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An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

by Bosworth and Toller

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C

In Gothic and Icelandic C is entirely wanting, being always represented by k. It is remarkable that the Anglo-Saxons have seldom made use of k; but, following the Latin, have preferred the use of c. 1. the letter c is found as an initial, medial, and final. -- As an initial letter it corresponds to the Gothic amd Icelandic k; as, -- A. Sax. corn corn, Goth. karn, Icel. korn; A; Sax. ceósan to choose, Goth. kiusan, Icel. kjósa. As a medial and final letter c corresponds to the Gothic and Icelandic k, -- thus A. Sax. æcer a field, Goth. akrs, Icel. akr; A. Sax. eác also, Goth. auk, Icel. ok [og]. 2. c and cc are often changed into h or hh before s or þ, and especially before t; as, strehton they stretched, for strecton from streccan. Ahsian for acsian or axian to ask; séhþ for sécþ seeks, from sécan to seek. In words immediately derived from Anglo-Saxon, k is frequently substituted for the Anglo-Saxon c; as, cyning a king; cyn kin or kindred. Sometimes q or ch; as, cwén queen; cild a child; cin a chin. 3. the Runic letter RUNE not only stands for the letter c, but also for the name of the letter in Anglo-Saxon cén a torch, v. cén and RÚN.

cac, es; m? Dung, excrement; stercus, foria, merda, Som. Ben. Lye. [Plat, kak, kakk: Dut. kak, m: Kil. kack: Ger. kack, m: Dan. kag, m. f: Grk. GREEK : Lat. cacare: Grk. GREEK .]

cac-hús, es; n. A privy; latrina, Som. Ben. Lye. [Kil. kack-huys.]

cæd, ced, es; m. A boat; linter, Mone B. 120, Ettm.

cæder-beám, es; m. A cedar-tree; cedrus :-- Hériaþ Drihten, muntas and ealle beorgas, treówu wæstmbǽru, and ealle cæder-beám laudate Dominum, montes et omnes colles, ligna fructifera, el omnes cedri, Ps. Spl. 148, 9. v. ceder-beám. Cædmon, es; m. [Cædrnon, MS. C. C. C. Oxford: Cædrnon, Bd. 4, 24; S. 170, 50; Cedmon, S. 597, 12: Ceadmon, MS. B. S. 597, note 12: Cadmon, Runic Monmnts. by Prof. Stephens, fol. Cheapinghaven, 1868, p. 419, 11: cæd linter, mon homo] A man employed by the monks of Whitby in the care of their cattle in the early part of the seventh century. He is the first person of whom we possess any metrical composition in our vernacular language. So striking and similar are some of his thoughts to Paradise Lost, it has been supposed that Milton had read his Poems. He became a monk of Whitby, and died in the monastery about A. D. 680. A full account is given of him in Bede's History, bk. iv. ch. 24. The origin of his Poem is thus recorded in king Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Bede :-- Ðá stód him sum mon æt þurh swefen, and hine hálette and grétte, and hine be his naman nemde, Cædmon [Cedmon, Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 12], sing me hwæt-hwegn. Ðá andswarede he and cwæþ, ne con ic nán þing singan . . . Eft he cwæþ, se ðe mid him sprecende wæs, hwæðere ðú meaht me singan. Cwæþ he, hwæt sceal ic singan? Cwæþ he, sing me frumsceaft. Ðá he ðá ðás andsware onféng; ðá ongan he sóna singan, in hérenesse Godes scyppendes, ða fers and ða word ðe he nǽfre ne gehýrde . . . Ðá arás he from ðam slǽpe and eall ðæt he slǽpende song fæste on gemynde hæfde . . . Song he ǽrest be middangeardes gesceape, and be fruman moncynnes, and eall ðæt stǽr Genesis, and eft be útgonge Israhéla folces of Ægypta lande, and be ingonge ðæs gehát-londes, UNCERTAIN and be óðrum monigum spellum ðæs hálgan gewrites Canones bóc; and be Cristes menniscnesse, and be his þrówunge, and be his uppastígnesse on heofonas; and big ðæs hálgan Gástes cyme, and ðæra Apostola láre; and eft big ðam ege ðæs toweardan dómes, and be fyrhto ðæs tintreglícan wítes, and be swétnesse ðæs heofonlícan ríces: he monig leóþ geworhte then stood some man by him in a dream, and hailed and greeted him, and named him by his name, ' Cædmon, canta mihi aliquid,' = Cædmon, sing me something. Then he answered and said, I cannot sing anything. . . Again, he who was speaking with him said, Yet thou must sing to me. Said he, What shall I sing? Said he, Sing me the origin of things. When he received this answer, then he began forthwith to sing, in praise of God the Creator, the verses and the words which he had never heard . . . Then he arose from sleep, and had fast in mind all that he sleeping had sung. . . He first sang of earth's creation, and of the origin of mankind, and all the history of Genesis, and then of the departure of the people of Israel from the Egyptians' land, and of the entrance of the land of promise, and of many other histories of the canonical books of Holy Writ; and of Christ's incarnation, and of his passion, and of his ascension into heaven; and of the coming of the Holy Ghost, and the doctrine of the Apostles; and also of the terror of the doom to come, and the fear of hell-torment, and the sweetness of the heavenly kingdom: he made many poems, Bd. 4, 24; S. 597, 11-18, 25, 26-598, 9-17. 2. Cædmon was first published by Junius, from the Bodleian MS. the only one in existence. Junius published the Anglo-Saxon text only at Amsterdam in 1655, without a translation, in very small 4to, UNCERTAIN pp. 116. It was again published by B. Thorpe, F. S. A. in large 8vo. 1832, with an English translation, notes, and a verbal index, pp. 341. 3. Bouterwek, with German translation and notes, an excellent vocabulary, Lateinischangelsächsisches Wörter-verzeichniss, in 2 vols. 8vo. 1854. Gütersloh bei C. Bertelsmann. 4. Grein in 2 vols. 8vo. 1857, Text, vol. i. pp. 148.

cæfester, es; m? A halter, head-stall; capistrum, Cot. 31: 33. DER. ge-cafstrian.

cæfian, cefian; p. ede; pp. ed To embroider; acu pingere. DER. be-cæfian, UNCERTAIN ymb-.

CǼG; gen. cǽge; pl. nom. acc. cǽga, cǽgia; f; cǽge, an; f. A KEY; clavis :-- Stæfcræft is seó cǽg ðe ðæra bóca andgýtt unlýcþ grammar is the key that unlocketh the sense of books, Ælfc. Gr. pref; Som. I. 23: 9, 28; Som. 11, 54: Past. 15, 2; Hat. MS. 19a, 17. Ge ætbrudon ðæs ingehýdes UNCERTAIN cǽge tulisti clavem scientiæ, Lk. Bos. II, 52. Saturnus sumra hæfde bóca cǽga Saturn had the keys of some books, Salm. Kmbl. 370; Sal. 184. Ðé ic sylle heofona ríces cǽgia tibi dabo claves regni cælorum, Mt. Bos. 16, 19. Gástes cǽgum [MS. cǽgon] with the keys of the spirit, Cd. 169; Th. 211, 11; Exod. 524. Cǽgan, Exon. 112a; Th. 429, 29; Rä. 43, 12. [Chauc. key: Wyc. keie, keye: R. Glouc. keyen, pl: Frs. cay, cayce a small key: O. Frs. kei, kai, m: Wel. can to shut, inclose.] DER. lioðu-cǽge, searo-cǽg.

cǽg-bora, an; m. A key-bearer; claviger, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 19.

cǽge, an: f. A key; clavis :-- Cǽgan, Exon. 112a; Th. 429, 29; Rä. 43, 12. v. cǽg.

cǽggian; p. ode; pp. od To lock, shut fast; obserare. DER. cǽg.

cǽg-hyrde, es; m. [hyrde a keeper, guardian] A keeper of keys, gaoler; clavicularius. DER. cǽg.

cæg-loca, an; m. The action of locking up, a key-locking, any repository locked up; clavis et loculamentum :-- Búton hit under ðæs wífes cǽglocan [cǽglocum MS. A.] gebroht wǽre, sý heó clǽne, ac ðæra cǽgean heó scéal UNCERTAIN weardian; ðæt is, hire hordern, and hire cyste, and hire tege unless it has been brought under his wife's 'lock and key,' let her be clear; for it is her duty to keep the keys of them; namely, her 'hord-ern,' and her chest, and her cupboard, L. C. S. 77; Th. i. 418, 19-22. The Latin version reads: 'Sed suum hordern quod dicere possumus dispensam, et cistam suam, et teage, id est scrinium suum, debet ipsa custodire.' A similar provision is found in the old Scottish law: 'Tamen uxor in certis casibus respondere tenebitur; videlicet, si furtum inveniatur sub clavibus suis quas ipsa habet sub cnstodia et cura sua, utpote spensæ, arcæ suæ vel scrinii sui. Et si aliquod furtum sub clavibus suis inveniatur, uxor cum viro suo tamquam ei consentaneus erit culpabilis et punietur,' Qwon. Attachi. xii. c. 7. There is a republication of the same law in the Stat. Willielmi Regis, with this variation: 'Spensa et arca robarum et jocalium suorum et de scrinio seu coffero,' xix. c. 3. We may therefore, perhaps, render the terms in the quotation above, 'locked up in her store-room, her chest, and her cupboard,' L. Th. i. 418, note b.

cǽlan; p. de; pp. ed To make cold or cool, to cool; infrigidare, Cot. 113. DER. ge-cǽlan. v. calan.

cælc, es; m. A cup, chalice, goblet; calix :-- Cælc oððe scenc calicem, Mt. Lind. Rush. Stv. 10, 42. v. calic.

cæle A KEEL or bottom of a ship; carina, Som. Ben. Lye.

cælic, es; m. A cup, chalice, goblet; calix :-- Cælic hǽle ic onfó calicem salutaris accipiam, Ps. Spl. 115, 4. v. calic.

cælþ is cold. Hexam. 20; Norm. 28, 22; 3rd pres. of calan.

cæmban to comb; pectere, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 3; Som. 30, 61, MS. D. v. cemban.

cæmpa, an; m. A soldier; pugnator :-- Wer cæmpa vir pugnator, Cant. Moys. Lamb. 186 b, 3. v. cempa.

cænnan to clear, prove; manifestare :-- Mynstres aldor hine cænne in preóstes canne let the chief of a monastery clear himself with a priest's clearance, L. Wih. 17; Th. i. 40, 13: 22; Th. i. 42, 3: L. Edg. S. 11; Th. i. 276, 12. v. cennan to declare, II. UNCERTAIN

cænnan; p. cænde; pp. cænned To bring forth, produce; parere :-- Ðeós wyrt biþ cænned abúton dícum this herb is produced about ditches, Herb. 13, l; Lchdm. i. 104, 18, MSS. H. B. v. cennan to beget, UNCERTAIN

cænnestre, an; f One who has borne, a mother, dam; genitrix. v. cynnestre.

cæn-ryn, es; n. A generation, Ps. Spl. 47, 12. v. cyn-ren.

cǽpe-hús, es; n. [cépa a merchant, hús a house] A storehouse; armarium :-- Ælces cynnes cǽpe-hús armarium, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 79, 19; Wrt. Voc. 58, 59. GÆPPE, an; f. A CAP, cape, cope, hood; cappa, pileus, cucullus, planeta :-- Cæppe cappa, Wrt. Voc. 81, 67. Cæppe planeta, Ælfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 114; Wrt. Voc. 25, 54: 81, 45, Gerénod cæppe an adorned hood; penula, Ælfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 115; Wrt. Voc. 25, 55. [Piers P. cope: Chauc. cappe, cope: Laym. cape, cope: Plat, kappe: Frs. kæpe: O. Frs. kappe: Dut. kap, f; Kil. kappe: Ger. M. H. Ger. kappe, f: O. H. Ger. kappa, f: Dan. kaabe, kappe, m. f: Swed. kappa, kápa. UNCERTAIN f: Icel. kápa, f: from M. Lat. cappa, 'quia capitis ornamentum est,' Isidorus.]

cærc-ærn a prison; carcer, Som. Ben. Lye. v. carc-ærn.

cærcian to chirk, chirp, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 5; Som. 29; 7, MS. C. v. cearcian.

cæren a sort of wine, boiled wine; defrutum, carenum, Cot. 66: L. M. 1, 1; Lchdm. ii. 24, 19. v. ceren.

cærfille, an; f. Chervil; cerefolium :-- Cærfille cerefolium, Ælfc. Gl. 43; Som. 64, 45; Wrt. Voc. 31, 55. v. cerfille.

CÆRSE, cerse, an; f. CRESS, watercress; nasturtium, cardămum = GREEK :-- Man nasturcium, and óðrum naman cærse [cerse B.] nemneþ one nameth nasturtium, and by another name, cress, Herb. 21, 1; Lchdm. i. 116, 17. Ðeós wyrt, cærse, ne biþ sáwen, ac heó of hyre sylfne cenned biþ on wyllon and on brócen this herb, cress, is not sown, but it is propagated of itself in wells and in brooks, i. 116, 15. [Piers P. kerse: Dut. kers, f; Ger. M. H. Ger. kresse, m. f; O. H. Ger. kresso, m. cressa, f.] DER. eá-cærse, -cerse, fen-, tún-, wylle-.

cǽs chose, Chr. 963; Erl. 123, 35, = ceás; p. of ceósan.

cæster, e; f. A city; civitas. Mt. Rush. Stv. 5, 14: 8, 34. v. ceaster.

CÁF; comp, ra, re; sup. est, ost; adj. Quick, sharp, prompt, nimble, swift; acer, celer, præceps :-- Ðá geseah Iohannes sumne cniht swíðe glæd on móde and on anginne cáf there John saw a certain youth very cheerful in mind and quick in design, Ælfc. T. 33, 17: R. Ben. 7: Fulg. 9. Cáf præceps, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 143, 32. Hét ðá hǽleða UNCERTAIN hleó healdan ða bricge wígan wígheardne cáfne then the defence [the chief] of the soldiers commanded a warrior, hardy in battle and nimble, to defend the bridge, Byrht. Th. 133, 66; By. 76. Ðæt hí sceoldon beón cáfe [MS. caue] to Godes willan that they might be prompt for God's will, Homl. Th. ii. 44, 31. Sume earniaþ ðæt hie síen ðý cáfran some merit that they may be the more nimble, Bt. 34, 7; Fox 144, 8. [R. Brun. kof boisterous: Relq. Ant. W. i. 212, 8, cof: Orm. kafe bold: O. Nrs. á-kafr promptus, velox.] DER. Beadu-cáf. v. cífan.

cáfe; adv. Quickly, promptly; celeriter, prompte :-- Mægen samnode cáfe to ceáse he promptly collected his strength for the fight, Elen. Kmbl. 111; El. 56. DER. cífan.

cáfer-tún, es; m. A hall, inclosure, court, vestibule; atrium, vestibulum :-- Mycel and rúm heall vel cáfertún atrium, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 79, 21; Wrt. Voc. 58, 61: Lk. Bos. ll, 21: Jn. Bos. 18, 15: Bt. 18, l; Rawl. 38, 30. Seó fǽmne geneálǽhte ðam cáferttúne ðyses húses the maiden came nigh the court of this house, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 36: 5, 2; S. 615, 2: Ps. Lamb. 95, 9. For ðí ðe is betere án dæg on ðínum cáfertúnum ofer þúsenda hér quia melior est dies una in atriis tuis super milia; Ps. Lamb. 83, 11: 95, 8: 115, 8: 121, 2: 134, 2: Ps. Th. 121, 2 : 133, 2: 134, 2. Infaraþ on cáfertúnas his on ymnum introite atria [courts] ejus m hymnis, Ps. Spl. 99, 4: Ps. Lamb. 99, 4. DER. cífan.

cáf-líce; adv. Quickly, hastily, stoutly, manfully, valiantly; velociter, viriliter :-- Ðám gemettum wæs beboden ðæt hí sceoldon cáflíce etan the partakers were commanded to eat quickly, Homl. Th. ii. 282, 3: i. 494, 11: Glos. Prudent. Reed. 146, 38: Byrht. Th. 136, 19; By. 153: Num. 31, 6. DER. cífan.

cáf-scype, es; m. A quickness; velocitas, R. Ben. 5. DER. cífan.

cál, es; m. A herb, wild cole-wort; arboracia, lapsana? -- Cál arboracia vel lapsana? Ælfc. Gl. 44; Som. 64, 73; Wrt. Voc. 32, 9. v. cawel.

