416, 28. Engel scínende ðæt blinde cweartern mid leóhte afylde a shining angel filled the dark prison with light, ii. 382, 6. [O. Sax. blind: O. Frs. Dut. O. Dut. Ger. blind: M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. blint, gen. blindes: Goth. blinds: Dan. Swed. blind: Icel. blindr.] DER. hyge-blind, mód-.

blindan is not found, but the Gothic ga-blindyan to blind, exists; so also A. Sax. blendan to blind, q. v.

blind-líce; adv. In a blind manner, BLINDLY, rashly; temere :-- Hú blindlíce monige sprecaþ how blindly [rashly] many speak, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 34, 17.

blind-nes, -ness, -nyss, e; f. BLINDNESS; cæcitas :-- Ðá ge blindnesse bóte forségon when ye renounced the remedy of blindness, Elen. Kmbl. 777; El. 389: Exon. 41 b; Th. 139, 28; Gú. 600. Ofer hyra heortan blindnesse super cæcitate cordis eorum, Mk. Bos. 3, 5: Elen. Kmbl. 597; El. 299. Sende ðé Drihten on ungewitt and blindnysse percutiat te Dominus amentia et cæcitate, Deut. 28, 28.

blinnan; part. blinnende; ic blinne, ðú blinnest, blinst, he blinneþ, blinniþ, blinþ, pl. blinnaþ; p. ic, he blan, blon, blann, blonn, ðú blunne, pl. blunnon; pp. blunnen; v. intrans. [be, linnan to cease] To cease, rest, leave off; cessare, desinere :-- Seó réþnes ðæs stormes wæs blinnende the fierceness of the storm ceased [lit. was ceasing], Bd. 5, 1; S. 614, 9. Blǽd his blinniþ his prosperity ceaseth, Exon. 94 b; Th. 354, 29; Reim. 53. We Dryhten bletsigaþ, ne ðæs blinnaþ áwa to worulde we bless the Lord, nor cease from this for ever, Ps. Th. 113, 25. Seó éhtnes [MS. ehtnysse] blan the persecution ceased, Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 17. Blann [blonn MS. T.] se bysceophád eall geár and ðæs óðres syx mónaþ the bishopric was vacant [lit. rested] all one year and six months of the next, 3, 20; S. 550, 28. Ic nóht ðon ǽr ðære ærninge blon I naught the sooner left off from running, 5, 6; S. 619, 15: Andr. Kmbl. 2532; An. 1267. Ðú wuldres blunne thou forfeitedst glory, 2760; An. 1382. Rómáne blunnon [MS. blunnun] rícsian on Breotene Romani in Brittania regnare cessarunt, Bd. 1, 11; S. 480, 13. Blinn from eorre and forlét hát-heottnisse desine ab ira et derelinque futorem, Ps. Surt. 36, 8. [Chauc. blinne.] DER. a-blinnan, ge-.

blinnende, an; f. [blinnende, part. of blinnan to cease] A ceasing, rest, intermission; cessatio, intermissio :-- Bútan blinnendan without ceasing; sine intermissione, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, note 20. v. blin.

blinnes, blinness, e; f. Rest; cessatio, Som. Ben. Lye. DER. blin, nes.

blinniþ ceases, Exon. 94 b; Th. 354, 29; Reim. 53; 3rd pers. pres. of blinnan.

blió, blioh a colour, hue, complexion, Prov. 23: Bt. Met. Fox 31, 7; Met. 31, 4. v. bleoh.

bliótan for bleóton sacrificed; 3rd pl. p. of blótan to sacrifice :-- Hú ða burhleóde on Cartaina bliótan [= bleóton] men hira godum how the towns-people in Carthage sacrificed men to their gods, Ors. cont. 4, 4; Bos. 11, 32.

blis, bliss, blys, blyss, e; f. [contracted from blíþs, q. v.] I. BLISS, joy, gladness, exultation, pleasure; lætitia, gaudium, exultatio, beatitas :-- Ne seó héhste blis nis on ðám flǽsclícum lustum the highest bliss is not in the fleshly lusts, Bt. 33, 1; Fox 120, 5: Ps. Spl. 29, 6. On heofonum is singal blis in heaven is eternal bliss, Rood Kmbl. 280; Kr. 141: Exon. 18 b; Th. 47, 5; Cri. 750: 48 b; Th. 167, 5; Gú. 1055. Ðanon com ǽrest cristendóm and blis fór Gode and fór worulde whence first came christianity and joy before God and before the world, Chr. 1011; Erl. 146, 22. Ðú eart blis mín tu es exultatio mea, Ps. Spl. 31, 9. Úre bliss on ánum ðé éce standeþ our bliss eternally remaineth in thee alone, Ps. Th. 86, 6. Gehýrde he of hrófe ðære ylcan cyricean upp astígan ðone ylcan blisse song audivit ascendere de tecto ejusdem oratorii idem lætitiæ canticum, Bd. 4, 3; S. 568, 2: Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 32: Andr. Kmbl. 2130; An. 1066. Stefn blisse vox exultationis, Ps. Spl. 117, 15. Þeówiaþ Drihtne on blisse, [and] insteppaþ oððe ingáþ on gesihþe his on blisse servite Domino in lætitia, [et] introite in conspectu ejus in exultatione, Ps. Lamb. 99, 2. Ðis is se dæg ðæne Drihten worhte eádigum to blisse this is the day which the Lord made for joy to the blessed, Menol. Fox 125; Men. 62: Exon. 15 b; Th. 35, 2; Cri. 552. Ðæt bearn bringeþ blisse ðé that infant [Christ] bringeth bliss to thee, Exon. 8 b; Th. 5, 11; Cri. 68: Chr. 975; Erl. 126, 30; Edg. 56. Ðú eart on heofonum blissa beorhtost thou art the brightest of joys in heaven, Hy. 7, 10; Hy. Grn. ii. 287, 10: Exon. 26 a; Th. 77, 15; Cri. 1257. Se burgstede wæs blissum gefylled the city-place was filled with joys, Exon. 52 a; Th. 181, 11; Gú. 1291: 27 b; Th. 82, 31; Cri. 1347. Blissum hrémig exulting in gladness, Elen. Kmbl. 2273; El. 1138: Exon. 48 b; Th. 168, 18; Gú. 1079. II. friendship, kindness, benevolence, grace; comitas, benignitas, benevolentia, gratia :-- Hí me to wendon heora bacu bitere, and heora blisse from they turned their bitter backs on me, and [took] their friendship from [me], Bt. Met. Fox 2, 30; Met. 2, 15. Þurh ðé eorþbúende ealle onfóþ blisse mínre and bletsunge through thee all dwellers upon earth shall receive my grace and blessing, Cd. 84; Th. 105, 30; Gen. 1761: 106; Th. 140, 21; Gen. 2331. [Laym. Orm. blisse.] DER. heáh-blis, -bliss, woruld-.

blisgere, es; m. An incendiary; incendii auctor :-- Blisgeras incendiaries, L. Ath. i. 6; Th. i. 203, note 38. v. blæsere.

blissian, blyssian, blissigan, blissigean; part. blissiende, blissigende; ic blissie, blissige, ðú blissast, he blissaþ, pl. blissiaþ; p. ode, ede, ade; pp. od, ed, ad [blis, bliss bliss, joy]. I. v. intrans. To rejoice, exult, be glad or merry; lætari, gaudere, exultare, ovare :-- Heora láreówas blissigende hám hwurfon doctores eorum domum rediere lætantes, Bd. 3, 30; S. 562, 20. Blissigende [blissiende MS. C.] ovans, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 46. Ic blissige [Spl. blissie] ofer spæce ðínre lætabor ego super eloquia tua, Ps. Lamb. 118, 162. Blissaþ se rihtwísa on Drihtne lætabitur justus in Domino, Ps. Lamb. 63, 11: 57, 11: Andr. Kmbl. 1268; An. 634. Ða ðe ondrǽdaþ ðé, geseóþ me, and hí blissiaþ qui timent te, videbunt me, et lætabuntur, Ps. Lamb. 118, 74: Exon. 26 b; Th. 79, 8; Cri. 1287. Hyge blissode their spirit rejoiced, Andr. Kmbl. 1156; An. 578. Hí on ðon swýðe blissedon they rejoiced very much at that, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 34. Blissiaþ on Drihtne lætamini in Dominio, Ps. Lamb. 31, 11. Blyssiaþ mid me rejoice with me, Lk. Bos. 15, 9. Blissie [Lamb. blissige] heorte sécendra Drihten lætetur cor quærentium Dominum, Ps. Spl. 104, 3. Blissian [blissien, Th. 66, 4] and fægnian híg þeóda lætentur et exultent gentes, Ps. Lamb. 66, 5. Ðæt hí blission mid Criste that they rejoice with Christ, Chr. 1036; Erl. 165, 17; Ælf. Tod. 9. II. v. trans. dat. or acc. To make to rejoice, to gladden, delight, exhilarate; lætificare :-- Sum sceal on heápe blissian æt beór bencsittendum one shall in company delight the bench-sitters at beer, Exon. 88 a; Th. 331, 34; Vy. 78. Ðá se hálga ongann hæleþ blissigean then the saint began to gladden the man, Andr. Kmbl. 3213; An. 1609. Ðú, God, eallum blissast thou, O God, makest all to rejoice, Hy. 7. 34; Hy. Grn. ii. 287, 34. Heortan manna wíndrinc blissaþ vinum lætificet cor hominis, Ps. Th. 103, 14. He sárig folc blissade he gladdened the sorrowful people, Ps. Th. l06, 32. Hyge wearþ mongum blissad the mind of many was made to rejoice, Exon. 24 b; Th. 71, 71, 30; Cri. 1163. [Laym. blissien: Orm. blissen.] DER. ge-blissian: mód-blissiende.

blissung, blisung, e; f. [blis, bliss exultatio] A triumphing, exultation; exultatio: Blisunga beorgas beóþ ymbgyrde exultatione colles accingentur, Ps. Spl. 64, 13. DER. ge-blissung.

blíð = blíðe sweet, pleasant; suavis, amœnus :-- Ðis ofet is swéte, blíð on breóstum this fruit is sweet, pleasant in the stomach, Cd. 30; Th. 41, 13; Gen. 656.

BLÍÐE; comp. blíðra; superl. blíðost; def. se blíða, seó, ðæt blíðe; adj. I. joyful, glad, merry, cheerful, pleasant, BLITHE; lætus, hilaris :-- Beó blíðe, ðú góda þeów be joyful, thou good servant, Mt. Bos. 25, 21. Wæs Iethro blíðe for eallum ðám þingum, ðe Drihten dyde Israhéla folce Jethro was glad for all the things, which the Lord did for the people of Israel, Ex. 18, 9. Wæs engla þreát hleahtre bríðe geworden the host of angels became merry with laughter, Exon. 18 b; Th. 46, 19; Cri. 739: 20 b; Th. 55, 3; Cri. 878: Cd. 178; Th. 223, 10; Dan. 117. Wæs se blíða gǽst fús on forþweg the blithe spirit was eager for departure, Exon. 46 b; Th, 158, 30; Gú. 917. He bæd hine blíðne beón æt ðære beórþege he bade him be merry at the beer-drinking, Beo. Th. 1238; B. 617: Menol. Fox 193; Men. 98. Dó ðínes scealces sáwle bríðe lætifica animam servi tui, Ps. Th. 85, 3. Mid ðás blíðan gedryht [MS. gedryt] with this joyful host, Exon. 15 a; Th. 33, 2; Cri. 519. Ic God bletsige blíðe móde I will bless God with a joyful mind, 41 b; Th. 138, 23; Gú. 580: Ps. Th. 54, 11: 65, 7: Rood Kmbl. 242; Kr. 122. Wígan wǽron blíðe the warriors were blithe, Elen. Kmbl. 492; El. 246: Cd. 171; Th. 215, 12; Exod. 582: Ps. Th. 52, 8: 106, 41. Cyning wæs ðý blíðra the king was the blither, Elen. Kmbl. 192; El. 96: Bt. Met. Fox 9, 63; Met. 9, 32: Byrht. Th. 136, 5; By. 146. Híg blíðost [blíðust MS.] wǽron they were most merry, Jud. 16, 25. II. gentle, kind, friendly, clement, mild, sweet; mansuetus, benignus, comis, clemens, mitis, suavis :-- Him biþ engla Weard milde and blíðe the Lord of angels will be mild and gentle to them, Elen. Kmbl. 2631; El. 1317: Ps. Th. 118, 98: Beo. Th. 877; B. 436. Eallum is úre Drihten milde and blíðe suavis Dominus universis, Ps. Th. 144, 9: 66, 6. Wese us beorhtnes ofer blíðan Drihtnes úres let the beauty [brightness] of our gentle Lord be over us, 89, 19. Weorc ánra gehwæs beorhte blíceþ in ðam blíðan hám the works of every one shall brightly shine in that sweet home, Exon. 64 b; Th. 238, 5; Ph. 599. Fæder ongon, þurh blíðne geþoht, his bearn lǽran a father began, through kind thought, to teach his son, Exon. 80 b; Th. 302, 30; Fä. 44: Andr. Kmbl. 1941; An. 973: Ps. Th. 102, 19. Utan us biddan ðone blíðan gǽst ðæt he us gescilde, wið sceáðan wǽpnum let us pray the kind spirit [i.e. the Holy Ghost] that he shield us against the spoiler's weapons, Exon. 19 a; Th. 48, 20; Cri. 774. Blíðe móde with gentle mind, Ps. Th. 89, 18: Exon. 121 b; Th. 467, 5; Hö. 134. Hý wǽron blíðe wið me on heora gebǽrum, and on heora móde hí blissedon on mínum ungelimpe they were friendly with me in their manner, and in their mind they rejoiced for my misfortune, Ps. Th. 34, 15. Swylce habban sceal blíðe gebǽro such shall have gentle demeanour, Exon. 115 b; Th. 444, 8; Kl. 44. Hý se æðeling grétte blíðum wordum the chieftain greeted her with kind words, 68 a; Th. 252, 19; Jul. 165. III. quiet, calm, peaceful; tranquillus, placidus :-- Léton ðone hálgan swefan on sibbe under swegles hleó, blíðne bídan they left the saint sleeping in peace, calm abiding under the vault of heaven, Andr. Kmbl. 1665; An. 835. Ðæt he smylte móde and blíðe him eall forlét quod ille placida mente dimitteret, Bd. 3, 22; S. 553, 21. Ða ýða swýgiaþ, blíðe weorþaþ the waves grow silent, become calm, Ps. Th. 106, 28. [Chauc. R. Glouc. blithe: Laym. blíðe, bliðen: Orm. bliþe: O. Sax. blíði: North Frs. blid: O. Frs. blide in blid-skip joy: Dut. blijde: M. H. Ger. blíde: O. H. Ger. blídi: Goth. bleiþs: Dan. Swed. blid: Icel. blíðr.] DER. hyge-blíðe, ofer-, un-.

blíðe; adv. I. joyfully, gladly; læte :-- Bletsa, míne sáwle, blíðe, Drihten bless the Lord joyfully, O my soul, Ps. Th. 102, 1: Exon. 44 a; Th. 149, 9; Gú. 759. II. kindly, mildly; benigne, clementer :-- Ðú me, milde and blíðe, þurh ysopon ahluttra asperges me hyssopo, Ps. C. 50, 72; Ps. Grn. ii. 278, 72. Ps. Th. 54. 17.

blíðe-heortnys, -nyss, e; f. Merry-heartedness; lætitia, mansuetudo. DER. blíðe, heorte, -nes.

blíðe-líce; comp. -lícor; adv. Gladly, joyfully, BLITHELY, merrily; læte, hilariter :-- He hine blíðelíce onféng he received him joyfully, Lk. Bos. 19, 6: Gen. 46, 30. Ge mágon blíðelíce hlihhan potestis hilariter ridere, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 62, 28. Ðæt he ðý blíðelícor þrówode that he the more gladly might suffer, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 42.

blíðe-mód; adj. Blithe, of mind, glad, cheerful; lætus animo, lætus, hilaris :-- Wæs á blíðemód bealuleás cyning [MS. kyng], ðeáh he lang ǽr, lande bereáfod, wunode wræclástum the innocent king was ever blithe of mind [cheerful], though he long before, bereft of land, dwelt in exile, Chr. 1065; Erl. 196, 34; Edw. 15: Cd. 72; Th. 88, 21; Gen. 1468: 86; Th. 108, 2; Gen. 1800: 210; Th. 260, 21; Dan. 713. Hyssas wǽron blíðenmóde the youths were cheerful [blithe of mind], 186; Th. 231, 26; Dan. 253.

blíð-heort; adj. I. BLITHE of HEART, merry, joyful; lætus corde, hilaris :-- Hrefn blaca, blíðheort, bodode cuman beorhte sunnan the black raven, blithe of heart [merry], foretold, the coming of the bright sun, Beo. Th. 3608; B. 1802: Andr. Kmbl. 2526; An. 1264. Gefégon beornas, blíðheorte, burhweardes cyme the men, blithe of heart, rejoiced in the coming of the prince [lit. the city-guardian], Andr. Kmbl. 1319; An. 660. II. kind of heart, merciful; benignus corde, misericors :-- Gebletsode blíðheort Cyning, Metod alwihta, wíf and wǽpned the merciful King, Lord of all things, blessed female and male, Cd. 10; Th. 12, 28; Gen. 192.

blíð-nes, -ness, -nyss, e; f. Joyfulness, enjgyment, a leaping for joy, exultation, mirth; gaudium, exultatio, hilaritas :-- Gif ðú nú atelan wilt ealle ða blíðnessa wið ðám unrótnessum if thou wilt now reckon all the enjoyments against the sorrows, Bt. 8; Fox 24, 22. On blíðnysse in exultatione, Ps. Spl. 99, 2. Blíðnysse líf vita hilaritatis, Lchdm. iii. 212, 1.

blíþs, blíds, e; f. Joy, gladness; lætitia :-- Liódum to blíþse to the gladness of the people, Ps. C. 50, 118; Ps. Grn. ii. 279-,118. Sæle blídse me give me joy, 50, 99; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 99. [O. Sax. blídsea, f.] DER. blíðe. v. blis.

blíþsian; p. ode; pp. od To rejoice, be glad, blithe, merry; lætari :-- Hí tó swíðe blíþsodon they rejoiced too much, Past. 50, 2; Hat. MS. Blíþsa, cniht on ðínum gióguþháde rejoice, young man, in thy youth, 49, 5; Hat. MS. [O. Sax. blídsean: Ger. blitzen exsilire gaudio: O. H. Ger. blídén.] DER. blíþs.

blíðust very merry, Jud. 16, 25, = blíðost; superl. of blíðe, adj.

BLÓD, es; n. BLOOD, gore; sanguis, cruor :-- Ðæt blód eów byþ to tácne on ðám húsum, ðe ge on beóþ: ðonne ic ðæt blód geseó, ðonne forbúge ic eów erit sanguis vobis in signum in ædibus, in quibus eritis, et videbo sanguinem et transibo vos, Ex. 12, 13: Gen. 4, 10: Jn. Bos. 6, 55: Mt. Bos. 16, 17. Wæs ðæt blód hát the blood was hot, Beo. Th. 3237; B. 1616: 3339; B. 1667: Cd. 9; Th. 12, 6; Gen. 181: Exon. 116 b; Th. 447, 15; Dóm. 40: Andr. Kmbl. 1907; An. 956. His swát wæs swylce blódes dropan est sudor ejus sicut guttæ sanguinis, Lk. Bos. 22, 44: Mt. Bos. 27, 6, 8: Gen. 4, 11: Exon. 21 b; Th. 58, 15; Cri. 936. Lá hwilc nýtwyrþnes on mínum blóde quæ utilitas in sanguine meo? Ps. Lamb. 29, 10: Lk. Bos. 22, 20: Beo. Th. 1698; B. 847. Hit biþ geworden to blóde vertetur in sanguinem, Ex. 4, 9: 7, 17: 29, 21. Swá hwá swá agít mannes blód, his blód biþ agoten quicumque effuderit humanum sanguinem, fundetur sanguis illius, Gen. 9, 6: Ps. Lamb. 13, 3: 49, 13: Andr. Kmbl. 46; An. 23. Gebletsode Romulus mid his bróðor blóde ðone weall, and mid ðara sweora blóde ða cyrican, and mid his eámes blóde ðæt ríce Romulus blessed [consecrated] the wall [of Rome] with his brother's blood, the temples with the blood of their fathers-in-law, and the kingdom with his uncles blood, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 41, 5-7. Meotud ðé gebohte blóde ðý hálgan the Lord bought thee with his holy blood, Exon. 98 a; Th. 368, 26; Seel. 30: Rood Kmbl. 96; Kr. 48. Blóde fáh stained with blood, Beo. Th. 1873; B. 934: 3192; B. 1594: 5940; B. 2974. Begleddod is eorþe on blódum infecia est terra in sanguinibus, Ps. Spl. 105, 36. Deád blód clotted blood, gore; cruor, Wrt. Voc. 283, 79. [Chauc. blod: Wyc. blood: Laym. Orm. blod: Scot. bloud: Plat. blod, n: O. Sax. blód, n: Frs. bloed, n: North Frs. blot, blöt, n: O. Frs. blod, n: Dut. O. Dut. bloed, n: Ger. blut, n: M. H. Ger. bluot, n: O. H. Ger. bluot, n: Goth. bloþ, n: Dan. Swed. blod, n: Icel. blóð, n.] DER. blód-dolg, -egesa, -fág, -geóte, -gíta, -gýte, -hreów, -hreówa, -lǽtan, -lǽtere, -leás, -reád, -reów, -ryne, -seax, -seten, -siht, -spíwing, -wyrt, -yrnende: blódig, -tóþ: blódeg: blódegian, ge-.

blód-dolg, es; n. A bloody wound; cruentum vulnus. DER. blód, dolg, q. v.

blód-dryncas; pl. m. Blood-sheddings, blood-shed; sanguinis effluvium :-- Seó eorþbeofung tácnade ða miclan blóddryncas the earthquake betokened the great blood-sheddings, Ors. 4, 2; Bos. 79, 29.

blód-egesa, an; m. [egesa, egsa fear, terror] Bloody horror; cruentus terror :-- Brim berstende blódegesan hweóp the bursting sea threatened bloody horrors, Cd. 166; Th. 208, 3; Exod. 477.

blódegian; p. ode; pp. od [blódig bloody] To make bloody; cruentare. DER. ge-blódegian.

blódes flównyss, e; f. A bloody flux, flowing of blood; sanguinis fluxus :-- Ðæt wíf wæs þrówiende blódes flównysse mulier fluxum patiebatur sanguinis, Bd. 1, 27; S. 494, 4. v. blód-yrnende, flównes.

blód-fág; adj. [fág tinctus] Stained with blood; sanguine tinctus :-- Is me bánhús blódfág my body [lit. bone-house] is stained with blood, Andr. Kmbl. 2809; An. 1407: Beo. Th. 4127; B. 2060.

blód-forlǽtan; p. -forlét, pl. -forléton; pp. -forlǽten To let blood, bleed; sanguinem emittere, phlebotomare :-- Ðæt heó niwan blódforlǽten wǽre on earme that she had been lately bled in the arm; quia phlebotomata est nuper in brachio, Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 4.

blód-geótan to pour out or shed blood; sanguinem effundere. DER. blód, geótan.

blód-geóte, es; m. Blood-shedding, a shedding of blood; sanguinis effusio :-- Be blódgeóte of blood-shedding, L. Edm. S. 4; Th. i. 248, 22, 24. v. blód-gýte.

blód-geótende; part. Shedding blood, blood-thirsty; sanguinem effundens, sanguinolentus :-- Weras blódgeótende viri sanguinum, Ps. Spl. 54, 27.

blód-gíta, an; m. A shedder of blood; sanguinis effusor :-- Ðæne wer, ðe is blódgíta, gehiscþ Drihten the Lord hates the man who is a blood-shedder, Ps. Lamb. 5, 8.

blód-gýte, es; m. [blód, gýte a flowing, from gýt flows out, pres. of geótan]. I. a flowing or running of blood; sanguinis profluvium :-- Gif men blód út of nósum yrne tó swíðe, syle him drincan fífleáfan on wíne, and smyre ðæt heáfod mid ðam; ðonne óþstandeþ se blódgýte sóna if blood run from a man out of his nostrils too much, give him to drink fiveleaf in wine, and smear the head with it; then the blood-running will soon staunch, Herb. 3, 5; Lchdm. i. 88, 8-10. II. a blood-shedding, bloodshed; sanguinis effusio :-- Ðǽr wæs se mǽsta blódgýte there was the greatest bloodshed, Ors. 4, 2; Bos. 79, 26. Wǽron ða mǽstan blódgýtas there were the greatest blood-sheddings, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 67, 31. Bútan blódgýte without bloodshed, Bd. 1, 3; S. 475, 11.

blód-hrǽcan; p. te; pp. ed To retch or spit blood; sanguinem excreare. DER. blód, hrǽcan to retch.

blód-hrǽce, es; m. A spitting of blood; sanguinis excreatio. v. blód, hrǽce.

blód-hreów; def. se blóð-hreówa; adj. [hreów cruel] Blood-thirsty, cruel; sanguinolentus, crudelis :-- Me wið blódhreówes weres bealuwe gehǽle save me from the wickedness of the blood-thirsty man, Ps. Th. 58, 2. Blódhreówe weras ge bebúgaþ me viri sanguinum declinate a me, 138, 17. Se blódhreówa wer sanguinum vir, Ps. Grn. 54, 24; Ps. Grn. ii. 153, 24.

blódig; def. se blódiga, seó, ðæt blódige; adj. BLOODY; sanguineus, cruentus :-- Ne sý him bánes bryce, ne blódig wund let there not be to him a breaking of bone, nor a bloody wound, Exon. 42 b; Th. 143, 33; Gú. 670: Andr. Kmbl. 2945; An. 1475. Se bræd of ðæm beorne blódigne gár he plucked the bloody dart from the chief, Byrht. Th. 136, 21; By. 154. Geseoh nú swá ðín swát ageát, blódige stíge behold now where thy blood poured forth, a bloody path, Andr. Kmbl. 2883; An. 1444. He byreþ blódig wæl he will bear off my bloody corpse, Beo. Th. 900; B. 448. He his mǽg ofscét blódigan gáre he shot his kinsman with a bloody arrow, 4872; B. 2440. Ealle him brimu blódige þuhton all the waters seemed bloody to them, Cd. 170; Th. 214, 20; Exod. 572. Ða hwettaþ hyra blódigan téþ who whet their bloody teeth, L. E. I. prm; Th. ii. 396, 6. Blódigum teárum with bloody tears, Exon. 25 a; Th. 72, 20; Cri. 1175. Blódig útsiht a dysentery; dysenteria, Ælfc. Gl. 11; Som. 57, 51; Wrt. Voc. 19, 53. [O. Sax. blódag: O. Frs. blodich: Dut. bloedig: Ger. blutig: M. H. Ger. bluotec: O. H. Ger. blótag: Dan. Swed. blodig: Icel. blóðigr.] DER. ge-blódegian.

blódig-tóþ; adj. Bloody-tooted, cruel; cruentus dentibus, crudelis :-- Bona blódigtóþ the bloody-toothed murderer, Beo. Th. 4170; B. 2082.

blód-læswu, e; f. A blood-letting; sanguinis emissio :-- Frægn se bisceop hwonne hire blódlæswu ǽrest wǽre the bishop asked when was first her blood-letting, Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 12, 15. On ðære blódlæswe in the blood-letting, 5, 3; S. 616, 5.

blód-lǽtan; p. -lét, pl. -léton; pp. -lǽten To let blood, bleed; sanguinem emittere, phlebotomare :-- Blódlǽtan móna gód ys it is a good moon for letting blood, Lchdm. iii. 184, 11: Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 14.

blód-lǽtere, es; m. A blood letter; phlebotomarius, Ælfc. Gl. 17; Som. 58, 93; Wrt. Voc. 22, 10.

blód-leás; adj. BLOODLESS; exsanguis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 58.

blód-mónaþ 'blood-month,' i.e. November. v. blót-mónaþ.

blód-reád; adj. BLOOD-RED; sanguineus :-- Ðæt þridde cyn ys sanguineus, ðæt is blódreád the third sort is sanguineus, that is blood-red, Herb. 131, 1; Lchdm. i. 242, 16.

blód-reów; adj. Sanguinary; sanguinolentus :-- Breóst-hord blódreów a sanguinary heart [lit. breast-hoard or treasure], Beo. Th. 3442; B. 1719.

blód-ryne, es; m. [ryne a running, course] A running of blood, an issue; sanguinis fluxus :-- Án wíf þolode blódryne twelf geár mulier sanguinis fluxum patiebatur duodecim annis, Mt. Bos. 9, 20. On blódryne in fluxu sanguinis, Lk. Bos. 8, 43.

blód-seax, blód-sex, es; n. A blood-knife, a lancet; phlebotomus = φλεβoτόμoν, Ælfc. Gl. 17; Som. 58, 91; Wrt. Voc. 22, 9. v. ǽder-seax.

blód-setenn, e; f. [blód blood, setenn from seten, pp. of sittan to sit, stop] The stoppage of blood; sanguinis profluentis restrictio. v. sittan.

blód-siht, e; f. Allowing of blood; sanguinis profluvium. DER. blód blood, siht a flowing, flux.

blód-spíwing a spewing of blood. v. blót-spíung.

blód-wanian; p. ode; pp. od [wanian to diminish] To diminish blood; sanguinem minuere :-- Nys ná gód móna blódwanian it is not a good moon for diminishing blood, Lchdm. iii. 184, 16.

blód-wíte, es; n. [blód, wíte mulcta] Blood; sanguis :-- Ná ic gegadrige gesamnunga heora of blódum oððe of blódwítum non congregabo conventicula eorum de sanguinibus, Ps. Lamb. 15, 4.

blód-wyrt, e; f. BLOODWORT or bloody-dock from its red veins and stems; rumex sanguineus, Lin. v. wyrt.

blód-yrnende; part. [blód, yrnende, part. of yrnan to run, flow] Blood-flowing; sanguinans, sanguine fluens :-- Ðæt wíf blódyrnende þrówaþ the blood-flowing woman suffereth [was suffering], Bd. 1, 27; S. 494, note 8, B. v. blódes flównyss.

BLÓMA, an; m. [blów+am+a, Ettm. 314] Metal, the metal taken from the ore, Wrt. Voc. 34, note 1: a mass; metallum, massa = μâζα that which adheres together like dough, Wht. Dict :-- Ísenes blóma a mass of iron; ferii massa, Som: Cot. 135. Blóma oððe dáh massa, Wrt. Voc. 85, 16; Lye says truly, referring to this quotation,-'Inter ea quæ pertinent ad metalla.' Blóma is contained in one of our oldest glossaries :-- Dáh [MS. dað] vel blóma massa, Ælfc. Gl. 51; Som. 66, 9; Wrt. Voc. 34, 68. Also in a Semi-Saxon glossary of the 12th century,-Blóma vel dáh massa, Wrt. Voc. 94, 63. DER. gold-blóma.

blon, blonn ceased; cessavit, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 15: 3, 20; S. 550, note 27; p. of blinnan.

blonca, an; m. A grey horse; equus albus :-- Beornas and bloncan mid warriors and their grey horses with them, Exon. 106 a; Th. 405, 5; Rä. 23, 18. v. blanca.

blondan to mix, blend, mingle; miscere. DER. ge-bloncan. v. blandan.

blonden-feax; part. Having mixed hair; comam mixtam habens, Cd. 107; Th. 141, 7; Gen. 2341: 123; Th. 157, 5; Gen. 2600: Beo. Th. 3586; B. 1791: 5916; B. 2962: 3750; B. 1873: 3193, B. 1594. v. blanden-feax.

blóstm, es; m: e; f ? A blossom, flower; flos :-- Blóstm flos, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 65, 10; Wrt. Voc. 33, 9. Blóstma hiwum in hues of flowers, Exon. 94 a; Th. 352, 32; Reim. 4. v. blóstma.

BLÓSTMA, blósma, an; m. [= blóstm a blossom] A BLOSSOM, bloom, flower; flos :-- Swá swá blósma ǽceres swá he blóweþ tamquam flos agri sic efflorebit, Ps. Lamb. 102, 15. Ofer hine scír cymeþ mínra [minre MS.] sóþfæst blóstma super ipsum florebit sanctificatio mea, Ps. Th. 131, 19. Ðeáh ðe lílie sý beorht on blóstman, ic eom betre ðonne heó though the lily be bright in its blossom, I am better than it, Exon. 110 b; Th. 423, 26; Rä. 41, 28: Ps. Th. 102, 14. Ne feallaþ on foldan fealwe blóstman the fallow blossoms fall not on earth, Exon. 57 a; Th. 202, 24; Ph. 74. Ic geseah ðone fægrestan feld full grówendra blóstma I saw the most beautiful field full of growing flowers, Bd. 5, 12; S. 629, 20. Ellenes blósman genim take blossoms of elder, L. M. 2, 59; Lchdm. ii. 288, 2. Ic geseah ðǽr on weaxende blósman litlum and litlum, and æfter ðám blósmum wínberigean I saw blossoms growing thereon by little and little, and after the blossoms grapes [lit. wine-berries], Gen. 40, 10. He dysegaþ se ðe wintregum wederum wile blósman [Cot. blostman] sécan he is foolish who will seek flowers in wintry weather, Bt. 5, 2; Fox 10, 32. Ðænne wangas blóstmum blówaþ then [i.e. in summer] the fields bloom with flowers, Menol. Fox 179; Men. 91: Exon. 82 a; Th. 308, 31; Seef. 48. [Tynd. blossom: Chauc. Piers P. blosme: Orm. blostme: Dut. bloesem, m: O. Dut. blosem, Kil: Dan. blomst, c: Swed. blomster, n: Icel. blómstr, m.]

blóstm-bǽrende; part. [blóstm, bǽran to bear] Blossom-bearing; florifer :-- Seó blóstmbǽrende stów is seó stów on ðære beóþ onfangene sóþfæstra sáula the blossom-bearing place is the place to which are taken the souls of the righteous, Bd. 5, 12; S. 630, 14.

blóstmian; part. blóstmiende; p. ode; pp. od To BLOSSOM, blow; efflorere :-- Seó beorhtnes ðæs blóstmiendan feldes wæs gesewen the brightness of the blossoming field was seen, Bd. 5, 12; S. 629, 38.

BLÓT, es; n. A sacrifice; sacrificium :-- He ealle ða cuman to blóte gedyde he gave all the strangers for a sacrifice, Ors. 1, 8; Bos. 31, 4. On blóte by sacrifice, L. C. S. 5; Th. i. 378, 21. [Icel. blót, n.] DER. ge-blót: blótan: blót-mónaþ.

blót = blód blood; sanguis. v. blót-spíung.

blótan, ic blóte, ðú blótest, blétst, he blóteþ, blét, pl. blótaþ; p. ic, he bleót, ðú bleóte, pl. bleóton; pp. blóten; v. a. [blót a sacrifice] To sacrifice, to kill for a sacrifice; immolare, sacrificare :-- Ðæt hí hiora godum ðe ýð blótan meahton that they might the more easily sacrifice to their gods, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 40, 37: 4, 4; Bos. 80, 39: 5, 2; Bos. 102, 16. Ongunnon heora bearn blótan feóndum immolaverunt filios suos dæmoniis, Ps. Th. 105, 27: Cd. 138; Th. 173, 5; Gen. 2856. Úre yldran on ðam mónþe bleóton á our forefathers always sacrificed in this month, Hick. Thes. i. 219, 57. Ða burhleóde on Cartaina bleóton [bliotan MS.] men hira godum the inhabitants of Carthage sacrificed men to their gods, Ors. cont. 4, 4; Bos. 11, 32. Ðæt hine mon ǽnigum godum blóte that a man sacrifice him to any gods, Ors. 1, 8; Bos. 31, 11. Ðæt hí ða git swíðor blótten, ðonne hie ǽr dydon that they should sacrifice still more than they had done before, 4, 4; Bos. 80, 18. [M. H. Ger. bluoten: O. H. Ger. blozan, ploazzan, plozan: Goth. blotan: O. Dan. blothe: Swed. blota: Icel. blóta sacrificare.] DER. a-blótan, on-.

blót-mónaþ, es; m. [blót a sacrifice, mónaþ month] November, the month of sacrifice, so called because at this season the heathen Saxons made a provision for winter, and offered in sacrifice many of the animals they then killed. In an account of the Saxon months, it is thus described :-- Se mónaþ is nemned on Léden Novembris, and on úre geþeóde blótmónaþ, forðon úre yldran, ðá hý hǽðene wǽron, on ðam mónþe hý bleóton á, ðæt is, ðæt hý betǽhton and benémdon hyra deófolgyldum ða neát ða ðe hý woldon syllan this month is called Novembris in Latin,, and in our language the month of sacrifice, because our forefathers, when they were heathens, always sacrificed in this month, that is, that they took and devoted to their idols the cattle which they wished to offer, Hick. Thes. i. 259, 56-58: Menol. Fox 387; Men. 195.

blót-spíung, e; f. [blót = blód blood, spíwing spewing] A throwing up of blood; hæmoptois, Ælfc. Gl. 10; Som. 57, 33; Wrt. Voc. 19, 38.

blótung, e; f. A sacrificing, sacrifice; sacrificium, immolatio :-- Þurh heora blótunge per eorum sacrificium, Ors. 3, 3; Bos. 55, 33. v. blót.

BLÓWAN; part. blówende; ic blówe, ðú blówest, bléwst, he blóweþ, bléwþ, pl. blówaþ; p. ic, he bleów, ðú bleówe, pl. bleówon; pp. blówen; v. n. 1. to BLOW, flourish, bloom, blossom; florere, efflorere, reflorere :-- Wudu sceal blǽdum blówan the wood shall blow with flowers, Menol. Fox 527; Gn. C. 34: Exon. 109 a; Th. 417, 6; Rä. 35, 9. Wæs Aarones gyrd gemétt blówende and berende hnyte Aaron's rod was found blossoming and bearing nuts, Homl. Th. ii. 8, 15. Ic eom bearu blówende I am a blooming grove, Exon. 108 a; Th. 412, 22; Rä. 31, 4. Ic blówe floreo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 2; Som. 28, 44. Swá swá blósma æceres swá he blóweþ [bléwþ, Spl.] tamquam flos agri sic efflorebit, Ps. Lamb. 102, 15. Hió gréwþ and bléwþ and westmas bringþ it grows and blossoms and produces fruits, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 6. Se rihtwísa swá palmtreów bléwþ justus ut palma florebit, Ps. Lamb. 91, 13. Híg blówaþ swá swá gærs eorþan florebunt sicut fœnum terræ, 71, 16. Aarones gyrd greów and bleów and bær hnyte Aaron's rod grew and blossomed and bare nuts, Homl. Th. ii. 8, 18. Bleów flǽsc mín refloruit caro mea, Ps. Lamb. 27, 7. Ǽr ðon eówre treówu telgum blówen [MS. blówe] ere your trees flourish with branches, Ps. Th. 57, 8. 2. blówan to blossom, is sometimes used in Anglo-Saxon instead of bláwan to blow; and thus, blówan was occasionally used by the Anglo-Saxons as the present English to blow. We say to blow as the wind, and to blow or blossom as a flower. v. bláwan. [Wyc. R. Glouc. blowe: Laym. blowen: O. Sax. blójan: Frs. bloeyen: North Frs. blöye: O. Frs. bloia: Dut. bloeijen: Ger. blühen: M. H. Ger. blüejen, blüen, bluon: O. H. Ger. bluohan, bluojan, bluon: Lat. florere: Grk. φλέω, φλoίω to be in full vigour or bloom: Sansk. phal to burst, blossom.] DER. geblówan.

blunne, pl. blunnon; pp. blunnen hast been deprived, ceased, rested, Andr. Kmbl. 2760; An. 1382: Bd. 1, 11; S. 480, 13; p. and pp. of blinnan.

blysa, blisa, an; m. A torch; fax :-- Ðes blisa [blysa, D.] hæc fax, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 59; Som. 13, 37.

blysiere, es; m. An incendiary; incendii auctor :-- Blysieras incendiaries, L. Ath. i. 6; Th. i. 202, 19. v. blæsere.

blysige, an; f. A torch; fax :-- þæcile, blysige fax, Wrt. Voc. 284, 20. v. þæcele.

blyssian to rejoice, Lk. Bos. 15, 9. v. blissian.

both; ambo, Ps. Th. 103, 9; nom. pl. = bú, bá. v. begen.

BÓC, e; f: bóc-treów, es; n: bócce, beóce, béce, bǽce, an; f. A beech-tree; fagus silvatica, fagus = φηγόs, æsculus :-- Bóc fagus; bóc æsculus, Ælfc. Gl. 45; Som. 64, 99, 100. [Plat. book, böke, f: Dut. beuk, beuke, f: Kil. boecke, buecke: Ger. buche, f: Icel. bók, f: Lat. fāgus, f. = Grk. φηγόs, f.] DER. bóc-scyld, -treów, -wudu.

bóc; g. bóce? béc; d. béc; acc. bóc; pl. nom. acc. béc; g. bóca; d. bócum, bócan; f. I. a BOOK; liber :-- Seó bóc is on Englisc awend the book is turned into English, Homl. Th. ii. 358, 30. On fórewerd ðære bóce [MS. bóc] oððe on heáfde bǽc awriten is be me in capite libri scriptum est de me, Ps. Lamb. 39, 9. On fórewardre ðyssere béc ys awriten be me, ðæt ic sceolde ðínne willan wyrcan, Ps. Th. 39, 8; in the hed of the boc it is write of me, that I do thi wil, Wyc. Ic wrát bóc I wrote a book, Bd. 5, 23; S. 648, note 37. Adilga me of ðínre béc dele me de libro tuo, Ex. 32, 32, 33. Swá he ða bóc unfeóld so he unfolded the book, Lk. Bos. 4, 17, 20: Deut. 31, 26. Ða béc befón to contain the books; capere libros, Jn. Bos. 21, 25. On ðæra cininga bócum in the kings' books, Ælfc. T. Lisle 21, 1: 23, 19: 40, 4. On ðære béc in this book, 24, 25. Bóca bedǽled deprived of books, 2, 3. On fíf béc in five books, Bd. 5, 23; S. 648, 31. Ðis is seó bóc Adames mǽgrace hic est liber generationis Adam, Gen. 5, 1: Mt. Bos. 5, 31. Feówer Cristes béc four books of Christ, the four gospels, Ælfc. T. Lisle 24, 22. Bóca streón a treasury of books, a library, Bd. 5, 21; Whelc. 451, 30, MS. C. II. a charter; charta = χάρτηs, m :-- Ðis is seó bóc, ðe Æðelstán cing gebócode Friþestáne bisceope this is the charter, which king Æthelstan chartered to bishop Frithestane, Th. Diplm. A. D. 938; 187, 18. Heó cýðáþ on ðisse béc they declare by this charter, Th. Diplm. A. D. 886-899; 137, 12. Ic him sealde ðæt lond on éce erfe, and ða béc I gave him the land in perpetual heritage, and the charters, Th. Diplm. A. D. 872-915; 168, 10. 2. for the books which a priest ought to possess, v. mæsse-preóst, 2; for his canonical hours, v. 3. [Chauc. booke: Laym. boc, bac, f: Orm. boc: Plat. book, n: O. Sax. bók, n. f: Frs. bok, f; boek, n: O. Frs. bok, f. n: Dut. boek, n: Ger. buch, n: M. H. Ger. buoch, n: O. H. Ger. bóh, n: Goth. boka, f: Dan. bog, c: Swed. bok, f: Icel. bók, f: O. Slav. bukva, f. All these words have evidently the same origin. Wormius, Saxo, Junius, ete. suppose that as bóc denotes a beech-tree, as well as a book, in the latter case it was used in reference to the material from which the Northern nations first made their books. Wormius infers, that pieces of wood, cut from the beech-tree, were the ancient Northern books, Lit. Run. p. 6. Saxo Grammaticus states, that Fengo's ambassadors took with them letters engraved in wood [literas ligno insculptas], because that was formerly a celebrated material to write upon, Lib. iii. p. 52; Turner's Hist. App. b. ii. ch. 4, n. 25, vol. i. p. 238. Thus the Latin liber, and Greek βίβλos a book, took their origin from the materials of which books were made. Liber originally signified the inner bark of a tree, and βίεos or βύβλos, an Egyptian plant [Cyperus papyrus, Lin.], which, when divided into lamina and formed into sheets to write upon, was called παπυρos, hence papyrus paper. Martinius, Stiernhielmius, Wachter, Adelung, etc. rather derive buch, bóc, etc. from bügen to bend or fold in plaits, referring to the folded leaves of the parchment. Thus distinguishing these books from their folds. The ancient volumina were denominated from being in rolls, or rolled in the form of cylinders. At the Council of Toledo, in the 8th century, a book was denominated complicamentum, that which is folded. In still earlier times, even one fold of parchment was denominated a book, and Ker. calls a letter puah, and Not. brïef puoch, lit. a letter book.] DER. ǽ-béc, ǽrend-bóc, bigspell-, bletsing-; Cristes bóc; dóm-, fór-, gódspell-, hand-, land-, mæsse-, pistol-, rǽding-, sang-, scrift-, síþ-, spel-, traht-, wís-: bóc-æceras, -cest, -cræft, -cræftig, -ere, -fel, -gestreón, -hord, -hús, -ian, -land, -lár, -leaf, -léden, -líc, -rǽdere, -rǽding, -reád, -riht, -scamel, -stæf, -tǽcing, -talu, -ung.

bóc, pl. bócon baked; coxit, coxerunt, Ex. 12, 39; p. of bacan.

bóc-æceras, pl. m. Booked acres, book-land, freehold. v. bóc-land.

bócan = bócum for books, L. Eth. vi. 51; Th. i. 328, 8; dat. pl. of bóc.

bóca streón a place for books, library; bibliotheca, Bd. 5, 21; Whelc. 451, 30, MS. C.

bócce, beóce, béce, bǽce, an; f. A beech-tree; fagus = φηγόs; æsculus. v. bóc, e; f. a beech-tree.

bóc-cest, e; f. [cest, cyst a chest] A book-chest, book-shop, tavern; taberna :-- Bóccest taberna, Ælfc. Gl. 17; Som. 58, 89; Wrt. Voc. 22, 7.

bóc-cræft, es; m. [bóc a book, cræft art, science] Book-learning, learning, literature; literatura :-- Boétius wæs in bóccræftum se rihtwísesta Boëthius, in book-learning, was the most wise, Bt. 1; Fox 2, 13. Ðara bóccræfta of the knowledge of letters, of literature, Greg. Dial. pref. 2.

bóc-cræftig; adj. Book-crafty or learned, learned in the Bible; in libris literatus, in Bibliis doctus :-- Hí bleóton [MS. breotun] bóccræftige they destroyed those learned in the Bible, Exon. 66 a; Th. 243, 25; Jul. 16.

bócere, es; m. A writer, scribe, an author, a learned man, instructor; scriptor, scriba, interpres, vir doctus vel literatus :-- Ðá cwæþ se bócere, Láreów, well ðú on sóþe cwǽde then the scribe said, Master, thou in truth hast well said, Mk. Bos. 12, 32. Hwæt secgeaþ ða bóceras why say the scribes? Mt. Bos. 17, 10. Hieronimus se wurþfulla and se wísa bócere awrát be Iohanne the worthy and the wise author Jerome wrote concerning John, Ælfc. T. Lisle 32, 1. Ǽlc gelǽred bócere forlǽt ealde þing and niwe every learned writer brings out old things and new, 39, 5. Swá ðætte swá hwæt swá he of godcundum stafum þurh bóceras geleornode ita ut quicquid ex divinis literis per interpretes disceret, Bd. 4, 24; S. 596, 33. We witan ðæt, þurh Godes gyfe, þrǽl wearþ to þegene, and ceorl wearþ to eorle, sangere to sacerde, and bócere to biscope we know that, by the grace of God, a slave has become a thane, and a ceorl [free man] has become an earl, a singer a priest, and a scribe a bishop, L. Eth. vii. 21; Th. 1. 334, 7-9.

bóc-fel, -fell, es; n. [fell skin] A skin prepared for books, parchment, vellum; charta pergamena, membrana :-- Bócfel membrana, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 111; Wrt. Voc. 46, 68. Bócfel bargina, 16. Som. 58, 57; Wrt. Voc. 21, 44. Ðæt hí habban blæc and bócfel that they have ink and vellum, L. Edg. C. 3; Th. ii. 244, 11.

bóc-gestreón, es; n. A book-treasury, library; bibliotheca :-- He ðider micel bócgestreón and æðele begeat he acquired there a great and noble library, Bd. 5, 20; S. 642, 2.

bóc-hord, es; n. A BOOK-HOARD, a library or receptacle for books, papers, etc; bibliotheca, archivum :-- Bóchord [MS. boochord] bibliotheca vel armarium vel archivum, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 79, 4; Wrt. Voc. 58, 47.

bóc-hús, es; n. A BOOK-HOUSE, library; librarium :-- Bóchús librarium, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 79, 5; Wrt. Voc. 58, 48.

bócian; p. ode; pp. od To give by charter, to charter; libro vel charta dare :-- Oswald biscop bócaþ Wihtelme his þegne bishop Oswald charters to Wihthelm his thane, Cod. Dipl. 531; A. D. 966; Kmbl. iii. 6, 9. DER. ge-bócian.

bóc-land, -lond, es; n. BOOK-LAND, land held by a charter or writing, free from all fief, fee, service or fines. Such was formerly held chiefly by the nobility, and denominated allodialis, which we now call freehold; ex scripto sive charta possessa terra, terra codicillaris :-- Ðe on his bóclande cyricean hæbbe who on his freehold has a church, L. Edg. i. 2; Th. i. 262, 11: L. Ed. 2; Th. i. 160, 14. Se mon bócland hæbbe the man has a freehold, L. Alf. pol. 41; Th. i. 88, 16: Bd. 2, 3; S. 504, 29: 3, 24; S. 556, 4: Cod. Dipl. 317; A. D. 871-889; Kmhl. ii. 120, 6. Hæfde Rómánum to bóclande gesealde Romanis per testamentum tradiderat, Ors. 5, 4; Bos. 104, 18. Bóclandes, Cot. 83. v. folc-land and land.

bóc-lár, e; f. [lár lore, learning] Book-learning, learning; doctrina :-- Blind biþ se láreów, gif hé ða bócláre ne cann blind is the teacher, if he know not book-learning, L. Ælf. C. 23; Th. ii. 352, 6.

bóc-leáf, es; n. The leaf of a book, a charter; folium codicis, charta, instrumentum donationis. v. leáf.

bóc-léden book-language, and as most books were written in Latin, hence Latin, Chr. Erl. 3, 3. v. léden.

bóc-líc; adj. BOOK-LIKE, biblical, bookish, relating to books; biblicus :-- Gregorius wæs fram cildháde on bóclícum lárum getýd Gregory was from childhood instructed in book-learning, Homl. Th. ii. 118, 16. On bóclícum gewritum in book-writings, 284, 24. Ðæt we ða bóclícan láre smeágan that we consider the book-lore, 284, 24.

bócod booked, chartered. v. bócian, gebócian.

bócon baked; coxerunt, Ex. 12, 39; p. pl. of bacan.

bóc-rǽdere, es; m. A reader of books, a reader; lector, Cot. 126.

bóc-rǽding book-reading, reading. v. rǽding.

bóc-reád Book-red, vermilion: so named, because it was much used in ornamenting books; minium :-- Of bócreáde ex minio, Cot. 75: 176.

bóc-riht, es; n. BOOK-RIGHT, the right of a will or charter; testamenti rectitudo vel jus :-- Þegenes lagu is, ðæt he sý his bócrihtes wyrðe taini lex est, ut sit dignus rectitudine testamenti sui, L. R. S. 1; Th. i. 432, 1.

bóc-scamel, es; m. A reading-desk or seat; pluteus, lectorium. DER. bóc, scamel a bench.

bóc-scyld, es; m. [bóc a beech-tree, scyld a shield] A beechen shield; fagineum scutum :-- Ic ge-an [MS. geann] Siferþe mínes bócscyldes I give to Siferth my beechen shield, Th. Diplm. A. D. 938; 561, 5.

bóc-stæf, es; pl. nom. acc. -stafas; g. -stafa; d. -stafum; m. A bookstaf, a letter, character; litera, character = χαρακτήρ :-- Awrítaþ hie on his wǽpne wælnota heáp, bealwe bócstafas they cut upon his weapon a heap of fatal marks, baleful letters, Salm. Kmbl. 325; Sal. 162. Engel Drihtnes wrát in wáge worda gerýnu baswe bócstafas the angel of the Lord wrote on the wall mysteries of words in crimson letters, Cd. 210; Th. 261, 10; Dan. 724. Ðæt he him bócstafas arǽdde and arehte that he [Daniel] should read and explain the characters to them, 212; Th. 262, 7; Dan. 740. Hwá wrát bócstafas ǽrest who first wrote letters? Salm. Kmbl. 200, 23: 192, 6. Bócstafa of letters, Salm. Kmbl. 199; Sal. 99. Wæs se beám bócstafum awriten the beam was inscribed with letters, Elen. Kmbl. 182; El. 91. DER. stæf.

bóc-sum; adj. Obedient, flexible, BUXOM; obediens, flexibilis. [Frs. Halbert. p. 540, búchsom flexibilis: Dut. boogh-saem flexibilis: Ger. biegsam, flexibilis.]

bóc-sumnes, -ness, e; f. Obedience, pliantness, BUXOMNESS; obedientia. [Ger. biegsamkeit flexibilitas: Verst. Restitn. buhsomnesse, bowsomenesse pliableness. Chaucer writes buxsomnesse, p. 211.]

bóc-tǽcing, e; f: bóc-talu, e; f. Book-teaching, a book of decrees, writings, the scriptures, holy writ, the Bible; Scripta Lambardo; Sacra Scriptura Bromto: rectius fortasse Sacri Canones, vel Liber Judicialis, Lye :-- Be bóctǽcinge ex scriptis, L. C. S. 35; Wilk. 140, 3. Be bóctale by scripture, L. C. S. 38; Th. íi. 398, 21. v. dóm-bóc.

bóc-talu, e; f. Book-story or narration, the Bible. v. bóc-tǽcing.

bóc-treów, es; n. A beech-tree; fagus :-- Bóc-treów fagus, Wrt. Voc. 79, 76. v. bóc fagus.

bóc-ung, e; f. A BOOKING, a setting down in a book; inscriptio. DER. bóc, ung.

bóc-wudu; m. BEECH-WOOD; locus fagis consitus :-- On bócwuda in the beech-wood, Exon. 111 b; Th. 428, 11; Rä. 41, 106.