CALAN, ic cále, ðú calest, cælst, he caleþ, cælþ, pl. calaþ; p. cól, pl. cólon; pp. calen; v. intrans. To be or become cool or cold; algere, frigescere :-- Ðonne him cælþ, he cépþ him hlywþe when he is cold, he betakes himself to shelter, Hexam. 20; Norm. 28, 22. Hwæðer ða wélgan ne ne cale do the rich never become cold? Bt. 26, 2; Fox 92, 34. [Wyc. kele, koole: Orm. kelenn: Plat. kölen: O. Sax. kólón: O. Frs. kela: Dut. koelen: Ger. kühlen: M. H. Ger. kuolén UNCERTAIN to become cold: O. H. Ger. kuoljan: Dan. koele: Swed. koela: Icel. kala; p. kól; pp. kalit algere: Lat. gelare.] DER. a-calan, of-: calian: célan, a-, ge-: céle, cýle, ftér-; -gicel, -wyrt: célnes, ge-: céling; célung, ge-: cól, -nes: cólian, a-: ceald, cald, æl-, brim-, eal-, hrím-, ís-, morgen-, ofer-, sin-, snáw-, wæl-, winter-: caldu, sin-: cald-heort: cealdian, a-: cílian: cǽlan, ge-.

calc, es; m. A shoe, little shoe, sandal; calceus, sandalium :-- Gesceóde mid calcum calceatos sandaliis, Mk. Bos. 6, 9: Cot. 209.

calc-rond; adj. Round of hoof; calceis vel soleis ferreis marginatus :-- Calcrondes, Exon. 91a; Th. 342, 15; Gn. Ex. 143.

cald cold; gelidus, frigidus :-- Ðonne cymþ forst fyrnum cald then cometh bitter cold frost, Cd. 17; Th. 20, 28; Gen. 316: 227; Th. 304, 29; Sae. 637: Andr. Kmbl. 619; An. 310. Caldra colder, Exon. 111a; Th. 425, 10; Rä. 41, 54. Caldast, coldest, 81b; Th. 308, 1; Seef. 33. v. ceald, calan.

cald, es; n. Cold, coldness, Exon. 81b; Th. 306, 16; Scef. UNCERTAIN 8. v. ceald frigus.

cald-heort; adi. Cold-hearted, unfeeling, cruel; frigidus cordis, inhumanus, crudelis :-- Cirmdon caldheorte the cold-hearted cried out, Andr. Kmbl. 275 An. 1, 8. v. calan.

caldu, e; f. Cold, coldness; gelu, frigus. DER. sin-caldu. v. calan.

calend, es; m. I. a month; mensis :-- Calend [kalend MS.] Martius réðe the fierce month of March, Menol. Fox 62; Men. 31. II. the appointed time or day of life; dies, terminus vitæe :-- Ǽr se dæg cyme, ðæt sý his calend arunnen ere the day come, when his appointed time be run out, Salm. Kmbl. 959; Sal. 479.

calf a calf, Ps. Spl. 49, 10. v. cealf.

calferu; acc. pl. Calves; vitulos, Ps. Surt. 49, 9. v. cealf.

calfian UNCERTAIN to CALVE; vitulum edere, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cealfian.

calfru calves, Ps. Th. 21, 10. v. cealf.

calfur calves; vituli :-- Ymb-saldon me calfur circumdederunt me vituli, Ps. Surt. 21, 13: 50, 21. v. cealf.

calian; p. ode; pp. od; v. intrans. To be or become cold; algere, frigescere. v. calan.

CALIC, cælic, cælc, calc, es; m. A cup, CHALICE, goblet; calix :-- Se calic mínre blisse the cup of my joy, Ps. Th. 15, 5: Ps. Spl. 22, 7. Dǽl calices mínes pars calicis mei, Ps. Spl. 15, 5. He genam ðone calic accepit calicem, Mt. Bos. 26, 27, 28: Ps. Th. 115, 4: Ps. Surt. 115, 13. [Plat, kelk: O. Sax. kelik, m: O. Frs. tzielk, tzilik, m: Dut. kelk, m : Ger. kelch, m: M. H. Ger. kelich, kelch, m; O. H. Ger. kelih, m: Dan. kalk, m. f: Swed. Norw. kalk, m: Icel. kalkr, m; from Lat. calix: Grk. GREEK .]

calla, an; m. [ceailian to call] A herald, found in the phrase, -- hilde ealla [q. v.] war's herald or a herald of war, Cd. 156; Th. 193, 26; Exod. 252.

CALU, caluw; adj. CALLOW, bald, without hair; calvus, glaber :-- Calu oððe hnot glaber [MS. glabrio], Ælfc. Gr. 9, 3; Som. 8, 36: Exon. 111b; Th. 427, 31; Rä. 41, 99. Monig man weorþ fǽrlíce caluw many a man becomes bald suddenly, Prov. Kmbl. 42. [Wyc. calu: Plat, kaal: Frs. keal: Dut. kaal: Kil. kael: Ger. kahl: M. H. Ger. kal: O. H. Ger. chalo, chalaw: Lat. calvus: Ir. Gael. calbh: O. Slav. golu.]

caluw bald, Prov. Kmbl. 42. v. calu.

calwa, an; m. A disease which causes baldness, the mange; alopecia = GREEK, Cot. 12.

calwer, es; m. Pressed curds; calmaria? Gabalacrum? -- Calwer [MS. caluuær] calmaria? Glos. Epnl. Recd. 157, 21: gabalacrum? 157, 26. Calwer gabalacrum? Cot. 96. v. cealre.

calwer-bríw, cealer-bríw, es; m. A thick pottage made of curds; calviale, Wrt. Voc. 290, 37. v. bríw.

calwere, es; m? n? [calu bald] A bald place on the top of the head, a skull, place of skulls, place for burial; calva, calvaria, Som. Ben. Lye.

camal a camel. Lk. Lind. War. 18, 25. v. camel.

camb, es; m. [camb joined; p. of cimban]. I. a comb for cleaning hair, wool, flax, etc; pecten. Wrt. Voc. 86, v. barnuc-camb, fleðe-camb, wulfes camb. II. the crest of a cock, the crest or top of a helmet, etc; crista :-- Helmes camb the helmet's crest; crista, Ælfc. Gl. 53; Som. 66, 75; Wrt. Voc. 36, 2. Camb on hætte, vel on helme a crest on the hat or helmet; crista, Cot. 46. [Orm. camb: Scot. kaim: O. Sax. camb, m: Frs. kaem: Dut. Kil. kam, m: Ger. kamm, m: M. H. Ger. kamp, m; kambe, f: O. H. Ger. kamp, kampo, m: Dan. kam, m. f: Swed. kam, m; Icel. kambr, m: Sansk. jambha, m. tooth.]

camb, e; f. A comb, an assemblage of cells in which bees store their honey; favus :-- Hí yrnbþrungon me swá swá beón camba they surrounded me as bees [surround] the combs, Ps. Lamb. 117, 12.

cambiht [camb, iht]; adj. Combed, having a crest; cristatus. v. camb II.

camel, camell, camal, es; m. A camel; cămēlus = GREEK = HEBREW :-- Wæs Iohannes gegerelad mið hérum cameles [camelles, Lind.] erat Iohannes vestitus pilis cameli, Mk. Skt. Rush. 1, 6. Iohannes hæfde gewéde of hérum ðæra camella Iohannes habebat vestimentum de pilis camelorum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 3, 4. Se camal, Lk. Lind. War. 18, 25.

cammoc, cammuc, commuc, es; n. m? The cammoc, kex, an umbelliferous plant, brimstone wort, hog's fennel, cow weed, cow parsley. Kambuck is still a name of the kexes in Suffolk, Prior 36, 126; peucedănum officinale, = GREEK, n; GREEK, f. sulphur wort, hog's fennel :-- Ðás wyrte man peucedanum, and óðrum naman cammoc [cammuc MS. H.] nemneþ this wort is called peucedanum, and by another name cammoc, Herb. 96, 1; Lchdm. i. 208, 17. Wyrc gódne drenc, elenan iii snǽda, commuces viii make a good drink, three portions of elf dock, eight of cammoc, L. M. 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 324, 20.

camp, es; m. A bond, fetter, chain; compes :-- Hió bindan þenceaþ cyningas on campum ad alligandos reges eorum in compedibus, Ps. Th. 149, 8. v. cops.

CAMP, comp, es; m. A contest, war, battle; certamen, pugna, bellum :-- Ic ne gýme ðæs compes I care not for the contest, Exon. 105b; Th. 402, 26; Rä. 21, 35. Drihten tǽcþ handa míne to gefeohte, and fingras míne to slehte oððe to campe Dominus docet manus meas ad prælium, et digitos meos ad bellum, Ps. Lamb. 143, 1: Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 21: Judth. 11; Thw. 14, 21; Jud. 200: Beo. Th. 5003; B. 2505: Chr. 937; Th. 202, 2, col. 1, 2; Æðelst. 8: Andr. Kmbl. 2651; An. 1327. Mec gesette Crist to compe Christ has placed me in battle, Exon. 102b; Th. 389, 3; Rä. 7, 2: Andr. Kmbl. 468; An. 234. He ofercom campe feónda folcriht he overcame the liberty of enemies in battle, Cd. 143; Th. 178, 33; Exod. 21. [Laym. comp a conflict: Plat. kamp: O. Frs. kamp, komp, m: Dut. kamp, m. a battle: Ger. M. H. Ger. kampf, m. a fight: O. H. Ger. champh, m: Dan. kamp, m. f: Swed. kamp, m: Norw. Icel. kapp, n: Wel. camp, f.] DER. camp-dóm, -hád, -rǽden, -stede, -wǽpen, -wered, -weorud, -wíg, -wudu: comp-wǽpen, -weorod, -wíg.

camp-dóm, es; m. Warfare; militia, Scint. 29, 1. DER. camp.

camp-hád, es; m. Warfare; militia :-- Hí synd bigongende woruld-lícne camphád they are exercising worldly warfare, Bd. 5, 24; S. 647, 9. DER. camp.

campian, compian; p. ode; pp. od [camp war] To fight, contend against; militare, pugnare :-- Sceal oretta á Gode campian a champion shall ever fight for God, Exon. 37b; Th. 123, 1; Gú. 316: Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 12. Se deófle campaþ [compaþ, Ps. Lamb. fol. 183b, 18] he fights for the devil, Hy. 2, 5; Hy. Grn. ii. 281, 5. Ic longe Gode campode I have iong fought for God, Exon. 42a; Th. 140, 25; Gú. 615. He for his éðle mid his leódum UNCERTAIN compode he fought for his country with his men, Bd. 3, 9; S. 533, 17. [Scot, kemp: Dut. kampen: Ger. kämpfen: M. H. Ger. kempfen: O. H. Ger. chamfan, chemfan: Dan. kämpe: Swed. kämpa: UNCERTAIN Icel. keppa.] DER. wið-compian.

camp-rǽden, -rǽdenn, e; f. State or condition of contest, contest, war; certandi modus, certamen, pugna :-- Nó hyra þrym alæg camprǽdenne their vigour did not fail in the contest, Andr. Kmbl. 7; An. 4. DER. camp.

camp-stede, es; m. The place of battle, battle-field; locus pugnæ :-- On ðam campstede on the battle-field, Chr. 937; Th. 204, 2, col. 1; Æðelst. 29: 937; Th. 206, 1, col. 1; Æthelst. 49. Fór campstede [MS. campsted] sécan he went forth to seek the place of battle, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 28; Met. 26, 14. DER. camp.

camp-wǽpen a battle-weapon, military weapon. v. comp-wǽpen.

camp-weorud, es; n. Fighting-men, soldiers; militia, exercitus, Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 33. v. camp-wered.

camp-wered, -weorud, comp-weorod, es; n. [werod, es; n. an army] Warriors, soldiers, fighting-men, army; militia, exercitus :-- Hí sceoldan for heora campwered gebiddan and to Gode þinigian they should pray and make intercession to God for their warriors, Bd. 2, 2; S. 503, 39. Æðelhere mon slóh mid ealle his campweorude ðe he mid him brohte Ethelhere was slain with all the fighting-men whom he had brought with him, 3, 24; S. 556, 33. Ða árleásan cyningas ofslegene wǽron mid heora compweorode the wicked kings were slain with their army, 2, 5; S. 507, 40. DER. camp.

camp-wíg a battle. v. comp-wíg.

camp-wudu; gen. -wuda; m. War-wood, a shield; lignum pugnæ, clipeus :-- Ðonne rand dynede, campwudu clynede then rang the shield, the war-wood sounded, Elen. Kmbl. 101; El. 51. DER. camp.

can, cann, e; f. A knowledge, clearance. v. cann.

can, ic he I know, he knows :-- Ic oððe he can, Elen. Kmbl. 1363; El. 683: Ps. Th. 88, 13. He can he can, Bt. 39, 2; Fox 214, 10. v. cunnan.

Cananéisc; adj. Canaanitish; Chananæus :-- Cham ys fæder ðære Cananéiscre UNCERTAIN þeóde Ham is the father of the Canaanitish people, Gen. 9, 18.

canceler, es; m. A chancellor; cancellarius :-- Se cyng Willelm betǽhte Rodbeard his cancelere ðæt biscopríce on Lincolne the king William transferred the bishopric of Lincoln to Robert his chancellor, Chr. 1093; Ing. 306, 7.

cancer; gen. cancres; m? I. a cancer, an eating or spreading disease; cancer, morbus :-- Gif ðú wille cancer ablendan, genim ðonne fífleáfan ða wyrte: seóþ on wíne if thou desire to stop a cancer, then take the herb fiveleaf: boil it in wine, Herb. 3, 9; Lchdm. i. 88, 20. Ealne ðone bíte ðæs cancres heó afeormaþ it clears away all the pain [bite] of the cancer, 167, 3; Lchdm. i. 296, 22. Wið cancre, nim gáte geallan and hunig against cancer, take goat's gall and honey, L. M. 3, 36; Lchdm. ii. 328, 13: Herb. 32, 3; Lchdm. i. 130, 12, MS. O, note 24. Wið cancre for cancer, Med. ex Quadr. 6, 21; Lchdm. i. 354, 25. II. a crab; cancer, animal. v. cancer-hæbern.

cancer-ádl, e; f. A cancer-disease, a canker; cancer, carcinoma = GREEK :-- Wið cancerádle, ðæt is, bíte against cancer-disease, that is, a biting disease, L. M. 1, 44; Lchdm. ii. 108, 9.

cancer-hæbern, es; n. [cancer a crab, hæbern = hæb-ærn a place, dwelling-place] A crab-hole; caverna, cavernula D.

cancettan; part. cancettende; p. cancette; pp. cancetted To laugh aloud or in a cackling manner; cachinnare:-- Mæssepreóst ne sceal lufigean micelne and ungemetlícne cancettende hleahtor UNCERTAIN nor shall a mass-priest love great and immoderate cackling laughter, L. E. I. 21; Th. ii. 416, 36. v. ceahhetan.

cancetung, e; f. A laughing in a cackling manner; cachinnus, Cot. 58. v. ceahhetung.

CANDEL, candell, condel, condell, e; f: candel, es; n. A CANDLE; candela, lampas = GREEK :-- Hádre scíneþ ródores candel the sun [the candle of the firmament] serenely shines, Beo. Th. 3148; B. 1572. Candeles leóma the light of a candle; lampas, Ælfc. Gl. 67; Som. 69, 88; Wrt. Voc. 41, 41. Glád ofer grúndas Godes condel beorht God's bright candle glided over the grounds, Chr. 937; Th. 202, 16, col. 1; Æðtelst. 15: Exon. 51b; Th. 179, 20; Gú. 1264: 72a; Th. 269, 23; Jul. 454. Se sceal ðære sunnan síþ bihealdan, Godes condelle he shall observe the sun's course, God's candle, 57a; Th. 204, 2; Ph. 91. [Chauc. Laym. candel: Pers. ILLEGIBLE kandeel a candle: Fr. chandelle: Span. It. candela, from the Lat. candela, from candēre to shine.] DER. dæg-candel, friþ-, heofon-, mére-, swegel-, weder-, woruld-, wyn-: candel-bora, -leóht, -mæsse, -snytels, -stæf, -stieca, -treów, -twist, -weoc, -wyrt.

candel-bora, an; m. A CANDLE-BEARER, a subdeacon, a clerk; acolythus = GREEK, Cot. 203.

candell, e; f. A candle; candela, lampas. v. candel.

candel leóht, es; n. Candle-light; lucernæ lumen, C. R. Ben. 53. DER, candel.

Candel-mæsse, an; f. CANDLEMAS, the mass at the feast of purification which, in the Romish church, is celebrated with many lighted candles; festum purificationis beatæ Mariæ :-- Æt Candelmæssan at Candlemas, L. Eth. ix. 12; Th. i. 342, 32. Hér, A. D. 1014, Swegen ge-endode his dagas to Candelmæssan here, A. D. 1014, Sweyn ended his days at Candlemas, Chr. 1014; Th. 272, 25, col. 1. DER. candel.

candel-snytels, es; m? Candle-snuffers; emunctorium :-- Candel-snytels emunctorium, Ælfc. Gl. 30; Som. 61, 56. DER. candel.

candel-stæf, es; m. A candle-staff or stick; candelabrum :-- Ne hí ne ælaþ hyra leóhtfæt, and hit under cyfe settaþ, ac ofer candelstæf neque accendunt lucernam, et ponunt eam sub modio, sed super candelabrum, Mt. Bos. 5, 15.

candel-sticca, an; m. A CANDLESTICK; candelabrum, Chr. 1102; Th. 366, 20. DER. candel.

candel-treów, es; n. A candlestick with branches, a candlestick; candelabrum :-- Ne menn blǽcern in beornaþ and settaþ hine under mytte, ah on candeltreów neque accendunt lucernam et ponunt eam sub modio, sed super candelabrum, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 5, 15. DER. candel.

candel-twist, es; m. A pair of snuffers; emunctoria :-- Candel-twist emunctoria, Ælfc. Gl. 82; Som. 73, 50; Wrt. Voc. 47, 54. DER. candel.

candel-weoc, e; f. A wick of a candle, a torch; funale, funis :-- Candelweoca funalia vel funes, Ælfc. Gl. 67; Som. 69, 87; Wrt. Voc. 41, 40. DER. candel.

candel-wyrt, e; f. [candel a candle, wyrt a herb, plant] CANDLE-WORT, hedge-taper, mullein; lucernaria, phlomos = GREEK verbacum; thapsus, Lin. A plant useful for wicks 'of lamps :-- Candelwyrt phlomos [MS. fromos] vel lucernaria [MS. lucernaris]. Ælfc. Gl. 44; Som. 64, 90; Wrt. Voc. 32, 25.

cann know, knows; scio, scit, Ps. Th. 91, 5: 93, 11. v. cunnan.

cann, e; f. A knowledge, cognizance, averment or positive assertion, clearance; notitia, cognitio, assertio :-- Mynstres aldor hine cænne in preóstes canne let the chief of a monastery clear himself with a priest's cognizance, L. Wih. 17; Th. i. 40, 13. Mid rihtre canne by lawful averment, L. H. E. 16; Th. i. 34, 12. Ðanne is cirican canne riht then is the church clearance right, L. Wih. 21; Th. i. 42, 1. [Kil. konne, kunne: Ger. kunde, f.]

CANNE, an; f. A CAN, cup; crater :-- Canne crater vel canna, Ælfc. Gl. 24; Som. 60, 38; Wrt. Voc. 24, 38. [Wyc. cannes, pl: Plat. kanne: Dut. kan, f: Ger. M. H. Ger. kanne, f: O. H. Ger. channa, f: Dan. kande, m. f: Swed. Icel. kanna, f.]

CANON, es; m. A CANON, rule; regula, canon = GREEK :-- Se canon cwæþ the canon said, L. Ælf. P. 31; Th. ii. 376, 26. Se canon awriten is the canon is written, Bd. 5, 23; S. 648, 43. Ða canonas openlíce beódaþ the canons openly command, L. Ælf. P. 31; Th. ii. 376, 20. Canones bóc the book of the canon, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 13.

canon-dóm, es; m. A canonship, office of a canon; canonicatus. v. canon, -dóm office, state, condition.

canonec-líe; adj. Canonical; canonicus: -- Æfter canoneclícan ge-wunan UNCERTAIN according to canonical custom, Canon. Hrs. 359, 8.

canonic, es; m. A canon, prebendary; canonicus :-- Ðæt Godes þeówas, biscopas and abbodas, munecas and mynecena, canonicas and nunnan, to rihte gecyrran that God's servants, bishops and abbots, monks and mynchens, canons and nuns, turn to right, L. Eth. vi. 2; Th. i. 314, 17: vi. 4; Th. i. 316, 1: v. 7; Th. i. 306, 13.

canst knowest, canst, Andr. Kmbl. 135; An. 68: Maren 176; 2nd pers. sing, pres. of cunnan.

cantel-cap, es; m. CANTEL-COPE, a sort of priest's garment; caracalla, Chr. 1070; Ing. 274, 1.

cantere, es; m. A singer; cantor, Som. Ben. Lye.

cantic, es; m. A canticle, song; canticum :-- Hafaþ se cantic ofer ealle Cristes béc wídmǽrost word the canticle hath the greatest repute over all Christ's books, Salm. Kmbl. 99; Sal. 49. Ðæt ic sí gebrydded þurh ðæs cantices cwide that I may be touched through the word of the canticle, 33; Sal. 17. Moises wrát ðone cantic and lǽrde Israéla folc scripsit Moyses canticum et docuit filios Israel, Deut. 31, 22: 31, 19: Salm. Kmbl. 47; Sal. 24: Ps. Th. 143, 10.

Cantwara burg, Cantware-burg, Cantwar-burg, -burh; gen. burge; f; Cantwara byrig, e; f. [Cant-wara, gen. pl. of Cant-ware Kentish men, burh a city] A city or fortress of the men of Kent; Cantuariorum urbs vel castellum. I. CANTERBURY; Durovernensis civitas :-- Cantwara burg forbærn ðý geáre Canterbury was burnt in that year, Chr. 754; Th. 80, 35, col. 1. Brǽcon Cantwara burh they took Canterbury by storm, 853; Th. 120, 28, col. 3. Ða sealde Æðelbyrht him wununesse and stówe on Cantwara byrig, seó wæs ealles his ríces ealdorburh dedit ergo Ædilberctus eis mansionem in civitate Durovernensi [Canterbury] , quæ imperii sui totius erat metropolis, Bd. 1, 25; S. 487, 18: 4, 5; S. 572, 9. To Cantwarebyrig to Canterbury, Chr. 1009; Th. 260, 37. He wæs bebyrged innan Cantwarbyrig he was buried within Canterbury, 690; Th. 65, 23, col. 1: 754; Th. 81, 36. II. Rochester; Roffensis civitas, Roffa :-- Putta Cantwara burhge bisceop, seó is cweden æt Hrofesceastre Putta Episcopus castelli Cantuariorum, quod dicitur Rofecester, Bd. 4, 5; Whelc. 272, 35.

Cantwara mægþ, e; f. The county of Kent, men of Kent; Cantianorum provincia :-- On Cantwara mægþe in the county of Kent, Bd. pref; S. 471, 26.

Cant-ware; gen. a; dat. um; acc. e; pl. m. Kentish men, inhabitants of Kent; Cantuarii :-- Of Geáta fruman syndon Cantware and Wihtsǽtan de Jutarum origine sunt Cantuarii et Victuarii, Bd. l, 15; S. 483, 22. Cantwara cyningas kings of Kentish men, L. H. E; Th. i. 26, 4, 5: 34, 3: 36, 2. Agustinus nú on Brytene rest, on Cantwarum Augustine now rests in Britain, among the inhabitants of Kent, Menol. Fox 207; Men. 105.

capelein, capellan A chaplain; capellanus, Chr. 1099; Ing. 318, 14.

capian; he capaþ; p. ode; pp. od To turn, incline oneself; vertere, se inclinare :-- Capaþ he up he turns upwards, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 15, 3; Lchdm. iii. 266, 23.

capitol, capitul, es; m; capitula, an; m. A chapter; capitulum :-- Hér onginþ se forma capitul here begins the first chapter, L. Ecg. P. cont. i. 1; Th. ii. 170, 3: iii. 1; Th. ii. 194, 23. On ðam ende ðises capitulan in the end of this chapter, Bt. 32, 2; Fox 116, 33.

capitol-mæsse, an; f. Early or morning mass, first mass; prima vel matutinalis missa:-- We sungon capitol-mæssan cantavimus primam missam, Coll. Monast. Th. 33, 29.

cappa a cap, cope, priest's garment; capitulum :-- Heáfod-cláþ vel cappa capitulum vel eapitularium, Ælfc. Gl. 64; Som. 69, 15. v. cæppe.

CAPÚN, es; m. A CAPON; gallinaceus, cape = GREEK :-- Capún gallinaceus, Wrt. Voc. 63, 9: Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 48: Wrt. Voc. 30, 3. Capún capo, 39; Som. 63, 46; Wrt. Voc. 30, 1. [Plat, kappuun: Dut. kapoen, m: Kil. kappuyn, kaphoen: Ger. kapaun, m: M. H. Ger. kapún , m: Dan. Swed, kapun, m: O. Nrs. kapún, m. Rask Hald: from the Lat. capo: Grk. GREEK .]

cara care, Ælfc. Gl. 89; Som. 74, 96; Wrt. Voc. 51, 9. v. cearu.

carc CARK, care; cura, Som. Ben. Lye. v. carc-ern.

carc-ern, carc-ærn, es; n. [care care, or Lat. carcer a prison; ærn, ern a place] A prison, a house of correction; carcer, latomiæ :-- Alǽd of carcernes clúse míne sáwle educ de carcere animam meam, Ps. Th. 141, 8. Ðonne þincþ him ðæt he síe on carcerne gebroht then it seems to him that he is brought into prison, Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 15. Ic wæs on cearcerne [MS. Cot. carcærne] eram in carcere, Past. 44, 7: Hat. MS. 62b, 22. To ðam carcerne to the prison, Andr. Kmbl. 179; An. 90: Exon. 8a; Th. 2, 27; Cri. 25: Cd. 227; Th. 304, 28; Sat. 637: Cot. 124: 191.

car-clife, an; f. Agrimony; agrimonia, Wrt. Voc. 79, 62. v. gar-clife.

care care, Ps. Th. 143, 18; acc. of caru. v. cearu.

care-líce; adv. Sorrowfully, miserably, wretchedly; misere :-- M UNCERTAIN deorc earfoðe carelíce cnyssedan dark troubles wretchedly weakened me, Ps. Th. 85, 6.

Carendre, an; f, A province of Germany, now the duchy of Carinthia or Kärnthen, a crown land of the Austrian empire :-- On óðre healfe Donua ðære eá is ðæt land Carendre, súþ óþ ða beorgas ðe man hǽt Alpis on the other side of the river Danube is the country Carinthia, [lying] south to the mountains which are called the Alps, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 43. Be eástan Carendran is Pulgara land to the east of Carinthia is the country of the Bulgarians, 1, 1; Bos. 19, 1.

car-ful; adj. CAREFUL, anxious, curious; sollicitus, curiosus :-- Drihten carful oððe ymhydig is mínes Dominus sollicitus est mei, Ps. Lamb. 39, 18. Carful curiosus, Ælfc. Gl. 89; Som. 74, 112; Wrt. Voc. 51, 25. v. cear-ful.

carful-líce; adv. CAREFULLY, diligently; sollicite, diligenter :-- Se sacerd sceal dón carfullíce Godes þénunga the priest shall carefully do God's services, L. Ælf. C. 36; Th. ii. 360, 25. Twá þing sind ðe we sceolon carfullíce scrutnian there are two things that we should diligently attend to, Homl. Th. ii. 82, 25.

carful-nys, -nyss, e; f. CAREFULNESS, curiosity; sollicitudo, curiositas :-- Godes cwydas sind to smeágenne mid micelre carfulnysse the words of God are to be considered with great carefulness, Homl. Th. ii. 280, 18: Lchdm. iii. 210, 5.

carian; p. ode; pp. od To take care, regard, heed, to be anxious; curare, sollicituin esse :-- Ðæt abbodas nǽfre idele wlænca carian that abbots should never regard vain pomps, L. I. P. 13; Wilk. 150, 25. Se morgenlíca dæg caraþ ymb hyne sylfne crastinus dies sollicitus erit sibi ipsi, Mt. Bos. 6, 34: Homl. Th. i. 66, 9. Carian to take heed, care, L. I. P. 14; Th. ii. 322, 5. Ða cariaþ mid wacelum móde they care with watchful mind, Homl. Th. ii. 78, 2. v. cearian.

carited charity; caritas :-- Heóld mycel carited in ðe hús held much charity in the house, Chr. 1137; Erl. 263, 6.

carl, es; m. [= ceorl a churl] A churl, rustic; rusticus, colonus :-- Carles wǽn the churl's wain or waggon, Æqu. Vern. 30, 5; Wrt. popl. science 16, 5; Lchdm. iii. 270, 11. 12; Boutr. Scrd. 29, 31. v. caries wǽn.

carl; adj. Male, masculine; masculus. Used in compounds, as carl-cat, -fugel, -man.

carl-cat, es; m. A male or he cat; masculus cattus. Som. Ben. Lye.

car-leás; adj. [caru care, leás less] CARELESS, reckless, void of care, free; improvidus, securus :-- Wulfas sungon, carleásan deór wolves howled, reckless beasts, Cd. 151; Th. 188, 10; Exod. 166. He on ðam dóme freoh and carleás biþ injudicio liber erit, R. Ben. 2.

carleás-nes, -ness, e; f. Freedom from care, security, CARELESSNESS; securitas, Ælfc. Gl. 89; Som. 74, 113; Wrt. Voc. 51, 26. v. car-leás.

car-least, e; f. Freedom from care, security, carelessness; securitas :-- Ring on swefoum UNCERTAIN underfón carleáste getácnaþ to receive a ring in dreams betokens freedom from care, Lchdm. iii. 198, 21, 29: 210, 5.

carles wǽn [gen. of carl] the churl's wain, the constellation of the Great Bear; Ursa Major :-- Carles wǽn ne gǽþ nǽfre adúne under ðyssere eorþan, swá swá óðre tunglan dóþ the churl's wain never goes down under this earth, as other constellations do, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 16, 5; Lchdm. iii. 27o, 11, 12. v. arctos.

carl-fugel, es; m. A male or cock bird; mas avis, Som. Ben. Lye.

carl-man, -mann, es; m. A male, man; masculus, homo :-- Ðá námen hí carlmen and wimmen then took they men and women, Chr. 1137; Ing. 366, 7.

CARR, es; m. I. a stone, rock, SCAR; petrus = GREEK, petra = GREEK :-- Ðæt is getrahtad carr quod interpretatur petrus, Jn. Lind. War. l, 42. Ðæt wæs geheáwen of carre oððe stáne quod erat excisum de petra, Mk. Skt. Lind. 15, 46. Se ðe gesette da grúndas ofer carr oððe stán qui posuit fundamenta supra petram, Lk. Lind. War. 6, 48: Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 7, 24. II. Charmoulh, in Dorsetshire, at the mouth of the river Carr, = the Norman Charr, or Charmouth; in agri Dorsætensis parte maritima, post c literam addito h, ad morem Norman-norum , Gib :-- Æðelwulf cyning gefeaht æt Carrum wið xxxv sciphlæsta king Æthelwulf fought at Charmoulh against the crews of thirty-five ships, Chr. 840; Th. 120, 3, col. 1, 2, 3; 121, 3, col. 1, 2, 3: 833; Th. 116, 4, col. l, 2, 3; 117, 4, col. 1, 2, 3. [North Eng. carrock:. Scot. cairn: Wel. carn: Corn. carn, m: Ir. carn: Gael, carr, m: Manx carn, m.]

Carrum the place of a naval engagement, near Charmouth, Dorsetshire, Chr. 840; Erl. 67, 12. v. Carr II.

Cartaina; indecl: Cartaine, an; f. Carthage; Carthago :-- Cartaina toworpen wæs Carthage was overthrown, Ors. 5, 2; Bos. 101, 18. Scipia hæfde gefaren to ðære niwan byrig Cartaina Scipio had gone to the new city Carthage, 4, 10; Bos. 93, 41: 4, 13; Bos. 99, 27. Ðæt mon ealle Cartaina towurpe that one would overthrow all Carthage, 4, 13; Bos. 99, 25. He þohte Cartainan toweorpan he wished to overthrow Carthage, 4, 13; Bos. 100, 3.

Cartaine; nom. acc; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The Carthaginians; Carthaginienses :-- Wilnedon Cartaine friðes to Rórnánum the Carthaginians sued for peace to the Romans, Ors. 4, 6; Bos. 87, 12. Terrentius, se mǽra Cartaina sceóp, bær hætt on his heáfde Terence, the great poet of the Carthaginians, wore a hat on his head, 4, 10; Bos. 96, 18 : 4, 11; Bos. 97, 11: 4, 13; Bos. 99, 24. Wearþ Cartainum friþ alýfed fram Scipian peace was granted to the Carthaginians by Scipio, 4, 10; Bos. 96, 11: 4, 6; Bos. 86, 32. Rómáne wunnon on Cartaine the Romans fought against the Carthaginians, 4, 7; Bos. 87, 37: 4, 6; Bos. 86, 37.

carte, an; f. [Lat. charta] Paper, a piece of paper, a deed; charta = GREEK :-- Híg hym tosendon áne cartan, seó wæs ðus awriten [MS. awryten] they sent a paper to him, which was thus inscribed, Nicod. 20; Thw. 10, 5. Alecge ða sealfe on hátne cláþ oððe cartan lay the salve on a hot cloth or on paper, L. M. 2, 19; Lchdm, ii. 202, 10. Cartan wrítan [MS. wirtan] oððe rǽdan to write or read a paper, Lchdm. iii. 200, 35.

caru care, sorrow, grief, Lk. Bos. 10, 40: Ps. Th. 60, 1: 78, 11. v. cearu.

cáser-dóm, es; m. An emperor's rule; imperium :-- Ðá wæs syxte geár Constantínes cáserdómes then was the sixth year of Constantine's imperial rule, Elen. Kmbl. 16; El. 8.

Cásere, es; m. [= Lat. Cæsar; gen. Cæsiăris] Cæsar, an emperor; imperator :-- Wearþ Gaius Gallica cásere Caius Caligula was emperor, Ors. 6, 3; Bos. 117, 18: Elen. Kmbl. 84; El. 42: 1995; El. 999. For þingum ðæs ǽrran cáseres for the deeds of the former emperor, Ors. 6, 4; Bos. 118, 15: Exon. 65a; Th. 240, 6; Ph. 634: Elen. Kmbl. 524; El. 262: 1098; El. 551: 1335; El. 669. Ðæs [MS, ðes] cáseres cwén the woman or wife of the emperor; imperatrix vel augusta, Wrt. Voc. 72, 58. Cáseres wíf the emperor's wife; imperatrix vel augusta, Ælfc. Gl. 68; Som. 70, 1; Wrt. Voc. 42, 10. Aulixes under hæfde UNCERTAIN ðæm cásere cynerícu UNCERTAIN twá Ulysses had two kingdoms under the emperor, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 11; Met. 26, 6. Ðá gesettan Rómáne twegen cáseras then the Romans appointed two emperors, Ors. 6, 24; Bos. 124, 18. Hí hæfdon Cæsares ofer híg, ðæt we cweðaþ cáseras, ða beóþ cyninga yldest they had Cæsares over them, that we call emperors, who are the greatest of kings, Jud. Thw. 161, 29. DER. heáh-cásere.

cásering, e; f. A cæsaring, a coin with an emperor's image, a coin; drachma = GREEK, didrachma :-- Gif wíf losaþ cásering si mulier perdiderit drachmam. Lk. Lind. Rush. War. 15, 8. Ne unband cásering non solvit didrachma, Mt. Lind. Stv. 17, 23.

cáser-líc; adj. Cæsar-like, imperial; imperialis, Cot. 115.