BOD, es; pl. u, o, a; n. A command, commandment, precept, mandate, an edict, order, message; jussum, mandatum, edictum :-- Hwæt is ðæt bod micle [MS. micla] in ǽ quod est mandatum magnum to lege? Mt. Lind. Stv. 22, 36: Mk. Lind. Stv. 12, 28, 29, 30, 31: Lk. Lind. Stv. 2, 1. Bod on cine diploma, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 110; Wrt. Voc. 46, 67. Hwá swá halt ðis bod [bode MS.] wurðe he éfre wunnende mid God whosoever observes this command, may he ever dwell with God, Cod. Dipl. 990; A. D. 680; Kmbl. v. 29, 23. We ðíne bodu brǽcon we broke thy commandments, Hy. 7, 109; Hy. Grn. ii. 289, 109. [Laym. bode, bod: Orm. bode: Scot. bode, bod: Plat. bod, ge-bodd, n: O. Sax. gi-bod, n: O. Frs. bod, n: Dut. ge-bod, n: Ger. bot, ge-bot, n: M. H. Ger. ge-bot, n: O. H. Ger. ga-bot, n: Goth. busns, f. in ana-busns: Dan. bud, n: Swed. bud, n: Icel. boð, n. a commandment.] DER. ǽ-bod, be-, bi-, for-, ge-.

boda, an; m. [bod a message, -a, q. v.] I. a messenger, ambassador, herald, apostle, angel; nuntius, legatus, præco, apostolus, angelus :-- Eálá Wísdóm, ðú eart boda and fórrynel ðæs sóðan leóhtes O Wisdom, thou art the messenger and forerunner of true light, Bt. 36, 1; Fox 170, 28. Me ðes boda sægde wǽrum wordum this messenger told me in cautious words, Cd. 32; Th. 42, 30; Gen. 680: 32; Th. 43, 6; Gen. 686: 33; Th, 45, 11; Gen. 725. Heó ðæs ládan bodan lárum hýrde she obeyed the advice of the loathsome messenger, 33; Th. 44, 18; Gen. 711. Ða bodan us fǽrdon nuntii nos terruerunt, Deut. 1, 28: Exon. 27 a; Th. 80, 9; Cri. 1305. Sende he bodan befóran his ansýne misit nuntios ante conspectum suum, Lk. Bos. 9, 52: Gen. 32, 3: Exon. 24 b; Th. 71, 7; Cri. 1152. Cyninges bodan underfón to receive a king's ambassador, Lchdm. iii. 210, 15. Se sóda boda ðæs hean leóhtes Agustinus wæs fram him eallum bodad verus summæ lucis præco ab omnibus prædicatur Augustinus, Bd. 2, 2; S. 502, 32. Brimmanna boda præco nautarum, Byrht. Th. 133, 12; By. 49. Gefeohtes bodan heralds of war; præfeciales, Ælfc. Gl. 53; Som. 66, 81; Wrt, Voc. 36, 7. Ðú Drihtnes eart boda of heofnum thou art the Lord's angel from heaven, Cd. 26; Th. 34, 5; Gen. 533: Elen. Kmbl. 153; El. 77. Bodan hyrdum cýðdon sóþne gefeán angels announced to the shepherds true joy, Exon. 14 a; Th. 28, 20; Cri. 449. II. a foreboder, prophet; propheta, vates :-- Gleáw bodan ǽrcwide skilled in a prophet's prediction, Exon. 83 a; Th. 313, 23; Mód. 4. [R. Brunne bode: Laym. boden, pl: O. Sax. bodo, m: Frs. bode, boade, c: O. Frs. boda, m: Dut. bode, m: Ger. M. H. Ger. bote, m: O. H. Ger. boto, m: Dan. bud: Swed. båd, m: Icel. boði, m. a messenger.] DER. ǽ-boda, éðel-, fór-, heáh-, nýd-, síþ-, spel-, wil-.

bodad announced, proclaimed, Andr. Kmbl. 2241; An. 1122, = bodod; pp. of bodian.

boden ordered, offered, proclaimed, Elen. Kmbl. 36; El. 18; pp. of beódan.

bodere, es; m. A teacher, a master; præceptor, Lk. Rush. War. 9, 33.

bodian, bodigan, bodigean; part. bodiende, bodigende; p. ode, ede, ade, ude; pp. od, ed, ad, ud; v. a. [bod a message]. I. to tell, announce, proclaim, preach; nuntiare, annuntiare, enuntiare, narrare, prædicare, evangelizare :-- Ongan se Hǽlend bodian cœpit Iesus prædicare, Mt. Bos. 4, 17: Mk. Bos. 1, 45: Exon. 49 a; Th. 169, 2; Gú. 1088. He ongan bodigean on Decapolim cœpit prædicare in Decapoli, Mk. Bos. 5, 20: Cd. 169; Th. 210, 4; Exod. 510. Ic eom asend ðé ðis bodian missus sum hæc tibi evangelizare, Lk. Bos. 1, 19: Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 13. To bodianne godcunde láre ad prædicandum docerinam divinam, 5, 9, titl; S. 622, 4. Com se Hǽlend on Galileam Godes ríces gódspell bodigende venit Iesus in Galilæam prædicans evangelium regni Dei, Mk. Bos. 1, 14: Ps. Lamb. 2, 6. Ic bodie annuntiabo, Ps. Th. 54, 17. Ðæt ic bodige oððe ðæt ic cýðe ealle herunga oððe lofunga ðíne on geatum déhter oððe dóhtra ðæs múntes [Siones] ut annuntiem omnes laudationes tuas in portis filiæ Sion, Ps. Lamb. 9, 15: Exon. 103 a; Th. 391, 3; Rä. 9, 10. Me ðes ár bodaþ frécne fǽrspell this messenger announces to me a horrible unforeseen message, Exon. 69 b; Th. 259, 3; Jul. 276: Bt. Met. Fox 29, 45; Met. 29, 23. Heofonas bodiaþ oððe cýðaþ wuldor Godes cæli enarrant gloriani Dei, Ps. Spl. 18, 1: Salm. Kmbl. 474; Sal. 237. Ðes apostol Iacobus bodode on Iudéa lande this apostle James preached in Judea [lit. in the land of the Jews], Homl. Th. ii. 412, 23. Ymb Bethleem bododon englas ðæt acenned wæs Crist on eorþan angels announced about Bethlehem that Christ was born on earth, Hy. 10, 23; Hy. Grn. ii. 293, 23. Bodedon heofonas rihtwísnysse his annuntiaverunt cali justitiam ejus, Ps. Spl. 96, 6: Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 6; Jud. 244. Hý bodudon annuntiaverunt, Ps. Spl. 43, 1. Cýðaþ oððe bodiaþ betwux þeódum his gecneordnyssa oððe his ymbhoga annuntiate inter gentes studia ejus, Ps. Lamb. 9, 12: Andr. Kmbl. 669; An. 335. Wæs ðæt weátácen geond ða burh bodad the fatal token was proclaimed throughout the town, 2241; An. 1122. II. to foretell, predict, prophesy, promise; prædicere, promittere :-- Him ðone dæg willan Drihten bodode the Lord had foretold [promised] to him that day of desire, Cd. 133; Th. 168, 2; Gen. 2776: Beo. Th. 3608; B. 1802. Ðæt wæs oft bodod ǽr befóran fram fruman worulde it was often foretold long before from the beginning of the world, Elen. Kmbl. 2280; El. 1141. [Laym. bodien: O. Frs. bodia: Icel. boða to announce.] DER. fóre-bodian, ge-, to-.

BODIG, es; n. I. bigness or height of body, stature; statura :-- Ðæt se mon wǽre lang on bodige quod esset vir longæ staturæ, Bd. 2, 16; S. 519, 33. Wæs Oswine se cyning on bodige heáh king Oswine was tall in stature, 3, 14; S. 540, 7. II. the trunk, chest or parts of the chest, as the back-bone; truncus corporis :-- Bodig truncus, Wrt. Voc. 283, 26: spina, Cot. 177: 196. III. the BODY; corpus :-- Ǽgðer ge his fét ge his heáfod ge eác eall ðæt bodig either his feet or his head or even all the body, Past. 35, 3; Hat. MS. 45 b, 12. [Wyc. body: R. Glouc. Laym. bodi: Orm. bodiʒ: Ger. bottech, m: Bav. bottich, m: M. H. Ger. botech, m: O. H. Ger. botah, m: Gael. bodhag, f.]

bodigean to publish, preach, Mk. Bos. 5, 20: Cd. 169; Th. 210, 4; Exod. 510. v. bodian.

bod-lác, es; n. A decree, ordinance; decretum, Chr. 1129; Ing. 359, 21; Erl. 258, 13.

bod-scipe, es; m. [bod a command, scipe] A message, an embassy, a commandment; nuntium, mandatum :-- Swá ic him ðisne bodscipe secge when I tell him this message, Cd. 27; Th. 35, 10; Gen. 552. Ðá hie Godes hæfdon bodscipe abrocen when they had broken God's commandment, 37; Th. 48, 29; Gen. 783. DER. ge-bodscipe.

bodudon announced; annuntiaverunt, Ps. Spl. 43, 1, = bododon; p. pl. of bodian.

bodung, e; f. A preaching, publishing, divulging; prædicatio, pronuntiatio :-- Niniuetisce men dǽdbóte dydon æt Ionam bodunge viri Ninivitæ pænitentiam egerunt ad prædicationem Ionæ, Lk. Bos. 11, 32.

bodung-dæg, es; m. An annunciation day; annuntiationis dies :-- Ðes dæg is geháten Annuntiatio Sanctæ Mariæ, ðæt is Marian bodungdæg gecweden this day is called Annuntiatio Sanctæ Mariæ, which is interpreted, the annunciation-day of Mary, Homl. Th. i. 200, 25.

boém to both, Th. Diplm. A. D. 830; 465, 22; for bám; dat. of begen.

Boéties, Boótes; m. Boätes; Bŏōtēs, æ; m. [= βoώτηs, oυ; m. a ploughman, from βoυs an ox]. The ancient constellation, the chief star of which is the bright Arcturus, v. arctos the bear; Ursa Major. The modern representation of Boötes is a man with a club in his right hand, and in his left a leash, which holds two dogs :-- Hwá ne wundraþ ðætte sume tunglu habbaþ scyrtran hwyrft ðonne sume habban? For ðý hí habbaþ swá sceortne ymbhwyrft, for ðí hí sint swá neáh ðam norþende ðære eaxe, ðe eall ðes ródor on hwerfþ, swá nú Boéties déþ who wonders not that some constellations have a shorter course than others have? Therefore they have so short a course, because they are so near the north end of the axis, on which all the sky turns, as now Boötes does, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 17-24. Boótes beorhte scíneþ Boötes shines brightly, Bt. Met. Fox 28, 53; Met. 28, 27.

Boétius; nom. acc; g. Boéties, Boétiuses; d. Boétie; m. [βoηθόos warlike] Anicius Manlius Severīnus Boëthius, born in Rome between A. D. 470-475, was Consul in 510. He was so eminent for his integrity and talents that he attracted the attention and obtained the patronage of Theodoric the Great, king of the East or Ostrogoths. He was afterwards accused of treason, and cast into prison, where he wrote his celebrated work De Consolatione Philosophiæ, which king Alfred translated into Anglo-Saxon about A. D. 888. Being condemned to death, without a hearing, he was beheaded in prison about A. D. 524 :-- Ðá wæs sum consul, ðæt we heretoha hitaþ, Boétius wæs háten. Se wæs, in bóccræftum and on worold-þeáwum, se rihtwísesta there was a certain consul, that we call heretoha, who was named Boëthius. He was, in book-learning and in worldly affairs, the most truly wise [= most righteous], Bt. 1; Fox 2, 12-14. Se Boétius wæs óðre naman geháten Seuerínus: se wæs heretoga Rómina Boëthius was by another name called Severīnus: he was a consul of the Romans, Bt. 21; Fox 76, 3-4. Hú Gotan gewunnon Rómána ríce, and hú Boétius hí wolde berǽdan, and Þeódríc ðá ðæt anfunde and hine hét on carcerne gebringan how the Goths conquered the empire of the Romans, and how Boëthius wished to deliver them, and Theodoric discovered it, and gave orders to take him to prison, Bt. title 1; Fox x. 2-4. Hú se Wísdóm com to Boétie ǽrest inne on ðam carcerne how Wisdom first came to Boëthius in the prison, Bt. title 3; Fox x. 6: 26; Fox xiv. 18. Hér endaþ nú seó æftre fróferbóc Boétiuses [Cot. MS. æfterre frófr-bóc Boéties] here now endeth the second consolation-book of Boëthius, Bt. 21; Fox 76, 2-3. Hér endaþ nú seó þridde bóc Boéties here now endeth the third book of Boëthius, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 170, 23.

bog the arm, shoulder, Ælfc. Gl. 73; Som. 71, 16; Wrt. Voc. 44, 2. v. boh.

boga, an; m. [bogen; pp. of búgan to bow, bend] Anything curved,-A BOW, an arch, a corner; arcus, angulus :-- Æteówþ mín boga on ðám wolcnum apparebit arcus meus in nubibus, Gen. 9, 14. Boga sceal strǽle a bow shall be for an arrow, Exon. 91 b; Th. 343, 8; Gn. Ex. 154. Ðæt híg fleón fram ansýne bogan ut fugiant a facie arcus, Ps. Lamb. 59, 6. Híg aþenodon bogan heora intenderunt arcum suum, 36, 14: 57, 8: 63, 4. Hí léton gáras fleógan, bogan wǽron bysige they let the arrows fly, bows were busy, Byrht. Th. 134, 66; By. 110. Bogan [MS. bogen] streng a bow-string; anquina, Ælfc. Gl. 52; Som. 66, 37; Wrt. Voc. 35, 26. [Wyc. bowe, bouwe: Laym. boʒe, bowe; O. Sax. bogo, m: Frs. boage: O. Frs. boga, m: Dut. boog, m: Ger. boge, bogen, m: M. H. Ger. boge, m: O. H. Ger. bogo, m: Dan. bue, c: Swed. båge, m: Icel. bogi, m. arcus.] DER. brægd-boga, flán-, horn-, hring-, rén-, scúr-, stán-, wír-.

bógan to boast; jactare, Scint. 46. v. bón.

boga-net, boge-net, -nett, es; n. A BOW-NET; weal, wicker-basket with a narrow neck for catching fish; nassa :-- Æwul vel boganet nassa, Ælfc. Gl. 102; Som. 77, 85; Wrt. Voc. 56, 9. Bogenet vel leáp nassa, 84; Som. 73, 90; Wrt. Voc. 48, 28. Bogenet nassa, 105; Som. 78, 41; Wrt. Voc. 57, 23.

boge-fódder, es; m. [boga a bow, fódder fodder, from fód food] A BOW-FEEDER, case for arrows, a quiver; corytos = κωρυτόs :-- Bogefódder corytos [MS. coriti], Ælfc. Gl. 53; Som. 66, 67; Wrt. Voc. 35, 53.

bogen bowed, bent, gave way; pp. of búgan.

bogen rosemary, L. M. 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 324, 25, = boðen, q. v.

boge-net a bow-net, weel, Ælfc. Gl. 105; Som. 78, 41; Wrt. Voc. 57, 23. v. boga-net.

bogen strong, es; m. [bogen = bogan; gen. of boga a bow; streng a string] The string of a bow; a BOW-STRING; arcus chorda, anquina, Ælfc. Gl. 52; Som. 66, 37; Wrt. Voc. 35, 26, v. boga.

bogetung, e; f. [bogen; pp. of búgan to bend] A bending, crook; anfractus, Cot. 18.

bógian; p. ode; pp. od To inhabit; incolere :-- Bógodon incoluerunt, Ælfc. T. Lisle 21, 13. v. búgian.

bogung, e; f. [bogen bent; pp. of búgan to bow, bend] Crookedness, perversity; pravitas, perversitas :-- Þurh heora upahefednysse and ágenre bogunge through their arrogance and own perversity, Homl. Th. ii. 428, 13.

boh, bog, es; m. [bogen bent; pp. of búgan to bow, bend] Anything curved or bent,-hence I. the arm, shoulder; armus = άρμόs, humerus, lacertus :-- Se swíðra boh armus dexter, Lev. 7, 32; the riʒt schuldur, Wyc. Bog lacertus, Ælfc. Gl. 73; Som. 71, 16; Wrt. Voc. 44, 2. Eorl sceal on eós boge rídan a chief shall ride on a horse's back [lit. shoulder], Exon. 90 a; Th. 337, 11; Gn. Ex. 63. Ðú nymst of ðam ramme ðone swýðran boh tolles de ariete armum dextrum, Ex. 29, 22. Mec se beaducáfa bogum bilegde the battle-prompt man embraced me in his arms, Exon. 100 b; Th. 380, 21; Rä. 1, 11. II. the arm of a tree, a BOUGH, branch; ramus, stipes, palmes :-- Bóh ramus, Scint. 1. Boh stipes, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 26; Som. 11, 16. Berende boh germen, Ælfc. Gl. 60; Som. 68, 32; Wrt. Voc. 39, 18. Ðeáh ðú hwilcne boh ðæs treówes býge though thou bendest any bough of a tree, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 105, Met. 13, 53. Hit wearþ mycel treów, and heofenes fugelas reston on his bogum factum est in arborem magnam, et volucres cœli requieverunt in ramis ejus, Lk. Bos. 13, 19: Cd. 30; Th. 40, 26; Gen. 645. He astrehte his bogas, óþ ða sǽ extendit palmites suos usque ad mare, Ps. Lamb. 79, 12. III. a branch of a family, offspring, progeny; propago :-- Tyddrung oððe boh propago, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 49. [Chauc. bow: Piers P. bowe: Wyc. boow, bouʒ, boʒ: Orm. boʒh: Dut. boeg, m. the bow of a ship: Ger. bug, m. armus: M. H. Ger. buoc, m: O. H. Ger. buoc, m. armus: Dan. bov, boug, c. shoulder, bow of a ship: Swed. bog, m. the shoulder, haunch: O. Nrs. bógr, m. the shoulder of an animal.] DER. wæter-boh, wín-.

boh-scyld, es; m. A shoulder shield; ad humerum clypeus, Æthelst. Test. Mann. = bóc-scyld, q. v.

bohte, pl. bohton bought; emit, emerunt, Gen. 49, 30; p. of bycgan.

BOLCA, an; m. The gangway of a ship; forus navis :-- Bolea forus, Cot. 86. Geseah weard beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas the guard saw bright shields borne over the ship's gangway, Beo. Th. 467; B. 231: Andr. Kmbl. 1203; An. 602. He on bolcan sæt he sat on the gangway, 610: An. 305. [Icel. búlki, m. the cargo of a ship.]

BOLD, es; n. I. a building, dwelling, house; ædificium, domicilium, domus :-- Wæs ðæt bold tobrocen swíðe the dwelling was much shattered, Beo. Th. 1998; B. 997. Ðǽr ic wíc báge, bold mid bearnum where I inhabit a dwelling, a house with children, Exon. 104 b; Th. 396, 23; Rä. 16, 9. Bold wæs betlíc the building was excellent [good-like], Beo. Th. 3854; B. 1925. Nis ðæt betlíc bold [blod MS.] that is no goodly dwelling, Exon. 116 a; Th. 446, 16; Dóm. 23. II. a superior house, hall, castle, palace, temple; aula, palatium, ædes :-- He him gesealde bold and bregostól he gave to him a habitation and a princely seat, Beo. Th. 4398; B. 2196. Ne mót ic brúcan burga ne bolda I may not enjoy towns nor palaces, Cd. 216; Th. 273, 19; Sat. 139. Ðá wæs Beówulfe gecýðed, ðæt his sylfes hám, bolda sélest, brynewylmum mealt then it was made known to Beowulf, that his own home, the best of mansions, was consumed by flames of fire, Beo. Th. 4641; B. 2326. Gewát beorht blǽdgifa in bold óðer the bright giver of glory departed into another temple, Andr. Kmbl. 1312; An. 656. [R. Glouc. bold: A. Sax. bylda a builder: Eng. to build. v. botl.] DER. feorh-bold, fold-: bold-ágende, -getæl, -getimber, -wéla.

bold-ágende; part. [bold a house, ágende owning] House-owning, possessing a house; domum possidens :-- Hæleða monegum boldágendra to many of house-owning men, Beo. Th. 6215; B. 3112: Exon. 90 b; Th. 339, 12; Gn. Ex. 93.

bold-getæl, es; n. [bold a house, getæl a number, tribe, register] A dwelling-place, mansion, habitation, house; domicilium, mansio, vicus, domus :-- Gif mon wille of boldgetale [boldgetæle MS. B.] in óðer boldgetæl hláford sécan, dó ðæt mid ðæs ealdormonnes gewitnesse ðe he ǽr in his scíre folgode if a man from one dwelling-place wish to seek a lord in another dwelling-place, let him do it with the knowledge of the alderman, whom he before followed in his shire, L. Alf. pol. 37; Th. i. 86, 2; that is, If a person who had commended himself, wished to take his name off the manor-roll of one lord, etc. Thorpe's Laws, vol. i. p. 86, note a.

bold-getimber; gen. -getimbres; pl. nom. acc. -getimbru; n. The timber of a house; ædificii tignum :-- Leóht [fýr] briceþ and bærneþ boldgetimbru light [fire] breaketh and burneth the timbers of the house, Salm. Kmbl. 826; Sal. 412.

bold-wéla, an; m. [bold a house, wéla wealth]. I. a dwelling of wealth or happiness; prædium, opes domesticæ :-- Ne mæg ðé adón ðínne boldwélan thou mayest not take thee thy dwelling of wealth or happiness, Soul Kmbl. 118; Seel. 59. II. paradise, heaven; paradisus = παράδεισos, cœlum :-- Ðé is neorxna wang boldwéla fægrost paradise is to thee the fairest dwelling of happiness, Andr. Kmbl. 206; An. 103. Adam and Æue anforléton beorhtne boldwélan Adam and Eve forsook bright paradisal happiness, Exon. 73 a; Th. 272, 22; Jul. 503. He gesóhte swegle dreámas, beorhtne boldwélan he sought the joys of heaven, the bright dwelling of happiness, Apstls. Kmbl. 65; Ap. 33. He [God] sceal rǽdan, se ðe ródor ahóf, wuldres fylde beorhtne boldwélan he [God] shall rule, who uplifted the firmament, with glory filled the bright dwelling of wealth, Andr. Kmbl. 1047; An. 524.

bolgen vexed, irritated, angry; pp. of belgan.

bolgen-mód; adj. Enraged in mind; iratus animo :-- Him bolgenmód yrre andswarode enraged in mind, answered them angrily, Cd. 183; Th. 228, 26; Dan. 209: Beo. Th. 1422; B. 709: Andr. Kmbl. 255; An. 128: Exon. 40 b; Th. 135, 25; Gú. 529.

BOLLA, an; m. Any round vessel, cup, pot, BOWL, a measure; vas, cyathus = κύαθos :-- Bolla cyathus, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 156, 16. Cærenes gódne bollan fulne meng togædere mingle together a good bowl full of boiled wine, L. M. 1, 1; Lchdm. ii. 24, 19. Ðǽr wǽron bollan steápe boren æfter bencum there were carried deep bowls behind the benches, Judth. 10; Thw. 21, 14; Jud. 17. [Piers P. Laym. bolle: O. Frs. bolla, m. in kne-bolla, strot-bolla: Dut. bol, m: Kil. bolle caput, globus: Ger. punch-bole, f. a punch-bowl: M. H. Ger. hirn-bolle: O. H. Ger. hirni-polla the brain-pan, skull: Dan. bolle, c: Swed. bål, n: O. Nrs. bolli, m. a bowl.] DER. beód-bolla, heáfod-, þrot-.

bollen bellowed, roared; pp. of bellan.

BOLSTER; gen. bolstres; m. A BOLSTER, a pillow for the head; cervical :-- He his heáfód onhylde to ðam bolstre, and medmycel fæc onslǽpte reclinavit caput ad cervical, modicumque obdormivit, Bd. 4, 24; S. 599, 7. He wæs on scipe, ofer bolster slápende erat in puppi, super cervical dormiens, Mk. Bos. 4, 38. Hit geondbrǽded wearþ beddum and bolstrum it was overspread with beds and bolsters, Beo. Th. 2484; B. 1240. [Dut. bolster, m. a shell: Kil. bolster culcita: Ger. polster, m. cervical: M. H. Ger. bolster, m: O. H. Ger. bolstar, n: Swed. bolster, n. a mattress: O. Nrs. bólstr. m. a bolster.] DER. heáfod-bolster, hleór-.

BOLT, es; pl. boltas; m. A BOLT, a warlike engine to throw bolts, arrows; catapulta, Cot. 45. [Chauc. bolt: Dut. bout, m: Kil. bolt sagitta: Ger. M. H. Ger. bolz, m: O. H. Ger. bolz: Dan. bolt, c: O. Nrs. bolti, m.]

bón [bógan to boast] To boast; jactare :-- He bóþ his sylfes swíðor micle ðonne se sélla mon he boasts of himself much more than a better man, Exon. 83 b; Th. 315, 9; Mód. 28.

bona, an; m. A killer; interfector :-- Se wites bona the destroyer of the mind [the devil], Exon. 11 b; Th. 17, 3; Cri. 264. Fugel-bona a bird killer, 79 b; Th. 298, 5; Crä. 80. v. bana.

bond bound; ligavit, Exon. 42 b; Th. 143, 29; Gú. 668; = band; p. of bindan.

bonda, an; m. A husband, an householder, a master of a family; maritus :-- Se bonda sæt the husband dwelt, L. C. S. 73; Th. i. 414, 21: 77; Th. i. 418, 24. v. bunda.

bonde-land, es; n. Bond or leased land, land held under restrictions, or on conditions expressed in writing; tributaria terra :-- Án abbot, Beonne geháten, lét Cúþbriht ealdorman x bonde-lande [x tributariorum terram, vel terram x manentium] æt Swinesheáfde, mid læswe and mid mǽdwe, and mid eal ðæt ðǽrto læi, and swá ðæt Cúþbriht geaf ðam abbote l punde ðǽrfore, and ilca geár ánes nihtes feorme, ouðer xxx scyllinge penega; swá eác ðæt eafter his dæi scolde ðæt land ongeán into ðam mynstre an abbot, called Beonna, let to the alderman Cuthbriht ten 'boude-lands' at Swineshead, with leasow and with meadow, and with all lying thereto, and so that Cuthbriht should give to the abbot fifty pounds for it, and every year one night's entertainment, or thirty shillings in pennies; and also that after his day the land should come again to the monastery, Chr. 777; Th. 92, note 1; Cod. Dipl. 165; A. D. 786-796; Kmbl. i. 201.

bon-gár, es; m. [bana, ban a killer, death? gár a spear] A death-spear; letifera hasta, Beo. Th. 4066; B. 2031.

bonnan; p. beónn, pl. beónnon; pp. bonnen To summon, call together; citare, convocare :-- Sió býman stefen and se beorhta segn bonnaþ sáwla gehwylce the voice of the trumpet and the bright sign shall summon every soul, Exon. 23 b; Th. 66, 6; Cri. 1067. v. bannan.

booc-hord a library, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 79, 4; Wrt. Voc. 58, 47. v. bóc-hord.

BÓR. I. a borer, gimlet; terebra, Leo 121. II. a lancet, a surgeon's or barber's instrument, a burin, or graving tool; scalprum rasile, Cot. 63. [Plat. baar: Dut. boor, f: Dan. bor, n: Swed. borr, m: O. Nrs. bor, m. terebra, Rask Hald.]

bora, an; m. [boren; pp. of beran to bear] One who bears or sustains the charge of anything, a ruler; qui rem aliquam gerit, gestor :-- Ríces boran the rulers of the state, Cd. 224; Th. 296, 10; Sat. 500.

-bora, an; m. [from boren; pp. of beran] Often used as a termination to denote A bearer, bringer, supporter; is qui fert, gerit; as, Cǽg-bora, horn-, mund-, rǽd-, rǽs-, segen-, sweord-, tácn-, wǽg-, wǽpen-, wíg-, wóþ-, wróht-. v. -bǽre.

borcian; p. ade, ode To bark; latrare :-- Hió borcade: þancode willum it barked: thanked willingly, Exon. 129 a; Th. 495, 11; Rä. 84, 6. v. beorcan.

BORD, es; n. I. a BOARD, plank; tabula sectilis, tabula :-- Bord tabula, Wrt. Voc. 63, 80. Borda gefég a joining of boards; commissura, R. 6 2. Hwílum ic bordum sceal heáfodleás behlýðed licgan sometimes I must lie on boards deprived of head, Exon. 104 a; Th. 395, 18; Rä. 15, 9. Wirc ðé ǽnne arc of aheáwenum bordum make thee an ark of planed planks, Gen. 6, 14; fac tibi arcam de lignis levigatis, Vulg. II. what is made of a board,-A table, shield; mensa, clypeus :-- Ic on wuda stonde, bordes on ende I stand upon wood, at the end of the table, Exon. 129 a; Th. 496, 15, 18; Rä. 85, 15, 16. Geweorþe bord oððe mése heora befóran him on grine fiat mensa eorum coram ipsis in laqueum, Ps. Spl. T. 68, 27. Scip sceal genægled, scyld gebunden, leóht bord a ship shall be nailed, a shield bound, the light shield [lit. board], Exon. 90 b; Th. 339, 16; Gn. Ex. 95: Byrht. Th. 134, 67; By. 110: Fins. Th. 58; Fin. 29. He fýsde forþ flán genehe: hwílon he on bord sceát, hwílon beorn tǽsde he poured forth his arrows abundantly: sometimes he shot on the shield, sometimes he pierced the warrior, Byrht. Th. 139, 46; By. 270: Beo. Th. 5041; B. 2524: Cd. 156; Th. 193, 28; Exod. 253. Ðǽr wæs borda gebrec there was clash of shields, Elen. Kmbl. 227; El. 114: Beo. Th. 4510; B. 2259. Beraþ bord fór breóstum bear shields before their breasts Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 16; Jud. 192: 12; Thw. 26, 9; Jud. 318. He mid bordum hét wyrcan ðone wíhagan he commanded to raise with the shields the fence of war, Byrht. Th. 134, 49; By 101; Andr. Kmbl. 2412; An. 1207. III. the board, covering or deck of a ship, the ship itself; tabulatum, stega = στέγη, constratum, navis :-- Hý twegen sceolon habban gomen on borde, in sídum ceóle they two shall have pastime on board, in the spacious ship, Exon. 92 a; Th. 345, 5; Gn. Ex. 183. He drugaþ his ár on borde he draws his oar on board, 92 a; Th. 345, 15; Gn. Ex. 188. Ofer ceóles bord from the vessel's deck, Exon. 20 b; Th. 54, 2; Cri. 862. Lǽd under earce bord eaforan ðíne lead thy children under the covering of the ark, Cd. 67; Th. 80, 23; Gen. 1333: 67; Th. 82, 4; Gen. 1357. Bord oft onféng ýða swengas the ship often received the blows of the waves, Elen. Kmbl. 476; El. 238. Ic wille eall acwellan ða be-útan beóþ earce bordum I will destroy all who shall be without the boards of the ark or all who are not in the ark or ship, Cd. 67; Th. 81, 33; Gen. 1354. IV. with the prepositions innan and útan governing the genitive case, at home and abroad; domi et foris :-- Hie sibbe innan bordes gehióldon they preserved peace at home [lit. inside the boundary], Past. pref; Hat. MS. Man útan bordes wísdóm hieder on lond sóhte one from abroad [lit. outside the boundary] sought wisdom in this land, Past. pref; Hat. MS. [Wyc. boord: R. Brun. bord: R. Glouc. bord, borde: Laym. bord, beord, burd: Orm. bord, borde: O. Sax. bord, m: Frs. boerd, bord, m: O. Frs. bord, m: Dut. bord, boord, m: Ger. bord, m. and n: M. H. Ger. bort: O. H. Ger. bort, borti, borto, m: Goth. fotu-baurd, n. a foot-stool: Dan. bord, n: Swed. bord, m: Icel. borð, n: Fr. bord, m: Span. It. bordo, m: M. Lat. bordus: Wel. bwrdh, bord: Corn. bord, f: Ir. Gael. bord, m: Armor. bourz.] DER. bleó-bord, fámig-, gúþ-, hilde-, hleó-, nægled-, þryþ-, wǽg-, wíg-, ýþ-.

borde, an; f. A board, table; tabula, mensa :-- Fǽmne æt hyre bordan geríseþ it becomes a damsel to be at her board, Exon. 90 a; Th. 337, 14; Gn. Ex. 64.

bord-gelác, es; n. [lácan to play, sport, fly] What flies against a shield, hence,-A missile, dart; telum :-- Ðý-læs ingebúge biter bordgelác under bánlocan lest the bitter dart enter in under the skin, Exon. 19 a; Th. 48, 9; Cri. 769. v. bord II.

bord-hæbbende; part. [bord scutum, clypeus; habban habere, vel hebban, hæbban levare, tollere] Shield-bearing; scutum ferens, scutifer, Beo. Th. 5782; B. 2895.

bord-haga, an; m. [bord II. a shield, haga a hedge] The cover of shields; clypeorum sepimentum :-- Gefeallen under bordhagan fallen under the cover of shields, Elen. Kmbl. 1300; El. 652.

bord-hreóða, -hréða, an; m. [bord II. a shield, hreóðan to cover, protect]. I. the cover or protection of the shield; clypei tegmen vel tutela :-- Hǽðne heápum þrungon under bordhreóðan the heathens thronged in heaps under the cover of shields, Andr. Kmbl. 256; An. 128: Beo. Th. 4412; B. 2203: Cd. 154; Th. 192, 23; Exod. 236. II. a shield, buckler; clypeus :-- Blicon bordhreóðan shields glittered, Cd. 149; Th. 187, 30; Exod. 160. Hæfdon hie ofer bordhreóðan beácen arǽred they had a signal reared over their bucklers, 160; Th. 198, 9; Exod. 326. Brǽcon bordhréðan they broke through the bucklers, Invent. Crs. Recd. 242; El. 122.

bord-rand, es; m. [bord II. a shield, rand a rim, margin] The margin or disc of a shield; scuti margo :-- Biorn bordrand onswáf the hero turned his shield's disc, Beo. Th. 5112; B. 2559.

bord-stæþ, es; pl. nom. acc. -staðu; n. [stæþ a shore, bank] The sea-shore; litus :-- Eágorstreámas beóton bordstaðu [bordstæðu MS.] the ocean-streams beat the sea-shores, Andr. Kmbl. 883; An. 442.

bord-þaca, an; m. Board thatch, a warlike engine, a cover or roof of a house, a snare; testudo, laquearium :-- Bordþacan laquearii, Cot. 119.

bord-weall, es; m. A board-wall, a shield; scutorum agger, testudo, clypeus :-- He bræc ðone bordweall he broke through the board-wall, Byrht. Th. 139, 60; By. 277: Beo. Th. 5952; B. 2980.

bord-wudu; m. Shield-wood, a shield; clypei lignum, clypeus, Beo. Th. 2490; B. 1243. v. bord II.

boren borne, carried, born, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 92; Met. 26, 46; pp. of beran.

boren-nes, -ness, e; f. [boren born, -nes] Birth, nativity; partus, nativitas. DER. æðel-borennes.

borg a surety or pledge, L. Alf. pol. 3; Th. i. 62, 8. v. borh.

borgas sureties, debtors, L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 280, 21; pl. of borh.

borgen saved, protected, sheltered; pp. of beorgan.

borges bryce a breaking or breach of a suretyship or pledge, L. Alf. pol. 3; Th. i. 62, 9, 10, 12. v. borh-bryce.

borg-gylda, an; m. A usurer; fœnerator, Ps. Spl. C. 108, 10.

borgian, he borgaþ; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed [borh a pledge, loan] To take or give a loan, BORROW, lend; mutuari, commodare :-- Ðam ðe wylle æt ðé borgian, ne wyrn ðú him volenti mutuari a te, ne avertas, Mt. Bos. 5, 42. Borgaþ se synfulla and ná gefillþ oððe he ne agylt mutuabitur peccator et non solvet, Ps. Lamb. 36, 21. Borgedon [MS. borgedan] commodarunt, Cot. 38. [Chauc. R. Glouc. borwe: Piers P. borwen: Laym. burʒen: Plat. borgen: O. Frs. borga: Dut. Ger. M. H. Ger. borgen: O. H. Ger. borgén cavere : Dan. borge: Swed. borga: O. Nrs. borga fidejubere.] DER. a-borgian.

borgiend, es; m. [part. of borgian to lend] A usurer; fœnerator :-- Smeáge borgiend [MS. borgiende] ealle spéda his scrutetur fœnerator omnem substantiam ejus, Ps. Spl. 108, 10.

borg-wed, -wedd, es; n. Anything given in pledge, a promise; vadimonium. v. wed, wedd.

BORH; g. borges; d. borge; acc. borh; pl. nom. acc. borgas; g. a; d. um; m. I. a security, pledge, loan, bail; fœnus :-- Ic wille, ðæt ǽlc mann sý under borge ge binnan burgum ge bútan burgum I will that every man be under security both within cities and without cities, L. Edg. S. 3; Th. i. 274, 6. Abere se borh ðæt he aberan scolde let the borh bear that he ought to bear, L. Edg. ii. 6; Th. i. 268, 9. On his ágenon borge on his own security, L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 282, 10. Gif ðú feoh to borge selle if thou give money on loan, L. Alf. 35; Th. i. 52, 21. Be borges andsæce concerning a denial of a bail, L. In. 41; Th. i. 128, 1, note 1. II. a person who gives security, a surety, bondsman, debtor; fidejussor, debitor.-Bail was taken by the Saxons from every person guilty of theft, homicide, witchcraft, etc: indeed, every person was under bail for his neighbour. It is generally thought, that the borh originated with king Alfred, but the first time we find it clearly expressed, is in the Laws of Ine, v. Turner's Hist. of A. S. Bk. vi. Append, 3, ch. 6, vol. ii. p. 499 :-- Sette getreówe borgas shall appoint true sureties, L. Eth. i. 1; Th. i. 280, 21: 280, 6, 7, 8: L. Ed. 6; Th. i. 162, 19, 20. Ge asécaþ eówre borgas ye shall search out your debtors, L. E. I. 42; Th. ii. 438, 35. [Chauc. Wyc. borwe: R. Glouc. borewes, pl: Piers P. borgh: Laym. borh: Frs. borch, m: O. Frs. borh, borch, m: Dut. borg, m. and f: Ger. borg, m: M. H. Ger. borc, m.]

borh-bryce, borg-bryce, es; m. [borh a pledge, bryce a breaking] A pledge-breaking, violation of a bail; fidejussionis violatio :-- Be borh-bryce concerning a pledge-breaking, L. AIf. pol. 3; Th. i. 62, 7, note 10. Borh-bryce, L. In. 31; Th. i. 122, note 20. Borg-bryce, L. Alf. pol. 1; Th. i. 60, 19.

borh-fæstan, geborh-fæstan; p. -fæste; pp. -fæsted [borh a surety, fæstan to fasten] To fasten or bind by pledge or surety; fidejussione obligare :-- Man borhfæst ðam cyninge [MS. kyninge] ealle ða þægnas they bound by pledge all the thanes to the king, Chr. 1051; Ing. 228, 33; Erl. 181, 5.

borh-hand, borhond, e; f. A pledge by the hand, a pledger, surety, security; sponsor, fidejussor :-- Borh-hand sponsor, fidejussor, Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, 15; Wrt. Voc. 60, 50: Ælfc. Gr. 9, 25; Som. 10, 66: 9, 35; Som. 12, 32.

borhigenda, an; m. [borh a loan, ágenda a possessor] A usurer; fœnerator :-- Ascrudnige borhigenda ealle spéde oððe ǽhte his scrutetur fœnerator omnem substantiam ejus, Ps. Lamb. 108, 11.

borh-leás; adj. Void of security; fidejussore carens :-- Gif hwá borh-leás orf habbe ... agife ðæt orf, and gilde xx oran if any one have cattle borhless [i.e. for which no borh has been given] ... let him give up the cattle, and pay twenty oran [which at 1s. 4d. each, would make £1. 6s. 8d. in our money, v. púnd], L. Eth. iii. 5; Th. i. 296, 1.

borh-wed, -wedd, es; n. Anything given in pledge; vadimonium. v. wed, wedd.

BÓRIAN; p. ode; pp. od To BORE, to make a hole, perforate; terebrare, perforare :-- Wyrm ðe bóraþ treów a worm that perforates wood; termes vel teredo, Ælfc. Gl. 23; Som. 60, 4; Wrt. Voc. 24, 8. [Tynd. bore: Dut. boren: Ger. bohren: M. H. Ger. born: O. H. Ger. borjan, borón: Dan. bore: Swed. borra: Icel. bora: Lat. for-are: Zend bar to cut, bore.]

born burnt; p. of beornan :-- Forðonðe se Godes wer stronglíce innon born mid ðý fýre godcundre lufan quia vir Dei igne divinæ caritatis fortiter ardebat, Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 30.

bornen burnt; pp. of beornan.

borsten burst; pp. of berstan.

borþor child-birth. v. beorþor, hyse-beorþor.

Boruchtuari, -orum; pl. m. Lat. A people of ancient Germany, conquered by the Old-Saxons; Boructuari :-- Ðá Swýþbyrht hæfde bisceopháde onfongen, he gewát to ðære þeóde Boruchtuarorum; ... ac ðá æfter noht langre tíde seó ylce þeód wæs oferwunnen fram Eald-Seaxum, and ða wǽron wíde todrifene Suidberct, accepto episcopatu, ad gentem Boructuarorum secessit; ... sed expugnatis non longo post tempore Boructuaris, quolibet hi, a gente Antiquorum Saxonum, dispersi sunt, Bd. 5, 11; S. 626, 6-11. v. Boruct-ware.

Boruct-ware; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m: Boructuari, -orum; pl. m. A people of ancient Germany, occupying the country between the Rhine, the Lippe, Ems, and Weser; Bructĕri = Βρoύκτερoι :-- Wǽron Frysan, Rugine, Dene, Hune, Eald-Seaxan, Boructware sunt Fresones, Rugini, Danai, Hunni, Antiqui Saxones, Boructuari, Bd. 5, 9; S. 622, 16. Tacitus always mentions the Bructeri with the Tencteri,-Bructeri et Tencteri, Ann. xiii. 56: Hist. iv. 21, 77. Zeuss supposes they may have inhabited the country near the Lippe, which was called Boroctra or Borhtergo, Deut. Nachbarst. 353.

Bosan-hám, Bosen-hám, es; m. [Flor. A. D. 1114; Sim. Dunelm. 1164 Bosanham: Hovd. 1204 Boseham] BOSEHAM or BOSHAM in Sussex; in agro Sussexiensi :-- Ðá gewende Swegen to his scypum [MS. scypon] to Bosanhám Swegen then went with his ships to Bosham, Chr. 1049; Erl. 172, 34. Gewende ðá Swegen eorl to Bosenhám earl Swegen then went to Bosham, 1048; Erl. 180, 15.

BÓSG, bósig, bósih, es; m? n? An ox or cow-stall, where the cattle stand all night in winter; a BOOSE, as it is now called by the common people, in the Midland and Northern counties. It is now [1874] more generally used for the upper part of the stall where the fodder lies,-They say, 'you will find it in the cow's boose,' that is, in the place for the cow's food; præsepium :-- Of bósge a præsepio, Lk. Rush. War. 13, 15. Of bósih a præsepio, Lk. Lind. War. 13, 15. [Frs. bos a cottage: Ger. banse, m. or f: Goth. bansts, m. a barn: Dan. baas, c: Swed. bås, n: Icel. bás, m. stabulum, præsepium bovis, Rask Hald.]

BÓSUM, bósm, es; m. The space included by the folding of the arms, the BOSOM, lap, breast, interior parts; sinus, gremium, pectus, interna :-- Ðæt ic híg bǽre on mínum bósume, swá fóstormódor déþ cyld ut portarem eos in sinu meo, sicut portare solet nutrix infantulum, Num. 11, 12. Mín gebéd on bósme mínum byþ gecyrred oratio mea in sinu meo convertetur, Ps. Lamb. 34, 13: 73, 11: 78, 12: 88, 51. Ic winde sceal swelgan of sumes bósme I [i.e. a horn] shall swell with wind from some one's bosom, Exon. 104 a; Th. 395, 30; Rä. 15, 15. l09 b; Th. 419, 17; Rä. 38, 7: 127 a; Th. 489, 11; Rä. 78, 6. Gescype scylfan on scipes bósme make shelves in the interior [lit. bosom] of the ship, Cd. 65; Th. 79, 5; Gen. 1306: 67; Th. 80, 21; Gen. 1332: 71; Th. 85, 6; Gen. 1410: Chr. 937; Erl. 112, 27; Æðelst. 27. Of brimes bósme from the sea's bosom, Andr. Kmbl. 887; An. 444. Dó ðíne hand on ðínne bósum. Ðá he híg dyde on his bósum mitte manum tuam in sinum tuum: cum misisset in sinum, Ex. 4, 6, 7. Án man mihte faran ofer his ríce, mid his bósum full goldes, ungederad a man might go over his kingdom, with his bosom full of gold, unhurt, Chr. 1086; Erl. 222, 4. Ðú ðínre módor bósm sylfa gesóhtes thou thyself soughtest thy mother's bosom, Exon. 121 b; Th. 465, 27; Hö. 110. Ðú wuldres þrym bósme gebǽre thou barest the majesty of glory [Christ] in thy breast, 9 a; Th. 6, 14; Cri. 84. [Wyc. bosum: Laym. bosm: Orm. bosemm: Plat. bussen, bossen: O. Sax. bósom, m: O. Frs. bosm, m: Dut. boezem, m: Ger. busen, m: M. H. Ger. buosem, buosen, m: O. H. Ger. bósam, buosam, m. sinus.] DER. fámig-bósm, swegl-.

BÓT, e; f. I. help, assistance, remedy, cure; auxilium, remedium, emendatio, sanatio :-- Hér ys seó bót, hú ðú meaht ðíne æceras bétan here is the remedy, how thou mayest improve shy fields, Lchdm. i. 398, 1. Findest ðú ðǽr æt bóte and ælteowe hǽlo thou shalt find therein a remedy and perfect healing, Herb. 1, 29; Lchdm. i. 80, 6. Byþ hræd bót the cure will be quick, Med. ex Quadr. 6, 15; Lchdm. i. 354, 11. II. a BOOT, compensation due to an injured person as damages for the wrong sustained, redressing, recompense, an amends, a satisfaction, correction, reparation, restoring, renewing, repentance, an offering; compensatio, emendatio, reparatio, oblatio :-- Gif feaxfang geweorþ, L scætta to bóte if there be a taking hold of the hair, let there be 50 sceats for compensation, L. Ethb. 33; Th. i. 12, 3. For bóte his synna for a redressing of his sins, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 32: 5, 13; S. 632, 13. Bringaþ ánne buccan to bóte bring a kid for an offering, Lev. 4, 23, 28: L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 62, 6: Bd. 1, 27; S. 489, 9. ¶ To-bóte to-boot, with advantage, moreover, besides. [Piers P. boote: Laym. Orm. bote: Plat. bote, f: O. Sax. bóta, f: O. Frs. bole, f: Dut. boete, f: Ger. busze, f: M. H. Ger. buoz, buoze: O. H. Ger. bóza, f: Goth. bota, f: Dan. bod, c: Swed. bot, m: Icel. bót, f.] DER. bric-bót, bricg-, burh-, hád-, weofod-.

bóþ boasts :-- He bóþ he boasts, Exon. 83 b; Th. 315, 9; Mód. 28; pres. of bón.

boðen, es; m? n? Rosemary, darnel; rosmarinus, rosmarinus officinalis, Lin. lolium :-- Ðeós wyrt, ðe man rosmarinum [MS. rosmarim], and óðrum naman boðen, nemneþ, byþ cenned on sandigum landum this herb, which is called rosmarinus, and by another name rosemary, is produced in sandy lands, Herb. 81, 1; Lchdm. i. 184, 5. Ceów boðenes moran chew roots of rosemary, L. M. 3, 4; Lchdm. ii. 310, 17. Ðeós wyrt ys boðene gelíc this herb is like rosemary, Herb. 149, 1; Lchdm. i. 274, 6. Boðen lolium, Ælfc. Gl. 101; Som, 77, 30; Wrt. Voc. 55, 35.

botl, es; n. An abode, a dwelling, mansion, house, hall; domus, ædes, domicilium, atrium :-- Gif he him nán botl ne selþ if he do not give him an abode, L. In. 67; Th. i. 146, 5. Fordrífe ðý botle let him be driven from the abode, 68; Th. i. 146, 8. Wæs Gúþláce botles neód Guthlac was in need of a dwelling [lit. there was need to Guthlac of a dwelling], Exon. 37 a; Th. 122, 4; Gú. 300. Pharao eóde in to his botle Pharao ingressus est domum suam, Ex. 7, 22. Mín se éca dǽl in gefeán fareþ, ðǽr he fægran botles brúceþ my eternal part [i.e. the soul] shall go into joy, where it shall enjoy a beautiful mansion, Exon. 38 a; Th. 125, 14; Gú. 354. To ðæra sacerda ealdres botle in atrium principis sacerdotum, Mt. Bos. 26, 3, 58. Cynelíc botl a kingly dwelling, a palace; palatium, Ælfc. Gl. 81; Som. 73, 9; Wrt. Voc. 47, 16. DER. ealdor-botl, heáfod-.

bót-leás; adj; [bót boot, leás less] BOOTLESS, unpardonable, what cannot be remedied, recompensed or expiated; inexpiabilis :-- Ðonne síg ðæt bótleás then is that unpardonable, L. C. E. 2; Th. i. 358, 24. Húsbryce is bótleás housebreaking is unpardonable, L. C. S. 65; Th. i. 410, 6.

botl-gestreón, es; n. [gestreón riches, wealth] Household property, goods, or treasure; domesticæ opes :-- Chus wæs brytta bróðrum sínum botlgestreóna Cush was a dispenser of household treasures to his brothers, Cd. 79; Th. 97, 32; Gen. 1621. Lameh onféng æfter fæder dæge botlgestreónum Lamech succeeded to the household goods after his father's day, 52; Th. 65, 32; Gen. 1075: 91; Th. 116, 3; Gen. 1930.

botl-weard, -werd, es; m. [weard a keeper, guardian] A house-steward; ædilis :-- Hófweard vel byriweard vel botlweard ædilis, Ælfc. Gl. 8; Som. 56, 105; Wrt. Voc. 18, 54. Botlwerd ædilis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 29.

botl-wéla, an; m. [botl a house, wéla weal, wealth] House-wealth, a collection of houses, village; domesticæ opes, vicus :-- Ðǽr is botlwéla Bethlem háten there is a village called Bethlem, Cd. 86; Th. 107, 34; Gen. 1799.

BOTM, es; m. A BOTTOM; fundus :-- Scipes botm a ship's bottom, the keel; carina, Ælfc. Gl. 83; Som. 73, 64; Wrt. Voc. 48, 3: 103; Som. 77, 112; Wrt. Voc. 56, 32. Satan on botme [ðære helle] stód Satan stood at the bottom [of hell], Cd. 229; Th. 310, 5; Sat. 721: 18; Th. 21, 27; Gen. 330: 19; Th. 23, 18; Gen. 361. Heó to [ðæs fennes] botme com she came to the bottom [of the fen], Beo. Th. 3017; B. 1506. [Chauc. botome: Wyc. botme: O. Sax. bodom, m: Frs. boyem, c: O. Frs. boden, m: Dut. bódem, m: Ger. M. H. Ger. bodem, boden, m: O. H. Ger. bodam, m: Dan. bund, c: Swed. botten, m: Icel. botn, m: Lat. fundus, m: Grk. πυθμήν, m: Ir. bonn, m: Gael. bonn, buinn, m: Sansk. budhna, m. the bottom, from the root budh to fathom a depth, penetrate to the bottom.] DER. byden-botm, tunne-.

bót-wyrþe; adj. Pardonable, expiable, that may be atoned for; emendabilis :-- Æt bótwyrþum þingum among pardonable things, L. C. E. 3; Th. i. 360, 16.

BOX, es; m? n? The BOX-tree; buxus = πύξos, buxus sempervirens, Lin :-- Box buxus, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 39; Wrt. Voc, 33, 36: 79, 71. Æt ðam boxe, of ðam boxe at the box-tree, from the box-tree, Cod. Dipl. 1102; A. D. 931; Kmbl. v. 195, 14. [Chauc. box-tree: Dut. bos-boom: Ger. buchs, m: M. H. Ger. buhs, m: O. H. Ger. buhs-boum: Dan. bux-bom: Swed. bux-bom: Lat. buxus: Grk. πύξos the box-tree or box-wood.] DER. bixen.

box, es; m? n? [box the box-tree] A wooden case made of box-wood, a BOX; buxom, pyxis = πυξίs :-- Bixen box a box made of box-wood; pyxis, Ælfc. Gl. 26; Som. 60, 96; Wrt. Voc. 25, 36. Forcorfen [MS. forcaruen] box a carved box; buxom, Ælfc. Gr. 6, 9; Som. 5, 59. Seó hæfde box mid deórwyrþre sealfe she had a box of precious ointment, Mt. Bos. 26, 7. Ellenes blósman gedó on box put blossoms of elder into a box, L. M. 2, 59; Lchdm. ii. 288, 3. Hundteontig boxa a hundred [of] boxes, Jn. Bos. 19, 39. [Chauc. R. Glouc. box: Dut. bus, f: Ger. büchse, f: M. H. Ger. bühse, f: O. H. Ger. buhsa, f: Lat. buxum, n; pyxis, f: Grk. πυξίs, f. a box.] DER. sealf-box.

box-treów, es; n. The BOX-TREE; buxus = πύξos :-- Ðis boxtreów hæc buxus, Ælfc. Gr. 6, 9; Som. 5, 59. v. box.

bracan; p. bróc, pl. brócon; pp. bracen To break, bruise or bray in a mortar, to beat up; conterere, contundere :-- Ðá sceolon beón ele bracene then shall they be beaten up with oil, Lev. 6, 21. v. brecan.

braccas; pl. m. Breeches; bracæ :-- Braccas on swefnum geseón to see breeches in dreams, Lchdm. iii. 198, 28. v. bróc; pl. bréc, brǽc.

brac-hwíl a glance while, a moment. v. bearhtm-hwíl.

bracigean to dress, mingle or counterfeit with brass; ærare. v. bræsian.

BRÁD; def. se bráda, seó, ðæt bráde; comp. m. brádra, f. n. brádre, brǽdre; superl. brádost; adj. BROAD, open, large, spacious, copious; latus, expansus, amplus, spatiosus, copiosus :-- Ðæt eálond on Wiht is twelif míla brád the isle of Wight is twelve miles broad, Bd. 1, 3; S. 475, 19: Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 21, 4, 5, 6. Was his ríce brád his kingdom was broad, Exon. 65 b; Th. 243, 10; Jul. 8: Elen. Kmbl. 1831; El. 917: Beo. Th. 6296; B. 3158. Brád is bebod ðín latum est mandatum tuum, Ps. Lamb. 118, 96. Se bráda sǽ the broad sea. Exon, 24 b; Th. 70, 28; Cri. 1145: Chr. 942; Erl. 116, 11; Edm. 5. Ps. Th. 79, 10. Beówulfe bráde ríce on hand gehwearf the broad realm passed into the hand of Beowulf, Beo. Th. 4421; B. 2207. Beorn monig seah on ðás beorhtan burg brádan ríces many a chief looked on this bright city of a broad realm, Exon. 124 b; Th, 478, 9; Ruin. 38. Ofer Babilóne brádum streáme we sittaþ we sit over the broad stream of Babylon, Ps. Th. 136, 1. On ðam brádan brime on the broad ocean, Exon. 55 a; Th. 194, 20; Az: 142. Se hearda þegn lét brádne méce brecan ofer bordweal the fierce thane caused his broad sword to break over the shield, Beo. Th. 5948; B. 2978. Ðú scealt ðínum breóstum tredan bráde eorþan thou shalt tread the broad earth on thy breast, Cd, 43; Th. 56, 5; Gen. 907: 83; Th. 105, 12; Gen. 1752: Ps. Th. 118, 32: Exon. 22 b; Th. 61, 29; Cri. 992. He him brád syleþ lond he will give him broad land, Exon. 88 a; Th. 331, 29; Vy. 75. On brád wæter on the broad water, Ps. Th. 105, 8: Salm. Kmbl. 552; Sal. 275. Ðá he healdan mihte brád swurd when he could hold his broad sword, Byrht. Th. 132, 12; By. 15: 136, 38; By. 163: Beo. Th, 3096; B. 1546. Bráde synd on worulde gréne geardas in the world there are broad green regions, Cd. 25; Th. 32, 29; Gen. 510. Of ðám brád blado sprýtan ongunnon thence broad leaves began to spring, 48; Th. 61, 8; Gen. 994. Engle and Seaxe ofer bráde brimu Brytene sóhton the Angles and Saxons sought Britain over the broad seas, Chr. 937; Erl. 115, 20, note; Æðelst. 71: Exon. 13 a; Th. 22, 25; Cri. 357. Sceolde he ða brádan lígas sécan he must seek the broad flames, Cd. 36; Th, 47, 20; Gen. 763. Hit mæg bión syxtig míla brád, oððe hwene brǽdre; and middeweard þrítig oððe brádre it may be sixty [of] miles broad, or a little broader; and midway thirty or broader, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 21, 1, 2. Ðeáh hit ǽlce geáre sý brádre and brádre though it is broader and broader every year, 2, 6; Bos. 50, 22. Ic eom brǽdre ðonne ðes wong gréna I am broader than this green plain, Exon. 111 a; Th. 425, 3; Rä. 41, 50: 111 b; Th, 426, 32; Rä. 41, 82. Ðæt býne land is easteweard brádost the inhabited land is broadest eastward, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 45, Sume hyne slógon on his ansýne mid hyra brádum handum some smote him on his face with their open hands, Mt. Bos. 26, 67. Brád amplus, Ælfc. Gr. 37; Som. 39, 35. Seó sunne is swá brád swá eall eorþan ymbhwyrft, ac heó þincþ [MS. þingþ] us swýðe unbrád, forðamðe heó is swíðe feorr fram úrum gesihþum the sun is as large as the whole compass of the earth, but he [lit. she] appears to us very small [lit. un-broad], because he is very far from our sight, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl, science 3, 8-11; Lchdm. iii. 236, 6-9. Ða steorran, ðe us lyttle þinceaþ [MS. þingeaþ], synd swýðe bráde the stars, which seem little to us, are very large, 3, 16; Lchdm. iii. 236, 14. Se deófol brohte him bráde stánas the devil brought large stones to him, Cd. 228; Th. 306, 31; Sat. 672. Byþ se niwa móna brádra [MS. braddra] gesewen the new moon appears [lit. is seen] larger, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 14, 14; Lchdm. iii. 264, 26. Ðǽr is bráde lond in heofonríce there is a spacious land in heaven's kingdom, Cd. 218; Th. 278, 2; Sat. 215. Hí bebúgaþ brádne hwyrft they shall inhabit the spacious orb, 190; Th. 236, 16; Dan. 322: Exon. 53 b; Th. 187, 29; Az. 38. Ðú gearwodest befóran me brádne beód thou preparedst a copious table before me, Ps. Th. 22, 6. Ge onsceáwiaþ beágas and brád gold ye will behold bracelets and ample gold, Beo. Th. 6201; B. 3105. Ic his cyan gedó brád and bresne I will make his race large and powerful, Cd. 134; Th. 169, 17; Gen. 2801. Brád earmbeáh a broad or large arm-bracelet; dextrocherium, Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, 30; Wrt. Voc. 61, 10. [Chauc. Wyc. brod, brood: R. Glouc. brod: Laym. braed, brad, brod: Orm. brad: Scot. braid, brade: Plat. breed: O. Sax. bréd: Frs. bred: O. Frs. bred, breid: Dut. breed: Ger. M. H. Ger. breit: O. H. Ger. breit: Goth. braids: Dan. Swed. bred: Icel. breiðr: Lat. latus for platus: Grk. πλατύs: Lith. platus: Zend frath-anh breadth: Sansk. prithu broad, wide; prith to extend.] DER. un-brád, wíd-.

brád-æx, e; f. A broad axe, an axe; dolatura, dolabrum :-- Brádæx dolatura, Cot. 68: dolabrum, Ælfc. Gl. 51; Som. 65, 131; Wrt. Voc. 34, 59.

Brádan ǽ; indecl. f. [i.e. latus fluvius, Hist. Eccl. Petroburg. Bardanea, Gib. Chr. explicatio 15] Broadwater; Bradanea :-- Þurh án scýr wæter, Brádan ǽ hátte through a clear water called Broadwater, Chr. 656; Erl. 31, 17; per unam pulcram aquam, Bradanea nomine, Cod. Dipl. 984; A. D. 664; Kmbl. v. 5, 3.

Brádan-ford, es; dat. -forde, -forda; m. [brád broad, ford a ford] BRADFORD in Wilts; loci nomen vadum amplum vel latum significans, hodie Bradford in agro Wiltoniensi :-- Cénwalh gefeaht æt Brádanforda be Afne Kenwealh fought at Bradford near the Avon, Chr. 652; Erl. 26, 22.

Brádan-relic, Brádun-reolic, es; m: Brádan-reíg, -eíg = íg, e; f. [eíg, íg an island, broad island] Flat Holme, an island in the mouth of the Severn :-- Sǽton hie úte on ðam íglande, æt Brǽdanrelice they sat outward on an island, Flat Holme, Chr. 918; Ing. 132, 19.

bráddra broader, larger, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 14, 14; Lchdm. iii. 264, 26, = brádra; comp. def. m. of brád.

bráde; adv. Broadly, widely; late :-- Físon bráde bebúgeþ Pison widely encompasses it, Cd. 12; Th. 14, 23; Gen. 223: Exon. 13 a; Th. 24, 5; Cri. 380: Ps. Th. 106, 37.

Bráden, Brǽden, es; m. [Flor. Bradene: so called from its size, from brád, brǽd broad, open, spacious; dene, es; m. vallis, locus silvestris, v. denu] BREDON Forest, near Malmesbury, Wiltshire; silvæ nomen in agro Wiltoniensi :-- Hie cómon to Creccageláde, and fóron ðǽr ofer Temese, and námon, ǽgðer ge on Brádene, ge ðǽr ymbútan, eall ðæt hie gehentan mehton they came to Cricklade, and there they went over the Thames, and took, both in Bredon, and thereabout, all that they could carry off, Chr. 905; Th. 180, 22, col. 1, 2.

brád-hláf, es; m. [brǽdan to roast, hláf bread] A biscuit, parched or baked bread; paximatium = παξαμάδιoν, panis torrefactus :-- Brádhláf paximatium, Wrt. Voc. 288, 66.

brádiende; part. [brád broad, spread out] Stretching out, extending, reaching; amplificans, extendens, tendens :-- Fram ðam heofone brádiende niðer óþ ða eorþan reaching from the heavens down to the earth, Ors. 5, 10; Bos. 108, 25. v. brǽdan.

brád-nes, -ness, -nis, -niss, -nys, -nyss, e; f. [brád broad, large, -nes, -nis, -nys -ness] BROADNESS, extent, largeness, surface; latitudo, amplitudo, facies, superficies :-- Se ródor belýcþ on his bósme ealle eorþan brádnysse the firmament incloses in its bosom all the extent of the earth, Hexam. 5; Norm. 8, 27. Se wǽta, gyf hit sealt byþ of ðære sǽ, byþ þurh ðære lyfte brádnysse to ferscum wǽtan awend the moisture, if it is salt from the sea, is turned into fresh water through the extent of the atmosphere, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. pop1. science 19, 3, 27; Lchdm. iii. 278, 11; 280, 14. Gehérde me on tobrǽdednesse oððe on brádnesse Drihten exaudivit me in latitudine Dominus, Ps. Lamb. 117, 5. Salomone forgeaf God brádnysse heortan God gave Solomon largeness [or liberality] of heart, Homl. Th. ii. 576, 29. Þeóstru wǽron ofer ðære niwelnisse brádnisse tenebræ erant super faciem abyssi, Gen. 1, 2. Ðære eorþan brádnis wæs adrúwod exsiccata esset superficies terra, 8, 13. Byþ ðære eorþan brádnys betweox us and ðære sunnan the surface of the earth is between us and the sun, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 5, 8; Lchdm. iii. 240, 14. Sumes þinges brádnyss the surface of something; superficies, Ælfc. Gr, 47; Som. 48, 47. Án wyll asprang of ðære eorþan, wætriende ealre ðære eorþan brádnysse fons ascendebat e terra, irrigans universam superficiem terræ, Gen. 2, 6.

brádost broadest, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 45; superl. of brád.

brádre broader, Ors. 2, 6; Bos. 50, 22; comp. f. n. of brád.

brád-þistel; gen. -þistles; m. A thistle with long leaves, sea-holm, sea-holly; eryngium = ήρύγγιoν, eryngium maritimum, Lin :-- Brádþistel eryngion, Cot. 212.

bræc, ðú brǽce, pl. brǽcon broke, didst break, Mt. Bos. 14, 19: Exon. 28 a; Th. 85, 20; Cri. 1394: Cd. 32; Th. 43, 5; Gen. 686; p. of brecan.

bræc, es; n. [bræc; p. of brecan to break] A breaking, flowing, rheum, catarrh; rheuma = ρευμα :-- Bræc rheuma, Ælfc. Gl. 10; Som. 57, 21; Wrt. Voc. 19, 27. DER. ge-bræc, fýr-ge-, hrǽc-ge-, neb-ge-.

brǽc breeches; braccæ, Som. femoralia, Wrt. Voc. 81, 63, = bréc; pl. of bróc, f.

bræc-cóðu, e; f. [bræc a breaking, cóðu a disease] The breaking or falling disease, epilepsy; epilepsia = έπιληψία :-- Bræc-cóðu, fylle-seóc epilepsia vel caduca vel larvatio vel commitialis, Ælfc. Gl. 10; Som. 57, 20; Wrt. Voc. 19, 26.

brǽce; adj. Breaking; violans. DER. ǽw-brǽce, un-. v. brecan.

bræc-seóc; adj. [bræc, seóc sick, diseased] Troubled with the falling sickness, epileptic, frantic, lunatic; epilepticus, phreneticus, lunaticus :-- Sum bræcseóc man becom ðyder phreneticus devenit ibi, Bd. 4, 3; Whelc. 267, 45, MSS. B. C. DER. ge-bræcseóc.

bræc-seócnes, -ness, e; f. Epilepsy; epilepsia. DER. bræc-seóc epileptic, frantic; -nes -ness.

bræd, bred, es; m. [= brægd, bregd from bregdan to braid, weave, twist] Fraud, deceit; fraus, dolus :-- He hit dyde bútan brede [bræde MS. B.] and bigswíce he did it without fraud and guile, L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 160, 6. Ic spæce drífe bútan bræde and bútan bíswíce I prosecute my suit without fraud and without guile, L. O. 2; Th. i. 178, 13. Bred fucus, fraus, astus, Cot. 10.

bræd plucked, drew out, Byrht. Th. 136, 20; By. 154; p. of bredan.

brǽd, e; f: brǽdo, brǽdu; indecl. f. [brád broad; latus] BREADTH, width, latitude; latitudo, amplitudo :-- Biþ se arc fíftig fæðma on brǽde the ark shall be fifty fathoms in breadth; quinquaginta cubitorum erit latitudo arcæ, Gen. 6, 15. On brǽdo his stealles latitudine sui status, Bd. 1, 1; S. 474, 29. Ic on brǽdu [brǽde, Spl.] gange ambulabam in latitudine, Ps. Th. 118, 45. Drihten me gehýrde on heáre [= heáhre, MS. hearr] brǽdu exaudivit me in latitudine Dominus, 117, 5. Hí habbaþ ingang swá mycelre brǽdo swá mon mæg mid liðeran geworpan habet ingressum amplitudinis quasi jactus fundæ, Bd. 4, 13; S. 583, 11. [Chauc. brede: Wyc. breede: O. Frs. brede, f: Dut. breedte, f: Ger. M. H. Ger. breite, f: O. H. Ger. breiti, f: Goth. braidei, f: Dan. brede, c: Swed. bredd, f: Icel. breidd, f. breadth.] DER. hand-brǽd.

brǽd broad; latus, Beo. Th. 4421, note. v. brád.

brǽdan, brédan; to brǽdanne, brédanne; part. brǽdende; he brǽdeþ, brǽd; p. brǽdde, pl. brǽddon; pp. brǽded, brǽdd, brǽd [brád broad; latus]. I. v. trans. To make broad, BROADEN, extend, spread, stretch out; dilatare, propalare, expandere :-- Hí heora stówe brǽddon they broadened their places, Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 24. He gesihþ brimfuglas brǽdan feðra he sees sea-fowls spread their wings, Exon. 77 a; Th. 289, 13; Wand. 47. Ge wilniaþ eówerne hlísan to brédanne ye wish to spread your fame, Bt. 18, 1; Rawl. 38, 33, MS. Cot. Se wallenda lég hine brǽdde to ðam biscope the raging flame spread itself to the bishop, Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 22. Brǽddon æfter beorgum flotan feldhúsum the sailors spread [themselves] amongst the hills with their tents, Cd. 148; Th. 186, 1; Exod. 132. Ðæt hí his naman brǽden [MS. brǽdan] that they spread his name, Bt. 30, 1; Fox 108, 11. Se cyning his handa wæs uppweardes brǽdende wið ðæs heofones the king stretched [lit. was stretching] out his hands upwards towards heaven, Ors. 4, 5; Bos. 81, 36. II. v. intrans. To be extended or developed, grow or rise up; dilatari, adolescere :-- Leáf and gærs brǽd geond Bretene leaves and grass are extended [lit. leaf and grass is extended] over Britain, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 197; Met. 20, 99. Treó sceolon brǽdan trees shall rise up, Exon. 91 b; Th. 343. 20; Gn. Ex. 160. [Laym. breden: Scot. brade: Plat. breden, bredden: O. Sax. brédian, brédón: Kil. breeden: Ger. M. H. Ger. breiten: O. H. Ger. breitan: Goth. braidyan: Dan. brede: Swed. breda: Icel. breiða to broaden.] DER. ge-brǽdan, geond-, ofer-, to-.

BRǼDAN, brédan, to brǽdenne; part. brǽdende; p. brǽdde; pp. brǽded, brǽdd; v. a. To roast, broil, warm; assare, fovere :-- We mágon brǽdan ða þing [þingc MS.] ðe to brǽdenne synd nos possumus assare qua assanda sunt, Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 21. Brédan, weormian fovere, Cot. 86. Brǽdende assans, Cot. 195. [Laym. breden: Scot. brade: Plat. braden, braën: Frs. briede: O. Frs. breda: Dut. braden: Ger. braten: M. H. Ger. bráten: O. H. Ger. brátan assare.] DER. gebrǽdan.

brǽde, es; m. [brǽdan to roast] Roasted meat; assatura :-- Brǽde assura vel assatura, Ælfc. Gl. 31; Som. 61, 85; Wrt. Voc. 27, 15. [Dut. ge-braad, n: Ger. brate, m. caro assa: M. H. Ger. bráte, m: O. H. Ger. bráto, m. assatura.]

brǽde, an; f. The breadth; latum. v. lenden-brǽde.

brǽded-nes, -ness, e; f. [brǽded; pp. of brǽdan to broaden, -nes -ness] Broadness, breadth, width, latitude; amplitudo, latitudo. DER. to-brǽdednes. v. brádnes.

brǽdels, es; m? [brǽdan to spread or stretch out] Anything spread or stretched out, a carpet, covering, garment, dress; palla, stragulum, velamentum, opertorium :-- Brǽdels stragulum, R. 4, Lye. DER. ofer-brǽdels.

Brǽden Bredon Forest :-- On Brǽdene ge ðǽr onbútan in Bredon and thereabout, Chr. 905; Th. 181, 23, col. 1, 2. v. Bráden.

brǽding, e; f. [brǽdan to spread, extend] A spreading; ampliatio :-- Mæg hine scamian ðære brǽdinge his hlísan he may be ashamed of the spreading of his fame, Bt. 19; Fox 68, 24.

brǽding-panne, an; f. [brǽdan to roast, broil, panne a pan] A frying-pan; sartago, Cot. 173. v. brǽd-panne.

bræd-ísen, bred-ísern, es; n. [bræd, p. of bredan; ísen, ísern iron] A scraping or graving tool, file; scalprum, scalpellum :-- Brædísen scalprum, scalpellum, Cot. 173. Bredísern scalpellum, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 162, 28.

brǽd-nys, -nyss, e; f. Broadness; latitude. DER. to-brǽdnys. v. brádnes.

brǽdo breadth, width, Bd. 1. l; S. 474, 29: 4, 13; S. 583, 11. v. brǽd.

brǽd-panne, an; f. [brǽdan to roast, panne a pan] A frying-pan; sartago, frixorium, Cot. 115. v. brǽding-panne.

brǽdre broader, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 21, 2, = brádre; comp. f. n. of brád.

brǽdu breadth, width, Ps. Th. 117, 5 : 118, 45. v. brǽd.

brægd, bregd, es; m. [brægd, p. of bregdan to twist, braid, weave] Deceit, fraud; dolus, fraus. DER. ge-brægd, -bregd, nearo-. v. bræd.

brægd bent, Beo. Th. 1593; B. 794; p. of bregdan.

brægdan to modulate; modulari :-- Hí gehéraþ hleóðrum brægdan óðre fugelas they hear other birds modulate their songs, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 94; Met. 13, 47.

brægd-boga, an; m. [brægd, p. of bregdan to draw, bend, brægd deceit; boga a bow] A drawn or bent bow, a deceitful or fraudulent bow; arcus incurvatus vel fraudulentus :-- He in folc Godes forþ onsendeþ of his brægdbogan biterne strǽl he [the devil] sendeth forth, amongst God's people, the bitter arrow from his deceitful bow, Exon. 19 a; Th. 48, 1; Cri. 765.

brægden; adj. [= bregden; pp. of bregdan] Deceitful, cunning, crafty; dolosus :-- Sendon [sendan MS.] hí Mariurn, ðone consul, ongeán Geoweorþan, á swá lytigne, and á swá brægdenne, swá he wæs they sent Marias, the consul, against Jugurtha, as he was always so cunning, and always so crafty, Ors. 5, 7; Bos. 106, 29.

brægd-wís; adj. [brægd deceit, wís wise] Wise in deceit, crafty, fraudulent; astutus, fraudulentus, dolosus :-- Brægdwís bona a crafty murderer, Exon. 33 b; Th. 107, 13; Gú.UNCERTAIN 58.

BRÆGEN, brægn, bragen, es; n. The BRAIN; cerebrum, cerebellum :-- Wið tobrocenum heáfde, and gif ðæt brægen útsíge, genim æges ðæt geoluwe for a broken head, and if the brain appears, take the yolk of an egg, L. M. 1. 1; Lchdm. ii. 22, 19. Brægen cerebrum vel cerebellum, Ælfc. Gl. 69; Som. 70, 38; Wrt. Voc. 42, 46. Brægn cerebrum, Wrt. Voc. 64, 25. Bragen cerebrum, 70, 25. Brægenes ádl the disease of the brain, L. M. 2, 27; Lchdm. ii. 222, 3. On his brægn astíge his unriht in verticem ipsius iniquitas ejus descendet, Ps. Th. 7, 16. [Chauc. brain: R. Glouc. brayn: Laym. brain, braʒen: Plat. brägen: O. Frs. brein, brin, n: Dut. brein, n. cerebrum.]

Brægent-ford Brentford in Middlesex, Chr. 1016; Th. 280, 26, col. 2 : 1016; Th. 282, 5, col. 2. v. Brent-ford.

bræhtm a glimpse, glittering, twinkling, Bd. 2, 13; Whelc. 142, 23, MS. B. v. bearhtm.

brǽmbel a bramble, Herb. 89, l; Lchdm. i. 192, note 6. v. brémel.

brǽmbel-brǽr, es; m. [brǽmbel a bramble, brǽr, brér a brier] A bramble-brier; tribulus, Wrt. Voc. 285, 64. v. brémel.

brǽmbel-leáf, es; n. [brǽmbel a bramble, leáf a leaf] The leaf of a bramble; rubi folium :-- Nim brǽmbel-leáf take bramble-leaves, Lchdm. iii. 40, 26. v. brémel.

brǽmel a bramble. DER. brǽmel-berie. v. brémel.

brǽmel-berie, an; f. [brǽmel = brémel a bramble, berie a berry] A bramble-berry; rubi bacca :-- Drince seóca of brǽmelberian gewrungene let the sick man drink of wrung bramble-berries, Lchdm. iii. 8, 17.

brǽr a brier; tribulus. DER. brǽmbel-brǽr. v. brér.

BRÆS, es; n. BRASS; æs :-- Bræs oððe ár æs, UNCERTAIN Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 59. [O. Nrs. bras, n. ferumen, soldering of iron, Rask Hald.] v. ár.

bræsen, bresen; def. se bræsna, seó, ðæt bræsne, bresne; adj. I. BRAZEN, made of brass; æreus, æneus :-- Bræsen oððe ǽren æneus, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 59. Ðú gesettest swá swá bogan bræsenne earmas míne posuisti ut arcum æreum brachia mea, Ps. Lamb. 17, 35. II. strong, powerful, bold, daring; validus, fortis, potens, procax :-- Gebeád ðá se bræsna Babilóne weard then the bold lord of Babylon proclaimed, Cd. 196; Th. 244, 16; Dan. 449.

bræsian, brasian, ic bræsige, ðú bræsast, he bræsaþ, pl. bræsiaþ; p. ode; pp. od To cover or furnish with brass, to make of brass; ærare :-- Ic bræsige [MSS. C. D. brasige] æro, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 39.

bræsna strong, bold, Cd. 196; Th. 244, 16; Dan. 449. v. bræsen.

BRǼÞ, bréþ, es; m. An odour, a scent, smell good or bad, a savour, BREATH; odor, odoramen :-- God underféng ðære wynsumnysse brǽþ odoratus est Dominus odorem suavitatis, Gen. 8, 21. Ongan se cealc mid ungemete stincan, ðá wearþ Iuuinianus mid ðam brǽþe ofsmorod the plaster [lit. chalk] began to smell excessively, and Jovian was smothered with the smell, Ors. 6, 32; Bos. 129, 12. Bréþ odor, Ælfc. Gl. 70; Wrt. Voc. 42, 58. [Chauc. Piers P. breeþ: Ger. bradem, m: M. H. Ger. bradem, m: O. H. Ger. bradam, m.] v. ǽðm.

BRǼW, breáw, breág, brég, brégh, bréhg, es; m. An eye-lid; palpebra :-- Wið þiccum brǽwum for thick eye-lids, L. M. 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 38, 9. Ðæt biþ swíðe god sealf ðam men ðe hæfþ þicce brǽwas that will be a very good salve for a man who has thick eye-lids, 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 38, 22, 12. Unwlítig swile and atelíc his eágan brégh [brég MS. C.] wyrde and wemde an unsightly and fearful swelling harmed and corrupted his eye-lid, Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 18. Ðá ðá ðam feaxe onféng ðæs hálgan heáfdes, he togesette ðam untruman bréhge cum accepisset capillos sancti capitis, adposuit palpebræ languenti, 4, 32; S. 611, 40. Ðá gehrán he his eágan, gemétte he hit swá hál mid ðý brǽwe contingens oculum, sanum cum palpebra invenit, 4, 32; S. 612, 7. Brǽwas [brégas, Surt.] his axiaþ oððe befrinaþ bearn manna palpebræ ejus interrogant filios hominum, Ps. Lamb. 10, 5; the eʒelidis of hym asken the sones of men, Wyc. Brǽwas palpebræ, Wrt. Voc. 70, 41: 282, 50. Breáwas palpebræ, Ælfc. Gl. 70; Som. 70, 63; Wrt. Voc. 42, 71. Gif ic selle swefnu oððe slǽp eágum ménum, and breáwum [brǽwum. Spl: brégum, Surt.] mínum hnappunga si dedero somnum oculis meis, et palpebris meis dormitationem, Ps. Lamb. 131, 4; I shal not ʒiue slep to myn eʒen, and to my eʒe lidis napping, Wyc. Ic eom wíde calu, ne ic bréaga ne brúna brúcan móste I am very bald, nor can I make use of eye-lids nor eye-lashes, Exon. 111 b; Th. 427, 32; Rä. 41, 100. Betwux oferbrúan and brǽwum intercilium [= intercilia], Ælfc. Gl. 70; Som. 70, 70; Wrt. Voc. 43, 4. [O. Sax. bráha, bráwa. f: O. Frs. ag-bre, n. an eye-lid: M. H. Ger. brá, f: O. H. Ger. brá, n: Icel. brá, f. an eye-lid: Lat. frons, f. the forehead, brow: Grk. GREEK, f. the eye-brow: Sansk. bhrū, f. an eye-brow, the brow.] DER. ofer-brǽw. v. brú.

bragen the brain, Wrt. Voc. 70, 25. v. brægen.

BRAND, brond, es; m. I. a BRAND, fire-brand, torch; titio, torris :-- Brand titio vel torris, Ælfc. Gl. 30; Som. 61, 76; Wrt. Voc. 27, 6. Brand titio, Wrt. Voc. 82, 55: Glos. Epnl. Recd. 163, 42. Bǽron brandas on bryne blácan fýres they bare fire-brands into the burning of the bright flame, Cd. 186; Th. 231, 12; Dan. 246. Se ád wæs ǽghwonan ymbboren UNCERTAIN mid brondum the funeral pile was heaped around on every side with fire-brands, Exon. 74 a; Th. 277, 15; Jul. 581. II. a burning, flame, fire; incendium, flamma, ignis :-- Brond þeceþ hús the burning covers the house, Exon. 59 a; Th. 212, 27; Ph. 216. Hæfde landwara lige befangen, bǽle and bronde he had enveloped the land-inhabitants in flame, with fire and burning, Beo. Th. 4633; B. 2322. Reóteþ meówle, seó hyre bearn gesihþ brondas þeccan the woman weeps, who sees the flames covering her child, Exon. 87 b; Th. 330, 7; Vy. 47. Ða beágas sceal brond fretan fire shall consume the rings, Beo. Th. 6021; B. 3014: Exon. 18 b; Th. 51, 7; Cri. 812. He his sylfes ðǽr bán gebringeþ, ða ǽr brondes wylm on beorhstede forþylmde it [the Phœnix] brings its own bones there, which the fire's rage had before encompassed on the mound, Exon. 60 a; Th. 217, 21; Ph. 283. Ða fýnd þoliaþ belle to-middes brand and bráde lígas the fiends suffer fire and broad flames in the midst of hell, Cd. 18; Th. 21, 16; Gen. 325. Hý hine ne móston bronde forbærnan they could not consume him with fire, Beo. Th. 4258; B. 2126. Brondas lácaþ on ðam deópan dæge fires shall flare on that awful day, Exon. 116 b; Th. 448, 23; Dom. 58. Bronda of fires. Beo. Th. 6302; B. 3161: Exon. 116 a; Th. 445, 25; Dom. 13. Bronda beorhtost brightest of fires or lights, the sun, 93 b; Th. 350, 170; Sch. 65. III. metaphorically from its shining, A sword [hence the Eng. to BRANDISH]; ensis :-- Ic gean Eádmunde mínum [minon MS.] bréðer ánes brandes I give to Edmund my brother one sword, Th. Diplm. 559, 24. Ðæt hine nó brond ne beadomécas bitan ne meahton that no sword nor battle-falchions might bite it, Beo. Th. 2912; B. 1454. [Chauc. bronde a torch: Laym. brond, brand a sword: Plat. brand, m: Frs. brán, c. gladius: O. Frs. brond, brand, m. a fire-brand: Dut. brand, m. a burning, fire: Ger. brand, m. titio, torris, ensis: M. H. Ger. brant, m: O. H. Ger. brant, m. titio, torris: Dan. brand, m. f: Swed. brand, m. a fire-brand, fire: Icel. brandr, m.I. a brand, fire-brand; II. the blade of a sword.

brand? Beo. Th. 2045, note; B. 1020, note; an error of the copyist for bearn a son.

brand-hát, brond-hát; def. se -háta, seó, ðæt -háte; adj. [brand II. a burning, hát hot] Burning hot, very hot, ardent, passionate; ardentis-simus, vehemens, fervidus :-- Brandháta níþ weóll on gewitte ardent malice boiled in their mind, Andr. Kmbl. 1536; An. 769. Born in breóstum brondhát lufu ardent love burned in his breast, Exon. 46 b; Th. 160, 2; Gú UNCERTAIN. 937.

brand-hord ardent treasure; ardens thesaurus, v. brond-hord.

brand-ísen, es; n. [brand II. a burning, ísen iron] A BRANDING-IRON, a tripod; andena, tripes :-- Brandísen andena vel tripes, Ælfc. Gl. 30; Som. 61, 77; Wrt. Voc. 27, 7: 82, 54. [Dut. brandijzer, n: O. Dut. brandijser fulcrum focarium, Kil: Ger. brandeisen, n. cauterium.] v. Du Cange, vol. i. col., 187, Andena.

brand-rád, e; f. [ród I. a rod] A branding-rod; andena, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 153, 4. [O. Frs. brondrad: O. Dut. brandroede.]

brand-stæfn the shining prowed. v. brond-stæfn.

brang, brong, pl., brungon brought; p. of bringan.

brant, bront; adj. High, deep, steep, difficult; altus, arduus :-- Ðæt dú us gebrohte brante ceóle, heá hornscipe, ofer hwæles éðel, on ðære mǽgþe that thou wouldst bring us with the steep keel, the high pinnacled ship, over the whale's home, to that tribe. Andr. Kmbl. 545-549; An. 273-275. Ðe brontne ceol ofer lagustrǽte lǽdan cwómon who came leading a high keel over the water-street, Beo. Th. 482; B. 238. Ymb brontne ford about the deep ford, 1140; B. 568. Léton ofer fífelwǽg scríðan bronte brimþísan they let the high ships go over the ocean-wave, Elen. Kmbl. 475; El. 238. [Wrt. Provncl. brant steep: Dan. brat steep: Swed. brant precipitous: Icel. brattr steep.]

bran-wyrt, e; f. A bilberry shrub; vaccinium :-- Branwyrt vaccinium, Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 73; Wrt. Voc. 30, 25. v. brún-wyrt II.

brasian, brasigan, ic brasige I cover with brass; æro, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 39, Bodleian copy, C. D. v. bræsian.

brassica, an; m. Colewort, cabbage; brassica, æ, f: -- Wyrta sindon betste béte and mealwe and brassica beet and mallow and cabbage are the best herbs, L. M. 2, 30; Lchdm. ii. 228, 1.

BRASTL, es; m. A noise, brustle, rustle, creak, crackle, burning ? crepitus, strepitus, fractio, arsio ? Som. [Ger. brassel, prassel, geprassel, n. a crackling noise.] v. brastlung.

brastlian, brastligan, to brastlienne, brastligenne; part. brastliende, brastligende; he brastlaþ; p. ode; pp. od [berstan rumpi, frangi] To BRUSTLE, rustle, crackle, make a noise, murmur; crepare, crepitare, strepere, murmurare :-- Begann to brastligenne þunor thunder began to crackle, Homl. Th. ii. 196, 23. Ðæt treów brastliende sáh to ðam hálgan were the tree fell crackling towards the holy man, ii. 508, 33. Brastligende mid brandum crackling with fire-brands, ii. 140, 16. Ge begeáton þéosterfulle wununga afyllede mid brastligendum lígum ye have obtained dark dwellings filled with crackling flames, i. 68, 5. Se þuner oft egeslíce brastlaþ thunder often crackles fearfully, Bd. de nat. rerum; Lchdm. iii. 280, 13. [Laym. brastlien: Ger. M. H. Ger. brasteln: Swed. prassla to crackle.]

brastlung, e; f. A BRUSTLING, rustling, creaking, breaking, crashing; strepitus, crepitus, fractio :-- Híg tobrǽcon ða búcas mid micelre brastlunge they broke the pitchers with great crashing, Jud. 7, 20. Brastlung treówa rustling of trees, Ælfc. Gr. 1; Som. 2, 35: Greg. Dial. 1, 2.

bratt A cloak; pallium :-- Forlét hrægl oððe bratt remitte pallium, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 5, 40. [Prov. Eng. brat a child's pinafore: Chauc. bratt a coarse mantle, rag: Wel. brat a rag; Gael. brat a mantle, apron, cloth.]

breác enjoyed, Exon. 77 a; Th. 289, 7; Wand. 44; p. of brúcan.

BREÁD, breód, es; n. A bit, fragment, morsel, BREAD; buccella, panis :-- Æfter ðæt breád post buccellam, Jn. Lind. War. 13, 27, 30. Hí ge-éton ðæt breád manducaverunt panem, 6, 23. [Chauc. brede: Wyc. breed, brede: Piers P. breed: R. Brun. R. Glouc. brede: Laym. bred: Orm. bræd: Plat. brood, n: O. Sax. bród, n: Frs. braed, n: O. Frs. brad, n: Dut. O. Dut. brood, n: Ger. brot, n: M. H. Ger. brót, n: O. H. Ger. brót, n: Dan. Swed. bröd, n: Icel. brauð, n. Breád is first used in a compound word in Anglo-Saxon, v. beó-breád. It was first used as a separate word in the Lindisfarne Gospels, about A. D. 946-968, and breód in the Rushworth, John 13, 27, A. D. 901-1000. Breád and breód there signify a morsel. In John 6, 23, Lindisfarne and Rushworth, it signifies bread, panis.] DER. beó-breád.

breág an eye-lid :-- Breága palpebrarum, Exon. 111 b; Th. 427, 32; Rä. 41, 100. v. brǽw.

breahtm, brehtm, bearhtm, beorhtm, byrhtm, es; m. A noise, tumult, sound, cry; fragor, strepitus, tumultus, clamor, vociferatio :-- Ðá wearþ breahtm hæfen then a noise was raised, Exon. 36 a; Th. 118, 1; Gú. 233. Breahtem stígeþ a tumult rises, 83 b; Th. 314, 25, note; Mó. 19. Breahtmum hwurfon ymb ðæt háte hús hǽþne leóde the heathen people surrounded that hot house with cries, 55 a; Th. 195, 25; Az. 161: 57 b; Th. 206, 29; Ph. 134. [O. Sax. brahtum, braht, m: M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. braht, m: Dan. brag, n: Swed. Icel. brak, n.] DER. brecan to break.

breahtm a shining, moment, glance, an atom; scintillatio, atomus :-- Breahtm atomus, Cot. 36: 100. v. bearhtm brightness.

breahtum-hwæt; adj. Swift as the twinkling of an eye; celer ut oculi nictus :-- Dec lígetta hérgen, bláce, breahtum-hwate may the lightnings praise thee, pale, swift as the twinkling of an eye, Exon. 54 b; Th. 192, 16; Az. 107. v. berhtm-hwæt.

breard, es; m. A brim, margin, rim, the highest part of anything :-- To brearde heofnes ad summum cæli, Mk. Lind. War. 13, 27. v. brerd.

breát destroyed, Beo. Th. 3430; B. 1713; p. of breótan.

breátan, ic breáte, ðú breátest, brýtst, he breáteþ, brýt, pl. breátaþ; p. breót, pl. breóton; pp. breáten To break, demolish, destroy, kill; frangere, conterere, necare :-- Hí hálge cwelmdon, breóton [breotun MS.] bóccræftige [bóccræftge MS.] bærndon gecorene they slew the holy, destroyed the book-learned, burned the chosen, Exon. 66 a; Th. 243, 25; Jul. 16. DER. a-breátan. v. breótan.

breáw, pl. bruwon brewed; p. of breówan.

breáw an eye-lid, Ælfc. Gl. 70; Som. 70, 63; Wrt. Voc. 42, 71: Ps. Lamb. 131, 4. v. brǽw.

breáw-ern, es; n. A brewing-place, brew-house; coquina cerevisiæ, Grm. ii. 338, 3 :-- Breáwern aporleriterium, forte apolyterium, Ælfc. Gl. 55; Som. 67, 17.

brec, es; n. A breaking, crash, noise; fractio, fragor, strepitus. DER. ge-brec, bán-ge-, cumbol-ge-. v. brecan.

bréc the breech, breeches, L. M. 1. 71; Lchdm. ii. 146, 3 : R. Ben. 55; acc. s. and nom. pl. of bróc, f.

breca, an; m. A breaker; violator. DER. ǽw-breca, wiðer-. v. brecan.