Cásern, e; f. [Cásere + en, f. termin. Cáseren, Cásern] An empress; augusta :-- Æfter ðam ðe Róme burh getimbred wæs Dccc wintra and LXVII, féng Adriánus to Rómána ánwealde. He [Cásere] wearþ Rómánum swá leóf, and swá weorþ, ðæt hí hine nánuht ne héton búton fæder; and, him to weorþscype, hí héton his wíf, cásern [cásere + en, the f. termin.] eight hundred and sixty-seven years after the building of Rome, Hadrian succeeded to the government of the Romans. He became so dear to the Romans, and so honoured, that they never called him anything but father; and, in honour of him, they called his wife, empress, Ors. 6, 11; Bos. 121, 5-15.

cassoc hassock, hassock-grass, Lchdm. iii. 24, 3. v. cassuc.

cassuc, cassoc, e; f. Hassock, hassock-grass, rushes, sedge or coarse grass; aira cæspitosa ILLEGIBLE carex paniculata, Lin :-- Dó him ðis to lǽcedóme: eoforþrote, cassuc, etc. give him for this a leechdom: everthroat, hassock, etc. L. M. 3, 63; Lchdm. ii. 350, 23: 1, 63; Lchdm. ii. 136, 30: 3, 67; Lchdm. ii. 354, 24. To háligre sealfe sceal cassoc hassock shall be for a holy salve, Lchdm. iii. 24, 3. Dó in gléde finol and cassuc and récels: bærn eal tosomne put fennel and hassock and incense upon a fire: burn all together, iii. 56, 5: L. M. 1, 62; Lchdm. ii. 134, 30: 3, 62; Lchdm. ii. 350, 6: 3, 64; Lchdm. ii. 353, 13. Weorc Cristes [MS. Criste] mǽl of cassuce fífo make five crosses of hassock-grass, Lchdm. iii. 56, 8.

cassuc-leáf; pl. n. Hassock-leaves :-- Wið eárum [earon MS.] genim ða brádan biscopwyrt and cassucleáf for the ears take the broad bishop-wort and hassock-leaves, Lchdm iii. 46, 2.

CASTEL, castell, es; n. m. A town, village, CASTLE; villa, oppidum, castellum :-- Faraþ on ðæt castel [to ðam castelle, Hat. in ðas cæstre, Rush.], ðæt fóran ongeán eów ys ite in castellum, quod contra vos est, Mt. Bos. 21, 2. He ðá lǽrende ða castel beférde et circuibat castella in circuitu docens, Mk. Bos. 6, 6. His wíf wæs innan ðam castele uxor sua fuit in castello, Chr. 1075; Gib. 183, 3: 1053; Erl. 187, 9. Ða castelas gewunnan castella expugnarunt, 1069; Gib. 174, 28. [Lat. castellum, dim. of castrum a camp, fortified place; akin to casa a hut, and caveo to guard, protect.] DER. castel-men, -weorc.

castel-men; gen. -manna; pl. m. Castle-men; castellani :-- Ða castelmen ðe wǽron on Engla lande him togeánes cómon [MS. comen] the castle-men who were in England came against him, Chr. 1075; Erl. 213, 18.

castel-weorc, es; n. Castle-work; castellorum opus :-- Hí suencten ðe men of ðe land mid castelweorces [for castelweorcum] they oppressed the men of the land with castle-works [castellis ædificandis], Chr. 1137; Th. 382, 20.

casul, e; f? A cassock, short cloak; birrhus, casŭla, lacerna, sacrum pallium [Ger. kasel; f.], Som. Ben. Lye.

cásus; gen. cásūs; m. [Lat, cāsus, from cădo to fall; as the Grk. GREEK, a fall, case, from GREEK I to fall] A case, falling or change to denote the relation of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns to other words in a sentence: -- Mid ðam casu with the case, Ælfc. Gr. 7; Som. 6, 16, 17, 20, 22, 25, 28. Ðás six cásus these six cases, Som. 6, 32. Cásus, ðæt is fyll oððe gebígedniss a case, that is, a declining or inflection, Ælfc. Gr. 14; Som. 17, 23. Ða pronomina, ðe habbaþ vocativum, ðá habbaþ six casus the pronouns which have a vocative, then have six cases, Ælfc. Gr. 18; Som. 20, 54. v. ge-bígednys.

CAT, catt, es; m. A CAT; cătus, murĭceps :-- Cat cattus vel murilĕgus aut murĭceps, Wrt. Voc. 78, 20. Catt murĭceps vel musio, murilĕgus, Ælfc. Gl. 21; Som. 59, 71; Wrt. Voc. 23, 30. [Piers P. Chauc. cat: Plat. katte, f: O. Frs. katte, f: Dut. kat, f: Kil. katte: Ger. M. S. Ger. kater, m; katze, f: O. H. Ger. kazza, f; Dan. kat, m. f: Swed. katt, m: Icel. köttr, m; Fr. chat, m: Span. gato, m: Ital. gatto, m: Lat. cătus, m: Grk. GREEK, f: Wel. cáth: Corn. cath, f: Ir. cat: Gael. cat, cait, m: Manx cayt: Armor. kaz, m.]

cattes mint, e; f. Cat's mint, cat-mint; felina mentha. nepeta cataria, Lin. Som. Ben. Lye.

caul a basket, Cot. 45: 196. v. cawl.

CAWEL, cawl, caul, es; m. COLE, colewort, cabbage; caulis, magudăris = GREEK, brassica, Lin :-- Caul caula [= caulis] vel magudaris, Wrt. Voc. 79, 44. Befeald on caules [cawles MS. H.] leáf fold it in the leaf of a cabbage, Herb. 14, 2; Lchdm. i. 106, 17. L. M. 1, 46; Lchdm. ii. 114, 22: 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 214, 23. Sele him etan geso-denne UNCERTAIN cawel on gódum broþe give him colewort to eat sodden in good broth, L. M. 3, 12; Lchdm. ii. 314, 15: 3, 44; Lchdm. ii. 336, 18. Wild cawel wild cole; brassica silvatica, Herb. 130, 1; Lchdm. i. 240, 17. Se bráda cawel the broad colewort, cabbage, L. M. 1, 33; Lchdm. ii. 80, 9. [Scot. kail, kalc: Frs. koal, kool: Dut. kool, f: Ger. kohl, m: M. H. Ger. köle, kol, m: O. H. Ger. kól: Dan. kaal, m. f: Swed. kál, m: Icel. kál, n: Fr. chou, m: Span. col, m: Ital. cavolo, m: Lat. caulis, m: Grk. GREEK, m: Wel. cawl: Corn, caul, m: Ir. cál: Gael. cál; m: Manx kail, f: Armor. kaol, m.]

cawel-leáf, es; n. A cabbage-leaf; brassicæ folium :-- Nim cawel-leáf take cabbage-leaves, Lchdm. iii. 40, 24.

cawel-sǽd, es; n. Cabbage-seed; brassicæ semen :-- Nim cawel-sǽd take cabbage-seed, Lchdm. iii. 72, 5.

cawel-stela, an; m. [stela a stalk] A cabbage-stem; brassicæ caudex :-- Nim cawelstelan take a cabbage-stem, Lchdm. iii. 102, 7.

cawel-wyrm, -wurm, es; m. A cabbage-worm, caterpillar; curculio, eruca :-- Cawelwurrn gurgulu [= curculio], Ælfc. Gl. 23; Som. 59, 127; Wrt. Voc. 24, 2.

cawl, caul, ceawl, ceaul, es; m. A basket; sporta, corbis, cophĭnus = GREEK :-- Cawl sporta, Ælfc. Gl. 50; Som. 65, 118; Wrt. Voc. 34, 47. Hý heora cawlas afylled hæfdon they had filled their baskets, Ors. 4, 8: Bos. 90, 34. Caul corbis, Cot. 45: 196. Ceawlas cophinos, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 14, 20. Ceaulas cophinos, Mk. Skt. Lind. 6, 43.

ceác, es; m. A pitcher, jug, basin, laver; urceus, caucus = GREEK, luter = GREEK :-- Ceác urceus, Wrt. Voc. 85, 67: Ælfc. Gl. 26; Som. 60, 80; Wrt. Voc. 25, 20. Calica fyrmþa and ceáca baptismata calicum et urceorum, Mk. Bos. 7, 4, 8. Ðæt he hét ðǽr ǽrene ceácas onhón ut ibi æreos caucos suspendi juberet, Bd. 2, 16; S. 520, 6. Befóran ðæm temple stód ǽren ceác, onuppan twelf ǽrenum oxum. . . Se ceác wæs swá micel ðæt he oferhelede ða oxan ealle, búton ða heáfudu totodon út a brazen laver stood before the temple, upon twelve brazen oxen. . . The laver was so large that it covered the oxen entirely, save that the heads projected out, Past. 16, 5; Hat. MS. 21b, 3, 4. On ðæm ceáce in the laver, 16, 5; Cot. MS.

ceác-bán, es; n. The cheek-bone, jaw; mandibula :-- Ceác-bán vel ceácan vel cin-ban mandibula, Ælfc. Gl. 71; Som. 70, 81; Wrt. Voc. 43, 14. v. ceáce.

ceác-bora, an; m. A jug or pitcher-bearer; anhilus ? Cot. 13; anthe-vilus? UNCERTAIN Wrt. Voc. 285, 14.

ceace a trial, proof; explpratio, tentamentum, experientia, N. Som. Ben. Lye.

CEÁCE, an; f. The jaw, CHEEK; maxilla, mala, mandibula, gena :-- Ðæt tácen ðære bærnesse he on his ceácan bær signum incendii in maxilla portavit, Bd. 3, 19; S. 549, 16. He gehrán his ceácan contigit maxillam ejus, 3, 19; S. 549, 1. Ceácan malæ;, maxillæ, Wrt. Voc. 282, 58, 59. On hælftre and bridle ceácan heora gewríþ in camo et freno maxillas eorum constringe, Ps. Lamb. 31, 9. Ceácan mandibulæ, Wrt. Voc. 64, 46. Ceác-bán vel ceácan vel cin-bán mandibula, Ælfc. Gl. 71; Som. 70, 81; Wrt. Voc. 43, 14. Ðæt biþ gód sealf wið ðara ceácna [= ceácena] geswelle that is a good salve for swelling of the cheeks, L. M. 1, 5; Lchdm. ii. 48, 11. [Wye. cheek-boon the jaw: Piers P. R. Brun. cheke: Chauc. cheeke, cheke: Plat. käkel: O. Frs. keke, tziake, f: Dut. kaak, f; Kil. kaecke: Swed. kek, m: Icel. kjálki, m.]

ceác ful; adj. A pitcher full, jug full :-- Brohte Romanus ceác fulne wæteres Romanus brought a jug full of water, Homl. Th. i. 438, 1. Gedó on ceác fulne wínes put [it] into a jug full of wine, L. M. 1. 2; Lchdm. ii. 30, 23.

CEAF, cef, es; pl. nom. acc. ceafu; n. CHAFF; palea :-- Ceaf palea, Ælfc. Gl. 59; Som. 68, 1; Wrt. Voc. 38, 52. Ðæt ceaf he forbærnþ on unacwencedlícum fýre paleas comburet igni inextinguibili, Lk. Bos. 3, 17. Ða ceafu he forbærnþ on unadwæscendlícum fýre paleas comburet igni inextinguibili, Mt. Bos. 3, 12. Ðæt folc wæs todrifen ofer eall Egipta and cef to gadrienne dispersus est populus per omnem terram Ægypti ad colligendas paleas, Ex. 5, 7, 10, 12, 16, 18. [R. Brun. Chauc. Laym. chaf: Orm. chaff: Plat. kaff: Dut. kaf, n: Ger. kaff, n : M. H. Ger. kaf, n.]

CEAFER, ceafor, es; m. A beetle, CHAFER; brūchus = GREEK :-- Ceafor bruchus, Ælfc. Gl. 23; Som. 59, 118; Wrt. Voc. 23, 72: 77, 50: 281, 45. He cwæþ and com gærshoppa, and ceaferas ðæs næs gerín UNCERTAIN oððe getel dixit et venit locusta, et bruchus cujus non erat numerus, Ps. Lamb. 104, 34. [O. Sax. Dut. kever, m: Ger. käfer, m: M. H. Ger. këvere, m: O. H. Ger. këvar, këvaro, m.]

ceafer-tún a hall; atrium, v. cáfer-tún.

ceafes a harlot; pellex, concubina, L. C. S. 55; Th. i. 406, 16, note 26A. v. cyfes.

CEAFL, es; m. A bill, beak, snout, jaw, cheek; rostrum, rictus, fauces, maxilla :-- Se wída ceafl gefvlled biþ the wide jaw is filled, Exon. 97b; Th. 363, 26; Wal. 59: Andr. Kmbl. 3403; An. 1705. Blódigum ceaflum with bloody jaws, 318; An. 159: Exon. 26a; Th. 77, 5; Cri. 1252. Dauid gewylde ðone wildan beran, and his ceaflas totær David subdued the wild bear, and tore apart his jaws, Ælfc. T. 13, 26: 14, 2. [Wye. chaul: Laym. cheuel, chæfl, choul: O. Sax. kaflðs, pl. m: Dut. kevels, pl. f: Ger. kiefcl, kifel, kiffel, m.] DER. helle ceafl.

ceahhetan; p. te; pp. ed To laugh loud or in a cackling manner; cachinnare :-- Ceahhetton they laughed in a cackling manner, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 34 [= ceachetan: Dut. kakelen: Kil. gachelen: Ger. M. H. Ger. kachen: O. H. Ger. kachazzen, chahhazen: Lat. cachinnare: Grk. GREEK : Sansk. kakh to laugh]. v. cancettan.

ceahhetung, e; f. A loud or cackling laughter; cachinnus, cachinnatio :-- Ðá gehýrde ic mycel gehlýd and ceahhetung, swá swá ungelǽredes folces then heard I a great noise and a cackling laughter, as of rude folk, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 30. Ceahhetung vel cincung cachinnatio, Ælfc. Gl. 88; Som. 74, 86.

CEALC, es; m. Plaster, cement, CHALK; calx arenata, calx :-- Iuuinianus wæs sume niht on ánum niwcilctan húse: ðá hét he bétan ðǽr-inne mycel fýr, forðon hit wæs ceald weder. Ðá ongan se cealc mid unge-mete UNCERTAIN stincan, ðá wearþ Iuuinianus mid ðam brǽþe ofsmorod Jovian was one night in a newly-plastered house: then he ordered a great fire to be lighted therein, because it was cold weather. Then the plaster began to fume excessively, and Jovian was smothered with the vapour, Ors. 6, 32; Bos. 129, 9-12. [Dut. kalk, f; Kil. kalck: Ger. kalk, kalch, m: M. H. Ger. kalc, m: O. H. Ger. calc, chalch: Dan. kalk, m. f: Swed. Norw. kalk, m: Icel. kalk, n: Lat. calx, m. and f: Grk. GREEK m. and f: Wel. Corn. calch, m: Ir. calc: Gael. cailc, f: Manx kelk, m.] DER. niw-cilct.

Cealca ceaster; gen. ceastre; f. The chalk city. Camden thinks it is Tadcaster, in Yorkshire; idem, ut opinatur clarus Camdenus, quod hodie Tadcaster in agro Eboracensi, sic olim vocatum a ealce ibidem copiose effossa, Som. Ben. Lye.

Cealc-hýþ, e; f. The name of a place, Challock, Chalk, in Kent :-- Hér wæs geflítfullíc sinoþ æt Cealc-hýþe here [in A. D. 785] there was a contentious synod at Chalk, Chr. 785; Erl. 57, 13.

cealc-stán, es; m. Chalk-stone, chalk; calculus, Ælfc. Gl. 25; Wrt. Voc. 85, 25. v. mealm-stán 2.

CEALD, cald; comp. ra; sup. ost; adj. [ceald = cald, q. v.] Cool, COLD; frigidus, gelidus :-- Hú ðone cealdan magan ungelíclíce mettas lyste how various meats please the cool stomach, L. M. cont. 2, 16; Lchdm. ii. 160, 7. Forst se biþ fyrnum ceald frost which is intensely cold, Cd. 38; Th. 50, 16; Gen. 809. Ðú ðæm wætere wǽtum and cealdum foldan fæste gesettest thow firmly settest the earth to the water wet and cold, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 180; Met. 20, 90: 20, 152; Met. 20, 76. Wedera cealdost the coldest of tempests, Beo. Th. 1097; B. 546. [Laym, cald: Plat. koold, kold, kolt: O. Sax. O. Frs. kald: Dut. koud: Kil. koud, kaud: Ger. M. H. Ger. kalt: O. H. Ger. chalt, kalt: Goth. kalds, m; kald, n: Dan. kold: Swed. kall: Icel. kaldr: Lat. gelidus: Lith. száltas: Lett. salts: Sansk. jala.] DER. æl-ceald, brim-, eal-, hrím-, ís-, morgen-, ofer-, sin-, snáw-, wæl-, winter-. v. calan.

ceald, cald, es; n. Cold, coldness; frigus :-- Somod hát and ceald heat also and cold, Cd. 192; Th. 239, 29; Dan. 377: Cd. 216; Th. 273, 5; Sat. 132. Hátes and cealdes of heat and of cold, Exon. 117b; Th. 451, 20; Dóm. 106. Hý beóþ cealde geclnngene they are shrivelled with cold, Salm. Kmbl. 609; Sal. 304. Calde geþrungen wǽron míne fét my feet were pierced with cold, Exon. 81b; Th. 306, 16; Seef. 8. v. calan.

cealdian; p. ode; pp. od; v. intrans. To become cold; frigescere :-- Eorþmægen ealdaþ, ellen cealdaþ [MS. cólaþ] earthly power grows old, courage becomes cold, Exon. 95a; Th. 354, 62; Reim. 69, Grn. Gl. DER. a-cealdian. v. calan.

cealer-bríw, es; m. A thick pottage made of curds; calviale, Gl. Lchdm. ii. 375, 18. v. calwer-bríw.