BRECAN; ic brece, ðú bricest, bricst, he briceþ, bricþ, pl. brecaþ; p. ic, he bræc, ðú brǽce, pl. brǽcon; pp. brocen. I. v. trans. 1. to BREAK, burst, violate, break or burst through; frangere, confringere, rumpere, perfringere, perrurnpere :-- Lét se hearda Higeláces þegn brádne méce brecan ofer bordweal the fierce thane of Higelac caused his broad sword to break over the shield. Beo. Th. 5952; B. 2980: Exon. 102 b; Th. 387, 10; Rä. 5, 3: Andr. Kmbl. 1007; An. 504: Salm. Kmbl. 202; Sal. 100. Hit þurh hróf wadeþ, briceþ boldgetimbru it goeth through the roof, breaketh the timbers of the house, 825; Sal. 412 : Exon. 125 a; Th. 482, 8; Rä. 66, 4. Se Hǽlend bræc ða hláfas Iesus fregit panes, Mt. Bos. 14, 19: 15, 36: Beo. Th. 3027; B. 1511: 3138; B. 1567. Ne brǽcon hí ná his sceancan non fregernt ejus crura, Jn. Bos. 19, 33. Swá swá fæt tigelen ðú bricst hi tanquam vas figuli confringes eos, Ps. Spl. 2, 9. Seó wiht, gif hió gedýgeþ, dúna briceþ the creature, if it escape, will burst the hills, Exon. 109 b; Th. 420, 6; Rä. 39, 6. Him egsa becom ðá déma duru in helle bræc dread came over them when the judge burst the doors in hell. Cd. 221; Th. 288, 15; Sat. 381. Gif hie brecaþ his gebodscipe, he him abolgen wurþeþ if they break [violate] his commandment, he will be incensed against them, 22; Th. 28, 3; Gen. 430. Ðú mín bibod brǽce thou didst break my commandment, Exon. 28 a; Th. 85, 20; Cri. 1394. Bræc se here ðone friþ the army broke [violated] the peace, Chr. 911; Erl. 100, 16: 921; Erl. 106, 6. Heó Alwaldan bræc willan she broke [violated] the Almighty's will, Cd. 29; Th. 37, 34; Gen. 599. Yldran usse in oferhygdum ðín bibodu brǽcon our forefathers in pride broke thy commandments, Exon. 53 a; Th. 186, 13; Az. 19: Cd. 188; Th. 234, 28; Dan. 299. Gif hwá his áþ brece, béte swá dómbóc tǽce if any one break his oath, let him make amends as the doom-book may teach, L. Ed. 8; Th. i. 164, 2. Ðæt ǽnig mon wǽre ne brǽce that any man should not break the compact, Beo. Th. 2205; B. 1100. Bióþ brocene áþsweord eorla the oaths of the warriors will be broken, 4132; B. 2063. He lǽteþ inwitfán UNCERTAIN brecan ðone burg-weal he lets the shafts of treachery break through the town-wall, Exon. 83b; Th. 315, 28; Mód. 38. Ic hwílum éðelfæsten brece sometimes I break through a land-fastness, Exon. 126 b; Th. 487, 4; Rä. 72, 23. Se storm and seó stronge lyft brecaþ bráde gesceaft the storm and the strong blast shall break through the broad creation, Exon. 22 b; Th. 61, 29; Cri. 992. Eádweard bræc ðone bordweall Edward broke through the wall of shields, Byrht. Th. 139, 60; By. 277. Brǽcon bordhreóðan [they] broke through the wall of shields. Elen. Kmbl. 243; El. 122. Leóht lyftedoras bræc the light burst through the aerial dwellings, Cd. 155; Th. 193, 24; Exod. 251. 2. to press, force, urge; urgere :-- Lufian hine fyrwet bræc lulianan desire urged him to love Juliana, Exon. 66 a; Th. 244, 14; Jul. 27: Salm. Kmbl. 493; Sal. 247: Beo. Th. 470; B. 232: 5562; B. 2784. 3. to rush into a place, take a place by storm; in locum irrumpere, expugnare :-- Siððan he for wlence beorgas brǽce since he for pride rushed into the mountains, Exon. 35 b; Th. 114, 29; Gú. 180. Cwom [MS. cuom] feorþe healf hund scipa on Temese múþan, and brǽcon Contwara burg and Lundenburg three hundred and fifty ships came to the mouth of the Thames, and took Canterbury and London by storm, Chr. 851; Erl. 66, 34. II. v. intrans. 1. to break or burst forth, make a noise or crash; erumpere, prorumpere, crepare, fremere :-- Geseah streám brecan of beorge [he] saw a stream burst forth from the mount, Bec. Th. 5085; B. 2546. Wæter wynsumu of ðære moldan tyrf brecaþ pleasant waters burst forth from the turf of the earth, Exon. 56 b; Th. 202, 9; Ph. 67. Swógaþ windas, bláwaþ brecende, bearhtma mǽste winds shall howl, crashing blow, with greatest of sounds, Exon. 21 b; Th. 59, II; Cri. 951. 2. to sail; navi-gare :-- Scealtú ceól gestígan, and brecan ofer bæþweg thou shalt ascend a ship, and sail over the sea [lit. bath-way], Andr. Kmbl. 445; An. 223 : Elen. Kmbl. 487; El. 244. We brecaþ ofer bæþweg brimhengestum we sail over the sea in ships [lit. sea-horses]. Andr. Kmbl. 1025; An. 513. III. v. reflex. To retch; screare :-- Gebræd he hine seócne, and ongan hine brecan to spíwenne he feigned himself sick, and began retching to spew, Chr. 1003; Erl. 139, 9. [Wyc. breke, breek: Piers breken: R. Glouc. breke: Laym. breken: Orm. brekenn: Plat. broeken, breken: O. Sax. brekan: Frs. brekke: O. Frs. breka: Dut. breken: Ger. brechen: M. H. Ger. brëchen: O. H. Ger. brechan: Goth. brikan : Dan. bräkke: Swed. bråka, bräcka: Icel. braka to creak.] DER. a-brecan, be-, for-, ge-, ofer-, on-, to-, þurh-, upa-: brec, -mǽlum, -ung; ǽ-, ge-, bán-ge-, cumbol-ge-: breca, breoca, ǽw-, wiðer-: brece, hláf-ge-: brecendlíc, una-: brecþ, edor-: bræc, -cóðu, -seóc, -seócnes; ge-, fýr-ge-, hrǽc-ge-, neb-ge-: brǽce, ǽw-, -un-: brice, bryce, ǽw-, áþ-, bán-, borh-, burh-, ciric-, cyric-, eodor-, fæsten-, freóls-, ful-, ge-, griþ-, hád-, hús-, lah-, mund-, sám-, wed-: breahtm: broc, scip-ge-, un-.

brece, es; n. A bit, morsel, piece; frustum, buccella. DER. hláf-gebrece. v. brecan.

Brecenan-mere, es; m. [Bd. Britannemere: Flor. Bricenanmere: Hunt. Brecanammere: Hovd. Bricenamere] Brecknock, the capital of Brecknockshire in South Wales; Brechinia. Gibson says, -- Ad secundum circiter milliare a Brecknock in Wallia conspicitur Brecknockmere. Arx autem quam in nostris Annalibus Æthelfleda dicitur expugnasse, fuit, opinor, apud ipsum Brecknock, Chr. explicatio, p. 16, col. l :-- Sende Æðelflǽd fyrd on Wealas, and abræc Brecenanmere Æthelfled sent a force into Wales, and took Brecknock by storm, Chr. 916; Th. 190, 35.

brecendlic; adj. [brecende, part. of brecan to break, -líc] Breakable; fragilis. DER. un-abrecendlíc.

bréc-hrægel, -hrægl, es; n. [bréc breeches, pl. of bróc, f; hrægel a garment] A sort of garment; lumbare, diplois = GREEK :-- Him si abrogden, swá of bréchrægle [mid twýfealdum mentle, Spl.], hiora sylfra sceamu operiantur [aperiantur?] sicut diploide confusione sua, Ps. Th. 108, 28.

brec-mǽlum; adv. [brece a bit, piece; mǽlum, dat. pl. of mǽl, u.] By bits, piecemeal; minutatim, Mone B. 1819.

brecþ, e; pl. nom. brecþa; f. [brecan to break] A broken state, fracture, used figuratively of mental contrition, grief; fractio, ærumna :-- Ðæt wæs wrǽc micel wine Scyldinga, modes brecþa that was great wretchedness to the friend of the Scyldings, his mind's griefs, Beo. Th. 344; B. 171. DER. edor-brecþ.

brecung, e; f. [brecan frangere] A BREAKING; fractio :-- On brecunge breódes in fractione panis, Lk. Rush. War. 24, 35.

bred, es; pl. nom. acc. bredu; n. A surface, plank, board, table, tablet; superficies, tabula, tabella :-- Ðisse eorþan ymbhwyrft is, wið ðone heofon to mettanne, swilce án lytel pricu on brádan brede the circumference of this earth is, compared with the heaven, like a little point on a large surface, Bt. 18, 1; Fox 62, 4. Breda þiling vel flor on to þerscenne a joining of planks or a floor to thrash on; area, Ælfc. Gl. 57; Som. 67, 73; Wrt. Voc. 37, 59. Hí bǽron anlícnysse Drihtnes on brede afægde and awritene they bore the likeness of the Lord figured and drawn on a board; ferebant imaginem Domini in tabula depictam, Bd. 1. 25; S. 487, 3. Lytle hus of bredan [= bredum] small houses with tables, eating-houses, taverns; tabernæ vel gurgustia, Ælfc. Gl. 55; Som. 67, 12; Wrt. Voc. 37, 7. Ic bær ða stǽnenan bredu, on ðám wæs ðæt wedd, ðe Drihten wiþ eów gecwæþ acciperem tabulas lapideas, tabulas pacti, quod pepigit vobiscum Dominus, Deut. 9, 9. [Dut. berd, n: O. Dut, bred, n: Ger. bref, brett, n: M. H. Ger. brët, n: O. H. Ger. bret, n.] DER. wex-bred.

bred deceit, L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 160, 6. v. bræd.

bréd broad, Chr. 189; Erl. 9, 25. v. brád.

bredan; ic brede, ðú britst, brist, he brit, bret, pl. bredaþ; p. bræd, pl. brudon; pp. broden, breden. I. to weave, BRAID, knit, join together, draw, pluck; plectere, nectere, vibrare, gladium stringere :-- Ic brede nett plecto, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 32, 8. Ic brede me max plecto mihi retia, Coll. Monast. Th. 21, 13. Beadohrægl broden on breóstum læg the armour [lit. war-garment] joined together lay on my breast, Beo. Th. 1108; B. 552: 3100; B. 1548. Byrhtnóþ bræd bill of scéðe Byrhtnoth drew his battle-axe from its sheath, Byrht. Th. 136, 36; By. 162. Híg brudon up heora ancran they drew up their anchors, Chr. 1052; Erl. 184, 23. Sweord ǽr gemealt, forbarn broden mǽl, wæs ðæt blód to ðæs hát the sword had already melted, the drawn brand was burnt, so hot was the blood, Beo. Th. 3236; B. 1616. Se bræd of ðæm beorne blódigne gár he plucked the bloody dart from the chief, Byrht. Th. 136, 20; By. 154. II. to change, vary, transform; vertere, variare, transformare :-- Simon bræd his hiw ætfóran ðam cásere, swá ðæt he wearþ fǽrlíce geþuht cnapa, and eft hárwenge Simon changed his appearance before the emperor, so that he suddenly seemed a boy, and again a hoary man, Homl. Th. i. 376, 11. Hǽðen cild biþ gefullod, ac hit ne bret ná his hiw wiðútan, ðeáh ðe hit beo wiðinnan awend a heathen child is baptized, but it varies not its aspect without, although it be changed within, Homl. Th. ii. 268, 30. DER. a-bredan, æt-, for-, ge-, ofer-, on-, óþ-, to-, upa-, úta-, wið-. v. bregdan.

brédan to roast, broil, warm, Cot. 86. v. brǽdan.

bredan to make broad, Bt. 18, 1; Rawl. 38, 33, MS. Cot. v. brǽdan.

bréd-búr a bed-chamber, Hymn Surt. 34, 30: 103, 17. v. brýd-búr.

bréden; adj. Broad; latus :-- Seuerus geworhte weall of turfum, and brédenne [breden MS: bred weal, col. 1: bred weall, col. 2] ðár on ufon, fram sǽ to sǽ Severus made a wall of turfs, and a broad wall thereupon, from sea to sea, Chr. 189; Th. 15, 22, col. 3. v. brad.

bredende; adj. [part, of bredan] Deceitful, cunning, crafty; dolosus :-- Sendon [MS. sendan] hí Marius, ðone consul, ongeán Geoweorþan, a swá lytigne, and á swá bredende, swá he wæs they sent Marius, the consul, against Jugurtha, as he was always so cunning, and so crafty, Ors. 5, 7; Bos. 106, 29; notes, p. 24.

bréd-guma a bridegroom, Mt. Kmbl. Hat. 9, 15. v. brýd-guma.

bréding-panne, an; f. [brǽdan to roast, panne a pan] A frying-pan; sartago, Wrt. Voc. 288, 38. v. brǽding-panne.

brédi-panne, an; f. [brǽdan to roast, panne a pan] A frying-pan sartago :-- Brédipanne [MS. bredipannæ] sartago, Glos. Epnl. Recd, 11 30. Bréding-panne sartago, Wrt. Voc. 288, 38. v. brǽd-panne.

bred-ísern a graving iron, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 162, 28. v. bræd-ísen.

brég an eye-lid, Ps. Surt. 131, 4: Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, note 18. v. brǽw.

brega; m. A governor, ruler, prince; imperator, princeps :-- Dá se brega mǽra geladade leóf weorud when the great prince assembled the dear company, Exon. 14a; Th. 29, note 1; Cri. 456, note. v. brego.

brégan, brégean; p. de; pp. ed; v. a. [bróga fear, terror] To give fear, frighten, make afraid, terrify, astonish; terrere, pavefacere, stupefacere :-- Hí sǽ-ýða swýðe brégaþ the sea-waves greatly frighten them, Runic pm. 21; Kmbl. 343, 24; Hick. Thes. i. 135. Ðeáh hí me swá brégdon, ne dorston hí me gehrínan though they frightened me so, they durst not touch me, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 45. Ne beó ge brégede fram ðám ðe ðone líchaman ofsleáþ be ye not afraid of those who slay the body, Lk. Bos. 12, 4: 21, 9. Hý hine brégdon they terrified him, Exon. 40b; Th. 136, 4; Gú. 536. Ne biþ he bréged mid ǽnigum ógan he will not be terrified with any dread, Herb. 73, 2; Lchdm. i. 176, 4. We hí scylen manian and brégean we should admonish and frighten them, Past. 53, 8; Hat. MS. Sume wíf us brégdon some women astonished us, Lk. Bos. 24, 22. DER. a-brégan, ge-.

brégd, bregda fear, terror, dread, v. bróga, brégnes.

BREGDAN, bredan, ic bregde, ðú bregdest, he bregdeþ, pl. bregdaþ; p. brægd pl. brugdon pp. brogden, bregden. I. v. a. To move to and fro, vibrate, cast, draw, drag, change, bend, weave; vibrare, vibrare gladium, jactare, stringere, trahere, nectere, plectere :-- Git mundum brugdon ye vibrated with your hands, Beo. Th. 1033; B. 514. Ðæt hie ne móste se synscaða bregdan that the sinful spoiler might not draw them, 1419; B. 707: Exon. 42b; Th. 142, 23; Gú. 648. Ic underbæc bregde nebbe I draw my face backwards, Exon. 130a; Th. 498, 6; Rä. 87, 8. Bócstafa brego bregdeþ feónd be ðam feaxe the prince of letters shall draw the fiend by his hair, Salm. Kmbl. 200; Sal. 99. Saga, hwá mec bregde of brimes fæðmum say, who drew me from the bosom of the ocean, Exon. 101a; Th. 382, 18; Rä. 3, 13. Sǽ-rófe árum bregdaþ ýþbord [MS. yþborde] neáh brave seamen draw the vessel near with oars, 79 a; Th. 296, 26; Crä. 57. Bræegd beadwe heard feorh-geníðlan the fierce warrior dragged the mortal foe, Beo. Th. 3082; B. 1539: 1593; B. 794. Brugdon hæleþ of scǽðum sweord the warriors drew their swords from their sheaths, Cd. 93; Th. 120, 8; Gen. 1991: Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 38; Jud. 229. Nǽfre hie ðæs sellíce bleóum bregdaþ let them never so strangely change with colours, Salm. Kmbl. 301; Sal. 150. Bleóm bregdende changing in colours, Exon. 95b; Th. 357, 3; Pa. 23. Sceal mǽg nealles inwitnet óðrum bregdan a kinsman should not weave a net of treachery for another, Beo. Th. 4341; B. 2167. Ic gefrægn sunu Wihstánes beran brogdne beadu-sercean I heard that Wihstan's son bore his weaved war-sark, 5503; B. 2755. Ðǽr wæs on eorle brogden byrne there was on the man the woven mail-shirt, Elen. Kmbl. 513; El. 257: Exon. 64b; Th. 238, 11; Ph. 602. Bregden feðrum woven with feathers, 60a; Th. 219, 13; Ph. 306: Ps. Th. 138, 9. II. v.n. to turn into; se vertere in aliquid :-- Hí brugdon on wyrmes bleó they turned into the hue of a worm, Exon. 46a; Th. 156, 30; Gú. 882. [Wyc. R. Glouc. breide: Scot. brade: O. Sax. bregdan: O. Frs. brida: L. Ger. breiden: O. H. Ger. brettan: Icel. bregða.] DER. a-bregdan, be-, for- , ge-, ofer- , on-, to-, upa-, úta-.

Bregent-ford Brentford in Middlesex, Chr. 1016; Th. 280, 28, col. 1. v. Brent-ford.

brégh an eye-lid, Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 18. v. brǽw.

brég-nes, -ness, e: f. [brégan to give fear] Fear, terror, dread; terror :-- Brégnessa [MS. brégnes] ðíne hý gedréfdon me terrores tui conturbaverunt me, Ps. Spl. T. 87, 17.

BREGO, bregu, brega, breogo; indecl. m. A word chiefly used by poets, denoting A leader, governor, ruler, prince, king, Lord; imperator, princeps, rex, Dominus :-- Se beorna brego a leader of men, Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 11; Jud. 254. Norþmanna bregu the leader of North men, Chr. 937; Erl. 112, 33; Æþelst. 33. Brego engla the ruler of angels, Cd. 9; Th. 12, 7; Gen. 181. Brege moncynnes ruler of mankind, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 86; Met. 20, 43. Babilóne brego the king of Babylon, Cd. 187; Th. 232, 6; Dan. 256. Se brega mǽra the great prince, Exon. 14a; Th. 29, note 1; Cri. 456, note. Beorna breogo the king of men. Andr. Kmbl. 609; An. 305. [Icel. bragr, m. vir primarius, princeps.]

brego-ríce, es; n. [brego a governor, ruler, king; ríce a region, kingdom] A kingdom; regnum :-- Se wæs Babylónes bregoríces fruma he was the founder of the kingdom of Babylon, Cd. 79; Th. 98, 21; Gen. 1633.

brego-stól, breogo-stól, es; m. [brego a ruler, prince, king; stól a stool, seat, throne] A prince's stool or chair, a throne, a prince's dominion, kingdom; principis sella, thronus, regnum :-- He him gesealde bold and bregostól he gave him a habitation and a princely seat, Beo. Th. 4398; B. 2196: 4729; B. 2370. He hámes niósan lét ðone bregostól he left the kingdom to visit his home, 4767; B. 2389. Breogostól, Andr. Kmbl. 417; An. 209.

brego-weard, es; m. [brego a ruler, prince; weard a guard, keeper] A royal guard, prince, lord; princeps, dominus, Cd. 131; Th. 166, 13; Gen. 2747: 106; Th. 140, 26; Gen. 2333.

bregu a leader, ruler, prince, Chr. 937; Erl. 112, 33; Æðelst. 33. v. brego.

brégyd made afraid, frightened, Lk. Foxe 12, 4, =bréged; pp. of brégan.

bréhg an eye-lid, Bd. 4, 32; S. 611, 40. v. brǽw.

brehtm, es; m. A noise, tumult, sound, cry; fragor, strepitus, tumultus, clamor :-- Ða com hæleþa þreát. . . . . weorodes brehtme then came the troop of heroes. . . . with the tumult of a host, Andr. Kmbl. 2544; An. 1273. v. breahtm a noise.

brehtnian To make a noise or crackling; crepare, Cot. 202.

brehtnung, e; f. A noise, clattering, cracking; crepitus, Cot. 49.

bréman; part, brémende; p. de; pp. ed; v. a. [bréme celebrated] To celebrate, solemnise, make famous, have in honour; celebrare, honorare :-- Ðæt hie ðæt hálige gerýne bréman mǽgen that they may celebrate the holy mystery [i. e. the sacrament], L. E. I. 4; Th. ii. 404, 27. Á brémende ever celebrating, Exon. 13 a; Th. 24, 20; Cri. 387. We ðec, hálig Drihten, gebédum brémaþ we celebrate thee, holy Lord, in our prayers, Cd. 192; Th. 241, 17; Dan. 406: Menol. Fox 186; Men. 94. Bodiaþ and brémaþ beorhtne geleáfan preach and make famous bright belief, Exon. 14 b; Th. 30, 21; Cri. 483. DER. ge-bréman.

brémbel a bramble, L. M. 2, 65; Lchdm. ii. 296, 23. v. brémel.

brémbel-æppel, es; m. Bramble-fruit, blackberry; rubi pomum, L. M. l, 64; Lchdm. ii. 138, 26: 3, 41; Lchdm. ii. 334, 12.

brémbel-rind, e; f. [brémbel a bramble, rind rind, bark] Bramble-rind; rubi cortex :-- Genim brémbel-rinde take bramble-rind, L. M. 3, 47; Lchdm. ii. 338, 11. v. brémel.

brémber a bramble, Cd. 142; Th. 177, 12; Gen. 2928. v. brémel.

brémblas brambles, Homl. Th. i. 18, 17; pl. of brémbel. v. brémel.

BRÉME, brýme; def. se bréma, seó, ðæt bréme; comp. brémra; sup. brémest, brýmust; adj. Celebrated, renowned, illustrious, famous, notable, BRIM, glorious, esteemed; celeber, clarus, illustris, famosus, notus, coguitus :-- Og wæs bréme cyning on Basane Og was a celebrated king in Basan, Ps. Th. 135, 21: Menol. Fox 80; Men. 40. Ðæt is heálíc dæg, béntíd brému that is a high day, a celebrated time for supplication, 148; Men. 75. Ðis is anlícnes ðæs brémestan mid ðám burgwarum in ðære ceastre this is the image of the most celebrated amongst the inhabitants in the city. Andr. Kmbl. 1435; An. 718. Beówulf wæs bréme Beowulf was renowned. Beo. Th. 35; B. 18: Cd. 177; Th. 222, 13; Dan. 104. Ðá wearþ se bréma on móde blíðe then was the illustrious one blithe in mind, Judth. 10; Thw. 22, 10; Jud. 57. Ne hýrde ic bisceop brémran I have not heard a more illustrious bishop, Menol. Fox 205; Men. 104. Béc syndon bréme books are famous, Salm. Kmbl. 473; Sal. 237. Salomon wæs brémra, ðeáh ðe Saturnus sumra hæfde bóca cǽga Salomon was the more famous, though Saturn had the keys of some books, 366; Sal. 182. Fram gebyrdtíde brémes Cyninges from the birth-time of the glorious King [Christ], Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 20; Edg. 12. Hí Rómána brýmuste wǽron they were the most esteemed of the Romans, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 41, 30. [Northumb. bróeme clarus.]

breme; adv. Famously, notably, gloriously; famose, solemniter, gloriose :-- Is his miht ofer middangeard bréme gébledsod his might is gloriously blessed throughout the earth, Andr. Kmbl. 3434; An. 1721.

BRÉMEL, brémbel, brǽmbel, brémber, es; m. A BRAMBLE, brier, blackberry bush; tribulus, vepres, rubus fruticosus, Lin :-- Herba rubus [erusti MS. = rubus fruticosus], ðæt is brémel [brémbel MS. H.] the herb rubus, that is bramble, Herb. cont. 89; Lchdm. i. 34, 21. Genim ðás wyrte ðe man brémel [brǽmbel MS. H.] nemneþ take this herb which a man calls bramble, Herb. 89, 1; Lchdm. i. 192, 9. Brémelas vepres, Wrt. Voc. 80, 23. Brémlas vepres, Ælfc. Gr. 13; Som. 16, 15 : Gl. 48; Som. 65, 52; Wrt. Voc. 33, 48. Abraham geseah ánne ramm betwux ðám brémelum be ðám hornum gehæft Abraham vidit arietem inter vepres hærentem cornibus, Gen. 22, 13. Þornas and brémelas heó asprít ðé spinas et tribulos germinabit tibi, 3, 18: Homl. Th. i. 432, 34. Wið útwærce, brémbel ðe síen begen endas on eorþan for dysentery, a bramble of which both ends are in the earth, L. M. 2, 65; Lchdm. ii. 290, 30. Seó eorþe sylþ ðé þornas and brémblas the earth shall give thee thorns and brambles, Homl. Th. i. 18, 17. He rom geseah brém-brum fæstne he saw a ram fast in the brambles, Cd. 142; Th. 177, 12; Gen. 2928. [Chauc. brember: Wyc. brembil, brimbil: Plat. brammel-beere, f: Dut. braam, m. a bramble; braam-bézie, f. a blackberry: Kil. braeme, breme rubus: Ger. brom-beere, f. a blackberry: O. H. Ger. bráma, f; brámo, m; brámal, n: Dan. brambær, n: Swed. brombär, m.] DER. heop-brémel.

brémel-æppel bramble-fruit, blackberry. v. brémbel-æppel.

brémel-berie a bramble-berry. v. brǽmel-berie.

brémel-brǽr a bramble-brier. v. brǽmbel-brǽr.

brémel-leáf the leaf of a bramble. v. biǽmbel-leáf.

brémel-rind bramble-rind. v. brémbel-rind.

brémel-þyrne, an; f. [brémel a bramble, þyrne a thorn] A bramble-thorn, bramble-bush; rubus :-- On middan ánre brémelþyrnan de media rubi, Ex. 3, 2, 4.

bremen; adj. Illustrious, glorious; illustris, gloriosus:-- Brémen Dryhten the glorious Lord, Exon. 54 b; Th. 193, 4; Az. 116: 55 a; Th. 194, 21; Az. 142. v. bréme.

Bremesburh; gen. burge; dat. byrig; f. BRAMSBURY or Bramsby, Lincolnshire; urbis vel arcis nomen in agro Lincolniensi:-- Hér, A. D. 909, Æðelflǽd getimbrode Bremes burh in this year, A. D. 909, Æthelfled built Bramsbury, Chr. 909; Th. 183, 30, col. 2. Hér, A. D. 910, Æðelflǽd getimbrede ða burh æt Bremes byrig in this year, A. D. 910, Æthelfled built the fortress at Bramsbury, 910; Th. 184, 11. col. 2.

brémlas brambles, Ælfc. Gr. 13; Som. 16, 15; pl. nom. of brémel.

bremman; part, bremmende; p. de; pp. ed To rage, roar; rudere, fremere:-- Bremman rudere, Cot. 192. Bremmende rudens, 192. Bremmde fremuit, Jn. Lind. War. 11, 33, 38. [Frs. brimje, brimme: Dut. brommen: Kil. bremmen: Ger. brummen; M. H. Ger. brimmen: O. H. Ger. breman: Lat. fremere: Grk. GREEK.]

brémra more illustrious, Salm. Kmbl. 366; Sal. 182; comp. of bréme.

brencþ brings, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 120; 3rd pers. pres. of brengan.

breneþ burns, Runic pm. 15; Kmbl. 342, 11; Hick. Thes. i. 135, = berneþ; 3rd sing. pres. of bernan.

brengan; ic brenge, ðú brengest, brengst, he brengeþ, brengþ, brencþ, pl. brengaþ; p. ic, he brohte, ðú brohtest, pl. brohton; pp. broht; v. a. To bring, adduce, lead, produce, bear, carry; ferre, afferre, offerre, proferre :-- Ðæt geár mót brengan blósman the year may bring blossoms, Bt- 7, 3; Fox 20, if. He brengeþ æfter swegeltorht sunne he brings after him the heavenly-bright sun, Bt. Met. Fox 29, 46; Met. 29, 23. Eorþe sió cealde brengþ wæstma fela the cold earth bringeth many fruits, 20, 201; Met. 20, 101. Brencþ brings, 13, 120; Met. 13, 60. Wæter and eorþe wæstmas brengaþ water and earth produce fruits, 20, 150; Met. 20, 75. Nú scíneþ ðe leóht, ðæt ic from Gode brohte now the light shineth, which I brought from God, Cd. 29; Th. 38, 32; Gen. 615. Ðú brohtest thou broughtest, Exon. 121 a; Th. 463, 34; Hö. 80: 121 a; Th. 464, 12; Hö. 86. Gabriél brohte Gabriel brought, Exon. 12 b; Th. 21, 18; Cri. 336: Cd. 156; Th. 194, 12; Exod. 259. Áras brohton the messengers brought, Elen. Kmbl. 1989; El. 996. Ða he hæfde ǽr him to wífe broht whom he had formerly married [lit. he had formerly taken to himself for a wife], Bd. 3, 7; S. 529, 30. DER. æt-gebrengan: forþ-brengan, ge-, ofer-, onge-, ongeán-.

brengnes, -ness, e; f. An offering; oblatio :-- Onsægednissa and brengnesse ðú nolde sacrificia et oblationem noluisti, Ps. Spl. T. 39, 9.

brenning a burning; crematio, Som. Lye. v. bærning.

Brent-ford, Bregent-ford, Brægent-ford; gen. -fordes; dat. -forde, -forda; m. [Brent the river Brent, ford a ford: Brenford, Sim. Dun: Brendeford, Hunt.] BRENTFORD in Middlesex, situate where the river Brent flows into the Thames; oppidum in agro Middlesexiæ, in sinu quodam ubi se in Tamesin effundit Brent fluvius :-- Eádmund cyng férde ofer Temese æt Brentforda king Edmund went over the Thames at Brentford, Chr. 1016; Th. 282, 4, col. 1: 281, 26, col. 1.

brenting, es; m. A ship; navis :-- Hí brentingas ofer flóda genípu feorran drífaþ they drive ships from afar over the mists offloads, Beo. Th. 5607; B. 2807.

breód a bit, morsel, bread, Jn. Rush. War. 13, 27. v. breád.

breodian; p. ode; pp. od To cry out; vociferari :-- He breodaþ he cries out, Exon. 83 b; Th. 315, 8; Mód. 28.

breodwian; ic breodwige, ðú breodwast, he breodwaþ, pl. breodwiaþ; p. ode; pp. od To prostrate; prosternere? -- Beóþ ða gebolgne, ða ðec breodwiaþ, tredaþ ðec and tergaþ they are enraged, they will prostrate thee, will tread and tear thee, Exon. 36 b; Gú. 258. DER. a-bredwian.

breogo a ruler, prince, king, Andr. Kmbl. 609; An. 305. v. brego.

breogo-stól a throne, kingdom, Andr. Kmbl. 417; An. 209. v. brego-stol.

BREÓST, es; n. I. the breast of man or beast; pectus :-- Ðæt míne breóst wereþ that defends my breast, Beo. Th. 911; B. 453. On breóstum læg lay on my breast, 1109; B. 552. He beót his breóst percutiebat pectus suum, Lk. Bos. 18, 13. Blíð on breóstum mild in the breast [stomach], Cd. 30; Th. 41, 13; Gen. 656. Ðú gǽst on ðínum breóste super pectus tuum gradieris, Gen. 3, 14. II. the breasts; ubera :-- Ða breóst ðe ðú suce ubera quæ suxisti, Lk. Bos. 11, 27. Ða breóst ðe ne sícton ubera quæ non lactaverunt, 23, 29. Ðǽr wearþ Alexander þurhscoten mid ánre flán UNCERTAIN underneoðan oðer breóst there Alexander was shot through with an arrow underneath one breast, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 68, 27. III. the breast as the seat of the vital powers, of the feelings, and of the affections, The heart, mind, thought; pectus, cor, mens :-- Drihtnes wæs barn on breóstum byrnende lufu in both their breasts there was the burning love of the Lord, Cd. 10; Th. 12, 25; Gen. 191. Hwæðre he in breóstum ða git hérede -- in heortan -- heofonríces weard nevertheless he still in his breast -- in his heart -- honoured the guardian of heaven's kingdom, Andr. Kmbl. 102; An. 51. Mæg ðín mód wesan blíðe on breóstum thy mind may be blithe in thy breast. Cd. 35; Th. 46, 28; Gen. 751. Beoran on breóstum blíðe geþohtas to bear in our breasts blithe thoughts, 217; Th. 277, 17; Sat. 206. Adame innan breóstum his hyge hwyrfde Adam within his breast his mind, 33; Th. 44, 27; Gen. 715. Ðú úra breósta ána aspyrigend eart tu nostrorum pectorum solus investigator es, Hymn. Surt. 33, 21. Déma ðú ætbist smégan dǽda breóstes judex aderis rimari facta pectoris, 36, 20. Gefyll mid heofonlícre gyfe ðe ðú gesceópe breóst imple superna gratia quæ tu creasti pectora, 92, 9. [IChauc. Wyc. brest: R. Glouc. breste: Laym. breoste: Orm. brest: Plat. borst, bost, f: O. Sax. briost, breost, n: Frs. boarst, m. f: O. Frs. brust: Dut. Kil. borst, f: Ger. M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. brust. f: Goth. brusts, f: Dan. bryst, n: Swed. brouml;st, n; Icel. brjóst, n.] DER. byled-breóst, fóre-.

breóst-bán, es; n. [breóst the breast, bán a bone] The BREAST-BONE; pectoris os, pectusculum, Ælfc. Gl. 73; Som. 71, 25; Wrt. Voc. 44, 11.

breóst-bedern, es; n. The breast-chamber, the inmost thoughts, the mind, the breast, chest; pectoris conclave vel cubile, i. e. pectus intimum, thorax = GREEK :-- Fóran-bodig vel breóstbedern [MS. beden] thorax [MS. tora], Ælfc. Gl. 73; Som. 71, 26; Wrt. Voc. 44, 12.

breóst-beorh, -beorg, es; m. A breast-defence, breast-plate; pectoris tutamen. DER. breóst, beorg.

breóst-cearu, e; f. [breóst II. the heart, mind, cearu care] The care of the heart, anxiety, grief, sorrow; ægritudo, mæror :-- Ic bitre breóst-ceare gebiden hæbbe I have suffered bitter grief, Exon. 81 b; Th. 306, 7; Seef. 4: 115 b; Th. 444, 9; Kl. 44.

breóst-cófa, an; m. [breóst the breast, the heart, mind, cófa a cave, chamber] The breast-chamber, breast, heart, mind; pectoris cubile, pectus, uber, cor, animus :-- Under breóstcófan sub pectore, Wanl. Catal. 48, 43. Ðú eart hiht mín fram breóstcófan módor mínre tu es spes mea ab uberibus matris meæ, Ps. Lamb. 21, 10. He wæs ðe blíðra on breóstcófan he was the blither in his heart, Bt. Met. Fox 9, 64; Met. 9, 32: Cd. 27; Th. 36, 19; Gen. 574: Exon. 76 b; Th. 287, 22; Wand. 18.

breóst-gebeorh, -geborh; gen. -gebeorges; m. [breóst, gebeorh a defence] A defence for the breast, hence a defence generally, bulwark, tower; propugnaculum, Cot. 152.

breóst-gehygd, e; f: es; n. [breóst II. the heart, mind, gehygd thought, meditation] The thought of the heart or mind, a thought; cordis vel animi cogitatio, cogitatio :-- Ðæt wæs gingeste word breóstgehygdum that was the last word from his mind's thoughts, Beo. Th. 5628; B/ 2818: Andr. Kmbl. 194; An. 999. breóst-geþanc, -geþonc, es; m. [breóst II. the heart, mind, geþanc thought] The thought of the heart or mind, a thought; cordis vel animi cogitatio, cogitatio :-- Annanias ðec, and Adzarias and Misaél, Metod, dómige, breóstgeþancum Hananiah and Azariah and Mishael glorify thee, O God, in their minds' thoughts, Cd. 192; Th. 241, 5; Dan. 400. Breóstgeþoncum, Exon. 80 b; Th. 302, 8; . 33.

breóst-gewǽdu; pl. n. [breóst I. the breast, gewǽde a garment, clothing] A covering for the breast, corselet; pectoris vestimentum, lorica :-- Gehwearf in Francna fæðm feorh cyninges, breóstgewǽdu, and se beáh somod the king's life fell into the power of the Franks, his corselet, and his collar also, Bec. Th. 2426; B. 1211: Beo. Th. 4330; B. 2162.

breóst-hord, es; n. m. [breóst II. the heart, mind, hord a hoard, treasure] The breast's treasure, the thought, mind, heart; pectoris thesaurus, cogitatio, mens, cor :-- Óþ-ðæt wordes ord breóst-hord þurhbræc until the point [or issue] of the word broke through his mind, Beo. Th. 5577; B. 2792. Him on ferhþe greów breóst-hord blódreów in his mind there grew a bloodthirsty thought. Beo. Th. 3442; B. 1719: Exon. 82 a; Th. 309, 10; Seef. 55.

breóst-hyge, es; m. [breóst, hyge, hige the mind] The breast-thought; pectoris cogitatio, Andr. Elen. Grm. xxxix. v. hyge, hige.

breóst-lin, es; n. [breóst, lín linen] A breast-linen or bandage, breast-cloth; pectoralis fascia, Cot. 89.

breóst-loca, an; m. [breóst, loca an inclosure] The breast-inclosure, the mind; pectoris clausura, mens :-- Swefen he onfón ne meahte in his breóstlocan he could not contain the dream in his mind, Cd. 180; Th. 226, 7; Dan. 167: Elen. Kmbl. 2498; El. 1250.

breóst-net, -nett, es; n. [breóst, net a net] A breast-net, covering for the breast, breast-plate; pectorale reticulatum, thorax :-- Him on eaxle læg breóstnet broden on his shoulder lay the braided breastplate, Beo. Th. 3100; B. 1548: Cd. 154; Th. 192, 24; Exod. 236.

breóst-rocc, es; m. [breóst. rocc clothing] Breast-cloth; thorax :-- Breóstrocc thorax. Cot. 163. Stíðe and ruge breóstroccas [MS. breóst-rocces] stiff and rough breast-clothes; renones, Ælfc. Gl. 63; Som. 68, 114; Wrt. Voc. 40, 24.

breóst-sefa, an; m. [breóst the breast, sefa the mind] The mind or heart in the breast, the mind, heart; mens vel cor in pectore, rnens, eor :-- Arǽred wearþ beornes breóstsefa the mind of the man was exalted, Elen. Kmbl. 1606; El. 805: Exon. 15 b; Th. 34, 10; Cri. 540. Ic onsende in breóstsefan bitre geþoncas I send into his mind bitter thoughts, 71 b; Th. 266, 28; Jul. 405.

breóst-toga. an; m. A breast-leader; pectoris dux :-- Sumra hæfde bald breóst-toga bóca cǽga the bold chief had the keys of some books, Salm. Kmbl. 369; Sal. 184.

breóst-wærc, es; n? A breast-pain, the asthma, short windedness; pectoris dolor vel morbus, forsan asthma,Lye. =GREEK short breath, a panting. v. wærc.

breóst-weall, es; m. [breóst, weall a wall] A wall as high as the breast, a rampart, defence; structura in muris ad pectus alta, munimentum, propugnaculum, Cot. 199.

breóst-weorþung, e; f. [breóst, weorþung a honouring] A breast-decoration, an ornament; pectoris decoratio, ornamentum :-- Nalles he Fres-cyninge breóstweorþunge bringan móste he could not bring the ornament to the Frisian king, Beo. Th. 5001; B. 2504.

breóst-wylm, es; m. The fountain of the breast, a breast, teat, emotion of the breast, grief; pectoris fons, uber, pectoris æstuatio, ærumna :-- Ðu eart hiht min fram breóstwylmum módor mínre tu es spes mea ab uberibus matris meæ, Ps. Spl. 21, 8. He ðone breóstwylm forberan ne mihte he could not restrain the emotion of his breast, Beo. Th. 3758; B. 1877.

BREÓTAN; ic breóte, ðú breótest, breótst, brýtest, brýtst, he breóteþ, breót, brýteþ, brýt, pl. breótaþ; p. ic, he breát, ðú brute, pl. bruton; pp. broten; v. a. To bruise, break, demolish, destroy; conterere :-- Hergas breótaþ break idols. Exon. 14 b; Th. 30, 26; Cri. 485. Heremód breát bolgen-mód eaxlgesteallan Heremod in angry mood destroyed his bosom friends, Beo. Th. 3430; B. 1713. [O. H. Ger. bretón cædere: Dan. bryde: Swed. bryta: Icel. brjóta.] DER. a-breótan. v. breátan.

Breoten, e; f. Britain; Britannia, Bd. l, 17; S. 484, 26. v. Bryten.

breóðan; ic breóðe, ðú breóðest, brýst, he breóðeþ, brýþ, pl. breóðaþ; p. breáþ, pl. bruðon; pp. broðen To ruin, destroy; perdere. DER. a-breóðan. v. breótan.

Breoton Britain, Bd. l, l; S. 473, 8. v. Bryten.

breótun destroyed, Exon. 66 a; Th. 243, 25; Jul. 16, = breóton; p. pl. of breátan.

BREÓWAN; ic breówe, ðú breówest, brýwst, he breóweþ, brýwþ, pl. breówaþ; p. breáw, pl. bruwon; pp. browen, ge-browen To BREW; cerevisiam coquere :-- Ne biþ ðǽr nǽnig ealo gebrowen mid Estum there is no ale brewed by the Esthonians, Ors. 1. 1; Bos. 22, 17. Ne dranc he nánes gemencgedes wǽtan, ne gebrowenes he drank not of any mixed or brewed fluid, Homl. Th. i. 352, 7. [Dut. brouwen: Ger. brauen: M. H. Ger. briuwen: O. H. Ger. briuwan: Dan. brygge: Swed. brygga: Icel. brugga.] DER. twy-browen.

BRÉR, es; m. A BRIER, the bramble; tribulus, rubus fruticosus :-- Genim brér ðe hiopan on weaxaþ take a brier on which hips grow, L. M. l, 38; Lchdm. ii. 96, 15. Sindon burgtúnas brérum beweaxene [MS. beweaxne] the city-dwellings are overgrown with briers, Exon. 115b; Th. 443, 17; Kl. 31. [Chauc. Wyc. brere: Orm. breress, pl: Northumb. breer, m: Fr. bruyére UNCERTAIN heather; O. Fr. bruiére: UNCERTAIN M. Lat. bruarium a heath, barren land rough with brambles and bushes, Da UNCERTAIN Cange.] DER. brǽmbel-brǽr, hind-brér.

BRERD, breord, breard, briord, es; m. A brim, margin, rim, top of a pot or vessel, a shore, bank, brink; labrum, ora, margo, summitas, summum :-- Híg gefyldon ða óþ ðone brerd impleverunt eas usque ad summum, Jn. Bos. 2, 7. Ofer brúnne brerd over the dark brim, Exon. 107 a; Th. 408, 8; Ra. 27, 9. Brerd vel Sfer crepido, Ælfc. Gl. 98; Som. 76, 81; Wrt. Voc. 54, 25. Stæþ vel brerd labrum, margo, vel crepido, 106; Som. 78, 44; Wrt. Voc. 57, 25. To brearde heofnes ad summum cæli, Mk. Lind. War. 13, 27. [Wye. brerde: Laym. breorde: Orm. brerd: O. H. Ger. brart, brort, m. prora, ora, labrum, margo, limbus: Icel. broddr, m. a spike: Sansk. bhrishti, f. a spike.]

bresne; adj. Strong, powerful, bold; potens :-- Ic his cynn gedó brád and bresne I will make his race wide-spread and powerful, Cd. 134; Th. 169, 17; Gen. 2801: 180; Th. 226, 18; Dan. 173. v. bræsen II.

bret varies, changes; 3rd pres. of bredan :-- Hǽðen cild biþ gefullod, ac hit ne bret ná his hiw wiðútan, ðeáh ðe hit beó wiðinnan awend a heathen child is baptized, but it varies not its aspect without, although it be changed within, Homl. Th. ii. 268, 30. v. bredan II.

Bret-, Bryt- a Welshman, v. Bret-walas, Bret-walda, Bryt-land.

Breten Britain, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 197; Met. 20, 99. v. Bryten.

Bretenan-mere, es; m. The British mere or lake, Welshpool, Montgomeryshire; loci nomen apud Cambrenses, Som. v. Brecenan-mere.

bréþ breath, Wrt. Voc. 42, 58. v. brǽþ.

bréþer to a brother; fratri, Lk. Bos. 12, 13; dat. of bróðor.

Bret-land, es; n. Britain :-- On Bretlande in Britain, Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 126, 2. v. Bret-, Bryt-land.

bretta, an; m. A steward, lord, the Lord; dispensator, dominus, Deus :-- Lífes Bretta Lord of life, Ps. C. 50, 122; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 122. v. brytta.

Brettas Britons, Chr. Th. 4, 4, col. 1; also Bretons, Chr. 890; Th. 160, 10, col. 1. v. Bryttas.

brettnere a steward; dispensator. v. brytnere.

Bret-walas; pl. m. The Britons of Wales; Walli -- Cynríc ða Bretwalas gefliémde Cynric routed the Welsh, Chr. 552; Th. 28, 39, col. 1.

Bret-walda, an; m. A ruler of the Saxons in Britain, the chief Saxon king in England; Saxonum in Britannia rex supremus. Turner and Lappenberg suppose that the Bretwalda was elected by the other Saxon kings and by the collected nobility and other electors in Britain, because Hunt. lib. ii. about A. D. 1148, says, 'Omnia jura regni Anglorum, reges scilicet et proceres et tribunos in ditione sua tenebat:' -- Ecgbryht wæs se eahteða cyning, se ðe Bretwalda wæs Egbert was the eighth king, who was the Bretwalda, Chr. 827; Th. 112, 21, col. 1. -- There does not appear to be any historical evidence that the Bretwalda denoted any special title or office. The word is given in this alphabetical order because it occurs once in the Chronicle, and is thus written by historians; however, its more correct form appears to be brýten-walda, q. v.

bric- a bridge [= bricg], found in the compound bric-bót, q. v.

brica, an; m. A breaker; ruptor. DER. ǽw-breca, L. M. I. P. 16; Th. ii. 268, 30.

bric-bót, e; f. A repairing or restoring of a bridge; pontis restitutio vel instauratio :-- Bricbóta aginne man georne let a man diligently begin the repairings of bridges, L. Eth. vi. 32; Th. i. 322, 31: v. 26; Th. i. 310, 24.

brice, bryce, es; m. [from briceþ, brycþ, pres. of brecan to break] A breaking, rupture, fracture, fragment, violation, breach; fractio, ruptura, fractura, fragmentum, violatio :-- Híg hine oncneówon on hláfes brice cognoverunt earn in fractione panis, Lk. Bos. 24, 35. We witon ful georne, ðæt to miclan bryce sceal micel bót nýde id compertum est nobis, immanis ubi facta est ruptura, ibi opus esse, ut large resarciatur, Lupi Serm. i. 3; Hick. Thes. ii. 99, 30. Ne sý bánes bryce let there not be a fracture of a bone, Exon. 42 b; Th. 143, 32; Gú. 670. Gefég ðás bricas to ánsúndnysse join these fragments to soundness, Homl. Th. i. 62, 7, 9. Hí gegaderodon ða bricas they gathered the fragments, i. 182, 22. Wǽron seofan spyrtan afyllede mid ðám bricum seven baskets were filled with the fragments, ii. 396, 9: i. 190, 4. II. Ðæs borges bryce a violation or infraction of the pledge or security, L. Alf. pol. 3; Th. i. 62, 9, 10, 12. [Plat. bräk, m: Frs. brek, m. f; O. Frs. breke, m. f: Dut. breuk, f: Dan. bræk, brok: Swed, brak, n: Icel. brek, n. a fraudulent purchase of land: like Ger. ge-brechen, n. vitium; bruch, m. a breaking, breach, from Ger. brechen, A. Sax. brecan to break.] DER. ǽw-brice, -bryce, áþ-, bán-, borh-, burh-, ciric-, cyric-, eodor-, fæsten-, freóls-, ful-, ge-, griþ-, hád-, hús-, lah-, mund-, sám-, wed-.

bríce use, service :-- God híg gesceóp eallum mannum to bríce God created them for the use of all men. Deut. 4, 19. v. brýce.

bríce; adj. Useful; utilis :-- Dæg byþ eallum bríce day is useful to all, Runic pm. 24; Kmbl. 344, 14; Hick. Thes. i. 135. v. brýce.

bricest, he briceþ breakest, he breaks, Exon. 63a; Th. 232, 10; Ph. 504; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of brecan.

bricg, e; f. A bridge; pons :-- He hét ða ofermetan bricge mid stáne gewyrcan he ordered a very large bridge to be built with stone, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 48, II. v. brycg.

Bricg, Brycg, e; f. [Sim. Dun. Brige: Hovd. Briges: Matt. West. Brigges]. I. Sridgenorth in Shropshire; oppidum in agro Salopiensi :-- Æðelflǽd ða burh getimbrede set Bricge Æthelfled built the fortress at Bridgenorth, Chr. 912; Th. 186, 10, col. 2; 187, 10, col. 1. II. Bruges in Belgium; Brugæ, Flandriæ emporium :-- Heó com to Bricge begeondon sǽ she came to Bruges beyond the sea, Chr. 1037; Erl. 166, 7. Férde Swegen út to Baldewines lande to Brycge Sweyn went out to Baldwin's land to Bruges, 1045; Erl. 170, 11: 1046; Erl. 175, 6: 1052; Erl. 181, 20: 1052; Erl. 182, 4.

bricg-bót, e; f. A repairing of a bridge; pontis instauratio :-- Bricg-bóta aginne let the repairings of bridges be begun, L. G. S. 10; Th. i. 380, 27. v. brycg-bót.

bricg-geweorc, es; n. BRIDGE-WORK , the construction or reparation of a bridge; pontis opus, pontis exstructio vel instauratio :-- Brycg-geweorc, Heming. 104, Lye. Turner's Hist. of A. S. App. No. 4, c. 3, vol. ii. p. 539, 8vo. 1823. v. brycg-geweorc.