CEALF, celf, calf, es; pl. cealfru, calfru; n. m. A CALF; vitulus, vitula :-- He genam án fætt cealf tulit vitulum tenerrimum, Gen. 18, 7. He ofslóh án fæt celf occidit vitulum saginatum, Lk. Foxe 15, 27. Ne onfó ic ná of eówrum húse cealfas non accipiam de domo tua vitulos, Ps. Th. 49, 10. Ðæt hálige cealf the holy calf, Ps. C. 50, 137; Ps. Grn. ii. 280, 137. Me ymbhringdon mænige calfru circumdederunt me vituli multi, Ps. Th. 21, 10. Ic ne on-foo of húse ðínum UNCERTAIN calferu non accipiam de domo tua vitulos, Ps. Surt. 49, 9. On-settaþ ofer wi-bed ðín UNCERTAIN calfer acc. pl. imponent super altare tuum vitulos, 50, 21. [Orm. callf: Plat. kalf, kalv, n: O. Sax. calf, n: Dut. kalf, n: Ger. kalb, n: M. H. Ger. kalp, n: O. H. Ger. kalb, n: Goth. kalbo, f. a young cow, heifer: Dan. kalv, m. f: Swed. kalf, m: Icel. kálfr, m.]

cealf-ádl, e; f. [ádl a disease, pain] A calf-disease, a sort of disease; morbi genus, L. M. 35, Lye.

cealfa hús, es; n. A house for [of] calves; vitularius, Ælfc. Gl. 1; Som. 55, 24; Wrt. Voc. 15, 24.

cealfian; UNCERTAIN p. ode; pp. od To calve; vitulum parere. v. cealf.

ceallian; p. ode; pp. od [calla a caller, herald] To CALL, cry out, shout; clamare :-- Ongan [MS. ongean] ceallian ofer cald wæter Byrhthelmes bearn the son of Byrhthelm began to shout across the cold river, Byrht. Th. 134, 28; By. 91. [Chauc. R. Brun. calle: Piers P. callede, p: O. Frs. kaltia, kella: Dut. Kil. Ger. M. H. Ger. kallen: O. H. Ger. challón: Dan. kalde: Swed. Norw. Icel. kalla: Lat. calare: Grk. GREEK .] DER. hilde calla.

cealre, calwer, es; m. Pressed curds, a jelly made of curds or sour milk; calmaria, gabalacrum? -- Cealre [MS. cealfre] calmaria, Wrt. Voc. 290, 33. Nim súr molcen, wyrc to cealre, and beþ mid ðý cealre take sour curds, work them to a jelly, and foment with the jelly, L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 98, 25, 26. Súr meolc wyrce cealre, and beðe mid cealre work sour milk into jelly, and foment with the jelly, Lchdm. iii. 42, 26. Gewirc niwne cealre make new jelly, L. M. 1, 44; Lchdm. ii. 108, 13. Nim ða wyrta and wyrce togadere swá micel swá cealras [MS. celras] take the herbs and wort them together as thick as curds, Lchdm. iii. 118, 14. Calwer gabalacrum, Cot. 96. DER. cealer-bríw.

ceaol a basket; cophinus, Lk. Lind. War. 9, 17. v. cawl.

CEÁP, es; m. I. cattle; pecus :-- Ðǽm landbúendum is beboden ðæt ealles ðæs ðe him on heora ceápe geweaxe, híg Gode ðone teóðan dǽl agyfen to farmers it is commanded, that of all which increases to them of their cattle, they give the tenth part to God, L. E. 1, UNCERTAIN 35; Th. ii. 432, 29. Ceápas cattle, Cd. 83; Th. 105, 2; Gen. 1747. His neáhgebúres ceáp his neighbour's cattle, L. In. 40; Th. i. 126, 15. Ceápes cwild murrain of cattle, Chr. 897; Erl. 94, 31. II. as cattle were the chief objects of sale, hence, -- Saleable commodities, price, sale, bargain, business, market; pretium, negotium, pactio, venditio, forum :-- Ceápas saleable commodities, goods, Cd. 85; Th. 106, 16; Gen. 1772: 90; Th. 112, 28; Gen. 1877. Deópum ceápe gebohte redeemed us at a great [deep] price, L. C. E. 18; Th. i. 370, 28. Sume wǽron to ceápe gesealde some were sold at a price, Nathan. 8: Gen. 41, 56. Awyrigende ceáp [MS. cep] malignum negotium, Lchdm. iii. 206, 32. Ic gange to ceápe I go to market; veneo, Ælfc. Gr. 32; Som. 36, 23. [Laym. cheap, chep value, purchase: Plat. koop, m: O. Sax. kop, m. purchase, money; O. Frs. káp, m. purchase, sale: Dut. koop, m. bargain: Ger. kauf, m: M. H. Ger. kouf, m. purchase: O. H. Ger. chouf, kouf, m. negotium: Dan. kjöb, n: Swed, köp, n. purchase: Icel. kaup, n. bargain.] DER. land-ceáp, orleg-, searo-.

ceáp-cniht, es; m. A hired servant, a slave; emptitius, Cot. 72.

ceáp-dæg; gen. -dæges; pl. nom. acc. -dagas; m. A bargaining or market-day :-- Ceáp-dagas the Nones or stated times when the common people came to market; nonæe, Ælfc. Gl. 96; Som. 76, 27; Wrt. Voc. 53, 36: Cot 142.

ceáp-eádig; adj. Rich in goods, rich in cattle :-- Nefne him hafaþ ceápeádig mon unless a man rich in cattle retains him, Exon. 90b; Th. 340, 8; Gn. Ex. 108.

ceáp-ealeðel, -ealoþ, es; n. The ale-selling place, an ale-house; taberna, popina, cervisiarium :-- Ne sceolon mæsse-preóstas æt ceáp-ealeðelum ne etan ne drincan mass-priests should not eat nor drink at ale-houses, L. E. I. 13; Th. ii. 410, 18.

ceáp-gyld, es; n. I. bargain money; justum rei venditæ pretium :-- Þolige ðæs ceápgyld perdat pretium emptionis, L. Ath. i. 24; Wilk. 61, 25; Th. i. 212, 16, note 33. II. price or market-price of what is stolen; rei furto ablate pretium :-- Gilde man ðam teónde his ceápgyld let a man pay to the accuser the market-price [pretium], L. C. S. 25; Th. i. 390, 23.

ceápian; p. ode; pp. od [ceáp II] To bargain, chaffer, trade, to contract for the purchase or sale of a thing, to buy, to bribe; negotiari, emere, comparāre :-- Ceápiaþ óþ-ðæt ic cume negotiamini dum venio, Lk. Bos. 19, 13. He adráf út ealle ða ðe ceápodon innan ðam temple ejiciebat omnes ementes et vendentes in templo, Mt. Bos. 21, 12. Gyfum ceápian to bribe with gifts, Cd. 212; Th. 262, 5; Dan. 739. Mid ðám hí útwǽpnedmonna freóndscipes him ceápiaþ quibus externorum sibi virorum amicifiam comparent, Bd. 4, 25; S. 601, 18. Mihte ýþ geceápian, gif ǽnig man ceápode might easily buy, if any one bargained, Ors. 5, 7; Bos. 106, 17. DER. a-ceápian, he-, ge-, ofa-.

ceáping, e; f. A buying, marketing; emptio :-- Ðæt nán ceáping ne sý Sunnan dagum that no marketing be on Sundays, L. Ath. i. 24; Th. i. 212, 15, note 31. v. ceápung.

ceáp-man, cýp-man, cýpe-man; gen. -mannes; dat. -men; pl. nom. acc. -men; gen. -manna; dat. -mannum; m. A CHAPMAN, merchant, market-man; mercator, negotiator, nundinator :-- Gif ceápman uppe on folce ceápie, dó ðæt befóran gewitnessum if a chapman traffic up among the people, let him do it before witnesses, L. In. 25; Th. i. 118, 12, note 32: Obs. Lun. § 14; Lchdm. iii. 190, 23. Ða cýpmen binnon ðam temple getácnodon unrihtwíse láreówas on Godes gelaðunge the chapmen within the temple betokened unrighteous teachers in God's church, Homl. Th. i. 410, 35: ii. 120, 15. Cýpemen monig cépeþing to ceápstówe brohte chapmen brought many saleable things to market, Bd. 2, 1; S. 501, 4.

ceáp-sceamul, -sceamel, es; m. [scamel a bench, seat] A toll-booth, custom-house, treasury; mercatorium scabellum, telonium = HEBREW, gazophylacium = GREEK :-- He geseah Leui, æt ceápsceamule sittende vidit Levi, sedentem ad telonium, Lk. Bos. 5, 27. Ðás word he spæc æt ceápsceamele hæc verba locutus est in gazophylacio, Jn. Bos. 8, 20.

ceáp-scip, es; n. A merchant ship, trading ship; navis mercatoria :-- Hí wícingas wurdon, and æt ánum cyrre án c and eahtatig ceápscipa geféngon they became pirates, and took, at one time, one hundred and eighty trading ships, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 61, 2.

ceáp-setl, cép-setl, es; n. [setl a seat] A toll-booth, custom-house; telonium GREEK :-- He geseah Leuin sittende æt hys cépsetle vidit Levi sedentem ad telonium, Mk. Bos. 2, 14.

ceáp-stów, e; f. A market-place, a market; forum, emporium :-- Lundenceaster is monigra folce ceápstów of lande and of sǽ-cumendra Lundonia civitas est multorum emporium populorum terra marique venientium, Bd. 2, 3; S. 504, 19. Cýpemen monig cépeþing to ceápstówe brohte chapmen brought many saleable things to market, 2, 1; S. 501, 5: Cot. 138.

ceáp-strǽt, e; f. [ceáp II. saleable commodities, strǽt a street, public place, market] A street or place for merchandise, a market; vicus mercatorius, forum, mercatus, Som. Ben. Lye.

ceápung, e; f. Business, trade, traffic, commerce; negotium, negotiatio; -- Be ceápunge concerning traffic or commerce, L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 158, 8. Fram ceápunge þurhgangende on þýstrum a negotio perambulante in tenebris, Ps. Spl. C. 90, 6. Ic ne ongeat grame ceápunga non cognovi negotiationes, Ps. Th. 70, 15.

ceápung-gemót, es; n. A meeting for trade, a market; mercatus, Cot. 133.

ceápung-þing, es; n. A buying, setting a price; mercatus. Som. Ben. Lye.

cear; adj. Sorrowful, anxious, sollicitous; angore plenus, anxius, sollicitus :-- On cearum cwidum with anxious words, Cd. 214; Th. 269, 2; Sat. 67: 134; Th. 169, 3; Gen. 2794.

cearc, es; m. n? Care, anxiety; cura, sollicitudo :-- Iudas ne meahte oncyrran cearces [MS. rex, =crex, =cerx, = cearx, = cearces] geníðlan Judas could not avert the pressure of anxiety, El. 610. v. care.

cearc-ern, es; n. A prison; carcer :-- Ic wæs on cearcerne eram in carcere, Past. 44, 7; Hat. MS. 62b, 22. v. care-em.

cearcetung, e; f. A gnashing, grinding, crashing noise, as of the teeth; stridor, Som. Ben. Lye.

cearcian, cearcigan; part. cearciende; p. ode; pp. od To chatter, creak, crash, gnash; strīdēre, strīdĕre, crepitare :-- Cearciende téþ gnashing the teeth; strīdentes dentes, Som. Ic cearcige oððe gristbítige strīdeo vel strīdo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 5; Som. 29, 7.

ceareg sorrowful, Andr. Kmbl. 2218; An. IIIO. v. cearig.

ceare-líce sorrowfully, miserably, wretchedly, v. care-lice.

cearena of cares or sorrows, Exon. 22a; Th. 59, 33; Cri. 962; gen. pl. of cearu.

cearf carved, Solil. in præf; p. of ceorfan.

cear-ful, car-ful; adj. Careful, full of care, sad; sollicitus :-- Cleopaþ swá cearful se gǽst to ðam duste the spirit so sad shall call to the dust, Exon. 983; Th. 368, 1; Seel. 15. Cwǽdon cearfulle, Criste láðe, to Gúþláce the foes of Christ, full of care, said to Guthlac, 41a; Th. 136, 30; Gú. 549: 8a; Th. 2, 26; Cri. 25.

cearful-líoe carefully, diligently, v. carful-líce.

cearful-nes, -ness, e; f. Carefulness, curiosity, v. carful-nys.

cear-gǽst, -gést, es; m. A spirit of anxiety, fearful ghost; terribilis spiritus :-- In lyft astág ceargǽsta [MS. ceargesta] cirm in the air arose a cry of fearful ghosts or spirits, Exon. 38a; Th. 125, 34; Gú. 364.

cear-gealdor; gen. -gealides; n. [galdor an incantation, charm] A dire or horrible enchantment; cantio vel loquela mæsta :-- Helle gǽst cleopade fór corþre ceargealdra full the spirit of hell cried before the multitude, full of dire enchantments, Exon. 74b; Th. 279, 24; Jul. 618.

ceari anxious, Exon. 100a; Th. 376, 29; Seel. 162. v. cearig.

cearian, cearigan, carian; ic cearige, ðú cearast, he cearaþ, pl. ceariaþ; p. ode; pp. od [cearu care] To take care, heed, to be anxious or sorry; curare, sollicitum esse :-- Hwæt bemurnest ðú cearigende why mournest thou sorrowing? Exon. 10b; Th. 11, 27; Cri. 177. He æt gúþe ná ymb his líf cearaþ he cares not about his life in battle, Beo. Th. 3077; B. 1536. Ne ceara ðú fleáme dǽlan somwist incre care not thou to part your fellowship by flight, Cd. 104; Th. 137, 25; Gen. 2279: 130; Th. 165, 16; Gen. 2732.

cearig, ceareg, ceari; adj. [cearu care, sorrow] Careful, sorrowful, pensive, wary, CHARY, anxious, grieving, dire; sollicitus, cautus, querens, mente turbatus, dirus :-- Hie bidon hwonne bearn Godes cwóme to cearigum they waited till the child of God should come to the sorrowful, Exon. 10a; Th. 10, 6; Cri. 148. Cearegan reorde in a sorrowful voice, Andr. Kmbl. 2218; An. 111. Wæs Meotud on beám bunden fæste cearian clomme the Creator was bound fast on the tree with dire bond, Exon. 116b; Th. 449, 6; Dóm. 67. Ne þurfon wyt beón cearie æt cyme Dryhtnes we need not be anxious at the Lord's coming, Exon. 100a; Th. 376, 29; Seel. 162. DER. earm-cearig, ferhþ-, gnorn-, hreów-, mód-, sorg-, winter-.

cear-leás void of care, careless, reckless, free, v. car-leás.

cearleás-nes freedom from care, security, carelessness. v. carleás-nes.

cear-leást freedom from care, security, carelessness. v. car-leást.

cearo care, sorrow, grief, Exon. 32a; Th. 101, 23; Cri. 1663. v. cearu.

cear-seld, es; n. A place of sorrow; habitaculum mæroris, Exon; 81b; Th. 306, 10; Seef. 5.

cear-siþ, es; m. [síþ fortune, fate] A sorrowful fate, sad fortune; curæ sors, fortuna tristis :-- Cealdum cearsíþum with cold sad fortunes, Beo. Th. 4783; B. 2396.

cear-sorg, e; f. Sorrowful care, anxious sorrow; cura sollicita :-- Me cearsorge of móde asceáf UNCERTAIN Þeóden usser our Lord removed anxious care from my mind, Cd. 55; Th. 68, 9; Gen. 1114.

CEARU, caru, cearo, e; f. CARE, sorrow, grief; cura, dolor, mæror :-- Cearu wæs geniwod geworden in wicum care was become renewed in the dwellings, Beo. Th. 2611; B. 1303: Exon. 22b; Th. 62, 7; Cri. 998: 119b; Th. 459, 10; Hy. 4, 114. Nis ðé nán caru non est tibi curæ, Lk. Bos. 10, 40: Ps. Th. 60, 1. Ðonne biþ þearfendum cwíðende cearo then shall be wailing care to the miserable, Exon. 26b; Th. 79, 5; Cri. 1286: 77a; Th. 289, 29; Wand. 55. Gehýr me, ðonne ic to ðé bidde ceare full hear me, when I, full of care, pray to thee. Ps. Th. 140, 1. Ic sceolde ána míne ceare cwíðan I must bewail my care alone, Exon. 76b; Th. 287, 4; Wand. 9 : Ps. Th. 118, 145, 147. Ne cleopigaþ hí care they speak not their care, 113, 16: 143, 18. Ða ceare seófedun ymb heortan sorrows sighed round my heart, Exon. 81b; Th. 306, 20; Seef. 10. Cearena full full of sorrows, Exon. 22a; Th. 59, 33; Cri. 962. Hý in cearum cwíðaþ they mourn in sorrows, 35b; Th. 115, 23; Gú. 194. Ðe-læs eówer heortan gehefegode sýn on ðises lífes carum ne forte graventur corda vestra in curis hujus vitæ, Lk. Bos. 21, 34: 8, 14. Mid cearum hí cwíðdun sorrowfully [lit. with sorrows] they mourned, Exon. 24b; Th. 69, 35; Cri. 1131: 21a; Th. 55, 31; Cri. 892. [Piers P. kare: Chauc. care: Laym. Orm. care, kare: O. Sax. kara, f: M. H. Ger. kar, f: O. H. Ger. chara, f: Goth. kara, f.] DER. aldor-cearu, breóst-, gúþ-, líf-, mǽl-, mód-, sorg-, úht-, woruld-.

cearung, e; f. [cearu care] Pensiveness, anguish of mind, a complaint; sollicitudo, Som. Ben. Lye.

cear-wylm, -welm, -wælm, es; m. [wylm heat of mind, emotion] Sorrowful or anxious emotion, agitation; sollicita perturbatio, agitatio :-- Ða cearwylmas cólran wurþaþ the anxious emotions become cooler, Beo. Th. 569; B. 282. Á wæs sæc cnyssed cearwelmum the contest was ever tossed with waves of sorrow, Elen. Kmbl. 2513; El. 1258. Æfter cear-wælmum after anxious emotions, Beo. Th. 4138; B. 2066.