Bricg-stów, e; f. [Bricstowa, Flor: Brigestou, Bristou, Hunt: Brycstoue, Sim. Dun: Brikestow, Bristohw, Hovd: Bristow, Kni: brycg a bridge, stów a place] BRISTOL in Gloucestershire and Somersetshire; Bristova in finibus agrorum Glocestriensis et Somersetensis :-- Híg férdon to Bricgstówe they went to Bristol, Chr. 1087; Erl. 224, 18.

bricg-weard, es; m. [bricg a bridge, weard a keeper, guardian] A keeper or defender of a bridge; pontis custos vel defensor :-- Hí ðǽr bricgweardas bitere fundon they found there the stern defenders of the bridge. Byrht. Th. 134, 16; By. 85.

brícsian; p. ade To profit; prodesse, Bd. 5, 13; S. 632, 6. v. brýcian.

brícst, he bricþ than shall break, he shall break; confringes, confringet, Ps. Spl. 2, 9; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. and fut. of brecan.

brícst shalt eat; edes, Gen. 3, 19; pres. and fut. of brúcan.

brid, bridd, es; m. The young of any of the feathered tribe; pullus :-- Earnes brid an eagle's young, Exon. 59 a; Th. 214, 7; Ph. 235. Þurh briddes hád through the state of a young bird, 61 a; Th. 224, 7; Ph. 372. Ðæt híg offrunge sealdon twegen culfran briddas ut darent hostiam duos columbæ pullos, Lk. Bos. 2, 24: Lev. 1, 14: Ps. Spl. 83, 3. On swealwan bridda magan in the maw of the young ones of a swallow, L. M. 3, 1; Lchdm. ii. 306, 7. Hit sculon beón micle briddas it should be big young ones, L. M. 3, 1; Lchdm. ii. 306, 14. Hrefnes briddum corvi pullis, Ps. Th. 146, 10. [Chauc. brid, bryd: Wyc. Piers P. brid: Orm. bridd: O. Nrs. burdr, m. Rask, burðr, m. Vigf. partus.]

bríd a bride; sponsa. v. brýd.

bríd-bletsung, e; f. A marriage-blessing; nuptialis benedictio :-- Man ne mót sillan him brídbletsunge they [priests] may not give them the marriage-blessing, L. Ælf. P. 43; Th. ii. 382, 33.

bríd-búr a bedchamber, v. brýd-búr.

briddas the young of any of the feathered tribe; pulli. v. brid.

BRIDEL; gen. bridles; m. A BRIDLE; frenum :-- Bridel bagula ? Ælfc. Gl. 15; Som. 58, 46; Wrt. Voc. 21, 35. Bridles midl a bridle's middle, a bit; camus, 21; Som. 59, 61; Wrt. Voc. 23, 22 : Runic pm. 21; Kmbl. 343, 26; Hick. Thes. i. 135. On hælftre and bridle ceácan heora gewríþ in camo et freno maxillas eorum constringe, Ps. Lamb. 31, 9. He ðæne bridel of ateáh he took the bridle off [his horse], Bd. 3, 9; S. 533, note 34. Se gemetgaþ ðone bridel he regulates the bridle, Bt. 36, 2; Fox 174, 18. Mid his bridle with his bridle, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 6: Bt. Met. Fox 11, 45, 57, 157; Met. 11, 23, 29, 79; 24, 73; Met. 24, 37. He ðæt gewealdleðer forlǽt ðara bridla he shall let go the rein [lit. governing leather] of the bridles, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 31: Bt. Met. Fox 11, 151; Met. 11, 76. Drihten welt eallra gesceafta mid ðám bridlum his anwealdes the Lord governs all creatures with the bridles of his power, Bt. 25; Fox 88, 3: Bt. Met. Fox 13, 5; Met. 13, 3. [Chauc. bridel, bridle: Wyc. brydil, bridel: Dut. breidel, m: Kit. breydel: O. H. Ger. brittil, m. a bridle]

bridels es; m. A bridle; frenum :-- On bridels dón to put on a bridle, Elen. Kmbl. 2348; El. 1175: 2367; El. 1185: 2396; El. 1199. v. bridel.

brídels-hring, es; m. A bridle-ring; in freno annulus :-- Ðæs cyninges sceal mearh midlum geweorþod, bridelshringum the king's horse shall be adorned with bits, with bridle-rings, Elen. Kmbl. 2385; El. 1194.

bridel-þwangas; pl. m. Bridle-thongs or reins; freni :-- Ic wyrce bridelþwangas [MS. bridel-þwancgas] facio frenos, Coll. Monast. Wrt. 9. 9.

bríd-gifu, e; f. [bríd = brýd a bride, gifu a gift] A marriage-portion, dowry; dos :-- Ðeós brídgifu hæc dos, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 31; Som. 12, l.

bridles of a bridle, Ælfc. Gl. 21; Som. 59, 61; Wrt. Voc. 23, 22; gen. of bridel.

bridlian; p. ode; pp. od [bridel a bridle] To BRIDLE, curb, rule; frenare. DER. ge-bridlian.

brig a bridge, Chr. 1125; Erl. 254, 19. v. bricg, brycg.

brigd, es; n. [bregdan to change] A change, variety; varietas :-- Ðæs deóres hiw brigda gehwæs wundrum lixeþ the animal's hue of every variety wondrously shines, Exon. 95 b; Th. 357, 9; Pa. 26. [Icel. brigði, n. a change.]

briht bright. Lk. Hat. 11, 34, Lye. v. bryht, beorht.

brihtan; p. brihte; pp. brihted [briht = beorht bright] To brighten; illuminare. DER. ge-brihtan. v. beorhtian.

briht-líce; adv. Clearly, brightly; clare, splendide :-- Ðæt he brihtlíce eall geseah ut videret clare omnia, Mk. Skt. Hat. 8, 25. v. beorht-líce.

BRIM, brym, es; n. m. Surf, the sea, ocean, surface of the sea; æstus aquæ, mare, pelagus = GREEK, æquor :-- Brim sceal sealt weallan the salt sea shall foam. Menol. Fox 552; Gn. C. 45: Andr. Kmbl. 884; An. 442: 3147; An. 1576: Cd. 166; Th. 208, 2; Exod. 477: Exon. 95 b; Th. 356, 6; Pa. 7. Beáteþ [MS. beataþ] brim staðo [MS. stæðo] the sea beats the shores. Andr. Kmbl. 991; An. 496. Wæs þrim blóde fáh the sea's surface was stained with blood, Beo. Th. 3192; B. 1594: 1699; B. 847. Ic of fæðmum cwom brimes I came from the bosom of the sea, Exon. 103 b; Th. 392, 13; Rä. 11, 7: Andr. Kmbl. 884; An. 442: Beo. Th. 5599; B. 2803. On ðám brádan brime on the broad ocean, Exon. 55 a; Th. 194, 20; Az. 142: Elen. Kmbl. 505; El. 253: Menol. Fox 423; Men. 213. Brimo fæðmaþ [MS. fæðmeð] in ceastra gehwǽre the seas surround [them] in every city, Elen. Kmbl. 1941; El. 972. Ealle him brimu blódige þuhton all the waters seemed bloody to them, Cd. 170; Th. 214, 20; Exod. 572: Ps. Th. 106, 28: Beo. Th. 1145; B. 570. Cealde [MS. ceald] brymmas cold seas, Chr. 1065; Erl. 196, 31; Edw. 12. Engle and Sexe becómon ofer bráde brimu Angles and Saxons came over the broad seas, Chr. 937; Th. 208, 5; Æðelst. 71: Andr. Kmbl. 1037; An. 519. [Icel. brim, n. surf, the sea: Sansk. bhram to agitate, fluctuate.]

brim-ceald, -cald; adj. [brim, ceald cold] Cold as the water of the sea, ice-cold; frigidus ut aqua maris, frigidissimus, gelidus :-- Fénix brimcald beorgeþ the Phœnix tastes the ocean-cold [water], Exon. 57 b; Th. 205, 9; Ph. 110. Wæter wynsumu of ðære moldan tyrf brimcald brecaþ pleasant waters, sea-cold, break forth from the turf of the earth, 56 b; Th. 202, 9; Ph. 67.

brim-clif, es; n. [brim, clif a clif, rock] A sea-cliff; marinus scopulus :-- Ða líðende land gesáwon, brimclifu blícan, beorgas steápe the voyagers saw land, the sea-cliffs shine, steep mountains, Beo. Th. 449; B. 222.

brim-faroþ? es; n. [brim, faroþ the shore] The sea-shore; maris litus :-- Bebúgaþ brádne hwyrft óþ ðæt brimfaroþ [MS. brimfaro] they shall inhabit the spacious orb unto the sea-shore, Cd. 190; Th. 236, 17; Dan. 322.

brim-flód, brym-flód, es; m. [brim, flód a flowing, flood] The sea's flowing, the ocean-flood, sea; maris fluctus, cataclysmus = GREEK, mare :-- Heofonsteorran búgaþ brádne hwearft óþ brimflódas the stars of heaven encircle the spacious orb unto the ocean floods, Exon. 53 b; Th. 187, 30; Az. 38. Brymflód cataclysmus, Ælfc. Gl. 115; Som. 80, 45; Wrt. Voc. 61, 23: Cot. 50.

brim-fugel; gen. -fugles; m. [brim, fugel a bird, fowl] A sea-fowl, sea-gull; marina avis :-- He gesihþ baðian brimfuglas he sees sea-fowls bathe, Exon. 77 a; Th. 289, 12; Wand. 47.

brim-gæst, -giest, es; m. [brim, gæst a guest] A sea-guest, sailor; marinus hospes, nauta :-- Biþ hlúd brimgiesta breahtm the sailors' noise is loud, Exon. 101 b; Th. 384, 9; Rä. 4, 25.

brim-hengest, es; m. [brim, hengest a horse] A sea-horse, ship; marinus equus, navis :-- Hí brimhengest bringeþ to lande the ship brings them to land, Runic pm. 16; Kmbl. 342, 19; Hick. Thes. i. 135. We brecaþ ofer bæþweg brimhengestum we sail over the sea in ships, Andr. Kmbl. 1026; An. 513.

brim-hlæst, e; f. [brim, hlæst a burden] The sea's burden, fishes; maris onus, pisces :-- Brúcaþ brimhlæste and heofonfugla enjoy fishes and fowls of heaven, Cd. 10; Th. 13, 10; Gen. 200.

brim-lád, e; f. [brim, lád a way, path] The path of the sea, sea-way; maris via :-- Ic in brimláde bídan sceolde I must remain on the sea's path, Exon. 81b; Th. 307, 27; Seef. 30. Ðe brimláde teáh who came the sea-way, Beo. Th. 2107; B. 1051.

brim-líðende; part. [brim, líðende; part. of líðan to go, sail] Sea-faring; per æquora navigans :-- Se beót abeád brimlíðendra he declared the threats of the sea-faring [men], Byrht. Th. 132, 37; By. 27. Hie ymb brontne ford brimliðende ne letton they have not hindered sea-faring [men] about the deep ford, Beo. Th. 1141; B. 568.

brim-man, -mann, es; m. A seaman, sailor; nauta :-- Brimmen wódon the seamen proceeded, Byrht. Th. 140, 29; By. 295. Brimmanna, gen. pl. 133, 12; By. 49.

brim-nesen, e; f. [brim, nesan to be saved from] A safe sea-passage; per æquora iter salvum :-- Gif hie brimnesen settan mósten if they should make a safe sea-passage, Elen. Kmbl. 2006; El. 1004.

brim-rád, e; f. The sea-road, the sea; maris cursus, mare :-- Geofon swaðrode, brimrád gebád the ocean subsided, the sea-road stopped, Andr. Kmbl. 3172; An. 1589: 2525; An. 1264.

brim-streám, brym-streám, es; m. [brim, stréam a stream, river]. I. the sea's current, ocean-stream, the sea, ocean; maris fluctus, mare, oceanus :-- Ic on brimstreáme spræc worda worn I spake many words on the ocean-stream, Andr. Kmbl. 1806; An. 905. Beóton brimstreámas the sea-streams dashed, 477; An. 239. Ic eów ferian wille ofer brimstreámas I will convey you over the seas, 695; An. 348: Beo. Th. 3825; B. 1910. II. a rapid stream, river; fluvius rapidus, amnis :-- Humbran eá, bráda brimstreám Humber's river, broad rapid stream, Chr. 942; Th. 208, 38, col. 1, 2, 3.

brim-þisa, an; m: -þise, an; f. [brim, -þisa, -þise a noise] A ship; navis :-- He brimþisan æt sǽs faroþe sécan wolde he would seek a ship on the sea-shore, Andr. Kmbl. 3313; An. 1659. Léton ofer fífelwǽg scríðan bronte brimþisan they let the high ships go over the ocean, Elen. Kmbl. 475; El. 238.

brim-wísa, an; m. [brim, wísa a leader, guide] A sea-leader, leader of sailors; per maris æstum dux, nautarum dux :-- Abreót brimwísan, brýd aheorde he slew the sea-leader, set free his bride, Beo. Th. 5852; B. 2930.

brim-wudu; m. [brim, wudu wood] Sea-wood, a ship; maris lignum, navis :-- Brimwudu scynde leóht to hýðe the light ship hastened to the port, Exon. 52 a; Th. 182, 5; Gú. 1305. Meahte gesión brecan ofer bæþweg brimwudu he could see the ship sail over the sea, Elen. Kmbl. 488; El. 244.

brim-wylf, e; f. [brim, wylf a she-wolf] A sea-wolf; marina lupa. An epithet applied to Grendel's mother :-- Hine seó brimwylf abroten hæfde the sea-wolf had destroyed him, Beo. Th. 3202; B. 1599.

brim-wylm, es; m. [brim, wylm æstus] The sea's surge; maris æstus :-- Brimwylm onféng hilde rince the sea's surge received the man of war, Beo. Th. 2993; B. 1494.

bring, es; m. [bringan to bring] That which is brought, an offering, a sacrifice; sacrificium, holocaustum :-- Ðú onféhst bringas acceptabis holocausta, Ps. Trin. Camb. 50, 20. DER. on-bring.

BRINGAN; part, bringende; ic bringe, brincge, ðú bringst, he bringeþ, brincgeþ, bringþ, pl. bringaþ; p. ic, he brang, brong, ðú brunge, pl. brungon; pp. brungen; v. a. To BRING, adduce, lead, produce, bear, carry: ferre, adducere, ducere, producere, offerre, proferre :-- Hwǽr is ðæt tiber, ðæt ðú bringan þencest where is the gift which thou thinkest to bring? Cd. 140; Th. 175, 7; Gen. 2891: Exon. 23 b; Th. 65, 23; Cri. 1059. Ic ðé þúsenda þegna bringe I will bring thee thousands of warriors, Beo. Th. 3663; B. 1829: Exon. 103 a; Th. 390, 22; Rä. 9, 5. Winter bringeþ weder ungemetcald winter brings weather excessively cold, Bt. Met. Fox 11, 117; Met. 11, 59: 11, 125; Met. 11, 63. Regn wolcen brincgeþ a cloud brings rain, Ps. Th. 67, 10. Seó eorþe westmas bringþ the earth produces fruits, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 7. His bodan bringaþ his angels bring, Cd. 25; Th. 32, 28; Gen. 510: 221; Th. 286, 24; Sat. 357. Bring us hǽlo líf bring us a life of health, Exon. 10 a; Th. 10, 11; Cri. 150. He ða býsene from Gode brungen hæfde he had brought the mandates from God, Cd. 30; Th. 41, 4; Gen. 651: 176; Th. 221, 3; Dan. 82. [Chauc. R. Brun. R. Glouc. bringe: O. Sax. brengian, bringan: Frs. bringe: O. Frs. branga, bringa: Dut. brengen: Kil. brenghen: Ger. M. H. Ger. bringen: O. H. Ger. bringan: Goth. briggan.] DER. ge-bringan, onge-, to-, þurh-.

brinnan; p. bran, pl. brunnon; pp. brunnen To burn; ardere. DER. on-brinnan. v. beornan.

briord, es; m. A brim, margin, rim, the highest part of anything; labrum, ora, margo, summitas, summum :-- Gefyldon ða to briorde impleverunt eas ad summum, Jn. Lind. War. 2, 7. v. brerd.

briosa, an; m. A BREESE, gad-fly; asilus, tabānus, Cot. 160; Wrt. Voc. 281, 32.

brist supportest; vehis; for birst, 2nd pres. s. of beran to bear, support :-- Ðú birst [MS. brist] ealle þing búton geswince thou supportest all things without labour, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 36.

bristl a bristle; seta. v. byrst.

brit knits; plectit. v. bredan.

Briten, Britten, e; f. Britain; Britannia :-- Britene ígland ys eahta hund míla lang the island of Britain is eight hundred miles long, Chr. Th. 3, 1, col. 3. Brittene ígland the island of Britain, Chr. Th. 3, 1, col. 2. v. Bryten.

Brittas; pl. m. The Britons; Britones, Chr. Th. 3, 31, col. 2. v. Brytas, Bryttas.

brittian to dispense :-- Gold brittade dispensed gold, Cd. 59; Th. 72, 4; Gen. 1181. v. bryttian.

Brittisc British, Chr. Erl. 3, 3; Th. 3, 5, col. 2. v. Bryttisc.

brittnere a steward; dispensator, Past. 63, Lye. v. brytnere.

BRÍW, es; m. A thick pottage made of meal, pulse, etc, BREWIS; puls; gen. pultis = GREEK porridge :-- Ðes bríw this pottage; hæc puls, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 46; Som. 13, 9: Wrt. Voc. 290, 38. Swá þicce swá bríw as thick as pottage, L. M. I. 36; Lchdm. ii. 88, 18: 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 266, 25. Ete ðone bríw let him eat the pottage, 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 88, 2: 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 264, 19. Bríwas niman pultes accipere, Lchdm. iii. 210, 4. [Plat. brij, m: Frs. bry: Dut. brij, m: Ger. brei, m: M. H. Ger. brí, bríe, m: O. H. Ger. brí, brío, m.] DER. calwer-bríw.

bríwan; p. de; pp. ed To cook, dress food; coquere :-- Bríw his mete wið ele dress his meat with oil, L. M. 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 264, 22; 266, 29. v. breówan.

BROC, es; m? A BROCK, badger; taxo = tassus [=tasso It: taisson Fr.], meles :-- Broc taxo vel melus, Wrt. Voc. 78, 4: Ælfc. Gl. 19; Som. 59, 10; Wrt. Voc. 22, 53. Sum fyðerféte nýten is, ðæt we nemnaþ taxonem, ðæt ys broc on Englisc there is a four-footed animal, which we name taxonem, that is brock in English, Med. ex Quadr. 1, 2; Lchdm. i. 326, 12. [Wyc. brok: Laym. brockes, pl: Dan. brok: Icel. brokkr, m: Wel. Corn. broch: Ir. broc, m: Gael. broc, bruic, m: Manx broc, m: Armor, broc'h, m.]

BRÓC; gen. bróce; dat. bréc; acc. bróc, bréc; pl. nom. acc. bréc, brǽc; gen. bróca; dat. brocum; f. I. the BREECH; nates :-- Under ða bréc under the breech, L. M. 1, 71; Lchdm. ii. 146, 3. II. a covering for the breech, in pl. BREECHES, trousers, pantaloons; braca, bracæ, femoralia :-- Bréc femoralia, R. Ben. 55. Brǽc femoralia, Wrt. Voc. 81, 63. [Chauc. brech, pl: Wyc. brechis, pl: Piers P. brech, pl: R. Brun. breke, pl: R. Glouc. brych, pl: Laym. brechen, dat. s; breches, pl: Scot. breek, breik; pl. breeks, breiks: Plat. brook, broke. f: Frs. broek, f. pudendorum tegumentum: O. Frs. brok, pl. brek, f: Dat. broek, f: Kil. broecke bracha: Ger. bruch, f. n. femorale: M. H. Ger. bruoch, f: O. H. Ger. bruoh, bruoch, bróch, n; bruocha, f: Dan. brog, c: Swed. bracka, f: Icel. brók; pl. brækr, f: Fr. braie, f: Span. Port. braga: Lat. brācæ, pl. f: Grk. GREEK, pl. f: Ir. broages: Armor, bragez, m.] DER. bréc-hrægel: wǽd-bréc.

bróc, es; m. [bróc, perf. of bracan to break, purl, ripple] A BROOK; latex, torrens :-- Se bróc the brook, Bt. 6; Fox 14, 27. Burna oððe bróc latex, Wrt. Voc. 80, 69. Bróc torrens, Ælfc. Gl. 98; Som. 76, 78; Wrt. Voc. 54, 22. Bróc biþ onwended the brook is turned aside, Bt. Met. Fox 5, 38; Met. 5, 19. [Laym. broc: Plat. brook: Dut. broek, f: Ger. bruch, m. n. palus: M. H. Ger. bruoch, n: O. H. Ger. bruoh, n.]

bróc, es; pl. brócu; n: bróc, gebróc, metaphorically, that which violently breaks from the body or mind; hence, Affliction, misery, tribulation, trouble, labour, adversity, a disease, malady, sickness; afflictio, miseria, tribulatio, labor, adversitas, morbus, ægritudo :-- God nyle nán unaberendlíce bróc him ansettan God wishes not to put on them any unbearable affliction, Bt. 39, 10; Fox 228, 4. Mid heardum bróce with severe [hard] affliction, Bt. 39, 11; Fox 228, 25. He on ðæm bróce nyle alǽtan ðás eorþlican wilnunga in affliction he will not give up these earthly desires, Past. 37, 3; Hat. MS. 50 a, 18, 21, 22: 36, 4; Hat. MS. 47 b, 7. On ðám brócum in these afflictions, Th. Diplm. A.D. 880-885; 485, 24. Ðæt hit sý gefreód ǽghwylcere uneáþnesse ealles woroldlíces bróces that it be freed from every annoyance of all worldly trouble, 1061; 389, 30: 864; 125, 13: Past. 37, 3; Hat. MS. 50 a, 7. Ðæt biþ swíðe hefig bróc it is a very severe labour; gravis labor est, 61, 1; Hat. MS. Eucharius wæs þearle geswenct mid langsumum bróce Eucharius was much afflicted with a protracted disease, Homl. Th. ii. 24, 16: 176, 32. Brócu miseriæ, Lye. DER. ge-bróc.

bróc, es; m? [bróc, p. of bracan] An inferior horse, a shaking horse, jade; caballus, equus vilior :-- Ðæt hie sécen him bróc on onráde, and on wǽne, oððe on ðon ðe hie á þrówian mǽgen that they look for themselves to ride on a horse, and in a wain, or in that which they can ever endure, L. M. 2, 6; Lchdm. ii. 184, 13. [Chauc. brok: Icel. brokkr, m.]

broccen vel gǽten roc, es; m. [broc a badger, gǽten goaten, caprine, roc a garment] A garment made of badger or goat-skins, extending from the shoulders to the loins; melotes, Ælfc. Gl. 63; Som. 68, 117; Wrt. Voc. 40, 27.

bróce use. Bd. 3, 22; Whelc. 221, 39, note B. C. v. brýce.

brocen enjoyed, = gebrocen, Exon. 38 b; Th. 127, 29; Gú. 393; pp. of brúcan, gebrúcan.

brocen broken, Beo. Th. 4132; B. 2063; pp. of brecan.

brócian; part, brócigende; ic brócie, ðú brócast, he brócaþ, pl. bróciaþ; p. ode; pp. ge-brócod; v. a. [bróc affliction] To oppress, vex, afflict, break up, injure, blame; opprimere, vexare, affligere, confringere, nocere, accusare :-- Ic beóde ðæt hý nán man ne brócie I command that no man oppress them, Th. Diplm. A.D. 880-885; 492, 10. Ða manigfealdan yrmþa ða wérigan burh brócigende wǽron manifold miseries afflicted [lit. were afflicting] the weary city, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 42, 36. Ða gebétan ðe hí bróciaþ to amend those whom they afflict, Bt. 39, 11; Fox 230, 8. Se synfulla biý gebrócod for his unrihtwísnysse the sinful is afflicted for his unrighteousness, Homl. Th. i. 472, 3: 474, 19. Ðæt gebrócode flǽsc gelǽrþ ðæt upahæfene mód the afflicted flesh teaches the proud mind, Past. 36, 7; Hat. MS. 48 a, 22. We for úrum synnum gebrócode beóþ we are afflicted for our sins, Homl. Th. i. 476, 19. Næfde se here Angelcyn gebrócod the army had not broken up the English race, Chr. 897; Erl. 94, 30. Hí gefeóllon of ánre upflóran and sume swíde gebrócode wǽron they fell from an upper floor and some were much injured, 978; Erl. 127, 12. Gif ðé mon brócie for rihtre scylde, geþola hit wel if a man blame thee for a just cause, bear it well, Prov. Kmbl. 45. DER. wiðer-brócian.

bróc-líc; adj. Sick, grieved, miserable; æger. DER. bróc.

bróc-lice; adv. Sickly, grievously; ægre. DER. bróc.

bróc-minte, an; f: bróc-mint, e; f. BROOKMINT, horsemint; mentha sylvestris, Lin. GREEK sisymbrium officinale :-- Brócminte. Genim ðysse wyrte wós, ðe man sisymbrium, and óðrum naman brócminte nemneþ Brookmint. Take the juice of this plant, which men call GREEK, and by another name, brookmint, Herb. 107; Lchdm. i. 220, 17.

brócu troubles; pl. of bróc, es; n.

brócung, e; f. [bróc affliction, sickness] Sickness; ægritudo :-- Þurh his brócunge through his sickness, Homl. Th. i. 472, 7.

bród, e; f. I. a growing together, congealing, waxing hard; concretio. Cot. 55. II. a BROOD; proles, v. bródig. [R. Glouc. brod: Scot. brod: Dut. ge-broed, n: Ger. brut, f. a brood: M. H. Ger. bruot, f.]

bród; adv. Freely, of free cost; gratis :-- Bród gratis, Wrt. Voc. 284, 71.

broddetan, brodettan To tremble, quake, to pant for fear; tremere, trepidare, palpitare, Greg. Dial. 2, 25: Cot. 154, Som. Lye.

broden woven, braided, Beo. Th. 1108; B. 552; pp. of bredan.

bróder a brother :-- Bróder sune a brother's son, Ælfc. Gl. 91; Som. 75, 27; Wrt. Voc. 51, 71. v. bróðor.

brodetung, e; f. A work, workmanship, fashion, forged tale, a lie; figmentum :-- He oncneów brodetunge [MS. brogdetunge] úre ipse cognovit figmentum nostrum, Ps. Spl. C. 102, 13.

bródig; adj. BROODY, brooding; incubans :-- Bródige henne a broody hen, Bridf.

broel, brogel, es; n. [corrupted from the Mid. Lat. brolium or briolium] A park, warren stored with deer; hence the BROYL, a wood in Sussex, belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury; vivarium, hortus cervorum, Som. [O. H. Ger. brogil, broil.]

BRÓGA, an; m. A prodigy, monster, trembling, fear, terror, horror, dread; monstrum, tremor, terror, horror :-- Ǽnig óðer bróga any other prodigy, Bt. 36, 1; Fox 172, 17. Iówer ege and bróga sie ofer ealle eorþan nítenu terror vester ac tremor sit super cuncta animalia terræ, Past. 17, 2; Hat. MS. 22 a. 14. Brógan ðíne gedréfdon me terrores tui conturbaverunt me, Ps. Spl. 87, 17. Bútan brógan without dread, Lev. 26, 6. Hine se bróga angeat terror laid hold of him, Beo. Th. 2587; B. 1291. Ne con he ðæs brógan dǽl he knoweth not a portion of the terror, Exon. 117 a; Th. 449, 15; Dóm. 71. Ðǽr is brógna [= brógena] hýhst there is the greatest of terrors, 116 a; Th. 446, 17; Dóm. 23. [O. H. Ger. brógo, m.] DER. bryne-bróga, gryre-, here-, spere-, wæter-, wíte-.

brogden woven, cast, Elen. Kmbl. 513; El. 257; pp. of bregdan.

brogden-mǽl, es; n. [brogden, pp. of bregdan, mǽl a spot, mark] Turned or marked with a spot or sign; tortum vel curvatum signum :-- Beofaþ brogden-mǽl what is marked by signs [the sword] trembles or glitters, Elen. Kmbl. 1514; El. 759.

brohte, ðú brohtest, pl. brohton; pp. broht Brought, broughtest, brought, Cd. 29; Th. 38, 32; Gen. 615: Exon. 121 a; Th. 463, 34; Hö. 80: Elen. Kmbl. 1989; El. 996: Bd. 3, 7; S. 529, 30; p. and pp. of brengan.

bróh-þreá; m. f. n. indecl. but in dat. and inst. pl. [bróh = bróg terror, þreá calamitas] Terrific calamity; calamitas terroris plena :-- Ðæt bróhþreá Cananéa wearþ cynne getenge the terrific calamity was grievous to the Canaanites' race, Cd. 86; Th. 108, 29; Gen. 1813. v. þreá.

BRÓM, es; m. The well-known shrub from which besoms are made, hence BROOM; genista :-- Bróm genista, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 64, 130; Wrt. Voc. 32, 64: L. M. 1, 55; Lchdm. ii. 126, 12: 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 78, 19: Wrt. Voc. 80, 16: 285, 69. Genim brómes ahsan take ashes of broom, L. M. 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 32, 12. [Chauc. Wyc. bromes, pl: Dut. brem, f: Kil. brem genista.]

Bróm-dún, e; f. [bróm broom, dún a hill] BRUMDON, Dorset; hodie opinor Brumdon in agro Dorsetensi :-- Ðæt gemót wæs on Brómdúne the meeting was at Brumdon, L. Eth. iii. 4; Th. i. 294, 14: Cod. Dipl. 1322; A.D. 1035; Kmbl. vi. 186, 13, 14.

bróm-fæsten, es; n. [bróm broom, fæsten an inclosed place] A broom-field, a field, close or wood of broom; myricæ campus, myricetum, genesteium, Cot. 97.

brond a fire-brand, fire, sword, Exon. 74 a; Th. 277, 15; Jul. 581: Beo. Th. 6021; B. 3014: 2912; B. 1454. v. brand.

brond-hát ardent, Exon. 46 b; Th. 160, 2; Gú. 937. v. brand-hát.

brond-hord, es; n. [brand II. a burning, hord a hoard, treasure] A burning or ardent treasure, a treasure exciting ardent desires; ardens thesaurus :-- Se ǽr in dæge wæs dýre, scríðeþ nú deóp feor, brondhord geblówen, breóstum in forgrówen copper was dear in [that] day, now it circulates wide and far, an ardent treasure flourishing, grown up in the hearts, Exon. 94 b; Th. 354, 15; Reim. 46.

Brondingas; nom. acc; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The Brondings, supposed to be the inhabitants of the island Brännö, lying off the coast of West Gothland in the Cattegat; populi nomen :-- Breca gesóhte swǽsne éðel, lond Brondinga Breca sought his own country, the land of the Brondings, Beo. Th. 1047; B. 521. Breoca weóld Brondingum Breca ruled the Brondings, Scóp Th. 51; Wíd. 25.

brond-stæfn; adj. The shining prowed; proram spuma fulgentem habens :-- Storm ne mæg brecan brondstæfne a storm cannot break the shining [foaming] prowed [ship], Andr. Kmbl. 1007; An. 504.

brong brought; p. of bringan.

bront high, deep, steep, difficult, Beo. Th. 482; B. 238: 1140; B. 568: Elen. Kmbl. 475; El. 238. v. brant.

BRORD, es; m? A prick or point, a lance, javelin, the first blade or spire of grass or corn, etc; punctus, cuspis, frumenti spica, herba :-- Brord punctus, Cot. 157. Ne furðan brordas not even blades; ne herbæ quidem, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 35. Brord herba, Mt. Lind. Rush. Stv. 13, 26. Ðæt brord natum, Lk. Lind. War. 8, 6. [Orm. brodd: Dan. bred, brodde, m. f: Swed. brodd, m; O. Nrs. broddr, m. aculeus, telum, frons aciei vel agminis.]

brosnian; part. brosniende; ic brosnige, ðú brosnast, he brosnaþ, pl. brosniaþ; p. ode, ade; pp. od To corrupt, decay, rot, perish; corrumpi, deficere, dissolvi, perire :-- Ðære fǽmnan líchoma brosnian ne mihte the body of the maiden could not corrupt; feminæ caro corrumpi non potuit, Bd. 4, 19; S. 587, 36. Him hyge brosnaþ his mind corrupts, Exon. 81 a; Th. 304, 11; Fä. 68. Brosnaþ enta geweorc, hrófas sind gehrorene the work of giants is decaying, the roofs are fallen, Exon. 124 a; Th. 476, 4; Ruin. 2: Beo. Th. 4512; B. 2260. Ða beámas á gréne stondaþ, nǽfre brosniaþ the trees always stand green, never decay, Exon. 56 a; Th. 200, 10; Ph. 38. Cristene Róma besprycþ, ðæt hyre weallas for ealdunge brosnian Christian Rome complains, that her walls decay with age, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 45. Ðes brosnienda wéla this perishing wealth, Bt. 16, 1; Fox 50, 33. Brosnade burgsteal the city-place has perished, Exon. 124 a; Th. 477, 23; Ruin. 29. DER. ge-brosnod, unge-; brosniendlíc, brosnigendlíc, un-: brosnung, ge-, un-.

brosniend-líc, brosnigend-líc; adj. Corruptible, perishable; corruptibilis :-- Ðæt wæter is brosniendlíc wǽta water is a corruptible fluid, Homl. Th. ii. 270, 5, 8, 13, 33. Geneálǽhþ ðam brosniendlícum wætere he approaches the corruptible water, ii. 270, 1. DER. un-brosnigendlíc.

brosnung, e; f. Corruption, decay; corruptio, defectio :-- Ic niðerastíge on brosnunge descendo in corruptionem, Ps. Lamb. 29, 10: Homl. Th. ii. 206, 2: 268, 35: 536, 20. Wæs ne wélan brosnung there was no decay of wealth, Exon. 44 b; Th. 151, 25; Gú. 800. DER. ge-brosnung, un-.

brot, es; n. [broten; pp. of breótan to break] A fragment; fragmentum. [Icel. brot, n.] DER. ge-brot. Broten Britain, Bd. 3, 29; S. 561, 15. v. Bryten.

broten bruised, broken; pp. of breótan.

BROÞ, es; n. BROTH; jus :-- Broþ jus. Wrt. Voc. 82, 60. Fætt broþ ge mágon habban pingue jus potestis habere, Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 13. [M. H. Ger. Bav. brod, n: O. H. Ger. bród, brót, n.]

bróðar a brother, Th. Diplm. A.D. 830; 466, 3. v. bróðor.

bróðer a brother :-- Ne ic hýrde wæs bróðer mínes nor was I keeper of my brother, Cd. 48; Th. 62, 2; Gen. 1008: Mt. Bos. 5, 24. v. bróðor.

BRÓÐOR, bróðer, bróder, bróður; d. bréðer; but often indecl. in sing; pl. nom. acc. bróðor, bróðer, bróður, bróðru, bróðro, ge-bróðor, er, ru, ro, ra; g. bróðra, ge-bróðra; d. bróðrum, ge-bróðrum; m. A BROTHER; frater :-- Úre bróðor noster frater, nom. s; g. úres bróðor nostri fratris; dat. úrum bréðer nostro fratri; acc. úrne bróðor nostrum fratrem; voc. eálá ðú úre bróðor O noster frater! abl. fram úrum bréðer a nostro fratre: pl. nom. úre gebróðra nostri fratres; g. úra gebróðra nostrorum fratrum; dat. úrum gebródrum nostris fratribus; acc. úre gebróðra nostros fratres; abl. fram úrum gebróðrum a nostris fratribus, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Som. 19, 18-23. Hwǽr is ðín bróðor ubi est frater tuus? Gen. 4, 9: Mt. Bos. 5, 23. Bróðor Arones Aaron's brother, Cd. 124; Th. 158, 21; Gen. 2620: 47; Th. 60, 19; Gen. 984. Geboren bróðer germanus frater, Greg. Dial. 2, 13. Ðínes bróðor blód clypaþ fratris tui sanguis clamat, Gen. 4, 10. His bróðor bearn his brother's child, Beo. Th. 5231; B. 2619. Sege mínum bréðer dic fratri meo, Lk. Bos. 12, 13. Cain gewearþ to ecg-banan ángan bréðer Cain became a murderer to his only brother, Beo. Th. 2529; B. 1262: Ps. Th. 34, 14: Mk. Bos. 12, 19. Bróðor þrý the three brothers, Cd. 94; Th. 122, 28; Gen. 2033. His bróðru fóron fratres ejus ascenderunt, Jn. Bos. 7, 10. His bróðro cwǽdon fratres ejus dixerunt, 7, 3. For míne bróðru propter fratres meas, Ps. Th. 121, 8. Ðe ne onfó bróðru and swustra qui non accipiat fratres et sorores, Mk. Bos. 10, 30. Hyre bróðra deáþ the death of her brothers, Exon. 100 a; Th. 377, 24; Deór. 8. Gemang bróðrum inter fratres, Jn. Bos. 21, 23. [Plat. broder, m; O. Sax. bróthar, m: O. Frs. bróther, broder, m; Dut. broeder, m: Ger. bruder, m: M. H. Ger. bruoder, m: O. H. Ger. bruodar, bródar, m: Goth. broþar, m: Dan. Swed. broder, m: O. Nrs. bróðir, bródir, m; Lat. frater, m: Grk. GREEK: Ir. brathair, m: Wel. brawd; pl. brodyr, m: Sansk, bhrātṛi, from root bhṛi [A. Sax. beran] to bear, support, a brother being the natural supporter of sisters who have lost their father.] DER. fæderen-bróðor, freó-, ge-, sige-. v. ge-bróðor.

bróðor-bana, an; m. A brother-slayer, fratricide; fratricida :-- Ic monnes feorh seðe to bróðorbanan I will avenge man's life on the fratricide, Cd. 75; Th. 92, 9; Gen. 1526.

bróðor-cwealm, es; m. Brother-murder, fratricide; fratricidium :-- Se me gemonige bróðorcwealmes who shall remind me of my fratricide, Cd. 49; Th. 63, 10; Gen. 1030.

bróðor-gefædred a brother by the same father; frater ex eodem patre ortus, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 60, 19. v. ge-fædrian.

bróðor-gemédred a brother by the same mother; frater ex eadem matre ortus, Gen. Grn. 43, 29. v. ge-médrian.

bróðor-gyld, es; n. Brother-retribution, vengeance for brothers; fratrum cædis retributio :-- On hyra bróðorgyld [bróðra gyld, Thorpe] in vengeance for their brothers, Cd. 153; Th. 190, 15; Exod. 199.

bróðor-leás; adj. BROTHERLESS; fratrem non habens, Exon. 129 a; Th. 496, 17; Rä. 85, 16.

bróðor-líc, bróðer-líc; adj. BROTHERLY; fraternus :-- Þurh ða bróðorlícan þingunge per fraternam intercessionem, Bd. 4, 22; S. 592, 21: Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 57.

bróðor-lícnes, -nys, -nyss, e; f. BROTHERLINESS; fraternitas :-- Ðín bróðorlícnys is on Mynstres reogolum getýd and gelǽred tua fraternitas Monasterii regulis erudita est, Bd. 1, 27; S. 489, 10.

bróðor-rǽden, bróðer-rǽdenn, e; f. Brotherhood; fraternitas, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 5, 21.

bróðor-sib, -sibb, -syb, -sybb, e; f. I. brotherhood, the relationship between brothers; cognatio fraternalis, germanitas :-- Syndon him on æðelum óðere twegen beornas, geborene bróðorsybbum [Kmbl. 1380, -sibbum] to him in his family are other twain men, born in brotherly-relationship, An. 690: Cot. 100. II. brotherly love; fraternus amor :-- Hí bróðorsibbe georne bigongaþ they earnestly cultivate brotherly love, Exon. 44 b; Th. 150, 10; Gú. 776.

bróðor-slaga, an; m. A BROTHER-SLAYER; fratricida, Wrt. Voc. 85, 47. v. bróðor a brother, slaga a slayer.

bróðor-þínen, -þínenu, e; f. A midwife at the birth of twin-brothers; fratres geminos parturienti obstetrix, Gen. 38, 28.

bróðor-wyrt, e; f. BROTHER-WORT, the herb pennyroyal; mentha pulegium, Wrt. Voc. 68, 61.

bróður; m. A brother; frater :-- His ágen bróður his own brother, Ps. Th. 107, 7: 132, 1. He geseh Iacobum Zebedei and Ioannem his bróður vidit Iacobum Zebedæi et Ioannem fratrem ejus, Mt. Bos. 4, 21. v. bróðor.

browen brewed, cooked; pp. of breówan. v. ge-browen, twy-.

BRÚ; gen. dat. acc. brúwe; pl. nom. acc. brúa, brúwa; gen. brúwena, brúena, brúna; dat. brúwum; f. A BROW, an eye-brow, eye-lash; cilium, supercilium, tauto :-- Brúa cilia, Ælfc. Gl. 70; Som. 70, 62; Wrt. Voc. 42, 70. Brúwa cilium [= cilia], Wrt. Voc. 64, 35: 282, 49. Brúwa tautones, Wrt. Voc. 64, 28. Ic eom wíde calu, ne ic breága ne brúna [= brúena] brúcan móste I am very bald, nor can I make use of eye-lids nor eye-lashes, Exon. 111 b; Th. 427, 32; Rä. 41, 100. Betweoh brúwum intercilium [= intercilia], Wrt. Voc. 64, 34: 282, 48. [Wyc. browe, brewe: Laym. breowe, bruwe, brouwe: Prompt. browe supercilium: Scot. bre, bree: Plat. brane: Dut. wenk-braaw, f. the brow, eye-brow: O. Dut. Kil. brauwe, brouwe, f. cilium, supercilium: Ger. braue, braune, f. supercilium: M. H. Ger. bráwe, f: O. H. Ger. bráwa, f: Dan. Swed. bryn, f. n. a border, brink, eye-brow: Icel. brún, f. the eyebrow; Lat. frons, f. the forehead, brow: Grk. GREEK, f. the eye-brow: Sansk. bhrū, f. an eye-brow, the brow.] DER. ofer-brú. v. brǽw.

BRÚCAN, to brúcanne; ic brúce, ðú brúcest, brýcst, brícst, he brúceþ, brýcþ, pl. brúcaþ; p. ic, he breác, ðú bruce, pl. brucon; pp. brocen; v. a. gen. To use, make use of, to pass, spend, enjoy, have enjoyment of, to eat, bear, discharge; uti, frui, possidere, habere, gaudere aliqua re, edere :-- Ðæt he beáh-hordes brúcan móste that he might have enjoyment of the ring-hoard, Beo. Th. 1793; B. 894. Ne benohton beornas to brúcanne needed not men to enjoy, Andr. Kmbl. 2321; An. 1162. Sáwla móton lífes brúcan souls may enjoy [have enjoyment of] life, Andr. Kmbl. 458; An. 229. Brúceþ fódres enjoys [has an enjoyment of] food, Runic pm. 28; Kmbl. 345, 5; Hick. Thes. i. 135. Brúc ðisses beáges make use of this collar, Beo. Th. 2436; B. 1216. He giefstólas breác he enjoyed gifts, Exon. 77 a; Th. 289, 7; Wand. 44. Ðe hyra lífes þurh lust brucon [MS. brucan] who have spent their life in pleasure, Exon. 38 b; Th. 127, 19; Gú. 388. Ne brícst usest not, Deut. 28, 30. Ðú brícst ðínes hláfes thou shalt eat of thy bread, Gen. 3, 19. Brúcaþ, Jn. Bos. 4, 9. [Piers P. brouke: Laym. bruken: Orm. brukenn: Plat. bruken: O. Sax. brúkan: Frs. bruke: O. Frs. bruka: Dut. ge-bruiken: Ger. brauchen: M. H. Ger. brúchen: O. H. Ger. brúchan: Goth. brukyan: Dan. bruge: Swed. Icel. brúka.] DER. þurh-brúcan: ge-brúcan.

brúcing, e; f. A function, an occupation, enjoyment; functio, fruitio, occupatio, usus, Som. Lye. DER. brúcan.

brudon spread; dilatarunt. Cd. 154; Th. 191, 29; Exod. 222; p. pl. of bredan.

brugdon laid hold of, drew; strinxerunt, Cd. 93; Th. 120, 8; Gen. 1991; p. pl. of bregdan.

BRÚN; adj. BROWN, dark, dusky; fuscus, subniger, rufus, furvus :-- Sum brún part brown, Exon. 60 a; Th. 218, 17; Ph. 296. Brúne leóde brown people; Æthiopes, Cd. 146; Th. 182, 4; Exod. 70. Sió brúne ýþ the dusky wave, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 58; Met. 26, 29. [Chauc, browne: R. Glouc. broune: Frs. brun: O. Frs. brun: Dut. bruin: Ger. braun: M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. brún: Dan. bruun: Swed. brun: Icel. brúnn.] DER. sealo-brún.

brúna of eye-brows, Exon. 111 b; Th. 427, 32; Rä. 41, 100, = bruena; gen. pl. of brú.