CEÁS, e; f: es; n. A quarrel, strife; lis :-- Gif man mannan wǽpnum bebyreþ ðǽr ceás weorþ if a man supply another with weapons where there is strife, L. Ethb. 18; Th. i. 6, 19. On ceáse in strife, L. Alf. 18; Th. i. 48, 17. Mearh mægen samnode to ceáse the horse collected his strength for the strife, Elen. Kmbl. 111; El. 56. [O. Frs. kase, f. quarrel: O. H. Ger. kósa, f. eloquium, fabula.] DER. un-ceás.

ceás chose, Chr. 975; Th. 226, 21; Edg. 22; p. of ceósan.

ceásan? p. ceós, pl. ceóson; pp. ceásen [ceás strife] To strive, fight; contendere. v. be-ceásan.

ceásega, an; m. A chooser; elector. DER. wæl-ceásega, q. v.

ceásnes, -ness, e; f. Election, choice; electio, Som. Ben: Lye.

ceást, e; f? es; n? Strife, contention, murmuring, sedition, scandal; lis, rixa, seditio :-- On ceáste in strife, L. Alf. 18; Th. i. 48, note 34. Gif he þurh unnytte ceáste man ofsleá fæste x geár si in inutili rixa hominem occident, x annas jejunet, L. Ecg. P. iv. 68, § 22; Th. ii. 230, 29. Ne he ceaste ne astirige he shall not stir up strife, L. Ælf. P. 50; Th. ii. 386, 12. Folcslíte vel æ-acute;swícung, sacu, ceást seditio,Ælfc. Gl. 15; Som. 58, 39; Wrt. Voc. 21, 30. [Piers P. cheeste, cheste.] v. ceás strife.

ceaster, cæster, cester; gen. dat. ceastre; acc. ceastre, ceaster, pl. ceastra; f. The names of places ending in caster and -chester were probably sites of a castrum a fortress, built by the Romans; the Saxon word is burh, Gen. 11, 4, 5. I. generally f. but sometimes n. vide II. A city, fort, castle, town; urbs, civitas, castellum :-- Ne mæg seó ceaster beon behýd non potest civitas abscondi, Mt. Bos. 5, 14. On ðære heán ceastre in the high city, Bt. 39, 5; Fox. 218, 18. Ðá cómon ða weardas on ða ceastre then the keepers came into the city, Mt. Bos. 28, 11. Ðú in ða ceastre gong go thou into the city, Andr. Kmbl. 1878; An. 941. Ælla and Cissa ymbsǽton ceaster Ella and Cissa besieged the city, Chr. 491; Erl. 15, 6. Se Hǽlend ymbfór ealle burga and ceastra circuibat Iesus omnes civitates et castella, Mt. Bos. 9, 35. II. ceaster; gen. ceastres; n. A city, etc: it is thus declined in the termination of Exan-cester, -ceaster :-- Ymsǽton Exancester besieged Exeter, Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 9; Th. 166, 30, col. 1. Ymbsǽton Exanceaster, Th. 167, 26, col. l, 2. Ðá wende he hine west wið Exanceastres then he turned west towards Exeter [versus Exanceaster], Chr. 894; Erl. 91, 10; Th. 166, 31, col. 1; 29, col. 2; 167, 28, col. 1, col. 2. Se cyning hine west wende mid ðære fierde wið Exancestres the king turned west with the army towards Exeter, 168, 26, col. 1; 24, col. 2; 169, 21, col. 1; 18, col. 2. III. the name of a particular place, as CHESTER, CAISTOR, CASTOR, the city; hæc civitas :-- He him sende scipon æfter, and Hugo eorl of Ceastre he sent ships after him, and Hugh earl of Chester, Chr. 1094; Erl. 230, 28: 1120; Erl. 248, 8.

ceaster-æsc, es; m. Black hellebore; helleborus niger :-- Wyrc gódne drenc ceasteræsces make a good drink of black hellebore, L. M. 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 324, 20; Nim ceasteræsc take black hellebore, Lchdm. iii. 28, 20: 30, 14: 56, 15.

ceaster-búend, es; m. City-dweller; urbem habitans :-- He áteáh ceasterbúendum he came to the city-dwellers, Beo. Th. 1540; B. 768.

ceaster-hlid, es; n. [hlid a cover; tegmen] Cover of a city, gate; urbis tegmen, porta :-- Ðæt ǽnig meahte ðæs ceasterhlides clustor unlúcan that any one might unlock the inclosure of the city-gate, Exon. 12a; Th. 20, 7; Cri. 314.

ceaster-hof, es; n. [hof a house, dwelling] A city-dwelling; urbis ædes :-- Storm upp arás æfter ceasterhofum a storm arose along the city-dwellings, Andr. Kmbl. 2475; An. 1239.

Ceaster-scír, e; f. [ceaster III. Chester, scír a shire] Cheshire; ager Cestrensis :-- Rodbeard wæs gecoren to bisceope to Ceasterscíre Robert was chosen bishop of Cheshire, Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 21.

ceaster-ware; gen. -wara; dat. -warum; pl. m. City-inhabitants, citizens; cives :-- Wearþ Húna cyme cúþ ceasterwarum the coming of the Huns was known to the citizens, Elen. Kmbl. 83; El. 42: Andr. Kmbl. 3290; An. 1648.

ceaster-waru, e; f. Townsmen as a body, the citizens or city; cives, civitas :-- Ðá eóde eall seó ceaster-warú then the whole city [citizens as a body] came out, Mt. Bos. 8, 34.

ceaster-wyrhta, an; m. An embroiderer, damask-weaver; polymitarius, Cot. 156.

ceaster-wyrt, e; f. Black hellebore; helleborus niger, Lchdm. ii. 375, 24.

ceást-full; adj. Full of contention, tumultuous; tumultuosus, contentiosus, Scint. 28: Fulg. 23.

ceastra cities, Mt. Bos. 9, 35; pl. of ceaster.

ceat a thing; res. Cot. 100 :-- Ceatta cheats; circumventiones, Som. Ben. Lye.

ceáw, pl. cuwon chewed; p. of ceówan.

Ceawan hlǽw, es; m. Cheawan low, CHALLOW :-- To Ceawan hlǽwe [MS. læwe] to Challow, Chron. Abing. i. 138, 5: Cod. Dipl. v. 310, 33.

ceawl, ceaul a basket; cophinus, Mt. Lind. Stv. 14, 20: Mk. Skt. Lind. 6, 43. v. cawl.

ced a boat; linter, Mone B. 120. v. cæd.

cedelc, e; f. The herb mercury; mercurialis perennis, Lin :-- Cedelc mercurialis, Glos. Brux. Recd. 41, 44. Herba mercurialis, ðæt is, cedelc the herb mercurialis, that is, mercury, Herb. cont. 84; Lchdm. i. 34, 3. Wið ðæs innoþes heardnysse genim ðás wyrte, ðe man mercurialis, and óðrum naman cedelc nemneþ for hardness of the inwards take this herb, which is called mercurialis, and by another name mercury, Herb. 84, 1; Lchdm. i. 186, 23.

ceder; gen. cedre; f. The cedar; cedrus = GREEK :-- God brycþ ða heán ceder on Libano confringet Dominus cedros Libani, Ps. Th. 28, 5. On eallum cedrum to all cedars, 148, 9.

ceder-beám, cæder-beám, es; m. A cedar-tree; cedrus = GREEK :-- Cederbeám cedrus, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 41; Wrt. Voc. 33. 38: 80, 17. Libanes cederbeámas ða ðú gesettest cedri Libani quas plantasti, Ps. Th. 103, 16. Ic geseah árleásne geuferodne swá swá cedertrýw ðæs wuda oððe cederbeámas ðæs holtes vidi impium elevatum sicut cedros Libani, Ps. Lamb. 36, 35.

ceder-treów, -trýw, es; n. A cedar-tree; cedrus = GREEK :-- Ic geseah árleásne geuferodne swá swá cedertrýw ðæs wuda oððe cederbeámas ðæs holtes vidi impium elevatum sicut cedros Libani, Ps. Lamb. 36, 35.

cef chaff, Ex. 5, 7, 10, 12, 16, 18. v. ceaf.

cefes, e; f. A concubine, L. C. S. 55; Th. i. 406, 16, note 26B. v. cyfes.

cégan, cégean to call, call upon, invoke. Ps. Spl. 137, 4: Ps. Lamb. 74, 2: Chr. 974; Th. 224, 27, col. 2, 3; Edg. 7. v. cígan.

cehhettung, e; f. A laughing in a cackling manner, a laugh of scorn, scorn; cachinnus, contemptus :-- Hwelce cehhettunge ge woldon ðæs habban, and mid hwelcum hleahtre ge woldon beón astyred what scorn ye would have at this, and with what laughter ye would be moved, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 52, 4. v. ceahhetung.

cel, pl. celas a basket, Mt. Lind. Stv. 15, 37. v. cawl.

célan; p. de; pp. ed; v. intrans. To be or become cold; algere, refrigerari :-- Célan is of untrumnysse ðæs gecynnes algere ex infirmitate naturæ est, Bd. 1, 27; S. 494, 15. DER. a-célan. v. calan.

céle, es; m. A cold, coldness; frigus :-- Fór andwlítan céles ante faciem frigoris, Ps. Th. 147, 6: Bt. Met. Fox 20, 219; Met. 20, 110: 20, 225; Met. 20, 113: 2o, 315; Met. 20, 158. v. cýle.

celender, cellender, es; n. The herb coriander; coriandrum, L. M. 1, 4; Lchdm. ii. 44, 17: 1, 35; Lchdm. ii. 82, 6. v. celendre.

celendre, cellendre, an; f: celender, cellender, es; n. The herb coriander; coriandrum = GREEK, coriandrum sativum, Lin :-- Celendre coriandrum, Ælfc. Gl. 43; Som. 64, 44; Wrt. Voc. 31, 54: 286, 16. Genim ðás wyrte, ðe man coliandrum, and, óðrum naman ðam gelíce, cellendre nemneþ take this herb, which is called coriandrum, and, by another name like that, coriander, Herb. 104, 1; Lchdm. i. 218, 16. Genim celendran seáw grénre take juice of green coriander, L. M. 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 42, 4: 1, 31; Lchdm. ii. 72, 12: 3, 3; Lchdm. ii. 310, 5. Nim cellendran take coriander, 3, 47; Lchdm. ii. 338, 6, 7: 2, 39; Lchdm. ii. 248, 3. Genim celender and beána togædere gesodene take coriander and beans sodden together, 1, 4; Lchdm. ii. 44, 17. Celendres sǽd gegníd rub seed of coriander, 2, 48; Lchdm. ii. 262, 21. Cellendres sǽd gedó on scearp wín put seed of coriander into sour wine, 2, 33; Lchdm. ii. 236, 30. Mid cellendre with coriander, 1, 35; Lchdm. ii. 82, 6.

celeþonie, an; f. The herb celandine or swallow-wort; chelidonium = GREEK, chelidonium majus, Lin :-- Celeþonie celandine, L. M. 1, 45; Lchdm. ii. 110, 21. Nim celeþonian moran take roots of celandine, 3, 41; Lchdm. ii. 334, 26: 3, 42; Lchdm. ii. 336, 9 : 3, 60; Lchdm. ii. 344, 2. Genim celeþonian take celandine, 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 38, 14: 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 78, 27: 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 1: 1, 48; Lchdm. ii. 122, 16: 3, 2; Lchdm. ii. 306, 23.

celf a calf, Lk. Foxe 15, 27. v. cealf.

céling, célung, e; f. A cooling, refreshing; refrigerium, refrigeratio, Som. Ben. Lye.

cellendre coriander, Herb. 104, 1; Lchdm. i. 218, 16. v. celendre.

celmert-mon, -monn, es; m. A hired servant, hireling; mercenarius :-- He celmertmon is mercenarius est, Jn. Rush. War. 10, 12, 13. Celmertmonn mercenarius, Jn. Lind. War. 10, 12. Ða celmertmenn mercenarii, Lk. Lind. War. 15, 17. From celmertmonnum ðínum de mercenariis tuis, 15, 19: Mk. Skt. Lind. 1, 20.

cél-nes, cól-nes, -ness, e; f. Coolness, cool air, a breeze; refrigerium, aura :-- Ðú lǽddest us on célnesse eduxisti nos in refrigerium, Ps. Spl. C. T. 65, 11. To sécanne wið hǽto célnes quærere contra æstum auras [breezes], Bd. 1, 27; S. 494, 17. DER. ge-célnes. v. calan.

célod, céllod; part. [ceól the keel of a ship] Formed like a keel or boat; scaphiformis :-- Célod bord a shield shaped as a boat, Fins. Kmbl. 57; Fin. 29. Céllod bord, Byrht. Th. 140, 4; By. 283.

celras curds, Lchdm. iii. 118, 14. v. cealre.

cemban, cæmban; p. de; pp. ed [camb a comb, I. q. v.] To COMB; pectere :-- Ic cembe pecto, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 3; Som. 30, 61.

cemes, e; f. A linen night-gown, chemise; camisia, Cot. 31.

cempa, an; m. [camp war, battle, -a, q. v.] A soldier, warrior, CHAMPION; miles, bellator, athleta = GREEK :-- Cempa miles vel athleta, Wrt. Voc. 72, 68. Se cempa oferwon frécnessa fela the champion overcame many perils, Exon. 35a; Th. 113, 2; Gú. 151: Andr. Kmbl. 922; An. 461: Byrht. Th. 135, 17; By. 119: Beo. Th. 2629; B. 1312. Ðá ða cempan hine ahéngon, hí námon his reáf, and worhton feówer dǽlas, ǽlcum cempan ánne dǽl milites cum crucifixissent eum, acceperunt vestimenta ejus, et fecerunt quatuor partes, unicuique militi partem, Jn. Bos. 19, 23. Scyld sceal cempan a shield shall be for a soldier, Exon. 91a; Th. 341, 22; Gn. Ex. 130: Beo. Th. 3901; B. 1948: Andr. Kmbl. 460; An. 230. Woldun hý geteón in orwénnysse Meotudes cempan they would draw God's soldier into despair, Exon. 41a; Th. 136, 28; Gú. 548: Salm. Kmbl. 279; Sal. 139. Húslfatu hálegu cempan genamon the warriors took the holy vessels of sacrifice, Cd. 210; Th. 260, 9; Dan. 707: Fins. Th. 29; Fin. 14. We his þegnas sind, gecoren to cempum we are his thanes, chosen to [be his] warriors, Andr. Kmbl. 647; An. 324. Alǽten cempa a soldier who has served his time, a veteran; emeritus, Ælfc. Gl. 7; Som. 56, 62; Wrt. Voc. 18, 15. Gecorene cempan chosen soldiers, adjutants; optiones, 7; Som. 56, 64; Wrt. Voc. 18, 17. Cempena yldest a chief of soldiers, a commander; militum tribunus, Ors. 4, 9; Bos. 91, 18. Twá hund cempna [= cempena] two hundred [of] soldiers: manipulus, Ælfc. Gl. 7; Som. 56, 75; Wrt. Voc. 18, 27. Fíf hund cempena ealdor a commander of five hundred soldiers; cohors, 7; Som. 56, 61; Wrt. Voc. 18, 14. DER. féðe-cempa, sige-.

CÉN, es; m. I. the Anglo-Saxon Rune RUNE = the letter c, the name of which letter in Anglo-Saxon is cén a torch; piuus, tæda; hence this Rune not only stands for the letter c, but for cén a torch, as, -- RUNE byþ cwicera gehwám cúþ on fýre torch on fire is well known to all living, Hick. Thes. vol. i. p. 135; Runic pm. 6; Kmbl. 340, 17: Exon. 76a; Th. 284, 28; Jul. 704. II. this Rune appears sometimes to stand for the adj. céne bold, II. q. v. [Plat. keen: Ger. M. H. Ger. kien, m. n. a fir or pine saturated with the gum of turpentine: O. H. Ger. kien. kén pinus, fax, tæda.]