Brunan burh; gen. Brunan burge; dat. Brunan byrig; f. Brunanburh, about five miles south-west of Durham, or on the plain between the river Tyne and the Browney, Dr. Guest properly writes 'round Brunanburh;' v. example 1; Brunæ castellum. [Brunan burh is a pure Anglo-Saxon word, and signifies the castle of Bruna, though in a charter of Athelstan, dated 978, the year after the battle, it is called Bruninga feld, the plain of the Brunings, or the descendants of Bruna, as -ing denotes, v. -ing,--'Acta est hæc præfata donatio anno ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi DCCCCXXXVIII, in quo anno bellum factum est in loco qui Bruninga feld dicitur, ubi Anglis victoria data est de cælo,' Th. Diplm. 186, 34-37; Cod. Dipl. 374; A.D. 938; Kmbl. ii. 210, 33-37. Brunanburh was written by Ingulf, in A.D. 1109, Brunford: Hunt. in 1148, Brumesburh, Brunesburih, Brunesburh, Bruneburh: Hovd. in 1204, Brunnanbyrg, Brumenburh; Brom. in 1330, Brunneburyh.] As the exact place cannot be determined by the name of any large town now existing, it is necessary to enter into the history of the battle, and thus ascertain its most probable locality.--Sihtric, king of Northumbria, which then extended from the Humber to the Frith of Forth [v. Angle], was son of Ingwar, and grandson of Ragnar Lodbrog. Sihtric was baptized and married Athelstan's sister in A.D. 925. He soon put away his wife, and renounced Christianity. Athelstan prepared to attack him for rejecting his sister, but Sihtric died, when Anlaf his son fled to Ireland, and Athelstan added Northumbria to his dominions. All the leaders of the Anglo-Danes and the Welsh were jealous of the increasing power of Athelstan, and combined against him. Anlaf, king of Dublin, commenced the fray by sailing from Ireland with 615 ships, containing about 100 men each, making more than 61,000 men: with this force he entered the Humber. He was joined by the Anglo-Danes, by the Welsh, and by Constantine, his father-in-law, the king of the Scots. Athelstan completely routed the immense army brought against him about Brunanburh, and became the first king of England. Alfred the Great was king over all the Anglo-Saxons, but by this complete victory Athelstan became the undisputed king over all England [Engla land, q. v.] -- The locality of Brunanburh has not yet been determined. It appears to me, it must be north of Beverley, as Athelstan is reported by Ingulf to have visited the tomb of St. John at Beverley, and to have placed his dagger on the altar, making a vow that if victory was granted to him, he would redeem it at a worthy price. The credibility of this story has been questioned; but, whatever doubt may remain, it proves that in the time of Ingulf, A. D. 1109, there was a general impression that Athelstan marched north of Beverley to oppose his invaders, and that, after the victory in the north, on returning to the south, he redeemed his pledge at Beverley by granting many privileges. Anlaf, collecting the remnant of his conquered army, could have no difficulty in returning to his ships in the Humber, as he had to pass through the country of the Anglo-Danes, his friends, and subjects of his late father. -- Now all this history indicates that Anlaf marched north to unite his army with that of his father-in-law, Constantine, king of the Scots. Athelstan followed him, and their forces met about Brunanburh. I think it was on the west of Durham. I am led to this conclusion by these facts relating to the battle, and by the Feodarium Prioratus Dunelmensis, published by the Surtees Society, vol. lviii, in 1872. There is a plain between the rivers Wear and Browney [Brunan eá], and west of Durham, well adapted for a great battle. We find, in the present day, east and west Brandon [Brunan dún] and Brandon castle, the property of Viscount Boyne. There is still the river Browney [Brunan eá]. In the Feod. Dunelmen. compiled about A. D. 1430, we find the name of a river, of persons, and of places mentioned on the west of Durham. We have 'Ultra aquam de Wer usque ad aquam de Brun,' pref. p. lv: p. 192, note. 'De Brune,' 192, 193, note: 194, note. 'Petro de Brandone,' p. 180, note. 'Petrus de Brandone,' 200, note. On looking at the map of the learned Bishop Gibson, in his Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 4to. 1692, I find he is of my opinion, that Brunanburh was north of Beverley. I cannot, however, discover why he places it to the north of Northumbria. For the reasons I have stated, I believe it was to the south-west of Lurham. -- Dr. Guest, Master of Caius College, Cambridge, in his excellent work, A History of English Rhythms, 8vo. 1838, gives the following account of this battle, -- 'In the year 937, was fought the battle of Brunanburh -- a battle, that involved more important interests than any, that has ever yet been fought within this Island. It was indeed a battle between races. . . . Round the banner of Athelstan were ranged one hundred thousand Englishmen, and before them was the whole power of Scotland, of Wales, of Cumberland, and of Ireland under Anlaf, king of Dublin, led on by sixty thousand Northmen. The song, which celebrated the victory, is worthy of the effort that gained it. This song is found in all the copies of the Chronicle, but with considerable variations. Price collated three of them: The Dunstan MS. Tib. A. VI; the Abingdon, Tib. B. I; and the Worcester, Tib. B. IV. I have taken copies from all these MSS, and also from the Plegmund MS. in Ben'et Library. The Dunstan MS. appears to be by far the most correct transcript of the four. Price formed a text, so as best to suit the convenience of translation. The result might have been foreseen, and is such as little encourages imitation. I shall rather give the text, as it is found in one of these copies -- the Dunstan MS. v. Chr. 937; Th. 200, col. 2. Not a word need be altered, to form either good sense or good poetry,' vol. ii. pp. 60, 61. In Mr. Earle's Chronicle, 8vo. 1865, p. 113, note x, are some excellent remarks on this song. -- Dr. Guest has arranged the lines according to his system of Rhythm. I have arranged them according to the Anglo-Saxon punctuation, as in the article Beówulf. Dr. Guest's text is given within brackets, when the general orthography, or the word, seemed to require alteration :-- UNCERTAIN Hér, DCCCCXXXVII, Æðelstán cing, eorla drihten, beorna beág-gifa, and his bróðor eác, Eádmund æðeling, ealdor langne tír geslógan æt sæcce [sake], sweorda ecggum, embe Brunan burh. Gst. Rthm. ii. 60, 26-62, 3. Ðǽr læg secg manig, gárum forgrunden, -- guman norþerne, ofer scyld sceoten, swylce Scyttisc eác wérig wígges sǽ. Gst. Rthm. ii. 64, 1-4. Fífe lágon on ðæm campstede -- cinningas geonge sweordum aswefede; swilce seofone eác eorlas Ánláfes, unrím herges -- flotan and Scotta. Gst. Rthm. ii. 64, 14-18. Gewitan him ðá Norþmen nægled-cnearrum -- [dreórig daroða láf on dynges mere] ofer deóp wæter, Dyflen sécean eft Iraland. Gst. Rthm. ii. 66, 19-22. Ne wearþ wæl máre on ðísum [ðys] églande ǽfre gyta, . . . syððan eástan, hider Engle and Sexan upp becóman. Gst. Rthm. ii. 68, 10-15. Now, A. D. 937, Athelstan king, of earls the lord, of barons the bracelet-[beigh-] giver, and his brother also [eke], Edmund the prince [etheling], elders a long train [tire] slew in battle, round Brunanburh. There lay many a soldier, by the darts brought low, -- northern men, over shield shot, so also [eke] the Scotchman's wretched war-spear Five lay on that battle-field [war-stead] -- youthful kings sword-silenced; so also seven earls of Anlaf, a host of the robber-band -- shipmen and Scots. Went [gan] then the Northmen in their nailed barks -- [the darts' sad leavings on the noisy sea] over deep water, Dublin [Dyflen] Ireland [the land of the Ire] to seek once more. Was no greater carnage ever yet, within this island, . . . since from the east, hither up came Angles and Saxons [Engle and Sexe]. UNCERTAIN Hér, A. D. 937, Æðelstán cyning lǽdde fyrde to Brunan byrig in this year, A. D. 937, king Athelstan led an army to Brunanburh, Chr. 937; Th. 201, 25-27, col. 2. Hér, A. D. 937, Æðelstán [Æðestan MS.] cing and Eádmund his bróðer lǽdde fyrde to Brunan byrig [MS. Brunan byri]; and ðár gefeht wið Ánláfe [MS. Anelaf]; and, Criste fultumegende, sige hæfde in this year, A. D. 937, king Athelstan and Edmund his brother led an army to Brunanburh: and there fought against Anlaf; and, Christ aiding, they had victory, Chr. 937; Erl. 113, 2-4.

brún-basu, -baso; adj. [brún brown, basu purple] Dark-purple, purple, purple-red, scarlet; purpureus, ostriger, coccineus, puniceus :-- Brúnbasere reádnysse purpureo ostro, Mone B. 6102. Brúnbasum [MS. -bæsewum], reádum purpureis, 2087. Brúnbasum purpureis, 189. Brúnbaso ostriger, Cot. 145. Brúnbasne coccineum, Mone B. 6153. Ðý brúnan oððe ðý brúnbasewan puniceo, Cot. 183.

brún-ecg; adj. [brún brown, ecg an edge] Brown-edged; nigra acie præditus :-- Byrhtnóþ bræd bill of scéðe, brád and brúnecg Byrhtnoth drew his battle-axe from its sheath, broad and brown of edge, Byrht. Th. 136, 38; By. 163: Beo. Th. 3096; B. 1546.

brúnéða, an; m. A disease called brunella or pruna; morbus quidam, idem forte, qui Belgis bruyne, id est, Erysipelas [=GREEK] cerebri. Oris vitium, cum linguæ tumore, exasperatione, siccitate, et nigredine, vulgo, inquit Kilianus, brunella, Som :-- Ðæt biþ strang sealf and gód wið swelcre abláwunge and brúnéðan, and wið ðara ceácna geswelle, oððe asmorunge that is a strong salve and good for such inflation and brunella, and for swelling of the jaws, or smothering, L. M. l, 4; Lchdm. ii. 48, 10-12.

brún-fág; adj. [brún brown, fág coloured, dyed] Of a brown colour, brown-hued; fulvi coloris :-- Ætbær brúnfágne helm he bore away the brown-hued helmet, Beo. Th. 5223; B. 2615.

brunge, pl. brungon; pp. brungen broughtest, brought, Cd. 30; Th. 41, 4; Gen. 651; p. and pp. of bringan.

brún-wann; adj. [brún fuscus, wan, wann ater] Dark-brown, dusky; fusco-ater :-- Niht helmade brúnwann beorgas steápe dusky night covered over the steep mountains, Andr. Kmbl. 2613; An. 1308.

brún-wyrt, brúne-wyrt, e; f. I. BROWNWORT or water-betony; scrofularia aquatica :-- Genim bánwyrt and brúnwyrt take banewort and brownwort, L. M. 1, 25; Lchdm. ii. 66, 18. Brúne wyrt, 1, 61; Lchdm. ii. 132, 7. Genim brúne wyrt take brownwort, 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 268, 9, 13: 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 100, 5: 1, 48; Lchdm. ii. 122, 16. II. wood-betony or brownwort; scrofularia nodosa :-- [Genim] ða brúnan wyrt brádleáfan, sió weaxeþ on wuda take the broad-leafed brownwort, which grows in woods, L. M. 1, 38; Lchdm. ii. 92, 23.

brute; pl. bruton bruisedst, broke; p. of breótan.

brúwa brows, eye-brows, Wrt. Voc. 64, 35, = brúa; pl. nom. of brú.

bryc a bridge; pons :-- Ðæt he dó bryc-geweorc that he do bridge-work, L. R. S. 1; Th. i. 432, 2. v. brycg.

bryce a violation, infraction, L. Alf. pol. 3; Th. i. 62, 9. v. brice.

bryce; adj. [brycþ, pres. of brecan to break] Breakable, worthless, frail, fleeting; fragilis, futilis, caducus :-- Mín bigengea gewát bryce on feorweg incolatus meus prolongatus est, Ps. Th. 119, 5. DER. un-bryce.

BRÝCE, bríce, es; m. [brýcst, brícst, pres. of brúcan to use, enjoy] Use, service, the occupation or exercise of a thing, profit, advantage, fruit; usus, ministerium, commodum :-- Gif ðæt ówiht brýce wæs if that was any use; si hoc aliquid prodesset, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 8, note. Láfe on hwylc hugu fatu gehiwade wǽron mennisces brýces recisuræ in vasa quælibet humani usus formarentur, 3, 22; S. 552, 14. Bríce oððe gewuna usus, Ælfc. Gr. 11; Som. 15, 16. Ealle werþeóde lifgaþ bí ðám lissum, ðe éce Dryhten gesette sínum bearnum to bríce all tribes of men live by the blessings, which the eternal Lord bestowed on his children for their use, Exon. 54 b; Th. 193, 3; Az. 116. We sceoldon ða hwílendlícan þing to úrum brícum habban we should have transitory things for our use, Homl. Th. ii. 460, 28. God híg gesceóp eallum mannum to bríce quæ creavit Deus in ministerium cunctis gentibus, Deut. 4, 19. Brýce commodum, Cot. 59. Lǽnes landes brýce fructws, Cot. 92. [Plat, bruuk: Dut. ge-bruik, n: Kil. bruyk: Ger. brauch, m: O. H. Ger. brúh, m: Dan. brug, c: Swed. bruk, n: O. Nrs. brúk, n. usus, mos, Rask Hald.]

brýce, bríce; adj. [brÝcst, brícst, pres. of brúcan to use] Useful, profitable; utilis :-- He monegum on Godes cyricum brýce wæs multis in ecclesia utilis fate. Bd. 3, 23; S. 555, 33. He monegum brýce lifde vitam multis utilem duxit, 4, 26; S. 602, 41: Ps. Th. 118, 35. DER. un-brýce.

BRYCG, bricg, e; f. A BRIDGE; pons :-- Ðeós brycg hic pons, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 39; Som. 12, 59. Ðæt he ne myhte to ðære brycge cuman that he could not come to the bridge, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 48, 14. Eádweard cyning hêt gewyrcan ða brycge ofer Treontan king Edward commanded the bridge over the Trent to be built, Chr. 924; Erl. 110, 10: 887; Erl. 84, 30: 1071; Erl. 210, 17: Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 46, 7. [Chauc. brigge: Piers P. brugg: R,Brun. brigge: R. Glouc. brugg: Plat, brugge, brügge, f: Frs. bregge : O. Frs. bregge, brigge , f: Dut. brug, f: Ger. brÜcke f: M. H. Ger. brucke, brücke, brügge, f: O. H. Ger. brucca, f: Dan. brygge, bro, m. f: Swed. brygga, bro, f: Icel. bryggja, brú, f.] DER. stân-bricg.

Brycg Bruges in Belgium, Chr. 1052; Erl. 182, 4. v. Bricg.

brycg-bót, bricg-bôt, e; f. [brycg a bridge, bôt a repairing] A repairing or restoring of a bridge; pontis restitutio vel instauratio :-- Brycgbôta aginne man georne let a man diligently begin the repairing of bridges, L. C. S. 10; Th. i. 380, 27, note 65: 66; Th. i. 410, 8, note II.

brycg-geweorc, es; n. BRIDGE-WORK; pontis opus:-- Brycg-geweorc, Heming 104. v. bricg-geweorc.

brycgian; p. ade; pp. ad [brycg a bridge] To bridge, bridge over, make a bridge; pontem trajicere vel construere :-- Sceal îs brycgian ice shall bridge over [water], Exon. 90 a; Th. 338, 4; Gn. Ex. 73. Ofer eástreámas îs brycgade the ice bridged over the water-streams, Andr. Kmbl. 2524; An. 1263. DER. ofer-brycgian.

Brycg-stôw Bristol, Chr. 1052; Th. 314, 27. v. Bricg-stôw.

brycg-weard a keeper or defender of a bridge. v. bricg-weard.

brýcian, brícsian; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad [brýce, bríce use] To be of use, profit, benefit, do good; prodesse, proficuum esse:-- He his gefërum brýcian gýmde he took care to do good to his companions, Bd. 5, 9; S. 623, 33. Hí brýcaþ monigra hǽlo multorum saluti proficuum erit, Bd. 4, 22; S. 590, 32. Him sylfum brícsade benefited himself, Bd. 5, 13; S. 632, 6.

brýcþ, ðú brýcst uses, thou usest; 3rd and 2nd pres. of brúcan,

bryd, es; n. A drawing, drawing out; extractio:-- Mid wǽpnes bryde by the drawing of a weapon, L. Alf. pol. 38; Th. i. 86, 16.

BRÝD, brío, e; f. One owned or purchased,-- A BRIDE, woman about to be married or newly married, a wife, spouse, woman; sponsa, nupta, uxor, mulier :-- Seó gelaðung is gecweden Cristes brýd and clǽne mǽden the church is called Christ's bride and a pure maiden, Boutr. Scrd. 19, 39. Brýd sponsa, Ælfc. Gl. 87; Som. 74, 57; Wrt. Voc. 50, 39. Brýde láste with the step of a bride, Cd. 129; Th. 164, 15; Gen. 2715. Tyn fǽmnan férdon ongén ðone brýdguman and ða brýde decem virgines exierunt obviam sponso et sponsæ, Mt. Bos. 25, I. Se ðe brýde hæfþ, se ys brýdguma qui habet sponsam, sponsus est, In. Bos. 3, 29. Ðá wæs Adames brýd gáste gegearwod then Adam's bride was endued with soul, Cd. 10; Th. 12, 16; Gen. 186. Him brýd sunu brohte his wife brought to him a son, Cd. 58; Th. 71, 16; Gen. 1171. Lothes brýd underbæc beseah Lot's wife looked backwards, 119; Th. 154, 27; Gen. 2562: Beo. Th. 4067; B. 2031. Adam ongan óðres striénan bearnes be brýde, Cd. 55; Th. 68, 18; Gen. 1119: 86; Th. 108, 28; Gen. 1813. Loth gelǽdde brýd mid bearnum in Sǽgor Lot led his wife with their children into Zoar, 118; Th. 153, 11; Gen. 2537: 129; Th. 164, 22; Gen. 2718. Neron his brýde ofslóg self mid sweorde Nero himself slew his wife with a sword, Bt. Met. Fox 9, 60; Met. 9, 30: Beo. Th. 5904; B. 2956: Cd. 125; Th. 159, 21; Gen. 2638. Him brýda twá eaforan feddon two wives brought forth offspring to him, 52; Th. 65, 33; Gen. 1075. Feóllon wergend brýda, bennum seóce the defenders of the wives fell, sick with wounds, 92; Th. 118, 28; Gen. 1972. God me ðas brýd forgeaf God gave me this woman, 26; Th. 33, 27; Gen. 526. [Piers-P. burde: Laym. brude: Orm. brid: O. Sax. brúd: Frs. O. Frs. breid: Dut. bruid: Ger. braut: M.H.Ger. O.H.Ger. brút: Goth. bruþs yvfufni nurus: UNCERTAIN Dan. Swed, brud: Icel, brúðr.] v. wíf.

brýd-bed, es; n. A bride-bed; genialis torus, Ælfc. Gl. 66; Som. 69, 72; Wrt. Voc. 41, 26.

brýd-bletsung, e; f. A bride's blessing; nuptialis benedictio. v. bríd-bletsung.

brýd-búr, es; n. A bedchamber; thalamus :-- Of brýdbúre his de thalamo suo, Ps. Spl. 18, 5: Beo. Th. 1846; B. 921.

brýd-ealo, -eala; gen. -ealowes; n. [ealu ale] A bride-ale, bride or marriage feast; nuptiale convivium :--Ðǽr wæs ðæt brýdealo [Laud; MS. -eala], ðæt wæs manegra manna bealo there was the bride-ale, which was many men's bale, Chr. 1076; Erl. 213, 26.

brýd-ealoþ; indecl. n. [ealaþ ale] A bride-ale, bride or marriage feast; nuptiale convivium :-- Hiî wǽron æt ðam brýdealoþ they were at the marriage feast, Chr. 1075; Erl. 214, 15.

brydel; gen. brydles; m. A bridle; frenum, lupatum :--Brydel bagula, salivare, Ælfc. Gl. 21; Wrt. Voc. 23, 23. v. bridel.

brýde láste with conjugal footstep, Cd. 129; Th. 164, 16; Gen. 2715. v. brýd, lást.

brýdelíc gewrit, es; n. A bride-like writing, a play; drama, Cot. 66.

brydel-pwang, -twancg, es; m. A bridle rein; frenum. v. bridel-þcwang, -twancg, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 35.

brýden wah a broad wall, Bd. Whelc. l, 8; p. 48, 27. v. bréden, wah a wall.

brýd-gifa espousals; sponsalia, Ǽlfc. Gl. 87; Som. 74, 53. v. bríd-gifu.

brýd-guma, brýdi-guma, an; m. [brýd, guma a man] A bride-man, bridegroom; sponsus :--Swá swá brýdguma of his brýdbúre tamquam sponsus procedens de thalamo suo, Ps. Th. 18, 5. Cweðe ge sceolun ðæs brýdguman cnihtas wépan, ða hwíle ðe se brýdguma mid him byþ UNCERTAIN numquid possunt filii sponsi lugere quamdiu cum illis est sponsus? Mt. Bos. 9, 15: 25, l. Se ðe brýde hæfj), se ys brýdguma qui habet sponsam, sponsus est, Jn. Bos. 3, 29: Ælfc. Gl. 87; Som. 74, 55.

brýdi-guma a bridegroom, Ælfc. Gl. 87; Som. 74, 55. v. brýd-guma.

brýd-lác, es; n. A marriage gift or feast, the celebration of a marriage; nuptiale offertorium, nuptiarum celebritates :-- Ne nán preóst mót beón æt ðam brýdlácum áhwǽr ðǽr man eft wífaþ, oððe wíf eft ceorlaþ nor may any priest be at the celebration of a marriage anywhere where a man marries a second wife, or a woman marries again, L. Ælfc. C. 9; Th. ii. 346. 18.

brýd-leóþ, es; n. A marriage song; epithalamium = GREEK, Mone B. 3121: 3123.

brýd-líc; adj. Bridal; nuptialis:--Reáf brýdlíc vestem nuptialem, Mt. Lind. Stv. 22, 12.

brýd-loca, an; m. [loca a place shut in] A bride-chamber; sponsæ cubile:-- On ðæm brýdlocan in the bride-chamber, Homl. Blick. 9, 10.

brýd-lufe, an; f. [lufe love, favour] A bride's love; sponsæ amor:-- He ða brýdlufan sceal sécan he must seek a bride's love, Exon. 67 b; Th. 249, 20; Jul. 114.

brýd-ræst a bride-bed; genialis lectus, Cot. 99. v. brýd-bed.

brýd-reáf, es; n. A nuptial garment; nuptialis vestis:--Mid brýdreáf veste nuptiali, Mt. Lind. Stv. 22, 11.

brýd-sang, es; m. A marriage song; hyrnenæus = GREEK epitha-lamium = GREEK Ælfc. Gl. 33; Som. 62, 40; Wrt. Voc. 28, 22.

brýd-þing, es; n. A bride-thing, what relates to marriage, in pl. nuptials; nuptiæ :-- Gabriel wæs ðissa brýdþinga ǽrendwreca Gabriel was the messenger of these nuptials, Homl. Blick. 3, 13.

brydyls a bridle, Ps. Spl. C. 31, 12. v. bridels.

brygc a bridge, Wrt. Voc. 80, 50. v. brycg.

brygdan, he brygdeþ To turn; vertere :-- He hálge láre brygdeþ on bysmer he turneth holy lore to mockery, Exon. 117a; Th. 449, 14; Dóm. 71. DER. on-brygdan. v. bregdan.

bryht bright. Ps. Spl. T. 15, 6. v. beorht.

bryhtm a glance :-- Eágan bryhtm an eye's glance, a moment, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, 20. v. bearhtm.

bryidan; p. ede; pp. ed To take; tollere, sumere :-- Ðæs áþ ðe his ǽhte bryideþ the oath of him who takes [Th. discovers] his property, L. O. 4; Th. i. 180, 8. v. bregdan. DER. æt-bryidan, ge-.

brym the sea, Cd. 100; Th. 132, 12; Gen. 2192: Chr. 1065; Erl. 196, 31; Edw. 12. v. brim.

brýme famous, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 41, 30. v. bréme.

brym-flód a deluge, Ælfc. Gl. 115; Som. 80, 45; Wrt. Voc. 61, 23. v. brim-flód.

brýmme, es; m. A BRIM, brink, an edge, a border, lip of a pot, and such like; ora, margo :-- Brymmas sǽs the borders or shores of the sea, a strait, Hymn. Lye. [Chauc. brimme: Laym. brlmme, dat: Kil. breme: Ger. bram, n; bräme, f. margo, fimbria.]

brym-streám the sea, a river, Mt. Rush. Stv. 8, 18: Chr. 942; Th. 209, 38, col. 1; Edm. 5. v. brim-stream.

brýmuste most famous, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 41, 30. v. brême.

bryne, byrne, es; m. [byrnan to burn] A burning, fire, flame, heat; ustio, ardor, incendium, ignis, flamma, fervor:-- Ne se bryne beót mæcgum the burning did not hurt the youths. Cd. 187; Th. 232, 24; Dan. 265: Exon. 59a; Th. 213, 24; Ph. 229: 53b; Th. 189, 9; Az. 57. Mid ðý me of sweoran forþlifaþ seó reádnes and bryne ðæs swyles dum mihi de collo rubor tumoris ardorque promineat, Bd. 4, 19; S. 589, 31: Exon. 32a; Th. 101, 22; Cri. 1662. On bryne ge gremedon Drihten in incendio provocastis Dominum, Deut. 9, 22: Cd. 186; Th. 231, 12; Dan. 246. Þurh fýres bryne through the fire's burning, 197; Th. 245, 11; Dan. 461: Exon. 642; Th. 236, 16; Ph. 575. Hie sceolon þrówian biterne bryne they shall suffer bitter burning, Andr. Kmbl. 1231; An. 616. Ǽr ðam ðe ðæt mynster mid byrne fornumen wáre priusquam monasterium esset incendio consumptum, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 18. Se biscop ða brynas ðara húsa gebiddende adwæscte episcopus incendia domorum orando restinxerit, l, 19; S. 484, 36. Brego Caldéa gewát to ðarn bryne the prince of the Chaldeans went to the fire, Exon. 55b; Th. 196, 27; Az. 180. Hie ðone bryne fandedon they proved the fire, Cd. 196; Th. 244, 29; Dan. 455: Exon. 72b; Th. 270, 31; Jul. 473. Bryne stígeþ heáh to heofonum the flame rises high to heaven, Exon. 63a; Th. 233, 6; Ph. 520: 55b; Th. 196, 23; Az. 178. Beóþ amerede monna gǽstas þurh bryne fýres the souls of men will be proved through the fire's heat, 63b; Th. 234, 25; Ph. 545: Salm. Kmbl. 124; Sal. 61. [Laym, brune: O. Sax. brunni, m: Goth. brunsts, f: Icel. bruni, m.] DER. fær-bryne, helle-, lég-, líg-, mán-, sun-.

bryne BRINE, salt liquor; salsugo, muria, Ælfc. Gl. 33; Som. 62, 14; Wrt. Voc. 27, 67. [Kil. brijn muria.] DER. fisc-bryne.

bryne-ádl, e; f. [ádl a disease] A burning disease, a fever; æstuans morbus, febris, Cot. 92.

bryne-bróga, an; m. [bróga fear; dread] Fear or dread of fire; incendii terror :-- Wið brynebrógan against the fire's dread, Exon. 55a; Th. 195, 24; Az. 161.

bryne-gield, es; n. A burnt-offering, burnt-sacrifice; holocaustum, Cd. 140; Th. 175, 6; Gen. 2891: 142; Th. 177, 18; Gen. 2931.

bryne-hát; adj. Burning hot; ardentissimus :-- Ǽr se wlonca dæg bodige brynehátne lég ere the awful day proclaim the burning hot flame, Exon. 110b; Th. 448, 9; Dón. 51.

bryne-leóma, an; m. [leóma a ray of light, beam] A fire-beam, flame; flamma :-- Bryneleóma stód the flame stood, Beo. Th. 4616; B. 2313.

bryne-teár, es; m. [teár a tear] A burning tear; fervida lacrima :-- Bitrum bryneteárum with bitter burning tears, Exon. 10a; Th. 10, 14; Cri. 152.

bryne-welm, -wylm, es; m. A burning flame, flame of fire, burning heat; incendii fervor vel æstus :-- Brynewylmum mealt gifstól Geáta the gift chair of the Goths was consumed by flames of fire, Beo. Th. 4642; B. 2326: Exon. 42a; Th. 142, 14; Gú. 644. In helle heó brynewelme bídan sceolden sáran sorge in hell they must endure great sorrow from the burning heat, Cd. 213; Th. 266, 24; Sat. 27.

bryngaþ bring; afferte. Ps. Spl. 28, i. = bringaþ; impert. pl. of bringan.

bryrdan; he bryrdeþ, bryrdþ, bryrþ; p. bryrde; pp. bryrded, bryrd [brord stimulus, cuspis] To prick, goad, incite, urge, constrain; compungere, stimulare, instigare, urgere, compellere :-- Se Ælmihtiga ealle gesceafta bryrþ mid his bridlum the Almighty constrains all creatures with his bridles, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 5; Met. 13, 3. DER. a-bryrdan, an-, in-, on-.

bryrd-dæg, es; m. Passion-day; passionis dies, Som.

bryrding, e; f. Compunction, instigation; compunctio, impulsio. v. on-bryrding.

bryrdnys, -nyss, e; f. A pricking, goading, stimulation, instigation; compunctio, stimulatio, instigatio :-- Mid bryrdaysse ðæs upplícan éðles by stimulation from the country above, Bd. Whelc. 173, 16. DER. a-bryrdnes, an-, in-, on-.

bryrþ urges, constrains, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 5; Met. 13, 3; 3rd pres. of bryrdan.

brýsan; he brýsþ; p. brýsde; pp. brýsed, ge-brýsed To BRUISE; conterere. [Wyc. brisse: Tynd. pp. brosed: Plat, brusen to make a rushing noise: Dut. bruisen to foam or roar as the sea: Ger. brausen to ferment: Dan. bruse to roar: Swed, brusa to roar; O. Nrs. brúsa æ;stuare.] DER. to-brýsan: ge-brýsed.

Bryt- A Welshman; Wallus: used in compounds, v. Bryt-land.

brýt, e; f. A nymph, bride; nympha [= GREEK a bride], Ælfc. Gl. 88; Som. 74, 64; Wrt. Voc. 50, 45. v. brýd.

brýt breaks; 3rd pers. pres. of breótan.

bryta, an; m. A lord :-- Swegles brytan lords of heaven, Cd. 213; Th. 266, 17; Sat. 23. v. brytta.

brytan to break, Herb. 1, 3; Lchdm. i. 72, note 8, B: 13, 1; Lchdm. i. 104, 20: 32, l; Lchdm. i. 130, note 12. v. bryttian.

Brytas, Bryttas, Brittas; pl. m. The Britons; Britones :-- Hit hafdon Brytas the Britons had it, Chr. Th. 3, 29, col. 3. Bryttas 3, 8, col. l, 3: 4, 4, col. 2, 3.

brytednys, -nyss, e; f. A breaking, bruising; contritio. DER. to-brytednys.

Bryten, Bryton, Briten, Breoten, Breoton, Broten, Brittan, Britten, Brytten; gen. dat. acc. e; f. acc. also as nom. BRITAIN; Britannia, Cambria :-- Brytene ígland is ehta hund míla lang the island of Britain is eight hundred miles long, Chr. Th. 3, l, col. l: 3, 10, col. I. 3. Syxtigum wintrum ǽr ðam ðe Crist wære acenned, Gaius Iulius, Rómána cásere [MS. kasere], mid hund-eahtatigum scipum, gesóhte Brytene sixty years before Christ was born, Caius Julius, emperor of the Romans, with eighty vessels, sought Britain, Chr. Th. 5, 17-21, col. 3, 1. 2. Breoton [Brytene C] is eálond ðæt wæs iú geára Albion háten Britain is an island that was formerly called Albion, Bd. l, l; S. 473, 8: 2, l; S. 501, 10. On Bretone into Britain, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 2. Bryten, acc. Exon. 45 b; Th. 155, 5; Gu. 855.

brýten-cyning, es; m. A powerful king; rex præpotens. Exon. 88 a; Th. 331. 28; Vy. 75.

brýten-grúnd, es; m. The spacious earth; terra spatiosa, Exon. 13 a; Th. 22, 25; Cri. 357.

Bryten-lond, es; n. The land of Britain; Britanniæ terra :-- Maximus, se cásere, wæs on Bryten-londe geboren Maximus, the emperor, was born in the land of Britain, Chr. 381; Ing. 11. 9.

brýten-ríce, es; a. A spacious kingdom; regnum spatiosum, Exon. 54 b; Th. 192, 17; Az. 107.

brýten-walda, brýten-wealda, bréten-ánwealda, an; m: brýten-weald, es; m. A powerful ruler or king; præpotens rex. It is affirmed [Kmbl. Sax. Eng. ii. 21, and note i] that the true meaning of brýten-walda, compounded of walda a ruler, and the adj. brýten, is totally unconnected with Brettas or Bretwalas, the name of the British aborigines; for brýten is derived from breótan to bruise, break, to break into small portions, to disperse; and, when coupled with walda, wealda a ruler, king, means no more than an extensive or powerful king, a king whose power is widely extended. Many similar compounds are found, thus in Exon. 88 a; Th. 331, 28; Vy. 75 we have brýten-cyning a powerful king exactly equivalent to brýten-walda. Brýten-grúnd the wide expanse of earth, 13a; Th. 22, 25; Cri. 357. Brýten-rice a spacious realm, 54 b; Th. 192, 17; Az. 107. Brýten-wong the spacious world, 13 a; Th. 24, 6; Cri. 380. The uncompounded adj. is used in the same sense. Breoton bold a spacious dwelling, Cd. 228; Th. 308, 3; Sae. 687. Turner thinks that the Bret-walda [Hist, of A. Sax. bk. iii. ch. 5, vol. i. pp. 318 and 378] was a war-king, elected by the other Anglo-Saxon kings and their nobility, as their leader in the time of war. Lappenberg [Th. Lapbg. i. 125-129] takes the same view; while Kemble [Sax. Eng. ii. 8-21] opposes both Turner and Lappenberg, asserting that there was not any general ruler or superior war-king elected by the Anglo-Saxons, and that even Bret-walda [q. v.] does not refer to the Britons, that it is so written in only one MS. of the Chr. while each of the five others has the word brýten-, and therefore the word ought to be written as above, brýten-walda. Of these Brýten-waldan the Chronicle names the following eight, -- Ðý geáre ge-eóde Ecgbriht cing Myrcna ríce, and eal ðæt be súþan Humbre wæs, and he wæs eahtoða cing, ðe brýtenwalda wæs. Ærest wæs Ælle, [Súþ-Seaxna] cing, se ðus mycel ríce hæfde. Se æftera wæs Ceawlin, West-Sexna cing. Se þridda wæs Æðelbriht, Cantwara cing. Se feórþa wæs Rǽdwald. Eást-Engla cing: fifta wæs Eádwine, Norþhymbra cing: syxta wæs Oswald, ðe æfter him ríxode: seofoða wæs Ósweo, Óswaldes bróðor: eahtoða Ecgbriht, West-Seaxna cing in this year [A. D. 827] king Ecgbriht subdued the kingdom of the Mercians, and all that was south of the Humber, and he was the eighth king, who was Brýtenwalda. The first was Ælle [A. D. 477-514], king of the South-Saxons, who had thus much sway. The second was Ceawlin [A. D. 560-593], king of the West-Saxons. The third was Æthelbriht [A. D. 593-616], king of the men of Kent. The fourth was Rædwald [A. D. 617 ?-515], king of the East-Angles: the fifth was Eadwine [A. D. 625-635], king of the Northumbrians: the sixth was Oswald [A. D. 635-642], who reigned after him: the seventh was Oswiu [A. D. 642-670], Oswald's brother: the eighth was Ecgbriht [A. D. 800-836], king of the West-Saxons, Chr. 827; Th. 112, 16-34, col. 2, 3 : Brýten-, Th. 113, 21: Palgrv. Eng. Com. pp. CCXXXIV-V.

brýten-wong, es; m. [brýten, wang, wong a plain, field] A spacious plain or field, in pl. the world; spatiosus campus, mundus :-- Geond brýtenwongas throughout the spacious world, Exon. 13 a; Th. 24, 6; Cri. 380.

brýtest, brýtst, he brýteþ, brýt breakest, breaks; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of breótan.

Bryt-ford, es; m. [Bryt a Briton, ford a ford] BRITFORD, near Sarum, Wiltshire :-- Tostig wæs ðá æt Brytforda [MS. Brytfordan] mid ðam cinge [MS. kinge] Tostig was then at Britfqrd with the king, Chr. 1065; Erl. 194, 38.

bryðen, es; n ? A drink, brewing; potus :-- Bryðen wæs ongunnen, ðætte Adame Eue gebyrmde æt fruman worulde the drink was prepared, which Eve fermented for Adam at the beginning of the world, Exon. 47 a; Th. 161, 4; Gú. 953: L. M. l, 67; Lchdm. ii. 142, 15. Án bryðen mealtes one brewing of malt, Wulfgeat's Will.

brytian to dispense, distribute, Past. 44, I; Hat. MS. 61 a. 13. v. bryttian.

brýtian to profit, Bd. 5, 9; S. 623, note 32, 33, T. v. brýcian.

Bryt-land, Bryt-lond, es; n. The land of Britain, Wales; Britannia, Cambria :-- Ðá fór Harold mid scipum of Brycgstówe abútan Brytland then Harold went with his ships from Bristol about Wales, Chr. 1063; Ing. 251, 21. Into Brytlande in Walliam, Chr. 1063; Gib. 170, 41, note l. v. Bryten.

brytnere, es; m. A distributor, steward; dispensator :-- Hwá sí [MS. sie] wís brytnere who can be a wise steward? Past. 63. v. brytta.

brytnian; p. ode, ede, ade; pp. od, ed. ad To dispense, distribute, administer; dispensare, administrare :-- He sinc brytnade he dispensed treasure, Beo. Th. 4756; B. 2383. Hí weolan brytnodon they dispensed wealth, Chr. 1065; Erl. 197, 40; Edw. 21. Æðelingas wélan brytnedon the nobles distributed riches, Cd. 209; Th. 259, 14; Dan. 691. v. bryttian.

brýtofta espousals; sponsalia, Ælfc. Gl. 87; Som. 74, 53; Wrt. Voc. 50. 35. v. brýd-gifa, bríd-gifu.

Bryton Britain, Bd. l, 7; S. 476, 34. v. Bryten.

Bryton-laud, es; n. British land, Britain, Chr. 979; Th. 233, 7, col. 1.

brytsen; gen. dot. acc, brytsene; pl. nom. gen. acc. brytsena; dat. brytsenum; f. [brytan to break] A broken part, fragment; fragmentum :-- Hí námon ða láfa, twelf wilian fulle ðæra brytsena tulerunt reliquias, duodecim cophinos fragmentorum plenos, Mt. Jun. 14, 20: Jn. Bos. 6, 13. Of ðám brytsenum de fragmentis, Mk. Bos. 8, 8. Gaderiaþ da brytsena colligite fragmenta, Jn. Bos. 6, 12.

brytta, bryta, bretta, an; m. A bestower, dispenser, distributor, prince, lord, God? largitor, dispensator, administrator, princeps, dominus, Deus? -- Sinces brytta a dispenser of treasure, Cd. 89; Th. 111, 18; Gen. 1857: Judth. 10; Thw. 21, 22; Jud. 30: Beo. Th. 1219; B. 607: 3849; B. 1922: Exon. 76b; Th. 288, 3; Wand. 25. Goldes brytta a distributor of gold, Cd. 138; Th. 173, 26; Gen. 2867: 93; Th. 120, 20; Gen. 1997. Beága brytta a distributor of rings or bracelets, Beo. Th. 69; B. 35: 709; B. 352: 2978; B. 1487. Synna brytta the prince of sins, the devil. Elen. Kmbl. 1913; El. 958. Morðres brytta the prince of murder, the devil, Andr. Kmbl. 2342; An. 1172. Boldes brytta the lord of a house, Elen. Kmbl. 323; El. 162. Lifes brytta the Lord of life = God, Cd. 6; Th. 8, 10, 24; Gen. 122, 129: Exon. 12b; Th. 21, 14; Cri. 334: Andr. Kmbl. 1644; An. 823. Swægles brytta the Lord of heaven = God, Cd. 215; Th. 272, 24; Sat. 124: Exon. 12a; Th. 18, 10; Cri. 281. Tires brytta the Lord of power = God, 14b; Th. 29, 14; Cri. 462. [Icel. bryti; m. a steward, bailiff.]

Brytta of the Britons, Bd. l, 34; S. 499, 20; gen. pl. of Bryttas.

Bryttas, Brittas, Brettas, Breotas, Brytas, Britas; pl. m. I. Britons; Britones :-- -Ǽrest wǽron búend ðyses landes Bryttas the first inhabitants of this land [England] were the Britons, Chr. Th. 3, 8, col. 1, 3. Mód and mægen Bryttas onféngon the Britons took heart and power, Bd. 1, 16; S. 484, 19: 1, 15; S. 483, 17. Ðætte Angel-þeód wæs gelaðod fram Bryttum on Breotone that the Angle-nation was invited by the Britons into Britain, 1, 15; S. 483, 2. II. Bretons; Armoricani :-- Ðý ilcan geáre fór se here of Sigene to Sant Laudan, ðæt is betweoh Brettum [Bryttum, col. 2, 3] and Francum in the same year the army went from the Seine to St. Ló, which is between the Bretons and the Franks, Chr. 890; Th. 160, 10, col. l. Hí speónan ða Bryttas heom to they enticed the Bretons to them, 1075; Th. 349, 26.

Brytten, e; f. Britain, Chr. Th. 3, 11. col. 2. v. Bryten.

bryttian, brittian, bryttigan, brytian; pl. bryttigaþ; p. bryttade; v. a. To divide into fragments, dispense, rule, use; dispensare frustatim, gubernare :-- Hí hit him bryttian sceoldon they should dispense it to them, Past. 44, 1; Hat. MS. 61a. 13. Land bryttade ruled the land, Cd. 62; Th. 75, 6; Gen. 1236. Mihton mægyn bryttigan might use force, Cd. 4; Th. 4, 12; Gen. 52. [Icel. brytja to chop, cut in pieces.]

brýttian; p. ode, ade; pp. od To possess, enjoy; possidere, frui :-- Sculon wélan bryttian shall enjoy wealth, Cd. 99; Th. 131, 19; Gen. 2178. Woruld bryttade enjoyed the world, Cd. 62; Th. 74, 22; Gen. 1226. v. brýtian.

Bryttiso, Brittisc; adj. British; Britannicus :-- He wæs Bryttisc he was British, Chr. 1075; Erl. 213, 3.

Brytt-wealas, Bryt-walas; pl. m. The Brito-Welsh, Britons; Bri- tanni :-- Cynríc ða Bryttwealas geflýmde Cynric routed the Britons, Chr. 552; Gib. 20, 2. Brytwalas, 167; Erl. 9, 20; 443; Erl. 11, 33: 571; Erl. 19, 15.

, bý, es; n? [ic búe, he býþ, pres. of búan to dwell] A dwelling, habitation; habitatio, habitaculum :-- Bearn hér bú námon, and ðǽr eardedon here children obtained a dwelling, and there settled, Ps. Th. 101. 25. Stanford and Deóra bý wǽron under Norþmannum Stamford and Derby [Deóra bý habitation of deer or animals] were under the Northmen, Chr. 942; Th. 210, 4; Edm. 8. Se ðe hús oððe bý hæfde qui domicilium habebat. UNCERTAIN Mk. Skt. Lind. 5, 3. [Plat. buw, m: O. Sax. bú, n: Dut. bouw, m: Ger. bau, m: M. H. Ger. bú, bou, m: O. H. Ger. pú, m: Dan. bo, m. f: Swed. bo, m: Icel. bú, n. domus: Sansk. bhú, f. the earth, site, place.]

both, nom. m. f. or n: acc. m. f. n. of begen; ambæ, ambo :-- Hí bú þégon [MS. þegun] æppel they both [Adam and Eve] ate the apple, Exon. 61b; Th. 226, 8; Ph. 402: Cd. 10; Th. 12, 18; Gen. 187: 82; Th. 102. 13; Gen. 1699. v. bá.

BÚAN, búgan; ic búe, ðú búst, he býþ; p. búde, pl. búdon; pp. gebún; v. anom. I. intrans. To dwell, live; habitare, versari aliquo loco :-- He búde on Eást-Englum he dwelt among the East-Angles, Chr. 890; Erl. 66. UNCERTAIN 29: Ors. 1, l; Bos. 19, 26. Gif he weard onfunde búan [MS. buon] on beorge if he found the keeper dwelling in the mount, Beo. Th. 5676; B. 2842. II. v. a. acc. To inhabit, occupy; inhabitare, colere, incolere:-- He lét heó þæt land búan he let them, inhabit the land, Cd. 13; Th. 16, 6; Gen. 239. Ðæt ðú búst eorþan ut inhabites terram, Ps. Th. 36, 33. Ðæt hér men bún ðone heán heofon that here men inhabit the high heaven, Cd. 35; Th. 45, 32; Gen. 735. Ne mæg mon meduseld búan a man may not occupy the mead-bench, Beo. Th. 6123; B. 3065. [Plat. buwen, bouen, buen, bujen: O. Sax. búan: Frs. bouwje: O. Frs. buwa, bowa: Dut. bouwen: Ger. bauen: M. H. Ger. buwen, biuwen, bouwen: O. H. Ger. búan, búwan: Goth. bauan: Dan. boe: Swed. bo: Icel. búa: Lith. bu-ti to be: Slav, by-ti to be: Zendto be, become: Sansk, bhú to become, spring up, be, exist, live.] DER. ge-búan: án-búende: bú, bý: búgan, búgend: búgian, búian, búwian.

BUC, es; m. A BUCK, a male deer; cervus, Ælfc. Gl. 19; Som. 59, 22: Wrt. Voc. 22, 63. v. dá a doe.

BÚC, es; m. I. the belly, stomach; venter, alvus:-- Hit is betwux túðum tocowen and into ðam búce asend it is chewed between the teeth and sent into the stomach, Homl. Th. ii. 270, 34. II. a vessel that bulges out, as a bottle, jug, pitcher; lagena, hydria:-- Búc lagena, Wrt. Voc. 83, 24. Þurch heora bláwunge and ðæra búca swég through the sound of their blowing and of the pitchers, Jud. 7, 21. Hí tobrǽcon ða búcas mid micelre brastlunge they broke the pitchers [hydrias confregerunt] with great crashing, 7, 20. [Chauc, bouke bulk, bodý: UNCERTAIN Plat. buuk, m. venter: O. Sax. búk, m. weer: Frs. buk, m. f. venter: O. Frs. buk, buch, m. venter: Dut. buik, m. belly: Kil. buyck corporis truncus: Ger. bauch, m. venter, alveus: M. H. Ger. búch, m- venter: O. H. Ger. búh, m. venter: Dan. bug, m. f the stomach, belly or middle of a vessel: Swed. buk, m. belly: Icel. búkr, m. the trunk, body.] DER. wæter-búc. v. æscen, hrygile-búc.

bucc a cheek, part of a helmet; buccula, Cot. 25.

BUCCA, an; m. [buc a buck] A he-goat, BUCK; caper, hircus:-- Bucca caper vel hircus, Wrt. Voc. 78, 32. Bucca hircus, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 30. Bucca caper vel hircus vel tragos [ -- GREEK ], Ælfc. Gl. 20; Som. 59, 36; Wrt. Voc. 22, 77. Gif se ealdor syngaþ, bringeþ ánne buccan to bóte si peccaverit princeps, offerat hircum immaculatum, Lev. 4, 23: 9, 3. He asyndrode twáhund gáta and twentig buccena separavit capras ducentas et hircos viginti, Gen. 32. 14: Ps. Lamb. 49, 13. Ic ne underfó of eowedum ðínum buccan non accipiam de gregibus tuis hircos, 49, 9: Deut. 32, 14. Buccan horn a buck's horn, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac, Capricorn, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 7, 8; Lchdm. iii. 246, 3. Buccan beard a goat's beard, Wrt. Voc. 289, 10. [Chauc, buck: Orm. bucc: Plat, buk, m: O. Sax. buc, m: Frs. bok, m. f: Dut. bok, m: Ger. bock, m: M. H. Ger. boc, m: O. H. Ger. boch, m: Dan. buk, m. f: Swed. bock, m: Icel. bokki, m.] DER. firgen-bucca, stán-, wudu-.

Bucc-inga ham; gen. hammes; m. Hunt. Bukingeham: Brom. Bukyngham: Bucc, -inga ham, q. v.] BUCKINGHAM; oppidum primarium agri Buccinghamensis:-- Fór Eádweard cyning to Buccinga hamme king Edward went to Buckingham, Chr. 918; Erl. 104, 18.

Buccinga ham-scír, e; f. BUCKINGHAMSHIRE; ager Buccinghamensis:-- Hí wendon ðanon on Buccinga hamscíre they turned thence to Buckinghamshire, Chr. 1010; Th. 264, 11: 1011; Erl. 144, 35 : 1016; Erl. 154, 6, 24.

búc-ful, -full, e; f. A pitcherful:-- Him wearþ ðá geboren to búcful wæteres a pitcherful of water was then borne to him, Homl. Th. ii. 422, 29.

bude hast offered, Cd.111; Th. 147, 7; Gen. 2435: budon offered, Beo. Th. 2175; B. 1085; p. s. and pl. of beódan.

búde dwelt; habitavit, Ors. I, l; UNCERTAIN Bos. 19, 26; p. of búan.

búend, es; m. A dweller. v. búende.

búende; part. búend, es; m. Inhabiting or dwelling; inhabitans:-- Búendra leás void of those inhabiting [Cd. 5; Th. 6, 16; Gen. 89] or inhabitants, thus used as a noun, though sometimes in composition declined as a m. noun, búend, es; m : it is often declined as a m. part. that is an adj. ending in e. It would then be declined nom. s. -búende; gen. -búendes; d. -búendum; acc. -þuendne; but most frequently as an adj. pl; nom. acc. -búende; gen. -búendra [as a noun, búenda]; d. -búendum:-- Mid búendum cum habitantibus, Ps. Lamb. 82, 8. DER. ánbúende, ceaster-búend, ég-, eorþ-, feor-, fold-, grúnd-, hér-, íg-, land-, neáh-, sund-, þeód-, woruld-.

búfan, búfon; prep. dat. [be-ufan] Above; super; used in opposition to under:-- God totwǽmde ða wæteru, ðe wǽron under ðære fæstnisse fram ðám ðe wǽron búfan ðære fæstnisse Deus divisit aquas, quæ erant sub firmamento ab his quæ erant super firmamentum. Gen. l, 7. Búfan ðam máran wealle above the greater wall, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 44, 28. Twentig míla búfan Lundenbyrig twenty miles above London, Chr. 896; Th. 172, 25. DER. ufan; prep.

búfan, búfon [be-ufan]; adv. Above, before; supra:-- Be ðære búfan sǽd wæs de qua supra dictum est, Bd. 4, 22; S. 592, 13: Mt. Rush. Stv. 2, 9. [Plat. baven: Dut. bóven: Ger. boben supra.] DER. ufan; adv.

búgan; p. ede; v. a. acc. To inhabit; inhabitare, incolere:-- þenden git móston án lond búgan while ye might inhabit one land, Exon. 123a; Th. 473, 20; Bo. 17. Ðǽr ic wíc þúge there I inhabit a dwelling, 104 b; Th. 396, 22; Rä. 16, 8: 103a; Th. 389, 23; Rä. 8, 2. Ðǽr nó men búgaþ eard where men inhabit not a home, 58a; Th. 208, 18; Ph. 157. Búgede habitatvit, Aldh. Gl. Grn. v. búan, búgian.

BÚGAN; part. búgende; ic búge, ðu búgest, býhst, býgst, he búgeþ, býhþ, býgþ; p. ic, he beág, beáh, ðú buge, pl. bugon; imp. búg, búh; pp. bogen; v. intrans. To BOW or bow down oneself, bend, swerve, give way, submit, yield, turn, turn away, flee; se flectere vel inclinare, curvare, declinare, desistere, cedere, vertere, divertere, fugere:-- Hí noldon búgan to nánum deófolgilde they would not bow down to any idol, Homl. Th. ii. 18, 29: Rood Kmbl. 71; Kr. 36: Num. 25, 2. Ne eom ic wyrðe ðæt ic his sceóna þwanga búgende uncnytte, Mk. Bos. l, 7; I knelinge am not worthi for to undo the thwong of his schoon, Wyc. Seó eá, norþ búgende, út on ðone Wendel-sǽ the river, bending northward, [flows] out into the Mediterranean sea, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 17, 33: Exon. 103a; Th. 390, 24; Rá. 9, 6. Seó eorþe nǽfre ne býhþ ne ufor ne nyðor ðonne se ælmihtiga Scyppend hí gestaðelode the earth never swerves neither higher nor lower than the almighty Creator established it, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 10, 19; Lchdm. iii. 254, 18. Hí bugon and flugon they gave way and fled, Chr. 999; Erl. 135, 25. Ic sceolde on bonan willan búgan 7 must submit to a murderer's will, Exon. 126b; Th. 486, 4; Rä. 72, 7: Beo. Th. 5829; B. 2918. Him beág gód dǽl ðæs folces a good part of the people submitted to him, Chr. 913; Erl. 102, 7: 921; Erl. 108, 1. He to fulluhte beáh he submitted to baptism, Homl. Th. i. 386, 32: Ex. 32, 26. Hí bugon to ðam they submitted to that, Jos. 9, 27: Chr. 975; Erl. 125, 24. Ǽlc burhwaru wæs búgende to him every city was yielding to him, Jos. 11, 19. Búge ic to eówerum hǽðenscipe I will turn to your heathendom, Homl. Th. i. 70, 28. Híg bugon of ðam wege they have turned out of the way, Ex. 32, 8. Ðæt ge ne bugon eft to woruldþingum that ye turn not again to worldly things, Boutr. Scrd. 22, 46. Se Hǽlend beáh fram ðære gegaderunge the Saviour turned away from the company, Jn. Bos. 5, 13: Beo. Th. 5905; B. 2956. Búh fram yfele and dó oððe wyrc gód diverte a malo et fac bonum, R. Ben. in proœm. He sceal búgan fugere debeat, Ex. 21, 13: Gen. 19, 21: Byrht. Th. 139, 58; By. 276. Hí bugon fram beaduwe they fled from the fight, 137, 12; By. 185: Beo. Th. 5190; B. 2598. [Laym. buʒen, buwen: Orm. buʒhenn: Plat, bögen: Dut. buigen: Kil. buyghen: Ger. M. H. Ger. biegen: O. H. Ger. Goth. biugan: Icel. boginn bent: Sansk. bhuj to bend.] DER. a-búgan, an-, be-, bi-, for-, ge-, in-, on-, under-, ymb-.

búgend, es; m. [búgende, part. of búgan, búan to dwell] A dweller, an inhabitant; habitator:-- Ærost wæron UNCERTAIN búgendas [MS. búgend] ðyses landes Bryttas at first the inhabitants of this land [England] were Britons, Chr. Th. 3, 7, col. 3.

búgende bowing, kneeling, Mk. Bos. 1. 7. v. búgan to bow down.

búgian, búian, búwian, to búgianne; p. ode; pp. od. I. intrans. To dwell; habitare:-- Ge ðǽr búgiaþ ye dwell there, Bt. 18, l; Fox 62, 22. II. v. a. acc. To inhabit, occupy; inhabitare, incolere:-- Ðis is land to búgianne this is to inhabit land, Bt. 17; Fox 60, 4. v. búan.

búh turn:-- Búh fram yfle diverte a malo, R. Ben. in proœm. impert. of búgan to bow, turn.

búh-somnes, -ness; f. BOWSOMENESS, pliableness; obedientia, Verst. Restitn. p. 211. v. bócsumnes.

búian to dwell, inhabit; habitare, incolere:-- Ðæt we móston búian that we should dwell, Ps. Th. 28, 8. Ðe on eorþan búiaþ who dwell on earth, Ps. Th. 32, 7. Búiaþ inhabit, Ps. Th. 32, 12. v. búgian.

bule a stud, boss, brooch; bulla, Cot. 26. [Ger. bulle; f.]

bulentse, an; f. The name of a plant, which, from not knowing its Latin or English name, I call bulentse:-- Nime bulentsan ða smalan take the small bulentse, L. M. l, 47; Lchdm. ii. 118, 1.

bulge wast angry; p. of belgan.

bulgon made angry, were angry; p. pl. of belgan.

bulle bellowedst, roaredst; bullon bellowed, roared; p. of bellan.

bulluca, an; m. A male calf, a BULLOCK; vitulus, Scint. 54.

bulot, bulut Ragged robin or cuckoo-flower; lychnis, flos cuculi, Lin:-- Bulot-niðeweard the nether part of cuckoo-flower, L. M. l, 58; Lchdm. ii. 128, 15. Nim bulut take cuckoo-flower, 3, 48; Lchdm. ii. 340, 1.

bunda, bonda, an; m. I. a wedded or married man, a husband; maritus, sponsus:-- Ne mæg nán wíf hire bondan [bundan MS. B. note 57] forbeódan, ðæt he ne móte into his cotan gelogian ðæt ðæt he wille no wife may forbid her husband, that he may not put into his cot what he will, L. Cnut. pol. 74; Wilk. 145, 41; Th. i. 418, 23-25; Schmd. 312, 76, § I. Sé hit bonda, sé hit wíf sive maritus sit, sive uxor, Hick. Diss. Ep. 18, 40. II. the father or head of a family, a householder; paterfamilias, œconomus:-- Swá ymbe friðes bóte swá ðam bondan [bundan MS. A. L. C. S. 8] sí sélost and ðam þeófan sí láðost so concerning frithes-bót as may be best for the householder [patrifamilias] and worst for the thief, L. Ænh. Wilk. 122, 40; Eth. vi. 32; Th. i. 322, 27; Schmd. 232, § 32: L. Cnut. pol. 8; Wilk. 134, 40; Th. i. 380, 14; Schmd. 274, 8. And ðæ-acute;r se bonda [MS. B. bunda] sæt uncwyd and unbecrafod sitte ðæt wif and ða cild on ðam ylcan unbesacen. And gif se bonda [MS. B. bunda] beclypod wære, etc. and where the householder dwelt without claim or contest, let the wife and the children dwell in the same, without litigation. And if the householder had been cited, etc. L. Cnut. pol. 70; Wilk. 144, 39; Th. i. 414, 21; Schmd. 310, 72. Thu early Latin version is, Et ubi bonda [bunda, L. Th. i. 526, 3], i. e. paterfamilias manserit, sine compellatione et calumpnia, sint uxor et pueri in eodem, sine querela. Et si [bunda, i. e. paterfamilias] compellatus fuerat, etc. L. Cnut. 73; Th. ii. 542, 13-15. 2. every word has its history by which its introduction and use are best ascertained. Bede tells us [Bk. i. 25, 2] that Ethelbert, king of Kent, married a Christian wife Bertha, a Frankish princess. The queen prepared the way for the friendly reception of Augustine and his missionary followers by Ethelbert in A. D. 597, who was the first to found a school in Kent, and wrote Laws which are said to be asette on Augustines dæge established in the time of Augustine, between A. D. 597 and 604. The cultivation and writing of Anglo-Saxon [Englisc] began with the conversion of Ethelbert. Marriage, and the household arrangements depending upon it, were regulated by the law of the church, and indigenous compound words were formed to express that law, -- thus æ-acute;law, divine law; Cristes æ-acute;Christi lex. Rihte æ-acute;legitimum matrimonium, Bd. 4, 5; S. 573, 17. Æ-acute;w wedlock, marriage, æ-acute;w-boren lawfully born, born in wedlock: æ-acute;w-breca, -brica, m. wedlock breaker, an adulterer: æ-acute;w-fæst-man marriage-fast-man, a wedded man, a husband: æ-acute;w-nian to wed, take a wife. 3. Hús-bunda, -bonda a wedded man, husband, householder. This compound is one of the oldest in the language. It is found in the interpolated passage of Matt. xx. between vers. 28 and 29. The passage is in all the Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the Gospels, except the interlineary glosses. The Anglo-Saxon is a literal version of the Augustinian MS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford [Codex August. 857 D. 2. 14], the Old Italic version, from which the text of the Latin vulgate of the Gospels was formed by St. Jerome about A. D. 384. Though we do not know the exact dates when the Gospels were translated from Latin into Anglo-Saxon, Cuthbert assures us that Bede finished the last Gospel, St. John, on May 27, 735, [see Pref. to Goth. and A. Sax. Gos. Bos. pp. ix-xii.] As the three preceding Gospels were most likely translated before St. John, then the following sentence was written before 735. Se hús-bonda [hús-bunda in MS. Camb. Ii, 2, 11] háte ðé arísan and rýman ðam óðrum the householder bid thee rise and make room for the other, Notes to Bosworth's Goth. and A. Sax. Gos. Mt. xx. 28, p. 576. Hús-bonda is also used by Ælfric in his version of the Scriptures about 970, Ex. 3, 22. 4. Bunda, bonda one wedded or bound, a husband, from bindan; p. band, bundon; pp. bunden to bind must have been of earlier origin than the compound hús-bunda. It is a well-known rule that in Anglo-Saxon a person or agent is denoted by adding a, as býtl a hammer, býtla a hammerer; ánweald rule, government, ánwealda a ruler, governor; bunden, bund bound, bunda, bonda one bound, a husband. Bunda might be banda as well as bonda, for a is often used for o, as mon for man a man. The early use of hús-bunda, -bonda would at once indicate that it was not likely to be of Norse or Icelandic origin. It could not be derived from the Norse búa to dwell; part, búandi, bóandi dwelling; nor even from the A. Sax. búan to dwell, because the ú and ó are long in the Norse búa to dwell, búandi, bóandi dwelling, and in the A. Sax. búan to dwell, búende dwelling, búend a dweller; while the u and o are always snore in bunda and bonda. So, in other compounds, from bindan to bind, as bonde-land bond or leased land, land let on binding conditions. Bunda then is a pure Anglo-Saxon word derived from bindan to bind. Búan to dwell, with the part, búende dwelling, and the noun búend, es; m. a dweller, is quite a distinct word with its own numerous compounds, v. búende, búend, es; m.

bunden bound, tied; bundon bound, Beo. Th. 3805; B. 1900; pp. and p. of bindan.

bunden-stefha, an; m. [bunden bound, stefna the prow of a ship] A bound prow; ligata prora:-- Sǽgenga fleát ofer ýðe, bundenstefna ofer brimstreámas the ship [lit. sea-goer] floated over the wave, the bound prow over the ocean-streams. Beo. Th. 3824; B. 1910.

bune, an; f. A sort of cup; carchesium = GREEK, poculi genus, Judth. 10; Thw. 21, 14; Jud. 18: Beo. Th. 5544; B. 2775: Exon. 77b; Th. 292, 4; Wand. 94: 90a; Th. 338, 23; Gn. Ex. 83.

Bune, Bunne, an; f? Boulogne in France; Bononia :-- Se micla here férde to Bunan [Bunnan, Th. 162, 20, col. l] the great army went to Boulogne, Chr. 893; Th. 163, 20, col. 3.

buoptalmon, es; n. [ GREEK ] Ox-eye, chamomile; anthemis nobilis, Lin :-- Buoptalrnon . . . heó hafaþ geoluwe blóst-man eal swylce eáge, ðanon heó ðone naman onféng Ox-eye . . . it has yellow blossoms all like an eye, whence it took the name, Herb. 141, l; Lchdm. i. 262, 4.

BUR, es; n. A BOWER, cottage, dwelling, an inner room, storehouse; tabernaculum, conclave, casa :-- Wiht wolde hyre on ðære byrig búr atimbran a creature would construct a bower for itself in the town, Exon. 108a; Th. 411, 26; Rä. 30, 5. On búre, ahóf brýd Abrahames hleahtor in the inner room, Abraham's wife raised a laugh, Cd. 109; Th. 144, 7; Gen. 2386. Cumena búr a guest-house, Bd. 4, 31; S. 610, 11. Bed-cófa vel búr cubiculum, Ælfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 99; Wrt. Voc. 25, 39. Wæs to búre Beówulf fetod Beowulf was fetched to his dwelling, Beo. Th. 2624; B. 1310. On his suna búre in his son's dwelling, Beo. Th. 4902; B. 2455. Æfter búrum along the dwellings, Beo. Th. 282; B. 140. [Chauc. boure: Piers P. bour: R. Glouc. boures, pl: Laym. bur: Orm. bure: Plat. bur, buur, m: Ger. bauer, m: O. H. Ger. búr: Dan. buur, n: Swed. bur, m: Icel. búr, n.] DER. brýd-búr.

burcg, e; f. A city :-- Ðære burcge of the city, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 18. v. burh.

búr-cote, an; f. [búr a bower, cote a couch] A bed-chamber; cubiculum :-- On hira búrcotum, and on hiera beddum in their bed-chambers, and in their beds, Past. 16, 2; Hat. MS. 20b, 15.

burg, e; f. A city; urbs :-- Sceal seó burg bÍdan the city shall remain, Exon. 121b; Th. 466, 30; Hö. 129. v. burh.

burg- = beorg- a hill, in some compounds, as in burg-stal, q. v.

burga cities, of cities, Mt. Bos. 11. 20: Salm. Kmbl. 613. v. burh.

burg-ágende; part. Possessing a fortress or palace; arcem vel palatium possidens, Elen. Kmbl. 2347; El. 1175.

burga man, es; m. A citizen; civis :-- Sí hit burga man sim civis sit ille, Deut. 1. 16. v. burh-man.

burgan =burgen, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 47, 15; p. pl. subj. of beorgan to save.

burgat, es; pl. burgatu; n. [burg a city, gat, geat a gate] A city-gate; urbis porta :-- Ðá Samson genam ða burggatu [MS. burgatu] and gebær on his hricge then Samson took the city-gates and bore them on his back, Jud. 16, 3.

burg-bryce, burh-bryce, -brice, es; m. I. a breaking into a castle or dwelling; castelli vel domus violatio, L. In. 45; Th. i. 130, 7. II. the fine to be paid for this burglary; mulcta ob castelli vel domus violationem, L. Alf. pol. 40; Th. i. 88, 7.

burgen, e; f. A burying-place, sepulchre, Ps. Th. 29, 9. v. byrgen.

Burgenda land, es; n. The land of the Burgundians, an island in the west of the Baltic sea; Boringia. Burgenda land is the Icelandic Burgundarhólmr, of which the present Danish and Swedish name Bornholm is a contraction :-- Burgenda land the land of the Burgundians, Ors. l, 1; Bos. 21, 44.

Burgendan; pl. m. The Burgundians; Burgundiones :-- Burgendan habbaþ ðone ylcan sǽs earm be westan him the Burgundians have the same arm of the sea to the west of them, Ors. 1. 1; Bos. 19, 19. v. Burgendas.

Burgendas; gen. a; pl. m: Burgendan; pl. m. The Burgundians; Burgundiones. These, in Alfred's time, dwelt to the north-west of the Osti. We find them at another period on the east bank of the Oder. They have given name to the island of Bornholm in the Baltic :-- Osti habbaþ be norþan him Winedas and Burgendas the Esthonians have to the north of them the Wends and the Burgundians, Ors. l, l; Bos. 19, 18. Wine Burgenda friend of the Burgundians, Wald. 85; Vald. 2, 14. Weóld Burgendum Gifica Gifica ruled the Burgundians, Scóp Th. 40; Wíd. 19: 131; Wíd. 65.

Burgende; gen. a; dat. um; m. The Burgundians, inhabitants of Burgundy, an old province in the east of France; Burgundiones :-- Profentse hæfþ be norþan hyre ða beorgas, ðe man Alpis hǽt, and be súþan hyre is Wendel-sǽ, and be norþan hyre and eástan synd Burgende, and Wascan be westan Provence has on the north of it the mountains, which people call the Alps, and on the south of it is the Mediterranean sea, and on the north and east of it are the Burgundians, and on the west the Gasconians, Ors. l, i; Bos. 24, 2.

búr-geteld, es; n. [búr a bower, geteld a tilt, cover] A tilt or covering of a tent, a tent; tentorium :-- He in ðæt búrgeteld néðde he ventured into the tent, Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 24; Jud. 276: 10; Thw. 22, 10; Jud. 57: 12; Thw. 25, 8; Jud. 248.

burg-geat a city-gate, Andr. Kmbl. 1679; An. 842. v. burh-geat.

burg-hleoþ, es; n. A fortress-height, Exon. 107b; Th. 409, 17; Rä. 28, 2. v. burh-hleoþ.

burg-loca, an; m. A city-inclosure, city-barrier, Andr. Kmbl. 2075; An. 1040: 2132; An. 1067: 1879; An. 942. v. burh-loca.

burg-lond, es; n. City-land; urbis solum :-- Eálá sancta Hierusalem, Cristes burglond O holy Jerusalem, city-land of Christ! Exon. 8b; Th. 4, 12; Cri. 51.

burgon preserved, Elen. Kmbl. 268; El. 134; p. pl. of beorgan.

burg-ræced, es; nom. acc. pl. -ræced; n. A city-dwelling, house surrounded by a wall or rampart of earth; urbanæ ædes, circumvallata domus :-- Beorht wǽron burgræced bright were the city-dwellings, Exon. 124a; Th. 477, 9; Ruin. 22.

burg-rúnan the fates, furies, fairies. v. burh-rúnan.

burg-sæl, es; nom. acc. pl, -salu, -salo; n. A castle-hall, city-dwelling; arcis aula, urbana domus :-- Ofer burgsalu over the city-dwellings, Exon. 51b; Th. 179, 7; Gú. 1258: 52a; Th. 182, 4; Gú. 1305: 96a, Th. 358, 23; Pa. 50.

burg-sele, es; m. A castle-hall, city-dwelling; arcis aula, urbana domus :-- Burgsele beofode the castle-hall trembled, Exon. 94b; Th. 353, 49; Reim. 30.

burg-sittend a city-dweller, citizen, Bt. Met. Fox 27, 34; Met. 27, 17: Elen. Kmbl. 552; El. 276. v. burh-sittend.

burg-sittende city-dwelling, inhabiting a city, Cd. 52; Th. 66, 24; Gen. 1089: Exon. 12b; Th. 21, 20; Cri. 337: 53a; Th. 186, 14; Az. 19: 106b; Th. 407, 10; Rä. 26, 3. v. burh-sittende.

burg-stal, -stól, es; m. [burg = beorg, beorh a hill, stal a place, seat, dwelling] A hill-seat, dwelling on a hill; sedes super collem vel clivum. Cot. 209. The name of places built on a hill, as Burstall in Suffolk, Borstall in Kent and Oxfordshire, etc.

burg-steal, es; m. [burg a fortress, city, steal a place] A city-place; arcis locus, arx :-- Brosnade burgsteal the city-place has perished, Exon. 124a; Th. 477, 23; Ruin. 29. [Ger. M. H. Ger. burgstall.]

burg-stede a city-place, city, Exon. 52a; Th. 181, 10; Gú. 1291: 124a; Th. 476, 3; Ruin. 2. v. burh-stede.

burg-tún, es; m. A BOROUQH-TOWX, city-inclosure, city-dwelling; urbis septum, urbana domus :-- Sindon burgtúnas brérum beweaxne the city-dwellings are overgrown with briers, Exon. 115b; Th. 443, 16; Kl. 31.

burg-waran, burh-waran, gen. -warena; pl. m. Inhabitants of a city, citizens; urbis incolæ, cives :-- Ealle burgwaran all the city-inhabitants, Exon. 121b; Th. 467, 6; Hö. 134: 120b; Th. 462, 23; Hö. 56. Burgwarena fruma the chief of the citizens, Scóp Th. 182; Wíd. 90.

burg-ware inhabitants of a city, citizens, Andr. Kmbl. 3164; An. 1585: Chr. 919; Th. 192, 25: Exon. 18b; Th. 46, 25; Cri. 742. v. burh-ware.

burg-waru the inhabitants of a city as in a body, Andr. Kmbl. 2189; An. 1096. v. burh-waru.

burg-weall, -weal a city-wall, Exon. 83b; Th. 315, 28; Mód. 38: 22a; Th. 61, l; Cri. 978. v. burh-weall.

burg-wigende; part. pl. City-warring; used substantively, city-warriors; ex arce belligerentes, cives belligeri :-- Swylce Húna cyning meahte abannan to beadwe burgwígendra whomsoever of city-warriors the king of the Huns might summon to the fight, Elen. Kmbl. 68; El. 34.

BURH, burg; gen. burge; dat. byrig, byrg; acc. burh, burg; pl. nom. acc. burga; gen. burga; dat. burgum; f. [beorh, beorg = burh, burg the impert. of beorgan to defend]. I. the original signification was arx, castellum, mons, a castle for defence. It might consist of a castle alone; but as people lived together for defence and support, hence a fortified place, fortress, castle, palace, walled town, dwelling surrounded by a wall or rampart of earth; arx, castellum, mons, palatium, urbs munita, domus circumvallata :-- Se Abbot Kenulf macode fyrst ða wealle abútan ðone mynstre, [and] geaf hit ðá to nama Burh [Burch MS.], ðe ǽr hét Medeshámstede the Abbot Kenulf first made the wall about the minster, and gave it then the name Burh = Burg [Petres burh Peter's burg = Peterborough] , which before was called Meadow-home-stead, Chr. 963; Erl. 123, 27-34; Th. 221, 34-39. ILLEGIBLE The style of the Anglo-Saxon indicates a late date, perhaps about 1100 or 1200. Burg arx, Cot. 10. Stíþlíc stán-torr and seó steépe burh on Sennar stód the rugged stone-tower and the high fortress stood on Shinar, Cd. 82; Th. 102, 15; Gen. 1700. Óþ ðæt hie on Sodoman weall-steápe burg wlitan meahton till they on Sodom's lofty-walled fortress might look, 109; Th. 145, 7; Gen. 2402. Ðǽr se hálga heáh, steáp reced, burh timbrede there the holy man built a high, steep dwelling, a walled town, 137; Th. 172, 6; Gen. 2840. Burge weall the wall of a city; murus, Ps. Th. 17, 28. Ðæt hie geseón mihten ðære wlitegan byrig weallas that they might see the walls of the beautiful city, Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 24; Jud. 137: Ps. Th. 44, 13: 47, 11. On leófre byrig and háligre in montem sanctificationis suæ, 77, 54: 77, 67. Ðá férdon híg þurh ða burhga egressi circuibant per castella. Lk. Bos. 9, 6. Eádweard cyng fór mid fierde to Bedan forda, and beget ða burg king Edward went with an army to Bedford, and gained the walled town, Chr. 919; Th. 192, 24, col. l. Ge binnan burgum, ge búton burgum both within walled towns, and without walled towns, L. Edg. S. 3; Th. i. 274, 7. Ðone æðeling on ðære byrig métton, ðér se cyning ofslægen læg they found the ætheling in the inclosure of the dwelling, where the king lay slain, Chr. 755; Th. 84, 19, col. 1: L. Edm. S. 2; Th. i. 248, 16: L. Eth. iii. 6; Th. i. 296, 5. II. a fortress or castle being necessary for the protection of those dwelling together in cities or towns, -- a city, town, burgh, borough; urbs, civitas, oppidum :-- Róma burh the city Rome, Bd. 1. 11; S. 480, 10, 12. Ða ðe in burh móton gongan, in Godes ríce they may go into the city, [may go] into God's kingdom, Cd. 227; Th. 303, 16; Sae. 613. Ðonne hý hweorfaþ in ða hálgan burg when they pass into the holy city, Exon. 44b; Th. 150, 26; Gú. 784. Ðæt he gesáwe ða burh ut videret civitatem, Gen. ll, 5. Ða burh ne bærndon they burnt not the city, Ors. 2, 8; Bos. 52, 8. Burge weard the guardian of the city, Cd. 180; Th. 226, 19; Dan. 173: Ps. Th. 9, 13. Ðonne hí eów éhtaþ on ðysse byrig cum perseguentur vos in civitate ista, Mt. Bos. 10, 23: Exon. 15b; Th. 34, 14; Cri. 542. Binnan ðære byrig within the city, Ors. 2, 8; Bos. 52, 4. Beóþ byrig mid Iudém getimbrade ædificabuntur civitates Judæ, Ps. Th. 68, 36. Byrig fægriaþ towns appear fair, Exon. 82a; Th. 308, 32; Seef. 48. Ðá ongan he hyspan ða burga tunc cæpit exprobrare civitatibus, Mt. Bos. ll, 20. On burgum in the towns, Beo. Th. 105; B. 53. [Piers P. Chauc. burghe: R. Brun. burgh: R. Glouc. borʒ: Laym. burh: Orm. burrh: Plat. borch, f: O. Sax. burg, f. urbs, civitas: Frs. borge, m. f: O. Frs. burch, burich, f: Dut. burgt, f: Kil. borg, borght: Ger. burg, f. arx, castellum: M. H. Ger. burc, f: O. H. Ger. buruc, burg, f. urbs, civitas: Goth. baurgs, f: Dan. borg, m. f: Swed. borg, m: O. Nrs. borg, f.] DER. ealdor-burh [-burg], fóre-, freó-, freoðo-, gold-, heáfod-, heáh- [heá-], hleó-, hord-, in-, leód-, mǽg-, medo-, meodu-, rand-, rond-, sceld-, scild-, scyld-, stán-, under-, weder-, wín-, wyn-.

burh-ágende; part. Possessing a fortress, v. burg-ágende.

burh-bót, e; f. The repairing of fortresses, which was one of the burdens on all landed property; urbium vel castrorum instauratio, L. Eth. v. 26; Th. i. 310, 23: vi. 32; Th. i. 322, 31: L. C. S. 10; Th. i. 380, 27: L. R. S. l; Th. i. 432, 2.

burh-brece a breaking into a castle, L. In. 45; Th. i. 130, 6, note 9. v. burh-bryce.

burh-bryce, -brice, es; m. A breaking into a castle or dwelling, -- the fine for this burglary, L. In. 45; Th. i. 130, 6, note 9: L. Alf. pol. 40; Th. i. 88, 7, note 16. v. burg-bryce.

burh-ealdor, -ealder; gen. -ealdres; m. A ruler of a city, mayor, citizen; urbis præfectus, municeps, Ælfc. Gr. 14; Som. 16, 55: 9, 55; Som. 13, 24.

burh-fæsten, es; n. A city-fastness, fortress, citadel; arx munita, castellum :-- Com God sceáwigan beorna burhfæsten God came to view the chieftains' city-fastness, Cd. 80; Th. 101, 10; Gen. 1680.

burhg, e; f. A fortress, city, walled-town :-- Férdon híg þurh ða burhga egressi circuibant per castella, Lk. Bos. 9, 6: Bd. 4, 1; S. 563, 12. v. burh.

burh-gata city-gates, Jos. 2, 5. v. burh-geat.

burh-geat, -gat, burg-, es; pl. nom. acc. u. a. o; n. A city-gate; urbis porta :-- Æt burhgeate at the city-gate, Cd. 111; Th. 146, 22; Gen. 2426. Mid ðam ðe ða burhgata belocene wurdon cum portœ clauderentur, Jos. 2, 5. Fóre burg-geatum before the city-gates, Andr. Kmbl. 1679; An. 842: Exon. 120a; Th. 461, 20; Hö. 38.

burh-geat-setl, es; n. A town-gate-seat, where a court was held for trying causes of family and tenants; ad urbis portam sedes, L. R. 2; Th. i. 190, 15.

burh-gemót, es; n. A BURGMOTE, city-moot, meeting of townsmen, corporation; urbis comitia :-- Hæbbe man þríwa on geáre burhgemót thrice in a year let a city-moot be held, L. Edg. ii. 5; Th. i. 268, 3: L. C. S. 18; Th. i. 386, 4.

burh-geréfa, an; m. A BOROUGH-REEVE, city-reeve, the governor and chief magistrate of a city or town; urbis prætor, præfectus, præpositus, quæstor, curialis, Wrt. Voc. 18, 7: 18, 42.

burh-geþingþ, -geþincgþ, e; f. The city council or assembly, L. Eth. iii. 1; Th. i. 292, 7. v. ge-þingþ.

burhge weardas; pl. m. [= burge weardas] The guardians of the city, Cd. 212; Th. 262, 6; Dan. 740.

burh-hleoþ, burg-hleoþ, es; n. A fortress-height, the hill on which a city is built; clivus montis, in quo arx vel urbs sita est :-- Forbærned burhhleoðu scorched fortress-heights, Cd. 146; Th. 182, 3; Exod. 70. Ic eom brungen of burghleoðurn I am brought from fortress-heights, Exon. 107 b; Th. 409, 17; Rä. 28, 2. v. beorh-hliþ.

burh-land, es; n. City-land; urbis solum. v. burg-lond.

burh-leóde; nom. acc; gen. -leóda; dat. -leódum; pl. m. Town-people, citizens; cives :-- Him ða burhleóde wiðcwǽdon the citizens withstood him, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 61, 6: Cd. 226; Th. 300, 7; Sat. 561: Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 14; Jud. 187: 11; Thw. 24, 6; Jud. 175. [O. Sax. burg-liudi incolœ, cives.]

burh-loca, burg-loca, an; m. A cily-inclosure, city-barrier or defence, as -- a wall, mound or moat; urbis septum, arcis claustrum vel clausura :-- He gelǽdde brýd mid bearnum under burhlocan, in Sǽgor he led his wife with the children within the city-inclosure, into Zoar, Cd. 118; Th. 153, 12; Gen. 2537: Andr. Kmbl. 2132; An. 1067: Beo. Th. 3860; B. 1928. He nǽnige forlét under burglocan bendum fæstne he left not one under the city-barriers fast in bonds, Andr. Kmbl. 2075; An. 1040: 1879; An. 942.

burh-man, -mann, es; m. A townsman, citizen; urbanus, civis :-- Burhman vel burhsita urbanus, Ælfc. Gl. 50; Som. 65, 103; Wrt. Voc. 34, 32: Nathan. 1.

burh-ræced, es; n. A city-dwelling, v. burg-ræced.

burh-rǽden, -rǽdenn, e; f. Citizenship; municipatus, Cot. 128.

burh-riht, es; n. The civil law; jus civile, Som. v. riht law.

burh-rúnan; pl. f. [-rúne, an; f.] The fates, furies, fairies; parcæ, furiæ, oreades :-- Burhrúnan furiœ, Cot. 92.

burh-sæl, es; n. A castle-hall, city-dwelling, v. burg-sæl.

burh-sǽta. an; m. A dweller in a city, citizen; civis. v. burh-séta.

burh-scipe, es; m. A township, [BOROUGH-SHIP], free borough, an incorporated city or town; municipium, Ælfc. Gr. 10; Som. 14, 50: Ælfc. Gl. 54; Som. 66, 104. DER. ge-burh-scipe.

burh-scír, e; f. A city-boundary, city-liberty; urbis territorium :-- Ða yfelan leóda fíf burhscíra ðæs Sodomítisces eardes the evil people of the five city-boundaries of the Sodomitish land, Ælfc. T. 7, 20: Jos. 13; Thw. 152, 9: Cot. 148.

burh-sele, es; m. A castle-hall, city-dwelling. v. burg-sele.

burh-séta, an; m. A city-dweller, townsman, citizen; civis, oppidanus, Wrt. Voc. 18, 36. v. burh-sǽta.

burh-síta, an; m. A city-dweller, citizen :-- Burhsíta urbanus, Wrt. Voc. 34, 32. v. burh-sǽta.

burh-sittend, burg-sittend, es; m. A city-dweller, an inhabitant of a city, citizen; urbis incola, civis :-- Ðú scealt sunu ágan, ðone sculon burhsittende Isaac hátan thou shall have a son, whom the city-dwellers shall call Isaac, Cd. 106; Th. 140, 12; Gen. 2326: 136; Th. 172, 2; Gen. 2838. Ðá wurdon blíðe burhsittende then the citizens became merry, Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 37; Jud. 159: Cd. 188; Th. 235, 1; Dan. 299. Ðæt is wíde cúþ burhsittendum that is widely known to the city-dwellers, Cd. 135; Th. 170, 18; Gen. 2815: 210; Th. 261, 11, 23; Dan. 724, 730. His gebídan ne mágon burgsittende citizens cannot wait for him, Bt. Met. Fox 27, 34; Met. 27, 17: Elen. Kmbl. 552; El. 276. v. burh-sittende.

burh-sittende, burg-sittende; part. City-dwelling, inhabiting a city; urbem incolens :-- He folgode ánum burhsittendum men ðæs ríces adhœsit uni civium regionis illius, Lk. Bos. 15, 15. Folca bearn burgsittende the sons of men dwelling in cities, Cd. 52; Th. 66, 24; Gen. 1089: Exon. 12b; Th. 21, 20; Cri. 337. Burgsittendra, gen. pl. 106b; Th. 407, 10; Rä. 26, 3.

burh-spræo, -spæc, e; f. Civil or courtly speech, polite behaviour, urbanity; urbanus sermo, urbanitas, Cot. 202.

burh-staðol, es; m. A dwelling in a city, a mansion, house; urbana sedes, mansio, habitaculum. v. burh, staðol in staðel.

burh-steal, es; m. A city-place; arcis locus, arx. v. burg-steal.

burh-stede, burg-stede, es; m. A city-place, city; urbis locus, urbs :-- On ðam burh-stede in thai city. Cd. 52; Th. 65, 7; Gen. 1062 : 174; Th. 218, 31; Dan. 47. Hí ágon beorhtne burhstede they shall have a bright city-place, 221; Th. 287, 6; Sae. 363: Beo. Th. 4522; B. 2265. Æfter burhstedum through the cities, Andr. Kmbl. 1161; An. 581. Se burgstede wæs blissum gefylled the city-place was filed with joys, Exon. 52a; Th. 181, 10; Gú. 1291: 124a; Th. 476, 3; Ruin. 2.

burh-þelu, e; f. A castle-floor. v. buruh-þelu.

burh-tún, es; m. A city-inclosure, city-dwelling; urbis septum, urbana domus. v. burg-tún.

burh-waran; gen. -warena; pl. m. Inhabitants of a city; cives :-- Wearþ eal here burhwarena blind all the multitude of the city-inhabitants became blind, Cd. 115; Th. 150, 13; Gen. 2491. v. burg-waran.

burh-ware, burg-ware; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. Inhabitants of a city, citizens; urbis incolæ, cives :-- Him cyrdon to mǽst ealle ða burh-ware almost all the inhabitants of the city turned to him, Chr. 919; Ing. 133, 15. Se geháten wæs mid ðǽm burhwarum Brutus he was called Brutus by the citizens, Bt. Met. Fox 10, 93; Met. 10, 47. Ofer burhware over the inhabitants, Cd. 181; Th. 226, 31; Dan. 179. Wurdon burgware blíðe on móde the citizens were blithe in mood, Andr. Kmbl. 3164; An. 1585. Ðá wearþ burgwarum éce gefeá then was to the citizens everlasting joy, Exon. 18b; Th. 46, 25; Cri. 742.

burh-waru, burg-waru; gen. dat. e; acc. e, u; f. The inhabitants of a city considered as a community, the whole body of citizens; civitas, civitatis populus :-- Ǽlc burhwaru wæs búgende to him non fuit civitas quœ se traderet illis, Jos. 11. 19. Wearþ eall seó burhwaru onstyred commota est universa civitas, Mt. Bos. 21, 10: Chr. 1013; Th. 271, 28, col. 1. Wæs mycel menegu ðære burhware mid hyre erat turba civitatis multa cum illa, Lk. Bos. 7, 12. Ic gefrægn leóde tosomne burgwaru bannan I learnt that the people, the body of citizens, were summoned together, Andr. Kmbl. 2189; An. 1096.

burh-waru-man, -mann, es; m. A citizen; civis, Bd. 1, 7; S. 479, 12.

burh-wealda, an; m. A city-ruler, citizen; urbis rector, civis, Bd. 1, 7; S. 479, 12, note 12.

burh-weall, burg-weall, -weal, es; m. A city-wall; urbis vallum, mœnia :-- Burhweall mœnia, Ælfc. Gl. 55; Som. 66, 116; Wrt. Voc. 36, 36. Léton ðone hálgan burhwealle néb they left the saint near the city-wall, Andr. Kmbl. 1666; An. 835. Beorhte burhweallas bright city-walls, Cd. 220; Th. 282, 31; Sat. 295. Brecan ðone burgweal to break through the city-wall, Exon. 83b; Th. 315, 28; Mod. 38: 22a; Th. 61, 1; Cri. 978.

burh-weard, es; m. A city-ward or guardian, city-defender; urbis custos vel defensor :-- Hæfde abrocene burhweardas had slain the city-guardians, Cd. 144; Th. 180, 2; Exod. 39: Andr. Kmbl. 1320; An. 660.

burh-wéla, an; m. City-wealth; urbis opes :-- Þenden he burh-wélan brúcan móste while he might have the enjoyment of city-wealth, Beo. Th. 6191; B. 3100.

burh-wered, es; n. A city-multitude; urbis multitudo :-- Heánra burhwered vulgus vel plebs, Wrt. Voc. 18, 37.

burh-wígende; part. pl. City-warring. v. burg-wígende.

burh-wita, an; m. A knowing and polished man of the city, city-counsellor, citizen; urbanus, homo civilis, urbis consiliarius, municeps :-- Portgeréfa vel burhwita municeps, Wrt. Voc. 18, 41.

burig = byrig to a city, Ors. 6, 23, MS. C; the dat. of burh a city.

BURN, e; f: burne, an; f: burna, an; m. [from burnon, p. pl. of beornan to boil, bubble; fervere] A bubbling or running water, a BOURN, brook, stream, river; torrens, rivus :-- Hefe upp ðíne hand ofer burna and ofer móras extende manum tuam super rivos et super paludes, Ex. 8, 5. v. burne, burna. ILLEGIBLE As a prefix or termination to the names of places, burn or burne denotes that they were near a stream; as, Burnham, Burnley, Bornemouth, Radburne, Swanburne, Sherborne. [Piers P. bourn: Scot. burn: Plat. born, m: O. Sax. brunno, m. a source: O. Frs. burna, m: Dut. born, bron, f: Kil. borne: Ger. brunne, born, m: M. H. Ger. brunne, burne, m: O. H. Ger. brunno: Goth. brunna, m : Dan. brönd, m. f: Swed. brunn, m: Icel. brunnr, m.]

burna, an; m. A stream, bourn; torrens, latex :-- Burna oððe bróc latex, Wrt. Voc. 80, 69. Scír burna biþ gedréfed: bróc biþ onwended. the clear stream is disturbed: the brook is turned aside, Bt. Met. Fox 5, 37; Met. 5, 19. He hine bibaðaþ in ðam burnan he bathes himself in the stream, Exon. 57b; Th. 205, 3; Ph. 107. Burna latex, Wrt. Voc. 54, 21. v. burn, burne.

burne, an; f. Running water, a stream, brook, river; torrens, rivus :-- Burnan flóweþ aquæ fluent, Ps. Th. 147, 7. He of stán-clife stearce burnan lǽdde he drew a strong stream from the stony rock, Ps. Th. 135, 17. Se Hǽlend eóde ofer ða burnan Cedron Iesus egressus est trans torrentes Cedron, Jn. Bos. 18, l. Burnan unrihtwísnysse gedréfdon me torrentes iniquitatis conturbaverunt me, Ps. Spl. 17, 5. Abene ðíne hand ofer ealle UNCERTAINódas, ge ofer burnan, ge ofer meras, and ofer ealle wæter-pyttas extends manum tuam super omnes fluvios, et rivos, ac paludes, et omnes lacus aquarum. Ex. 7, 19. Wit unc in ðære burnan baðodan ætgædre we two bathed together in the brook, Exon. 121b; Th. 467, i; Hö. 132. v. burn. DER. wylle-burne.

burne hast burnt, wast on fire; p. of beornan.

burne burned, Ors. 4, 7; Bos. 88, 45; subj. p. of beornan.

burn-sele, es; m. [burn a spring, brook; sele a dwelling, mansion] A bath-house; balneum, Exon. 124a; Th. 477, 10; Ruin. 22.

búr-reáf, es; n. [búr a chamber, reáf a garment] Hangings for a chamber, tapestry; tapete, Th. Diplm. 530, 36.

burste hast burst, broken, failed; burston burst, broken, Beo. Th. 1640; B. 818; p. of berstan.

búr-þegen, -þén, es; m. [búr a chamber, þegen a servant, attendant] A chamber-servant, chamberlain, chancellor, secretary; cubicularius, cancellarius, scriniarius :-- Búrþén cubicularius, Ǽlfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 100; Wrt. Voc. 25, 40. His þeóden þanc gessǽde ðum búrþéne his chief gave thanks to the chamberlain, Byrht. Th. 135, 20, note; By. 121. Búrþén cancellarius vel scriniarius, Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, 22; Wrt. Voc. 61, 3.

burþre, an; f. A birth, issue; natus, partus :-- Þurh ða burþran we wǽron gehǽlde, and þurh ðæt gebeorþor we wurdon alýsde through the issue we were saved, and through the birth we were redeemed, Homl. Blick. 105, 20.

burug a city, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 5, 14. v. burh.

buruh a castle, city, Fins. Th. 72; Fin. 36: Ors. 5, 5; Bos. 105, 24: Mt. Foxe 10, 11. v. burh.

buruh-þelu, e; f. [burh a castle, þelu a plank, board] A castle-floor; arcis tabulatum :-- Buruhþelu dynede the castle-floor sounded, Fins. Th. 61; Fin. 30.

buruh-waru the people of a city in a body, Chr. 1013; Th. 270, 28: Deut. 21, 21. v. burh-waru.

búta; prep, [be, út out] Without; extra :-- Búta ðæt lond extra regionem, Mk. Lind. Rush. War. 5, 10. Búta ðæm wíngeard extra vineam, Mt. Lind. War. 21, 39. v. bútan; prep.

búta; adv. Without; foras, foris :-- He eóde búta exiit forás, Mk. Lind. War. 14, 68. Petrus stód to dura búta Petrus stabat ad ostium foris, Jn. Rush. War. 18, 16.

búta, búte; conj. Unless; nisi :-- Ǽnig mon wát ðone sunn búta ðe Fæder nemo novit filium nisi Pater, Mt. Lind. War. 11. 27. Búta ðes útacunda nisi hic alienigena, Lk. Lind. War. 17, 18. v. bútan; conj.

bútá both; ambo :-- Swelton híg bútá they both shall die, Deut. 22, 22: Exon. 113b; Th. 436, 25; Rä. 55, 6. v. bútú.

bútan, búton, bútun; prep. [be, útan out]. I. with the dative; cum dativo. 1. out of, against; extra, contra :-- Forbærn ðæt celf bútan ðære wícstówe ipsum vitulum comburet extra castra, Lev. 4, 21. Bútan leódrihte against the law of the land, Andr. Kmbl. 1357; An. 679. 2. without, except; sine, absque, præter :-- Bútan leahtre sine crimine, Mt Bos. 12, 5. Bútan ánum cnihte excepta UNCERTAIN uno puerulo, Bd. 3, 23; S. 555, 26. Bútan geþeahte without thought, 3, 1; S. 523, 31. Bútan eude without end, Exon. 11b; Th. 17, 16; Cri. 271: L. E. I. prm; Th. ii. 400, 28. II. with the accusative; cum accusativo. 1. out of; extra :-- He lædde hine bútan ða wic eduxit eum extra vicum, Mk. Bos. 8, 23. 2. without, except; sine, præter :-- Bútan sealm præter psalmodiam. Bd. 3, 27; S. 559, 10. III. sometimes bútan is separated from its case :-- Ðæt Wæs geworden bútan weres frigum that came to pass without the favours of man, Exon. 8b; Th. 3, 17; Cri. 37. [Chauc, but: R. Brun. bot: R. Glouc. bote: Laym. bute, bote: Orm. buttan, butt: O. Sax. bútan, bótan: Frs. buten: O. Frs. buta: Dut. buiten: Kil. buyten: Ger. bauszen.]

bútan, búton, bútun; conj. [be, útan out]. I. with the subj. Unless, save that; nisi :-- Bútan ðú [eorþan spéde] gedǽlde Dryhtne sylfum unless thou hadst bestowed [the riches of the earth] for the Lord himself, Exon. 99a; Th. 371, 19; Seel. 78. Búton ðæt hit sý útaworpen nisi ut mittatur foras, Mt. Bos. 5, 13. Bútan ǽr wyrce éce Dryhten ende worlde save ere the eternal Lord shall work an end of the world, Exon. 98a; Th. 367, 24; Seel. 12. II. with the ind. Save or except that; nisi :-- Egorhere eall acwealde búton ðæt earce bord heóld heofona freá the water-host destroyed all save that the Lord of heaven held the ark board, Cd. 70; Th. 84, 26; Gen. 1403. III. without a dependent verb, Except, save, besides, but; nisi :-- Ond eallum dagum bútan sunnan dagum diebus cunctis excepta dominica, Bd. 3, 23; S. 554, 32. Ic ne gehýrde bútan hlimman sǽI heard nought save the sea roaring, Exon. 81b; Th. 307, 4; Seef. 18. Sume men sǽdon ðæt ðǽr nǽran bútan twegen dǽlas some men said that there were but two parts. Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 15, 6.

búte without; foris, Jn. Lind. War. 18, 16. v. búta; adv.

búte; conj. Unless, but; nisi, sed :-- Nán þing wyrþe [geweorþe Cot.] búte hit God wille nothing comes to pass unless God wills it, Bt. 41, 2; Fox 244, 18: Bt. Met. Fox 18, 20; Met. 18, 10. Búte ic nát but I know not, Bt. 34, 10; Fox 148, 16. Búte ge to him gecyrren nisi convertimini, Ps. Th. 7, 12. v. bútan; conj.

búte both; ambo :-- Búte ða þinc ambá res, R. Ben. interl. 5. v. bútú.

butere, an; f. BUTTER; butyrum [= GREEK, Boûs a cow, rupót cheese] :-- Butere butyrum, Wrt. Voc. 82, 27. Dó ðonne mele fulne buteran add then a basin full of butter, L. M. 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 17, 19, 22. On ðære buteran in the butter, l, 36; Lchdm. ii. 88, 1. On gódre buteran in good butter, 3, 32; Lchdm. ii. 326, 18: 3, 41; Lchdm. ii. 334, 14: Ahlyttre ða buteran purify the butter, 3, 2; Lchdm. ii. 308, 28: Coll. Monast. Th. 34, 27. [Wyc. botere: Plat. botter, f: Frs. buter: O. Frs. butera, botera: Dut. bóter, f: Ger. butter, f: M. H. Ger. buter: O. H. Ger. butere, f: Fr. beurre, m: It. butirro, burro, m: Lat. butyrum: Grk. GREEK .]

buter-flége a butterfly; papilio. v. buttor-fleóge.

buter-geþweor, es; n. Butter-curd, what is coagulated, butter; butyri coagulum, butyrum :-- Buter-geþweor ǽlc and cýsgerunn losiaþ [MS. losaþ] eów butyrum omne et caseus pereunt vobis, Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 19.

buteric a bottle, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 35. v. buteruc.

buter-stoppa, an; m. [butere butter, stoppa a vessel] A butter-vessel, butter-dish; butyri vas, Wrt. Voc. 290, 24.

buteruo, buteric, buturuc, butruc, es; m. A leathern bottle; flasco, uter :-- Buteruc flasco, Ælfc. Gl. 26; Som. 60, 76; Wrt. Voc. 25, 16. Ic bicge hýda and fell, and wyrce of him butericas ego emo cutes et pelles, et facio ex iis utres, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 35. Ðæt wæter asceortode, ðe wæs on ðam buturuce consumpta esset aqua in utre, Gen. 21, 15. Butruc flasco, Wrt. Voc. 85, 83. [O. Sax. buteric, m: O. H. Ger. butrih uter.]

búton without; sine :-- Búton ǽlcum eorþlícum fæder without any earthly father, Homl. Th. i. 24, 30. Búton synne ánum without any sin, i. 24, 35. v. bútan; prep.

búton; adv. Gratuitously, without a cause; gratis :-- Forðan ðe búton hí behíddon me onforwyrde quoniam gratis absconderunt mihi interitum, Ps. Spl. 34, 8.

butruc a bottle, Wrt. Voc. 85, 83. v. buteruc.

butsa-carlas [bátes carlas, i. e. bát-sǽ carlas] Seamen, sailors; nautæ, Chr. 1066; Ing. 259, 4.

Butting-tún, es; m. BODDINGTON, Gloucestershire :-- Offóron hie ðone here hindan æt Buttingtúne on Sæferne staðe they followed after the army to Boddington on the bank of the Severn, Chr. 894; Erl. 92, 22. Mr. Earle has the following pertinent note on the locality :-- Two places have hitherto contended for this site, viz. Boddington near Cheltenham, and Buttington in Montgomeryshire, near Welshpool. But Mr. Ormerod [Archæologia, vol. XXIX; and Strigulensia, p. 60] has put forward a claim for Buttinton in Tidenham, on the peninsula formed by the Severn and the Wye. There are traces of works here, though less considerable than those at Buttington in Montgomeryshire. Mr. Ormerod grounds his claim mainly upon Matthew of Westminster's 'paganos tam navali quam terrestri exercitu circumcinxit.' No such thing appears in the text before us, but to the opposite effect. One is almost tempted to suspect that this 'Verwirrer der Geschichte' [as Lappenberg calls Matthew of Westminster] caught sight of 'sciphere' in the next line, and imagined the rest. But it must be allowed, Mr. Ormerod's position has its advantages. It does not, however, suit 'ðá up be Sæferne,' if this means that they went up stream, which would seem to be its meaning, though not in Florence, Chr. Erl. notes, p. 318.

buttor-fleóge, an; f. [butere butter, fleóge a fly] A BUTTERFLY; papilio, Ælfc. Gl. 22; Som. 59, 115; Wrt. Voc. 23, 70. [Ger. butter-fliege, f.] DER. niht-buttorfleóge.

bútú [bú = bá both, tú = twá two] Both; ambo :-- Ðonne beóþ bútú gehealden then both [the two] shall be preserved, Mk. Bos. 2, 22. Ðá bútú abulgon Isaace and Rebeccan then both [the two] were a grief to Isaac and Rebecca, Gen. 26, 35: Lk. Bos. l, 6, 7. Wit him bútú sprecaþ we both [lit. we two both] speak to him, Cd. 27; Th. 36, 20; Gen. 574: 39; Th. 52, 4; Gen. 838: 40; Th. 52, 22; Gen. 847. Ðǽr hie sǽton bútú where they both [lit. they two both] sat, 133; Th. 168, 8; Gen. 2779. v. bátwá.

bútun without :-- Bútun geongum litlingum, and heordum absque parvulis, et gregibus, Gen. 50, 8. v. bútan; prep.

bútun unless, save; nisi, Mt. Bos. 11, 27: 12, 4. v. bútan; conj.

buturuc a bottle, Gen. 21, 15. v. buteruc.

búwian; p. ode; pp. od To inhabit; inhabitare :-- Búwa eorþan inhabita terram, Ps. Th. 36, 3. v. búgian.

, es; n? A dwelling, habitation; habitatio :-- Se ðe hús oððe lytel [MS. lytelo] bý hæfde in byrgenum [MS. byrgennum] qui domicilium habebat in monumentis, Mk. Skt. Lind. 5, 3. Hence, by and bye in the termination of the names of places. v. bú.