CÉNE, cýne; adj. I. KEEN, fierce, bold, brave, warlike; acer, audax, animosus, bellicosus :-- Se wæs úþwita céne and cræftig who was a philosopher keen and profound, Bt. Met. Fox 10, 110; Met. 10, 51. Stóp út céne collenferþ he stept out bold [and] firm of mind, Andr. Kmbl. 3154; An. 1580. Eofore eom ǽghwǽr cénra than a wild boar I am everywhere bolder, Exon. 110b; Th. 423, 9; Rä. 41, 18. Cende cneow-sibbe cénra manna he begat a race of brave men, Cd. 161; Th. 200, 14; Exod. 356. Þriste mid cénum the confident with the brave, Exon. 89b; Th. 337, 8; Gn. Ex. 61: Beo. Th. 1541; B. 768. II. this word is sometimes expressed by the Rune RUNE :-- Ðonne RUNE cwacaþ then the bold shall quake, Exon. 19b; Th. 50, 8; Cri. 797: Elen. Grm. 1258. [Piers P. R. Brun. Chauc. R. Glouc. Laym. kene: Dut. koen: Ger. kühn: M. H. Ger. küene, kuon: O. H. Ger. kón, kóni, kuon, kuoni.] DER. dǽd-céne, gár-.

cénlíce UNCERTAIN adv. Keenly, boldly, courageously, notably; animose, audacter, insigniter, Ælfc. T. 15, 17.

CENNAN. cænnan. cynnan; part. -nende; p. de; pp. ed; v. trans. I. to beget, conceive, create, bring forth; gignere, creare, facere, parere :-- Ic to-dæg cende ðé ego hodie genui te, Ps. Spl. 2, 7. Sceal, ic nú eald wíf, cennan shall I, now an old woman, conceive? Gen. 18, 13. Iob sunu Waldendes freónoman cende Job gave [created, made] a noble name to the Lord's son, Exon. 17a; Th. 40, 9; Cri. 636. Ðam wæs Judas nama cenned to him was given [created, made] the name Judas, Elen. Kmbl. 1170; El. 587: Ps. Th. 73, 7. Heó cende hyre frumcennedan sunu peperit filium suum primogenitum, Mt. Bos. 1, 25. II. to bring forth from the mind , to declare, choose, ascribe, clear, prove; advocare, confiteri, adscribere, purgare, manifestare :-- Gif he cynne ðæt he hit bohte if he declare that he bought it, L. Edg. S. 11; Th. i. 276, 12, MS. F. Ic me to cyninge cenne Iudas I chose Judah to me for a king, Ps. Th. 107, 8. We deórwyrþne dǽl Dryhtne cennaþ we ascribe the precious lot to the Lord, Exon. 35a; Th. 113, 8; Gú. 154. Cenne he hwanon hit him cóme let him declare whence it came to him, L. Eth. ii. 8; Th. i. 288, 14, 21, 22, 23, 25. Gif he cenþ ðæt he hit bohte if he declare that he bought it, L. Edg. S. 10; Th. i. 276, 6. Mynstres aldor hine cænne in preóstes canne let the chief of a monastery clear himself with a priest's clearance, L. Wih. 17; Th. i. 40, 13: 22; Th. i. 42, 3: L. Edg. S. 11; Th. i. 276, 12. [Piers P. kennen, kenne to teach: Chauc. kennen to know: R. Brun. ken to know: Laym. kenne, kennen to know, make known, acknowledge: Orm. kennedd begotten: O. Sax. kennian gignere, cognoscere: Frs. kinnen: O. Frs. kanna, kenna to know: Dut. Ger. M. H. Ger. kennen to know: O. H. Ger. kannjan: Goth. kannyan to make known: Dan. kjende: Swed. känna: Icel. kenna to know, teach.] DER. a-cennan, ge-, on-.

cennend-líc; adj. Begetting, genital; gignens, genitalis :-- Ða cennendlícan genitalia, Wrt. Voc. 283, 53. v. cennan.

cennestre one who has borne, a mother. v. cynnestre.

cenning, e; f. Birth, a producing; partus :-- Ðære cenninge tíma tempus pariendi, Gen. 25, 24. DER. ed-cenning.

cenning-tíd, e;f. The time of bringing forth, birth-time; pariendi tempus, puerperii hora :-- Ðá wæs gefylled Elizabethe cenningtíd, and heó sunu cende Elisabeth autem impletum est tempus pariendi, et peperit filium, Lk. Bos. 1, 57. On ðære cenningtíde instante partu, Gen. 38, 27.

cennynde producing, Bd. 1, 27; S. 493, 23, = cennende; part. of cennan.

cénost keenest, bravest, boldest, Cd. 160; Th. 198, 14; Exod. 322; sup. of céne.

Cénréd, es; m. [céne, réd counsel] Cenred, son of Ceolwald and father of Ine, king of Wessex :-- Cénréd wæs Ceolwalding Cenred was the son of Ceolwald, Chr. Th. 2, 2. Ingeld wæs Ínes bróðor, and hí, begen bróðra, wǽron [MS. wareon] Cénrédes suna: Cénréd wæs Ceoldwalding Ingeld was Ine's brother, and they, both brothers, were Cenred's sons: Cenred was son of Ceolwald, Text. Rof. 61, 12-18. v. Íne.

Cent; indecl. n. The county of KENT; Cantium = GREEK :-- Wæs he sended to Cent he was sent into Kent, Bd. 3, 15; S. 541, 24: Chr. 823; Erl. 62, 19. Se cyning wæs on Cent the king was in Kent, Chr. 911; Erl. 101, 37: 1009; Erl. 143, 14. Se múþa Limene is on easteweardre Cent the mouth of the Limen is in the east of Kent, 893; Erl. 88, 26.

centaurie, an; f. The herb centaury; centaureum = GREEK, erythræa centaureum, Lin :-- Nim centaurian take centaury, L. M. 2, 8; Lchdm. ii. 186, 26; 2, 39; Lchdm. ii. 248, 13.

cénþu, e; f. Boldness; audacia :-- Cræft and cénþu strength and boldness, Beo. Th. 5385; B. 2696.

Centingas; pl. m. Men of Kent, Kentish men; Cantiani :-- Hí forneáh ealle west Centingas fordydon they ruined nearly all the west Kentish men, Chr. 999; Th. 248, 12, col. 2: 1011; Th. 267, 7, col. 1.

Centiso; adj. KENTISH, belonging to Kent; Cantianus :-- Seó Centisce fyrd corn ongeán hí the Kentish force came against them, Chr. 999; Th. 249, 6, col. 2. Ætsǽton ða Centiscan ðǽr the Kentish [men] remained there, 905; Erl. 98, 23.

Cent-land, -lond, es; n. Kentish land, Kent; Cantium :-- Eást-Seaxe syndon Temese streáme tosccádene fram Centlande the East-Saxons are divided from Kent by the river Thames, Bd. 2, 3; S. 504, 17: 3, 15; S. 541, note 24. Æðelréd oferhergode Centland [Centlond, col. 1] Æthelred ravaged Kent, Chr. 676; Th. 60, 8, col. 2, 3. Ða Brettas forléton Centlond the Britons forsook Kent, 457; Erl. 12, 19.

Cent-ríce, es; n. The kingdom of Kent; Cantii regnum :-- Hér Eádberht féng to Centríce here, A. D. 725, Eadberht succeeded to the kingdom of Kent, Chr. 725; Erl. 44, 31.

CEÓ, ció; indecl. f. A CHOUGH, a bird of the genus corvus, ajay, crow, jackdaw; cornix, gracculus, monedula :-- Ðeós ceó hÆc cornix, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 64; Som. 13, 58. Ceó gracculus vel monedula, Ælfc. Gl. 37; Som. 63, 13; Wrt. Voc. 29, 36. [Scot, keaw: Dut. kauw, f: M. H. Ger. kouch, m. a horned owl: O. H. Ger. kaha, f: Dan. kaa, kaje, m. f: Swed. kaja, f: Icel. kjói, m. a sea-bird.]

ceóce a cheek-bone, cheek, Wrt. Voc. 64, 44, = ceáce, q. v.

ceofl a basket; cŏphĭnus = GREEK, Lk. Rush. War. 9, 17. v. cawl.

ceol a basket; sporta, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 15, 37: Mk. Skt. Lind. 8, 20. v. cawl.

CEÓL, ciól, es; m. The KEEL of a ship, a ship; carina, celox, navis :-- Ðe brontne ceól ofer lagustrǽte lǽoan UNCERTAIN cwómon who came leading a high keel over the water-street, Beo. Th. 482; B. 238. Ðæt ðú us gebrohte brante ceóle, heá hornscipe, ofer hwæles éðel, on ðære mǽgþe that thou wouldst bring us with the steep keel, the high pinnacled ship, over the whale's home, to that tribe, Andr. Kmbl. 545-549; An. 273-275. Ceól celox, Glos. Epnl. Reed. 156, 12: Wrt. Voc. 288, 30. Ceól on lande stód the ship stood on land, Beo. Th. 3829; B. 1912: Exon. 90b; Th. 339, 20; Gn. Ex. 97. Ofer ceóles bord from the vessel's deck, 20b; Th. 54, 2; Cri. 86a: ILLEGIBLE Andr. Kmbl. 620; An. 310. In ðam ceóle wæs cyninga wuldor the glory of kings was in the ship, 1707; An. 856: Exon. 81b; Th. 306, 9; Seef. 5. He ceól gesóhte he sought the ship, Andr. Kmbl. 759; An. 380. Hí cómon on þrím ceólum to Brytene they came in three ships to Britain, Chr. 449; Erl. 13, 3: Bt. Met. Fox 21, 22; Met. 21, 11. Ceólas léton on brime bídan they let the ships abide in the sea, Elen. Kmbl. 500; El. 250. Hwanon cómon ge ceólum líðan whence came ye sailing in ships? Andr. Kmbl. 512; An. 256: Exon. 20a; Th. 53, 18; Cri. 852. [Plat. keel: Dut. kiel, f: Ger. M. H. Ger. kiel, m: O. H. Ger. chiol, cheol, chiel, m: Dan. kiöl, m. f: Swed. köl, m: Icel. kjóll, m.] DER. þriérēþre-ceól.

ceola a little cottage, a cabin; stega. Som. Ben. Lye.

ceolas; pl. m. Cold winds, cold; anræ frigidæ, frigus :-- Ðec ceolas weorþian Fæder, forst and snáw thee, O Father, cold winds adore, frost and snow, Exon. 54b; Th. 192, 9; Az. 103.

CEOLE, ciole, an; f. The throat, JOWL; guttur, fauces :-- Ðý-læs sió ceole síe aswollen lest the throat be swollen, L. M. 1, 4; Lchdm. ii. 48, 26. Wið ceolan swile for swelling of throat, 1, 12; Lchdm. ii. 54, 23; 56, 2. Wið sweorcóðe, riges seofoþa seóþ on geswéttum wætere, swille ða ceolan mid ðý gif se sweora sár síe for quinsy, seethe the siftings of rye in sweetened water, swill the throat with it if the neck be sore, 1, 4; Lchdm. ii. 48, 21. Hú swéte ceólum mínum spræce ðíne, ofer hunig múþe míne quam dulcia faucibus meis eloquia tua, super mel ori meo, Ps. Spl. 118, 103. Ne cleopigaþ hí, ðeáh ðe hí ceolan habban they [i. e. idols] cry not, though they have throats, Ps. Th. 113, 16. [Plat. kele: Dut. keel, f: Kil. keele, kele: Ger. kehle, f: M. H. Ger. kël, f: O. H. Ger. këla, f: Lat. gula, f: Sansk. gala, m.]

ceoler; gen. ceolre; f. The COLLAR or throat; guttur :-- Sind gefægnunga Codes on ceolre oððe þrote heora sunt exallationes Dei in gutture eorum, Ps. Lamb. 149, 6. v. ceole.

Ceóles íg, e; f. [ceól a ship, íg an island] CHELSEA, on the bank of the Thames, Middlesex; Somner says, 'Insularis olim et navibus accommodata, ut nomen significat.'

Ceóles íg, e; f. CHOLSEY, Berks, near Wallingford, Chr. 1006; Th. 256, 27.

ceól-þelu, e; f. The deck of a ship, a ship; navis tabulatum, navis :-- Ic corn hér curnen on ceólþele I am come here in a ship, Exon. 123a; Th. 473, 1; Bo. 8.

Ceolwald, es; m. [ceol, -wald, es; m. power] Ceolwald, son of Cuthwulf, an ancestor of the West-Saxon kings :-- Ceolwald wæs Cúþwulfing Ceolwald was the son of Cuthwulf, Chr. Th. 2, 3. v. Cénréd, Íne.

ceorf-æx, e; f. A cutting axe, executioner's axe; securis UNCERTAIN :-- Wǽran ða heáfda mid ceorfæxum ofacorfena their heads were cut off with axes, Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 79, 7.

CEORFAN; part. ceorfende; ic ceorfe, ðú ceorfest, cyrfst, he ceorfeþ, cyrfþ, pl. ceorfaþ; p. ic, he cearf, ðú curfe, pl. curfon; pp. corfen; v. a. To cut, cut down, hew, rend, tear, CARVE, engrave; secare, concidere, succidere, excidere, conscindere, incidere, infindere :-- He wæs hine sylfne mid stánum ceorfende erat concidens se lapidibus, Mk. Bos. 5, 5. He cearf of heora handa and heora nosa he cut off their hands and their noses, Chr. 1014; Erl. 151, 10. Híg curfon ðone ram eall to sticceon they cut the ram all to pieces, Lev. 8, 20. Corfen cut, Exon. 107b; Th. 410, 24; Rä. 29, 4. Treówa ceorfan to hew trees, Obs. Lun. § 11; Lchdm. iii. 188, 24: Cd. 200; Th. 248, 11; Dan. 511. On wuda treówa mid æxum hí curfon dura in silva lignorum securibus exciderunt januas, Ps. Spl. 73, 7. Curfon hie ðæt moldern of beorhtan stáne they hewed the sepulchre out of bright stone, Rood Kmbl. 132; Kr. 66. Ðú toslite oððe curfe hæ-acute;ran míne thou hast rent my sackcloth; conscidisti saccum meum, Ps. Spl. 29, 13. Ísene ceorfan to carve or engrave with iron, Past. 37, 3; Hat. MS. 50b, 5. Ceorfende infindens, Cot. 111. [R. Glouc. carf cut: Chauc. corven, pp; Scot. kerf: Plat. karven: Frs. kerven: O. Frs. kerva: Dut. kerven: Ger. M. H. Ger. kerben: Dan. karve: Swed. karfva.] DER. a-ceorfan, be-, for-, of-, ofa-, to-, ymb-.

ceorflncg-ísen, es; n. A marking or searing-iron; cauterium = GREEK, Scint. 9.

CEORIAN, ceorigan, ciorian, cerian; part. ceorigende; p. ode; pp. od; v. intrans. To murmur, complain; murmurare, queri :-- Ne underféhþ nán ceorigende sáwul Godes ríce, ne nán ceorian ne mæg, se ðe to ðam becymþ no murmuring soul receives God's kingdom, nor may any one murmur who comes to it, Homl. Th. ii. 80, 11. We ne ceoriaþ we murmur not, ii. 80, 16. Híg ceorodon ongeán God and Moysen they murmured against God and Moses, Num. 21, 5: Homl. Th. i. 338, 11: ii. 472, 1. Ic ceorige oíðe cíde queror, Ælfc. Gr. 29; Som. 33, 52. [Dut. korren to coo, as pigeons: Kil. karien, koeren, koerien gemere, instar turturis: Ger. kerren stridere: M. H. Ger. kërren, kirren: O. H. Ger. kerren garrire; queran gemere: Lat. garrio: Grk. GREEK : Zend gar to sing: Sansk. grī sonare.] DER. be-ceorian.