BYCGAN, bicgan, bycgean; ic bycge, bicge, ðú bygest, he bygeþ, pl. bycgaþ, bicgaþ; p. bobte, pl. bohton; impert. byge, bige, pl. bycgaþ; pp. boht; v. a. To BUY, procure; emere, redimere :-- Hí woldon mete bicgan cibos emerent, Jn. Bos. 4, 8. Ðæt hie bicgan scoldon which they must buy, Beo. Th. 2615; B. 1305: Exon. 120b; Th. 463, ll; Hö. 68. Ðá híg férdon bycgean dum ireni emere, Mt. Bos. 25, 10. Ic bicge I buy, Salm. Kmbl. 403; Sal. 202. Mete bygeþ he he buys meat, Exon. 90b; Th. 340, 14; Gn. Ex. 111. Hí bycgaþ they buy, 33b; Th. 106, 27, note; Gú. 47. Ðæt góde men mid feó bicgaþ which good men buy with money, 114a; Th. 436, 37; Rä. 55, 12. Ðæt bohte Abraham quam emit Abraham, Gen. 49, 30: Chr. 963; Erl. 123, 27. Menn heora land bohton [MS. bohtan] men bought their land, Chr. 1066; Erl. 203, 10. Bige us to ðæs cynges þeówette eme nos in servitudinem regiam, Gen. 47, 19. Bige ða þing eme ea, Jn. Bos. 13, 29. Bycgaþ eów ele emite oleum vobis, Mt. Bos. 25, 9. [Wye, bigge, bye, biʒe: R. Brun. bie: Laym. bugge: Orm. biggenn: O. Sax. buggean: Frs. bikje: Goth. bugyan.] DER. a-bycgan, -bicgan, be-, ge-: un-boht, unbe-, unge-.

bycgean to buy, procure; emere :-- Híg woldon bycgean they would buy, Mt. Bos. 25, 10. v. bycgan.

bycgen, bycgenn, e; f. A buying, selling; emptio, Som. Ben. Lye.

býcnend-líc; adj. Allegorical, mystical; allegoricus :-- Býcnendlíc racu allegorica expositio, Bd. 5, 23; S. 647, 42. v. beácniend-líc.

bycnian, býcnan; p. ode; pp. od To beckon, shew, signify; indicare :-- Niht nihte býcneþ nox nocti indicat, Ps. Spl. 18, 2. Ðe býcnaþ [gehiwode finxit, Lamb: býcnaþ fixit? eáge qui finxit oculum, 93, 9. v. beácnian.

býcniend-líc gemet, es; n. The indicative mood; indicativus modus, Ælfc. Gr. 21; Som. 23, 18, MS. C.

býcnung, e; f. A figure, trope; figura :-- Under býcnunge ðæs bíges sub figura coronæ, Bd. 5, 22; S. 644, 10. v. beácnung.

býd = beád? commanded, bid, Gen. 50, 5; p. of beódan.

býdel, es; m. [beódan to bid, order, proclaim]. I. one who bids or cries out, a herald, proclaimer, minister; præco, nuncius :-- Býdel præco, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 48, 41: Wrt. Voc. 84, 40. Se Godes býdel a messenger of God, minister, Homl. Th. ii. 530, 2. Se Godes Sunu sende his býdel tofóran him the Son of God sent his proclaimer before him, ii. 36, 25, 27. Bisceopas sindon býdelas Godes lage bishops are proclaimers of God's law, L. C. E. 26; Th. i. 374, 15. Biscopas sind to býdelum gesette bishops are ordained to be ministers, Homl. Th. ii. 120, 8. Drihten sende his býdelas ætfóran him the lord sent his messengers [prophets] before him, ii. 530, 9. II. one who bids or summons to appear in a court of law, a BEADLE; apparitor, exactor, bedellus :-- Ðé sylle se déma ðam býdele, and se býdel ðé sende on cwertern judex tradat te exactori, et exactor mittat te in carcerem, Lk. Bos. 12, 58. Býdele gebýraþ, ðæt he for his wycan sý weorces ðonne óðer man bedello pertinet, ut pro servitio suo libertior sit ab operatione quam alii homines, L. R. S. 18; Th. i. 440, 6. He þurh his býdelas his gafoles myngaþ he reminds him of his tribute by his messengers [lit. beadles], L. Edg. S. l; Th. i. 270, 19. Aaron hét býdelas beódan, -- to morgen biþ simbeldæg Aaron commanded beadles to proclaim, -- to-morrow is a feast day, Ex. 32, 5. [Piers P. bedele: Dut. beul, m: Ger. büttel, m: M. H. Ger. bütel: O. H. Ger. butil, m.]

BYDEN, bydenn, e; f. I. a bushel; modius :-- Cwyst ðú cymþ ðæt leóhtfæt ðæt hit beó under bydene aset numqitid venit lucerna ut sub modio ponatur? Mk. Bos. 4, 21: Lk. Bos. ll, 33. II. a barrel, tun, butt; dolium, cupa :-- Hí mec baðedon in bydene they bathed me in a tub, Exon. 107b; Th. 409, 24; Rä. 28, 6. Byden cupa, Ælfc. Gl. 49; Som. 65, 94; Wrt. Voc. 34, 24. [O. H. Ger. butin cupa.]

byden-botm, es; m. The bottom of a vessel; fundus, Ælfc. Gl. 25; Som. 60, 49; Wrt. Voc. 24, 49.

býe to a habitation; dat. of

byffan to mutter; mutire, Cot. 154. DER, a-byffan.

byfian; p. ode; pp. od To tremble; tremere :-- Eorþe ondréd oððe byfode and heó geswác oððe heó wæs stille terra tremuit et quievit, Ps. Lamb. 75, 9. v. bifian.

byfor, es; m. A beaver, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 13, MS. T. v. befer.

býgan, bígan, bígean, bégan; he býgeþ; p. de; pp. ed; v. trans. To bow, bend, turn, turn back, bow down, humble, abase; flectere, inflectere, incurvare, retorquere, deflectere, humiliare :-- Býgdest ðú ðé fór hæleðum thou bowedst thyself before men, Exon. 100a; Th. 376, 11; Seel. 153. Ðeáh ðú hwilcne boh býge wið eorþan though thou bend any bough towards the earth, Bt. Met. Fox 13, 106; Met. 13, 53. Býgaþ hine, ðæt he on hinder gǽþ they shall turn him back, so that he shall go backward, Salm. Kmbl. 252; Sal. 125. He herm-cweðend hýneþ and býgeþ humiliabit calumniatorem, Ps. Th. 71, 5. [Dan. böje, boie: Swed. böja: O. Nrs. beygja.] DER. for-býgan, -bígan, ge-, on-. v. búgan.

býge, bíge, es; m. [býgan to bow] A bowing, bending, turning, a corner, an angle, a bay, bosom, the apex of a helmet; flexus, ancon, angulus, sinus, conus :-- Ðá gestóp he to ánes wealles býge then he stepped to a bend of a wall, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 68, 23: Num. 22, 26. Helmes býge conus galeÆ, Wrt. Voc. 36, 3.

býgend-líc; adj. Flexible, pliable; flexilis, flexibilis :-- Býgendlíc on ðám geþeódnessum his liða flexibilibus artuum compagibus, Bd. 4, 30; S. 608, 37. v. býgan.

bygest, he bygeþ buyest, he buys, Exon. 90b; Th. 340, 14; Gn. Ex. 111; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of bycgan.

byggan to build; ædificare, Som. Ben. Lye. v. býtlian.

býgnes, -ness, e; f. A bending, bowing; flexio. v. bígnes.

byg-spæc, e; f. A beguiling in speech; supplantatio, Ps. Spl. 40, 10.

býgþ býhþ, ðú býgst, býhst bows, thou bowest; 3rd and 2nd pers. pres. of búgan to bow.

byht, es; m. [býgan to bend] A bending, corner, dwelling, an abode, bay, BIGHT; habitatio, dominium, sinus :-- Andlang norþgeardes ðæt hit cymþ in ðone byht along the north yard till it comes to the corner, Cod. Dipl. 538; A. D. 967; Kmbl. iii. 18, 29: Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 308; A. D. 875; Kmbl. iii. 399, 25, 32. Eall ðæt sculon ágan eaforan ðíne, þeódlanda gehwilc, folcmægþa byht thy sons shall own all that, each country, the dwelling of nations, Cd. 100; Th. 133, 20; Gen. 2213. Mec ahebbaþ ofer hæleða byht ðeós heá lyft this lofty air raises me above the dwellings of men, Exon. 103a; Th. 389, 26; Rä. 8, 3. Ofer wætres byht to lande over the water's abode [bay] to the land, Exon. 106a; Th. 404, 23; Rä. 23, 12. [Dut. bogt, f; Ger. bucht, f: Dan. bugt, m. f: Swed. bugt, m: Icel. bygð, f.]

býing, e; f. A habitation; domus, Mk. Skt. Rush. 5, 3. v. bý.

BÝL, býle, bíle, es; m. A BILE, blotch, sore; carbunculus, Cot. 183. [O. Frs. bel, beil: Dut. buil, f: Kil. buyll: Ger. beule, f: M. H. Ger. biule, f: Dan. bule, m. f: Swed, bula, f; O. Nrs. beyla, f.]

BYLD, e; f; byldo; f. indecl. in s. Constancy, boldness; constantia :-- Bídeþ þurh byldo awaiteth with constancy, Exon. 9 b; Th. 8, 5; Cri. 113. He sceolde ða byldo anescian poterat emollire constantiam, Bd. 1, 7; S. 477, note 43. [O. H. Ger. baldí, f; Goth. bajþei, f. boldness.] DER. ge-byld. UNCERTAIN

bylda, an; m. [bold a house] A BUILDER; ædificator :-- Sum biþ bylda til hárn to habbanne one is a good builder to raise a house, Exon. 79 b; Th. 297, 29; Crä. 75.

byldan; p. bylde; pp. bylded; v. trans. [beald bold; v. byld] To make bold, to animate, instigate, exhort, encourage, confirm; animare, instigare, hortarí confirmare :-- He Fresena cyn byldan wolde he would encourage the race of the Frisians, Beo. Th. 2193; B. 1094. Geongne æðeling sceolon góde gesíðas byldan good companions should encourage a young prince, Menol. Fox 488; Gn. C. 15. Hí bylde bearn Ælfríces the son of Ælfric encouraged them, Byrht. Th. 137, 60; By. 209. Swá hí ealle bylde Godríc to gúþe so Godric encouraged them all to the war, Byrht. Th. 141, 11; By. 320. Bǽdon hí Sigebyrht ðæt he mid him to ðam gefeohte fóre and hyra fultum trymede and bylde rogaverunt Sigberctum ad confirmandum militem secum venire in prælium, Bd. 3, 18; S. 546, 20, col. 1.

býle a bile, blotch, sore. v. býl.

byled-breóst; adj. [byled, breóst a breast] Puff-breasted; rostrato pectore præditus :-- Ic eom byled-breóst I am puff-breasted, Exon. 127b; Th. 489, 23; Rä. 79, 1. v. gebilod.

byle-wit merciful; æquanimus, mansuetus :-- Gehýran ða bylewitan audeant mansueti, Ps. Spl. 33, 2. v. byly-wit, bile-wit.

bylg a bulge, bag, Cot. 27. v. belg.

bylgan; p. de; pp. ed To offend, anger, vex; offendere, irritare, vexare. DER. a-bylgan. v. belgan.

bylgean to bellow; mugire, Martyr. 17, Jan. v. bellan.

Bylges leg, es; n. [Flor. Bililesleaga: Sim. Dun. Byligesleage: Hovd. Biligesleage] BISLEY, in Gloucestershire :-- cómon to Bylges lege they came to Bisley, Chr. 1055; Erl. 190, 15.

bylgþ is angry; 3rd pers. pres. of belgan.

bylig bellows; follis, Wrt. Voc. 86, 15. v. belg.

byllino a cake; collyris, collyrida, Cot. 208.

bylwet, bylwit simple, v. bile-wit.

bylwet-lice; adv. Simply; simpliciter, Ors. l, 2; Bos. 26, 29. v. bile-hwítlíce.

byly-wit merciful, kind; æquanimus, mitis :-- Bylywit fæder merciful father, Cd. 191; Th. 238, 32; Dan. 363. v. bile-wit.

BÝME, béme, an; f. A trumpet; tuba, salpinx = GREEK :-- Býme sang the trumpet sounded [lit. sang], Cd. 148; Th. 186, 2; Exod. 132. Ðære býman swég weóx sonitus buccinæ crescebat, Ex. 19, 19: 20, 18: Ps. Spl. 46, 5; Exon. 23b; Th. 65, 29; Cri. 1062. Býmiaþ oððe hlyriaþ on niwum mónþe mid býman buccinate in neomenia tuba, Ps. Lamb. 80, 4. Býman sungon the trumpets sounded [lit. sung], Elen. Kmbl. 218; El. 109. Drémaþ Drihtne on býman psallite Domino in tubis, Ps. Lamb. 97, 6. Seofon sacerdas bláwon mid býmon septem sacerdotes clangent buccinis, Jos. 6, 4, 13. [Laym. bemen, beomen; pl. trumpets.] DER. heofon-býme, here-, sige-.

býmere, es; m. [býme a trumpet] A trumpeter; tubicen, salpista = GREEK :-- Býmere tubicen, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 12; Som. 9, 24; Wrt. Voc. 73, 57. Býmere salpista, Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, ll; Wrt. Voc. 60, 47.

býme-sangere, es; m. [býme a trumpet, sangere a singer] A trumpeter; salpicta = GREEK, Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, 13; Wrt. Voc. 60, 48.

býmian; p. ode; pp. od [býme a trumpet] To sound or play on a trumpet; tuba canere, buccinare :-- Ic býme salpizo vel buccino,Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, 14; Wrt. Voc. 60, 49. Býmiaþ oððe hlyriaþ on niwum mónþe mid býman buccinate in neomenia tuba, Ps. Lamb. 80, 4.

býn; def. se býna, seó, ðæt býne; adj. [býþ; pres. of búan to inhabit, occupy] Inhabited, occupied; habitatus :-- Ðæt býne land is eásteweard brádost the inhabited land is broadest eastward, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 45. Licgaþ wilde móras on emnlange ðæm býnum lande wild mountains lie along the inhabited land, 1, 1; Bos. 20, 44.

byndele, byndelle a binding, L. Alf. pol. 35; Th. i. 84, 1, MS. H. v. bindele.

byóþ are, shall be, = bióþ; pres. pl. of bión.

byrc, e; f. A birch-tree; betula :-- Byre betula [MS. betulus], Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 20; Wrt. Voc. 33, 20. v. birce.

byrc-holt, es; n. A birch holt or grove; betuletum, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 21.

byrcþ barks, Ælfc. Gr. 22; Som. 24, 8; pres. of beorcan.

byrd birth; nativitas. v. ge-byrd.

byrd-dæg, es; m. A birth-day; natalis dies. v. ge-byrd-dæg.

byrde; sup. byrdest, def. se byrdesta; adj. Born, well-born, noble, rich; natus, natu vel genere præstans, nobilis, opulentus :-- Se byrdesta sceall gyldan the richest must pay, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 36. DER. ge-byrde, in-, v. ge-byrd.

byrden a burden, Som. Ben. Lye. v. byrðen.

byrdest, se byrdesta the highest born, most noble, richest, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 36; sup. of byrde.

byrdian to bear; sustinere. v. for-byrdian.

byrdicge a weaver's tool; plumaria, N. Som. Wrt. Voc. 282, 3.

byrdnys, -nyss, e; f. Quality, state, condition; qualitas, status, conditio. DER. an-byrdnys, in-, v. ge-byrd.

byrd-soype, es; m. [byrd, ge-byrd birth, scype state, condition] Birth-ship, child-bearing; gestatio, partus :-- Ic tó fela hæbbe ðæs byrdscypes bealwa onfongen I have received too many injuries from this childbearing, Exon. 10b; Th. 12, 7; Cri. 182.

byrd-tíd, e; f. Birth-tide, time of birth; natale tempus. v. ge-byrd-tíd.

byrdu-scrúd, es; n. [byrdu = bord a shield, scrúd a garment, clothing] The covering of a shield, a shield; clypei tegmen, clypeus :-- Unc sceal sweord and helm, byrne and byrduscrúd bám gemǽne sword and helmet, armour and shield, shall be common to us both, Beo. Th. 5313; B. 2660.

byre; gen. byres; dat. byre; acc. byre: pl. nom. acc. byras, byre; gen. byra; dat. byrum; m. A son, child, descendant; natus, filius, soboles, proles :-- Ðonne ǽfre byre monnes hýrde under heofonum than ever child of man heard under heaven, Exon. 57b; Th. 206, 18; Ph. 128: Beo. Th. 4113; B. 3053. UNCERTAIN Ðǽr hyre byre wǽron where her sons were, 2381; B. 1188. Ðæs ða byre siððan gyrne onguldon, ðe hí ðæt gyfl þégun for which their children since with grief have paid, that they ate that fruit, Exon. 61b; Th. 226, 22; Ph. 409. Mǽru cwén bǽdde byras geonge the illustrious queen solicited her young sons, Beo. Th. 4040; B. 2018. Lamech bearna strýnde; him byras wócan eafora and idesa; he ðone yldestan Noæ nemde Lamech begat children; to him descendants were born of sons and daughters; the eldest he named Noah, Cd. 62; Th. 75, l; Gen. 1233. [Goth. baur, m. one born, a son: O. Nrs. burr, borr, m.] v. beam.

býre, es; m. An event, the time at which anything happens, a favourable time, an opportunity; eventus, tempus quo accidit aliquid, opportunitas, occasio, = GREEK :-- Wæs ðǽr mid him óþ ðone býre ðæt Swegen wearþ deád was there with him until the time that Sweyn was dead, Chr. 1013; Th. 272, 22. Ðá he býre hæfde when he had opportunity, Byrht. Th. 135, 21; By. 121. DER. ge-býre. v. ge-býrian.

byrele a cup-bearer, butler, Wrt. Voc. 290, 51: Beo. Th. 2327; B. 1161. v. byrle.

byrelian to pour out, give to drink, serve, Exon. 45b; Th. 154, 13; Gú. 842. v. byrlian.

byren; adj. Belonging to a bear; ursinus, Som. Ben. Lye. v. beren.

byrene, an; f. A she-bear; ursa, Ælfc. Gl. 21; Som. 59, 70; Wrt. Voc. 23, 29. v. bera.

byreþ bears, Beo. Th. 598; B. 296; 3rd pers. pres. of beran.

býreþ it pertains to, it is lawful; pertinet ad, licet, Jn. Lind. War. 10, 13. v. býrian.

byrg to a city, Exon. 15a; Th. 33, 1; Cri. 519; dat. of burh.

byrga of cities or inclosed dwellings, for burga; gen. pl. of burh, Runic pm. 8; Kmbl. 341, 3.

byrga a pledger, creditor, Cot. 37. v. byrgea.

BYRGAN, birgan, byrigan, birigan, birgean, byrigean, byrian; p. de; pp. ed [beorg tumulus]; v. trans. To raise a mound, to BURY; tumulare, tumulo condere, sepelire :-- Hí his líchaman on cyrican neáh weofode byrgan woldon they would bury his body in the church near the altar, Bd. 3, 19; S. 550, 10: Exon. 82b; Th. 311, 27; Seef. 98. Birge man hine ðæs ilcan dæges sepelietur in eadem die, Deut. 21, 23. Ðǽr hine man birgde ibi sepelierunt eum, Gen. 49, 31. Alýf me ǽrest byrigan mínne fæder permitte mihi primum sepelire patrem meum, Lk. Bos. 9, 59: 9, 60. Hine man byrigde swá him wel gebýrede they buried him as well became him, Chr. 1036; Th. 294, 21: Hy. 10, 29; Hy. Grn. ii. 293, 29. [Wyc. birie: Piers P. yburied, pp: Chauc. buried: R. Glouc. ybured: Laym. burien; Orm. birrʒenn: Dut. bergen: O. Dut. berghen condere, abscondere, servare, tueri: Ger. M. H. Ger. bergen: O. H. Ger. bergan, ga-bergan condere, recondere: Goth. bairgan tueri, conservare: O. Nrs. byrgja includere.] DER. be-byrgan, bi-, ge-: byrgen.

BÝRGAN, býrian, býrigan, býrgean, býrigean, beorgan; p. de; pp. ed To taste, eat; gustare, manducare :-- Ðú ðínes gewinnes wæstme býrgest labores fructuum tuorum manducabis, Ps. Th. 127, 2. Nymþe ðú æppel ǽnne býrgdest unless thou hast tasted an apple, Cd. 42; Th. 54, 21; Gen. 880. Hí bú þégun æppel, býrgdon forbodene they both ate the apple, tasted the forbidden [fruit], Exon. 61 b; Th. 226, 11; Ph. 404. Nim ðé ðis ofæt on hand, bít hit and býrge take to thee this fruit in hand, bite it and taste, Cd. 25; Th. 33, 12; Gen. 519. [O. Nrs. bergja to taste; gustare.] DER. a-býrgan, ge-, on-.

byrgea, byrigea, byriga, berigea, an; m. [borh, borg a pledge, security] A person who gives a pledge, a surety; fidejussor :-- Gif ðú hæbbe býrgean, mana ðone ðæs ángyldes if thou have a surety, admonish him of the recompense, L. In. 22; Th. i. 116, 11. Mid lx scillinga gebéte ðam byrgean let amends be made to the surely with sixty shillings, L. Alf. pol. 18; Th. i. 72, 12, 15, 16: L. In. 31; Th. i. 122, 6. Se man ðam óðrum byrigean geselle let the man give surety to the other, L. H. E. 8; Th. i. 30, 12. Gif he byrigan forwærne if he retuse surety, 9, 10; Th. i. 30, 15, 17. Him man wilsumne berigean geselle [MS. gefelle] let a man give him a sufficient surety, 6; Th. i. 30, 5. DER. leód-gebyrgea.

býrgean to taste; gustare :-- He byreþ blódig wæl, býrgean þenceþ, eteþ unmurnlíce he will bear off my bloody corpse, will resolve to taste it, will eat it without repugnance, Beo. Th. 901; B. 448. DER. a-býrgan. v. býrgan.

byrged buried, v. byrgan.

byrgels, birgels, bergels, es; m. A BURIAL-place, sepulchre, tomb; sepulcrum, bustum :-- Byrgels bustum, Cot. 183. To birgelse in possessionem sepulcri, Gen. 23, 9. v. byrgen.

byrgen, byrgenn, birgen, byrigen, burgen, e; f. [beorg tumulus] A burying, grave, sepulchre, tomb; sepulcrum, monumentum, tumba :-- Byrgen sepulcrum, Ps. Th. 48, 9: Ps. Surt. 13, 3. Hát nú healdan ða byrgene jube ergo custodire sepulcrum, Mt. Bos. 27, 64: 27, 66. On ðam wyrt-túne wæs niwe byrgen in horto erat novum monumentum, Jn. Bos. 19, 41: 19, 42. Com to ðære byrgene venit ad monumentum, Jn. Bos. 20, 1: 20, 3, 4, 6, 8, 11. Ðý þriddan dæge of byrgenne, of deáðe, arás Dryhten on the third day the Lord arose from the sepulchre, from death, Elen. Kmbl. 371; El. 186: 965; El. 484: Exon. 18b; Th. 45, 34; Cri. 729: Ps. Th. 29, 8. Byrgenum sepulcris, 13, 5: Salm. Kmbl. 445; Sal. 223. On his byrgenne is awriten byrgen-leóþ scriptum est in tumba ipsius epitaphium, Bd. 2, 1; S. 500, 17. 2. in the districts of England first occupied by the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, numerous extensive cemeteries of the heathen period have been examined. In these cemeteries the graves are usually arranged in rows, and are dug exactly in the same manner and form as our modern church- yard graves, which arc probably copied from them. After the. burial, a low circular mound was raised over the grave. From their contents we learn that the body of the deceased was buried in the full dress worn when living, -- the men with their arms and military equipments, -- the women with their personal ornaments and jewelry. The body was generally laid on its back, on the floor of the grave; but in the wealthier classes, it was frequently inclosed in a wooden coffin, for in A. D. 679, it is said -- Æðeldryþ on treówene þruh wæs bebyriged Ætheldrith was buried in a wooden coffin, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 2l; or in the Latin of Bede -- Ædilthryd ligneo in locello sepulta, S. 163, 15. 3. the belief in a future life is shewn by the care with which the relatives and friends of better condition, placed in the grave of the dead objects which it was supposed would be necessary or useful in the next world: even mere personal ornaments, or articles to which the deceased had been attached, or which can only have been placed there as tokens of affectionate remembrance. Evidence is also found of the sentiments of tenderness which followed them to their last resting-place. It was believed that the dead were exposed to evil spirits, for amulets are usually found interred with them, -- especially beads of amber, which were thought to be protective against such influences. The frequent occurrence, among the earth in the grave, of bones of animals, which were commonly eaten by the Anglo-Saxons, would seem to shew that there were both sacrifices and feasting at the burial. Human bones have been found in such a position as to justify a supposition, that a slave had been slain and thrown into the grave, perhaps in the belief that he would continue to serve his master in the spiritual world. 4. in the districts which were occupied by the Angles in Britain, and Old Saxons on the continent, GREEK, cremation or the burning of the bodies before burial, appears to have been almost universal, among rude nations, from the age of Homer to that of Alfred. The interment, therefore, consists of an urn filled with the burnt bones. It has been supposed that cremation was originally the mode of burial in use among the Angles; and that the Saxons and Jutes buried the body entire, or that they had adopted this mode of burial when they came into Britain. See Kemble in the Archæolgical Journal, No. 48. It is recorded of the Esthonians and Old Saxons, who were a very warlike and powerful people, once occupying the whole north-west corner of Germany, -- And ðæt is mid Éstum þeáw, ðæt ðǽr sceal ǽlces geþeódes man beón forbærned; and gyf ðár man án bán findeþ unforbærned, hí hit sceolon miclum gebétan it is also a custom with the Esthonians, that there men of every tribe must be burned; and if any one find a single bone unburnt, they shall make a great atonement, Ors. 1. 1; Bos. 23, 3-5. It is certain that in Beowulf, which is supposed to be an Old Norse poem, the body of the hero is described as being burnt :-- Hit sǽ-liðend syððan hátan Biówulfes biorh sea-farers may afterwards call it Beowulf's mound [barrow], Beo. Th. 5604-5606; B. 2806, 2807. Him ðá gegiredon Geáta leóde ád unwáclícne, helm-behongen, hilde bordum, and beorhtum byrnum the people of the Goths then raised for him a mighty funeral pile, hung with helmets, shields, and bright breast-plates, 6265-6271; B. 3137-3140. Ongunnon ðá bǽl-fýra mǽst wígend weccan: wudu-réc astáh sweart of Swió-þole then the warriors began to kindle the greatest of bale-fires: the wood-smoke ascended black from the Swedish pine, 6277-6281; B. 3143-3145. Hí on beorg dydon beágas and siglu, eall swylce hyrsta on the mound they placed rings and jewels, also ornaments, 6307-6309; B. 3164, 3165. Ðá ymbe hlǽw ridon æðelingas . . . cyring mǽnan, word-gyd wrecan then nobles rode round the mound. . . their king bewail, a verbal lay recite, 6319-6325; B. 3170-3173. Swá begnomodon Geáta leóde thus the people of the Goths deplored, 6338, 6339; B. 3179. 5. it is probable that down to a very late period the people adhered to many of their ancient burial customs. Charlemagne, so late as the year 789, ordered his Christian Saxon subjects to bury their dead in the Christian cemeteries, and not in the tumuli of the pagans, in these words, -- Jubemus ut corpora Christianorum Saxonum ad cœmeteria ecclesiæ deferantur, et non ad tumulos paganorum, Capit. Carl. Mag. Walter, tom. ii. p. 107. In England, the ordinary converts appear to have been drawn reluctantly from the burial places of their forefathers by the establishment of Christian cemeteries attached to the churches, and even there they seem long to have continued many of their old rites. A few of these ceremonies are mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical laws and constitutions relating to funerals. 6. it appears from a regulation, which, though only preserved in the laws of Henry I, evidently belonged to the Anglo-Saxon period, that as soon as any person was dead, the body was laid out, with the feet to the east and the head to the west. This law enjoins any one who, either in revenging a feud or defending himself, should kill a man, not to take anything belonging to him, whether his horse, or his helmet, or his sword, or any money he may have, but to lay out his body in the manner usually observed with the dead, the head to the west and the feet to the east, upon his shield, if he have one; and to fix his lance, and place his arms round, and attach his horse by the reins; and to go to the nearest town and give information to the first person he meets; the Latin of the law is, -- 'Si quis in vindictam vel in se defendendo occidat aliquem, nihil sibi de mortui rebus aliquis usurpet, non equum, non galeam, vel gladium, vel pecuniam prorsus aliquam; sed ipsum corpus solito defunctorum more componat, caput ad occidens, pedes ad oriens versum, super clipeum, si habeat; et lanceam suatn figat, et arma circummittat, et equum adregniet; et adeat proxtmam villam, et eni prius obviaverit denunciet,' L. H. 83, § 6; Th. i. 591. 7. during the time that the dead body remained unburied, the relations and friends assembled to watch or wake over it [this watching or waking is mentioned under the word líc a body, see líc II], and this proceeding was evidently accompanied with feasting and drinking carried to a very great excess. So late as the end of the tenth century, archbishop Ælfric addressed the following injunction to his clergy :-- Ge ne scylan fægnigan forþ-farenra manna, ne ðæt líc gesécan, búton eów mann laðige ðǽr-to: ðænne ge ðǽr-to gelaðode sýn, ðonne forbeóde ge ða hǽðenan sangas ðæra lǽwedra manna, and heora hlúdan cheahchetunga; ne ge sylfe ne eton, ne ne drincon ðǽr ðæt líc inne líþ, ðe-læs ðe ge syndon efen-lǽce ðæs hǽðenscypes ðe hý ðǽr begáþ ye shall not rejoice on account of men deceased, nor attend on the corpse, unless ye be thereto invited: when ye are thereto invited, then forbid ye the heathen songs of the laymen, and their loud cachinations; nor eat ye, nor drink, where the corpse lieth therein, lest ye be imitators of the heathenism which they there commit, L. Ælf. C. 35; Th. ii. 356, 23-358, 5. The clergy gave little attention to these injunctions, for they are warned against being 'hunters of funerals,' and Ælfric tells us how some priests 'Fægniaþ ðonne men forþfaraþ, and unbedene gaderiaþ hí to ðam líce, swá swá grǽdige ræmmas, ðár ðár hí hold geseóþ; ac heom gebíraþ mid rihte to bestandenne ða men, ðe híraþ into heora mynstre; and ne sceal nán faran on ððres folgoþ to nánum líce búton he gebeden sý rejoice when men depart hence, and unbidden gather about the corpse, Kite greedy ravens, wherever they see a dead carcase; whereas it properly becomes them to bury those men, who belong to their minster; and no one ought to go in another's following to any corpse unless he be invited,' L. Ælf. P. 49; Th. ii. 386, 2-6. 8. we have no reason for supposing that people who were not rich were buried in coffins, but the body, having been wrapped up in its winding-sheet, appears to have been merely laid in the grave, and then covered with earth. The first coffins used by the converted Anglo-Saxons were undoubtedly of wood [vide 2], and it was the ecclesiastics who introduced the stone sarcophagi for eminent personages of their own order. Sebbi, king of the East-Saxons, was buried in a coffin of stone :-- Gearwodan hí his líchoman to bebyrigeanne on stǽnenre þruh cujus [Sebbi] corpori tumulando præparaverant sarcofagum lapideum, Bd. 4, 11; S. 580, 4. 9. at every funeral a payment, called a soul-sceat [v. sáwel-sceát], was made to the church where the interment took place, and a legacy was also expected. A mancus of gold, or even a much higher sum, was usually paid in the case of a king or bishop, or of a person of high rank. 10. the graves were no doubt arranged in rows and covered with small mounds, as in the older pagan cemeteries, except that the mounds were elongated instead of being circular, and had head-stones. They seem, at an early period, to have been laid north and south, like many of those in the pagan cemeteries, and not east and west, as was the position of the bodies of the nuns of Hartlepool, buried towards the end of the seventh century, which were uncovered about thirty years ago. Small flat stones, the largest less than a foot square, had been laid over the graves at Hartlepool, each bearing a cross, and the name of the person it commemorated; some engraved in Anglo-Saxon runes, and some in the Roman letters of the seventh century, for to the latter end of that period they evidently belonged. v. Thrupp's Anglo-Saxon Home, 8vo. 1860, pp. 397-405. A very valuable paper by George Rolleston, Esq. M.D. F.R.S. On the modes of sepulture in early Anglo-Saxon times in this country, reprinted from the Translations of the International Congress of Prehistoric Archæeology, Third Session: Douglas's Nenia Britannica: Faussett's Inventorium Sepulchrale: Akerman's Remains of Pagan Saxondom: Wylie's Fairford Graves: Braybrooke's Saxon Obsequies: and Mr. C. Roach Smith's Collectanea Antíqua.

byrgend, es; m. A burier; sepultor:-- Náhtan byrgendas nou erat qui sepeliret, Ps. Th. 78, 3.

byrgen-leóþ es; n. A tomb-elegy, an epitaph; sepulcrale carmen, epitaphium :-- On his byrgenne is awriten byrgen-leóþ scriptnm est in tumba ipsius epitaphium, Bd. 2, 1; S. 500, 18.

byrgen-song, es; m. A burial song; cantus sepulcralis, Leo 116. v. bergel-song.

byrgen-stów, byrigen-stów, e; f. A burying-place, cemetery; sepulcri locus, cœmeterium, Cot. 75: Bd. 5, 23; S. 645, 19.

byrgere, es; m. A burier, corpse-bearer; vespillo, Cot. 155.

byrging [byrgung, Ettm.], e; f. A burying, the act of burying; sepultura, Jn. 20, l, 4, Lye.

býrging, e; f. Taste, lasting; gustus, Scint. 12, Lye. [O. Nrs. berging, f. gustus, sacra synaxis vel participatio divinæ Eucharistiæ.] v. on-býrging.

byrgst, byrhst, he byrgeþ, byrgþ, byrnþ protectest, he protects, Ps. Th. 16, 8; 2nd and 3rd pers, pres. of beorgan.

byrht bright, clear, lucid, loud; clarus, splendidus, clarisonus, Beo. Th. 2402; B. 1199: Cd. 217; Th. 275, 15; Sat. 172. v. beorht.

byrhtan to shine; lucere, Exon. 24a; Th. 67, 18; Cri. 1090. v. beorhtan.

byrhtm, es; m. Noise, tumult; fragor, tumultus, Apstls. Kmbl. 42; Ap. 21. v. breahtm.

byrhtm-hwýl a moment. v. bearhtm-hwíl.

byrht-nes brightness, Ps. Spl. 118, 130. v. beorht-nes.

byrhtu, e; f. Brightness, splendour, Exon. 26a; Th. 76, 15; Cri. 1240. v. beorhtu.

byrht-word; adj. [byrht = beorht bright, word a word] Bright of word, clear in words or speech; clarus voce :-- Byrhtword arás engla ordfruma the creator of angels, bright of words, arose, Cd. 218; Th. 279, 15; Sat. 238.

byri = byrig to a city. v. byri-weard.

byrian; p. ede, ide; pp. ed To bury: :-- Ðǽr hí mon byride where they buried her, Ors. 3, 6; Bos. 58, 9. DER. be-byrian. v. byrgan.

býrian, 3rd s. býreþ; p. ede; pp. ed [býre an event, a favourable time, an opportunity] To happen, pertain to, belong to; evenire, contingere, pertinere ad [v. ge-býrian]: found as v. impers: it pertains to, it concerns, it belongs to, it is lawful; pertinet ad, oportet, licet :-- Ne býreþ to him from scipum non pertinet ad eum de ovibus, Jn. Lind. War. 10, 13: Mk. Lind. War. 4, 38. Ðe ne býrede him to etanne quem non licebat ei edere, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 12, 4. DER. ge-býrian.

byrian to taste; gustare. v. a-býrian under a-býrgan.

byrig to a city, Ps. Th. 44, 13: 47, 11; dat. of burh.

byrig, e; f: acc. s. byrig, byrige A city; urbs, civitas :-- Hér Cúþa gefeaht wið Brytwalas æt Biedcan forda, and genam Lygeanbyrig and Ægles byrig in this year Cutha fought against the Brito-Welsh at Bedford, and took Lenbury and Aylesbury, Chr. 571; Th. 33, 28. Cantwara byrig forbarn ðý geáre Canterbury was burnt down in this year, 754; Th. 81, 36, col. 2. v. burh.

byrig, es; n. A mulberry-tree; morus :-- He ofslóh byrig heora on hagule occidit moros eorum in pruina, Ps. Spl. 77, 52: L. M. 2, 53; Lchdm. ii. 274, 17.

byriga, an; m. A surety; fidejussor :-- He him byrigan gesealdne hæbbe he has given him surety, L. H. E. 10; Th. i. 30, 17. v. byrgea.

byrigan, birigan; p. de; pp. ed To bury; sepelire :-- Alýf me ǽrest byrigan mínne fæder permitte mihi primum sepelire patrem meum, Lk. Bos. 9, 59 : 9, 60: Chr. 1036; Th. 294, 21: Hy. 10, 29; Hy. Grn. ii. 293, 29: Nicod. 21; Thw. 10, 30: 21; Thw. 11. 4. DER. be-byrigan. v. byrian, byrgan.

býrigan; p. de To taste; gustare :-- Deáþ he ðǽr býrigde he there tested death, Rood Kmbl. 199; Kr. 101. Ðæt he hire sealde ðæt wæter to býrigenne ut gustandam illi daret eam aquam. Bd. 5, 4; S. 617, 21. DER. on-býrigan. v. býrian, býrgan.

byrig-berge, an; f. A mulberry; morum :-- Byrigbergena seáw selle drincan give him to drink juice of mulberries, L. M. 2, 30; Lchdm. ii. 230, 12.

byrigea a surety, L. H. E. 8; Th. i. 30, 12. v. byrgea.

byrigean to bury. v. byrgan, be-byrigean.

býrigean to taste, v. on-býrigean, býrgan.

byrigen, byrigenn, e; f. [beorg tumulus] A burying-place, a sepulchre, tomb, burying; sepulcrum, monumentum, tumba, sepultura, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 37: 3, 8; S. 532, 15, 17: 3, 11; S. 535, 32: 1, 33; S. 499, 7. v. byrgen.

byrigen-stów, e; f. A burying-place :-- He sylfa byrigenstówe worhte sibi ipse in locum sepulcri fecerat, Bd. 5, 23; S. 645, 19. v. byrgen-stðw.

byrig-leóþ, es; n. An epitaph; epitaphium. Bd. 2, l, Lye. v. byrgen-leóþ.

byrig-man, -mann, es; m. [byrig a city, man a man] A city officer; ædilis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28, MS. D; Som. 11, 29. v. burh-man.

byrignes, -ness, -nyss, e; f. A burying, burial; sepultura. Bd. 4, 11; S. 580, 8. DER. be-byrignys.

býrignes, bírgnes, -ness, e; f. A tasting, a taste; gustus :-- Mid býrignesse ðæs wæteres by the tasting of the water, Bd. 5, 18; S. 635, 29. Bírgness gustus, Cot. 97. DER. an-býrignys. v. býrgan.

Byríne, es; m. Birinus, the first bishop of Wessex, Chr. 649; Th. 50, 3, col. 2, 3; 51, 2, col. 1. v. Birīnus.

byris, e; f? A graving-iron, file; scalprum, scalpellum :-- Byris scalprum, Glos. Epnl. Reed. 162, 36: scalpellum, 162, 51. [O. H. Ger. bursa, f.]

byri-weard, es; m. [byrig, dat. of burh a city, weard a guard] A city-guardian; urbis custos, ædilis, Wrt. Voc. 18, 54. v. burh-weard.

BYRLE, byrele, es; m. A cup-bearer, butler; pocillator, calicum magister, pincerna :-- Byrle pincerna, Ælfc. Gl. 113; Som. 80, l; Wrt. Voc. 60, 37: 74, 16. Egipta cynges byrle pincerna regis Ægypti, Gen. 40, 1. Byrele pincerna. Wrt. Voc. 290, 51. Þurh byreles hond through the cup-bearer's hand, Exon. 88a; Th. 330, 15; Vy. 51. Byrlas ne gǽldon the cup-bearers delayed not, Andr. Kmbl. 3065; An. 1535. Geleornedon his byrelas him betweonum his cup-bearers planned among themselves, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 69, 10: Beo. Th. 2327; B. 1161. Geþohte he ðæra byrla ealdor recordatus est magistri pincernarum, Gen. 40, 20, 21, 23. Yldest byrla a caliculis, magister calicum, Ælfc. Gl. 113; Som. 79, 130; Wrt. Voc. 60, 34. Ðara ððer bewiste his byrlas, óðer his bæcestran alter pincernis præerat, alter pistoribus, Gen. 40, 2. [Laym, birle, borle: Orm. birrless, pl: Icel. byrli, byrlari , m.]

byrlian, byrelian; p. ade; pp. ad [byrle, byrele a cup-bearer] To pour out, give to drink, serve; propinare :-- Ic him byrlade wróht of wége I poured out complaint to them from the cup, Exon. 72b; Th. 271, 23; Jul. 486. Feónd byrlade ðære idese bittor bǽdewég the fiend gave the woman the bitter cup to drink, 47a; Th. 161, 8; Gú. 955. Ðone bitran drync Eue Adame byrelade Eve served to Adam the bitter drink, 45b; Th. 154, 13; Gú. 842.

byrman; p. de; pp. ed [beorma barm] To ferment with barm, to leaven; fermentare. DER. ge-byrman.

byrnan; part, byrnende; he byrneþ. I. v. intrans. To burn, to be on fire; ardere :-- Sín eówer leóhtfatu byrnende sint vestræ lucernæ ardentes, Lk. Bos. 12, 35: Deut. 9, 15. Ðonne bymeþ gramen his cum exarserit ira ejus, Ps. Spl. 2, 13: Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 36. II. v. trans. To burn; urere, comburere :-- Swá fýr wudu byrneþ sicut ignis comburit sylvas, Ps. Th. 82, 10. V. beornan.

BYRNE, an; f. A corslet, coat of mail; lorica, thorax :-- Mót he gesellan monnan and byrnan and sweord he may give a man a corslet and a sword, L. In. 54; Th. i. 138, 1. Ðǽr wæs on eorle brogden byrne there was on the man the twisted coat of mail, Elen. Kmbl. 513; El. 257. Ætbær hringde byrnan he bore away the ringed coat of mail, Beo. Th. 5224; B. 2615. Ongan wyrcan síde byrnan he began to make a large coat of mail, Salm. Kmbl. 906; Sal. 453: Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 15; Jud. 328. [Laym. burne, brunie: Ger. brünne, f: M. H. Ger. brïüuje, brünne, f: O. H. Ger. brunja, brunna, f: Goth. brunyo, f: Dan. brynie, m. f: Swed. Icel. brynja, f: O. Slav, brunija.] DER. gúþ-byrne, heaðo-, heaðu-, here-, íren-, ísern-.

byrne, es; m. A burning; incendium :-- Ǽr ðam ðe ðæt mynster mid byrne fornumen wǽre priusquam monasterium esset incendio consumptum, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 18. v. bryne.

byrne, an; f. Running water, a stream; torrens, rivus :-- Ofer byrnan bðsm over the stream's bosom, Exon. 102a; Th. 386, 15; Rä. 4, 62. v. burne.

byrnendra more burning, Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 36. v. byrnan.

byrn-hom, es; m. [byrne a coat of mail, hom a covering, garment] A coat of mail; lorica :-- Beraþ bord fór breóstum and byrnhomas bear shields before your breasts and coats of mail, Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 17; Jud. 192.

byrn-wíga, an; m. A soldier clothed in armour; loricatus miles :-- Se byrnwíga búgan sceolde the mailed warrior must submit, Beo. Th. 5828; B. 2918: Exon. 77b; Th. 292, 5; Wand. 94. Byrnwígena brego the chief of mailed soldiers, Judth. 9; Thw. 21, 28; Jud. 39.

byrn-wígende, -wiggende; part. Clothed in armour, mailed; loricatus :-- Swá hire weoruda helm byrnwiggendra beboden hæfde as the prince of the mailed armies had commanded her, Elen. Kmbl. 447; El. 224. Gehlódon byrnwígendum werum wǽghengestas they loaded the ships with men covered with armour, Elen. Kmbl. 470; El. 235.

byrn-wíggend, es; m. A soldier clothed in armour, a mailed warrior; loricatus miles vel bellator :-- Bealde byrnwíggende bold warriors, Judth. 9; Thw. 21, 13; Jud. 17.

byrst, es; n. A bristle; seta :-- Byrst seta, Wrt. Voc. 286, 57: Glos. Epnl. Recd. 162, 49. Hyre twigu beóþ swylce swínene [MS. swinen] byrst its twigs are like swine bristles, Herb. 52, 2; Lchdm. i. 156, 3. [Frs. boarstel, m. f: Dut. borstel, m: Ger. borste, f: O. H. Ger. burst, n; bursti, pursta, f: Dan. bórste, m. f: Swed, borst, m: Icel. burst, f.]

byrst bursts, breaks, fails; 3rd pers. pres. of berstan.

byrst, he byrþ bearest, he bears, produces; facit, Mt. Bos. 7, 17; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of beran.

byrst, berst, es; m. A loss, defect; damnum, calamitas :-- Gylde ðone byrst, ðe ðæt fýr ontende reddet damnum, qui ignem succenderit, Ex. 22, 6, 12: Ps. Th. 108, 18. We habbaþ fela byrsta gebiden multas calamitates sumus perpessi, Lupi Serm. i. 2; Hick. Thes. ii. 99, 21.

byrþ a birth. v. beorþ, byrþ-ling.

BYRÐBN, berðen, byrðyn; gen. byrðenne; f. A BURTHEN, load, weight, bundle; onus, sarcina, fascis :-- Hefig byrðen onus grave, Ps. Th. 37, 4. Sorh biþ swǽrost byrðen sorrow is the heaviest burthen, Salm. Kmbl. 623; Sal. 311. Seám oððe byrðen onus, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 32; Som. 12, 14. Byrðen fascis, 9, 28; Som. 11, 44: Mt. Lind. Stv. 13, 30. [O. Sax. burðinnia, f: O. Frs. berthe, berde, f: Ger. M. H. Ger. bürde, f: O. H. Ger. burdi, f: Goth. baurþei, f: Dan. byrde, f; Swed. börda, f: -Icel, byrðr, byrðI, f.] DER. mægen-byrðen, sorg-, syn-.

byrðene dǽl, es; m. A share of a burthen, a portion; portio, Ps. Spl. 49, 19.

byrðen-mǽlum; adv. [byrðen, mǽlum, dat. pl. of mǽl, n.] By burdens; oneribus :-- Se déma hǽt his englas gadrian ðone coccel byrðen- mælum the judge will command his angels to gather the tares by burdens, Homl. Th. i. 526, 22.

byrðen-meto; indecl; f? An excessive burden; oneris excessus, onerosa mensura, Prov. 27, Ettm.

byrðen-strang; ad; Burthen-strong, strong to bear burdens; oneribus portandis robustus :-- Assa is stunt nýten, and byrðenstrang an ass is a foolish beast, and strong for burdens, Homl. Th. i. 208, 13.

byrþere; gen. byrþres; m. [beran to bear, carry] A bearer, carrier, supporter; portarius, vespillo, fulcimen :-- Crist ðone wácan assan geceás him to byrþre Christ chose the mean ass for his bearer, Homl. Th. i. 210, 16. Ða byrþeras hine to byrgenne féredon the bearers bare him to the grave, i. 492, 27. Seó untrumnys his gecyndes behófode sumes byrþres the infirmity of his nature had need of some supporter, i. 308, 12.

byrþ-ling, beorþ-ling, es; m. A born image, birthling, child. v. beorþ, hyse-berþling.

byrþor, es; n? Child-birth, a fetus; partus, fetus :-- Bútan byrþres intingan sine partus causa, Bd. I. 27; S. 493, 40. v. beorþor.

byrþor-cwelm, es; m. An abortion, a miscarriage. v. beorþor-cwelm.

byrþor-þínen, e: f. A midwife. v. beorþor-þínen.

byrðyn, e; f. A burthen; onus :-- Mín byrðyn ys leóht meum onus est leve, Mt. Bos. 11, 30. v. byrðen.

Byr-tún, es; m. [Hovd. Burhtun: Brom. Burton super Trent: Stub. Kni. Burton] BURTON on Trent, Staffordshire; oppidum ad ripam fluminis Trentæ, in agro Staffordiensi :-- Se cyng geaf him ðæt abbotríce on Byrtúine the king gave him the abbacy at Burton, Chr. 1066; Erl. 203, 16.

býsegu occupation, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 509; Met. 20, 255. v. býsgu.

BÝSEN, bísen, býsn, e; f. I. a pattern, an example, model, resemblance, similitude, parable; norma, exemplum, modellum, similitudo, parabola :-- Ðú bútan býsne, Ælmihtig God, eall geworhtest þing þearle gód [good, MS.] thou, Almighty God, modest all things very good, without a pattern, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 85; Met. 20, 43. Seó býsen ðæs rihtan geleáfan Angel cyricean to Róme gelǽded wæs exemplum catholicæ fidei Anglorum Romam perlatum est, Bd. 4, 18; S. 587, 11: 2, l; S. 590, 26: 4, 23; S. 595, 10. Gúþlác mongum wearþ býsen on Brytene Guthlac was an example to many in Britain, Exon. 35 a; Th. 112, 19; Gú. 146. Ðiós óðru býsen this other similitude, Bt. Met. Fox 12, 13; Met. 12, 7. Æfter heora býsne after their example, Ps. Th. arg. 28: Cd. 217; Th. 276, 29; Sat. 196. On býsene ðære frymþelícan cyricean in exemplum primitivæ ecclesiæ, Bd. 4, 23; S. 593, 40. Be sumere bísene by some example, Bt. 22, 2; Fox 78, 13. Ðæt hí ealle gemyndige w