CEORL, es; m. I. a freeman of the lowest class, CHURL, countryman, husbandman; homo liber, rusticus, colonus :-- Ceorles weorþig sceal beón betýned a churl's close must be fenced, L. In. 40; Th. i. 126, 13. Se ceorl, 60; Th. i. 140, 8. Swá we eác settaþ be eallum hádum, ge ceorle ge eorle so also we ordain for all degrees, whether to churl or earl [gentle or simple], L. Alf. pol. 4; Th. i. 64, 3. Twelfhyndes mannes áþ forstent vi ceorla áþ a twelve hundred man's oath stands for six churls' oaths, L. O. 13; Th. i. 182, 19. Be ceorles gærstúne of a husbandman's meadow, L. In. 42; Th. i. 128, 4, 5. Landes [MS. londes] ceorl a land's man, Bt. Met. Fox 12, 54; Met. 12, 27. II. a man, husband; vir, maritus :-- Ceorla cyngc king of the commons, Chr. 1020; Erl. 160, 23. Ealdan ceorlas wilniaþ old men wish, Bt. 36, 5; Fox 180, 7. Clypa ðínne ceorl voca virum [husband] tuum, Jn. Bos. 4, 16, 17. Ðú hæfdest fíf ceorlas thow hast had five husbands, 4, 18. III. a free man, as opposed to þeów, and to þrǽl a slave; or as opposed to þegen a thane or nobleman, as we say, 'gentle or simple:' -- We witan ðæt, þurh Godes gyfe, þrǽl wearþ to þegene, and ceorl wearþ to eorle, sangere to sacerde, and bócere to biscope we know that, by the grace of God, a slave has risen to a thane, and a ceorl [free man] has risen to an earl, a singer to a priest, and a scribe to be a bishop, L. Eth. vii. 21; Th. i. 334, 7-9. Gif ceorl geþeáh, ðæt he hæfde fullíce fíf hída ágenes landes, cirican and cycenan [MS. Ky-cenan UNCERTAIN ], bell-hús and burh-geat-setl, and sunder-note on cynges healle, ðonne wæs he ðonon-forþ begen-rihtes weorþe if a free man thrived, so that he had fully five hides of his own land, church and kitchen, bell-house and a city-gate-seat, and special duty in the king's hall, then was he thenceforth worthy of thane-right, L. R. 2; Th. i. 190, 14-17. [Chauc. cherl: Wyc. cherl, churl: Laym. cheorl: Orm. cherl a young man: Plat. keerl: Frs. tzierl: O. Frs. tzerle, tzirle: Dut. karel, m: Ger. M. H. Ger. kerl, m: O. H. Ger. charal, charl, m; Icel. karl, m.] DER. ceorl-boren, -folc, -ian, -isc, -iscnes, -líe, -líce, -strang: æcer-ceorl, hús-.

ceorl-boren; part. Country or free-born, common, low-born, opposed to þegen-boren noble-born :-- Ne þearf he hine gyldan má, sý he þegen-boren, sý he ceorl-boren he need not pay more for him, be he born a thane, be he born a churl, L. O. D. 5; Th. i. 354, 20.

ceorl-folc, es; n. Common people, the public; vulgus :-- Ðis ceorlfolc [ceorle folc MS.] hoc vulgus, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 35. Ceorlfolc vulgus, 13; Som. 16, 7: Wrt. Voc. 72, 73.

ceorlian; p. ode; pp. od [ceorl a husband] To take a husband, to marry; nubere. Spoken of a woman, and opposed to wífian to take a wife :-- Ne wífiaþ híg, ne híg ne ceorliaþ they take not a wife, nor do they take a husband, Mt. Bos. 22, 30. Ne nán preóst ne mót beón æt ðam brýdlácum áhwǽr, ðǽr man eft wífaþ, oððe wíf eft ceoriaþ no priest may be at a marriage anywhere, where a man marries a second wife, or a woman a second husband, L. Ælf. C. 9; Th. ii. 346, 19. ceorlisc, ciorlisc, cierlisc, cirlisc, cyrlisc; adj. [ceorl, -isc, q. v.] CHURLISH, rustic, common; rusticus, vulgaris :-- Ceorlisc rusticus, Cot. 188. Ceorlisc hláf common bread; cibarius [panis], Ælfc. Gl. 66; Som. 69, 61; Wrt. Voc. 41, 17. Ceorlisc folc common people; vulgus vel plebs, 87; Som. 74, 45; Wrt. Voc. 50, 27. Gif cierlisc [ciorlisc MS. H; cyrlisc B.] mon betygen wǽre if a common man has been accused, L. In. 18; Th. i. 114, 6. Se cierlisca [ceorlisce MS. B; ciorlisca H.] mon the common man, 37; Th. i. 124, 21. Be cierlisces [cyrlisces MSS. B. G.] monnes ontýnesse of the accusing of a common man, 37; Th. i. 124, 20. Be cirliscum [ceorliscum MS. B; cyrliscum G; cierliscum H.] þeófe of a common thief, 18; Th. i. 114, 5. Sǽton feáwa cirlisce [cyrlisce, col. 2, 3; 165, col. 1, 2] men a few countrymen remained, Chr. 893; Th. 164, 4, col. 1.

ceorlisc-nes, -ness. e; f. CHURLISHNESS, rudeness, vulgarity; rusticitas, sordes. v. cyrliscnys.

ceorl-líc, ceorlíc; adj. CHURL-LIKE, rustic, common; rusticus, vulgaris :-- Ceorllc ǽhta common property; peculium, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 122; Wrt. Voc. 20, 59. v. ceorlisc.

ceorl-líce, ceorlíce; adv. Commonly; vulgariter, Bridf.

ceorl-strang; adj. Strong as a man, manlike; fortis, virilis :-- Ceorl-strang fǽmne a manlike woman; virago, Ælfc. Gl. 5; Som. 56, 10; Wrt. Voc. 17, 18.

Ceortes íg, Certes íg, e;. f. [Hovd. Matt. West. Certesie] Cerot's island, CHERTSEY, in Surrey, on the bank of the Thames; Ceroti insula, Cartesia, in agro Surriensi, ad ripam Tamesis fluminis :-- Ercenwold getimbrede mynster on Súþrigena lande, be Temese streáme, on ðære stówe ðe is nemned Ceortes íge Earconvaldus monasterium construxerat in regione Sudergeona, juxta fluvium Tamensem, in loco gui vocatur Cerotæsei, id est, Ceroti insula, Bd. 4, 6; S. 574, 15. Hér drǽfde Eádgár cyng ða preóstas of Ceortes íge [Certes ige, 223, col. 3] in this year, A. D. 964, king Edgar drove the priests from Chertsey, Chr. 964; Th. 222, 5, 10.

ceorung, e; f. [ceorian to murmur] A murmuring, complaint, grudging; murmuratio, querimonia, querela :-- Sum ceorung mihte beón gif he his behát ne gelǽste there might be some murmuring if he performed not his promise, Homl. Th. ii. 80, 26, 12. Æfter ceorunge after murmuring, ii. 80, 9. Módignys acenþ ceorunge pride begets murmuring, ii. 222, 8. Ic gesylle fram me Israhéla ceorunge cohibebo a me querimonias filiorum Israel, Num. 17, 5. Beóþ cumlíðe eów betwýnan búton ceorungum be hospitable among yourselves without grudging, Homl. Th. ii. 286, 14.

CEÓSAN. ciósan, ic ceóse, ðú ceósest, cýst, he ceóseþ, cýst, císt, pl. ceósaþ; p. ic, he ceás, cés, ðú cure, pl. curon; impert. ceós, pl. ceósaþ; pp. coren; v. a. I. to CHOOSE, select, elect; legere, seligere, eligere :-- Ðæt hí woldon óðerra wera ceósan that they would make a choice of other husbands, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 32, 32. He héht him wine ceósan he commanded him to choose friends, Cd. 90; Th. 112, 8; Gen. 1867: Runic pm. 29; Kmbl. 345, 15; Hick. Thes. i. 135. Drihten ðé císt the lord will choose thee, Deut. 28, 9. Hí leófne ceósaþ ofer woruldwélan they choose the beloved above worldly wealth, Exon. 62b; Th. 230, 29; Ph. 479. Bebodu ðíne ic ceás mandata tua elegi, Ps. Spl. 118, 173. Hér Eádgár, Engla cyning, ceás him óðer leóht, and ðis wáce forlét líf here, A. D. 975, Edgar, king of the Angles, chose him another light, and left this frail life, Chr. 975; Erl. 124, 30; Edg. 22: 1041; Erl. 169, 10. Ǽfæste men him ðá wlc cnron UNCERTAIN the pious men chose them a dwelling there, Cd. 86; Th. 108, 9; Gen. 1803: Andr. Kmbl. 808; An. 404. Ceós ðé geféran and feoht ongén Amalech elige viros et pugna contra Amalec, Ex. 17, 9: Deut. 17, 15. Ðæt ic neóbed ceóse that I may choose a death-bed, Exon. 63b; Th. 235, 7; Ph. 553. Ðæt se cyning him ceóse sumne wísne man ut provideat rex virum sapientem, Gen. 41, 33: Ps. Th. 105, 5. Ceósan us eard in wuldre may we choose us a dwelling in glory, Cd. 217; Th. 277, 14; Sat. 204. Ðæt he óðer líf cure that he chose another life, Bd. 5, 19; S. 638, 6. Ǽr he bǽl cure ere he chose the funeral pile, Beo. Th. 5629; B. 2818: Exon. 100a; Th. 376, 20; Seel. 157. Ðæt hí him cyning curan ut regem sibi eligerent, Bd. 1, 1; S. 474, 22. Ðéh ðe fell curen synnigra cynn though the race of sinners chose death, Andr. Kmbl. 3217; An. 1611. II. to accept by choice or what is offered, to accept; oblatum accipere, accipere :-- Ðæt he ðone cynedóm ciósan wolde that he would accept the kingdom, Beo. Th. 4742; B. 2376. Hie curon æðelinges ést they accepted the chieftain's bounty, Cd. 112; Th. 147, 20; Gen. 2442. [Wyc. Piers P. Chauc. R. Glouc. chese: Laym. cheosen: Orm. chesenn: Plat. kösen, kören: O. Sax. kiosan, keosan: Frs. kiezjen, tziezjen: O. Frs. kiasa, tziesa: Dut. kiezen: Ger. kiesen: M. H. Ger. kiusen, kiesen: O. H. Ger. kiusan, kiosan: Goth. kiusan: Dan. keise: Icel. kjósa: Lat. gustare: Grk. GREEK : Sansk. jush to like, be fond of, choose.] DER. a-ceósan, forþ-, ge-, on-, wið-, wiðer-.

CEOSEL, ceosol, cisil, cysel, es; m? Gravel, sand; glarea, sabulum. Hence the sand-hill in Dorsetshire is called CHESSIL :-- Cisil glarea, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 157, 12. [Kil. kijsel, kesel: Ger. kiesel, m: M. H. Ger. kisel, m: O. H. Ger. kisil, m.] DER. sǽ-ceosel, sand-.

ceosel-stán, cysel-stán, es; m. Sand-stone, gravel; glarea, calculus :-- Ceoselstán glarea, Wrt. Voc. 63, 70. Cyselstán calculus, Ælfc. Gl. 11; Som. 57, 46; Wrt. Voc. 19, 48.

ceosol. cesol, es; m? n? A hut, cottage; gurgustium :-- Cesol gurgustium, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 157, 8.

ceósung, e; f. A choosing; electio, Som. Ben. Lye. DER. a-ceósung. v. ceósan.

ceoul a basket; cophĭnus, Jn. Lind. War. 6, 13. v. cawl.

CEÓWAN, to ceówenne, ic ceówe, ðú ceówest, cýwst, he ceóweþ, cýwþ, pl. ceówaþ; p. ceáw, pl. cuwon; pp. cowen To CHEW, gnaw, eat, consume; ruminare, manducare :-- He hét hine ceówan mid tóþum his fingras he commanded him to gnaw his fingers with his teeth, Homl. Th. ii. 510, 34. Ongunnon ða næddran to ceówenne heora flǽsc and heora blód súcan the serpents began to chew their flesh and suck their blood, ii. 488, 34, 27. Ðæt híg eton ða nýtenu ðe hira clawe todǽlede beóþ and ceówaþ omne quod habet divisam ungulam, et ruminat in pecoribus, comedetis, Lev. 11, 3, 4. Hí cuwon heora girdlas, and gærs ǽton they chewed their own girdles, and ate grass, Ælfc. T. 42, 9: Homl. Th. i. 404, 5. Ðec sculon mold-wyrmas monige ceówan many mould-warms shall consume [chew, eat] thee; Exon. 99a; Th. 371, 8; Seel. 72. [Chauc. chewe: Orm. chewwenn: Scot. chaw, chow: Plat. kaujen, kauwen, kawwen: Dut. kaauwen: Kil. kauwen, kouwen, kuwen: Ger. käuen, kauen: M. H. Ger. kiuwen: O. H. Ger. kiuwan: Dan. tygge: Swed. tugga: Icel. tyggja, tyggya.] DER. be-ceówan, for-, to-.

ceowl a basket; sporta, Mk. Skt. Rush. 8, 8. v. cawl.

ceówung, e; f. A chewing; ruminatio, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cýwung.

cép, es; m. A sale, bargain, business; negotium :-- Awyrigende cép malignum negotium, Somn. 159; Lchdm. iii. 206, 32. Sellan to cépe to give for sale, sell, Deut. 28, 68. v. ceáp II.

cépa, an; m. A chapman, merchant; mercator :-- Nǽnig cépa ne seah ellendne wearod no merchant saw a foreign shore, Bt. Met. Fox 8, 58; Met. 8, 29. Ne geseah nán cépa eáland ILLEGIBLE no merchant visited an island, Bt. 15; Fox 48, 13. Cépena þinga gewrixle the interchange of merchants' goods, commerce; commercuim, Ælfc. Gl. 16; Som. 58, 53; Wrt. Voc. 21, 41. v. cýpa.

CÉPAN, to cépanne; p. cépte, pl. cépton; pp. céped, cépt; v. a. gen. acc. To observe, keep, regard, await, desire, take, betake oneself to, meditate, bear; observare, tenere, manere, appetere, captare, se conferre, meditari, portare :-- Menn mágon cépan be his bleó hwylc weder toweard byþ men may observe by his hue what weather is coming, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 15, 9; Lchdm. iii. 268, 5. Híg mínne hó oððe hóhfót cépaþ oððe begémaþ ipsi calcaneum meum observabunt, Ps. Lamb. 55, 7: Homl. Th. ii. 324, 16: Ælfc. T. 28, 3. Ðe willaþ ðysre deópnysse cépan who will keep this precept, Homl. Th. ii. 94, 7. Ðæt folc his cépte the people regarded him, Homl. Th. ii. 506, 7. Hí brycge ne cépton they regarded not the bridge, Chr. 1013; Erl. 148, 11. Ða sceoldon cépan Godwines eorles they were to lay in wait for earl Godwine, 1052; Erl. 183, 34. Ða munecas ðæs ándagan cépton the monks awaited the day appointed, Homl. Th. ii. 172, 13. He dysigra manna hérunga cépþ he desires the praises of foolish men, i. 412, 7. Ðæt hí cépaþ ðæs ydelan hlýsan that they desire vain renown, ii. 566, 2. Swá hwilcne swá ic cysse, cépaþ his sóna whomsoever I kiss, take him forthwith, ii. 246, 11. He nolde him nánes fleámes cépan he did not wish to betake himself to flight, Ælfc. T. 36, 18. Ðonne him cælþ, he cépþ him hlywþe when he is cold, he betakes himself to shelter, Hexam. 20; Norm. 28, 22. Ic gylpes cépte I have persevered in boasting; jactantiæ insistebam, Mod. confitendi 1. Nele he him hearmes cépan he will not meditate harm against him, Homl. Th. ii. 522, 20. He me hearmes cépþ he meditates harm against me, i. 56, 3. Ðe cépton heora deáþes who meditated their death, L. Ælf. C. 2; Th. ii. 342, 20. Ðæt ðú cépe [MS. kepe] him hearmes that thou meditate harm against him, Basil admn. 5; Norm. 46, 4. Ne cép [MS. kep] ðú ðínum néxtan fácnes devise not deceit against thy neighbour, 5; Norm. 46, 10. Geþyldelíce synd to cépanne patienter portandi sunt, R. Ben. interl. 36. [Chauc. R. Glouc. Laym. kepe: Kil. kepen.]

cépe-cniht, es; m. A bought servant, slave; venalis puer, servus :-- Gregorius geseah cépecnihtas ðǽr gesette Gregory saw slaves placed there, Bd. 2, 1; S. 501, 7. v. ceáp-cniht.

cépe-man, es; m. A chapman, merchant; mercator :-- Gif man feormaþ cépeman if a man entertain a chapman, L. H. E. 15; Th. i. 32, 17. Hit cépemen ne gefaraþ merchants do not visit it, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 1. v. ceáp-man.

cépe-stów a market-place, market; forum, emporium, Som. Ben. Lye. v. ceáp-stów.

cépe-þring; pl. n. Saleable things, goods, ware, merchandise; venalia, merces :-- Secgeaþ hí ðæt cýpemen monig cépeþing to ceápstowe brohte dicunt quia mercatoribus multa venalia in forum fuissent conlata, Bd. 2, 1; S. 501, 4. Cépeþing [MS. cepeþinge] merces, Ælfc. Gl. 16; Som. 58, 52; Wrt. Voc. 21, 40.

céping, e; f. Traffic, merchandise; negotiatio :-- Hús cépinge domum negotiationis, Jn. Rush. War. 2, 16. To cépinge his ad negotiationem suam, Rtl. 107, 25. Betre is tosocnung his cépinge seolferes and goldes melior est acguisitio ejus negotiatione argenti et auri, 81, 14.

cép-man, -mann, es; m. A chapman, merchant; mercator :-- Híg fóron mid óðrum cépmannum they went with other merchants, Gen. 42, 5. v. ceáp-man.

cép-sceamol, es; m. A toll-booth, seat of custom, treasury; telonium = GREEK, gazophylacium = GREEK :-- Ðás word he spræc æt cép-sceamole hæe verba locutus est in gazophylacio, Jn. UNCERTAIN Foxe 8, 20. v. ceáp-sceamul.

cép-setl, es; n. A toll-booth, seat of custom; telonium = GREEK :-- He geseah Leuin sittende æt hys cépsetle vidit Levi sedentem ad telonium, Mk. Bos. 2, 14. v. ceáp-setl.

cer a turn. v. cerr, cyrr.

Cerdic, es; m. Cerdic, the founder of the West-Saxon kingdom; Cerdăcus :-- Ðý geáre ðe wæs agán fram Cristes acennesse cccc wintra and xcv [MS. xciiii] wintra, ðá Cerdic and Cynríc his sunu cwom up æt Cerdices óran mid v scipum. Ond ðæs ymb vi geár, ðæs ðe hie up cwómon, ge-eódon West-Seaxna ríce; and ðæt wǽron ða ǽrestan cyningas ðe West-Seaxna lond on Wealum ge-eódon; and he hæfde ðæt ríce xvi geár; and ðá he gefór, ðá féng his sunu Cynríc to ðam ríce, and heóld xxvii [MS. xvii] winter. Ðá he gefór, ðá féng Ceol to ðam ríce and heóld vii geár. Ðá he gefór, ðá féng Ceolwulf to his bróður, and he rícsode xvii geár; and hiera cyn gǽþ to Cerdice. Ðá féng Cynegils, Ceolwulfes bróður sunu, to ríce and rícsode xxxi wintra; and he onféng ǽrest fulwihte Wesseaxna UNCERTAIN cyninga; and ðá féng Cénwalh to and heóld xxxi wintra; and se Cénwalh wæs Cynegilses sunu in the year that was past from the birth of Christ 495, then Cerdic and Cynric his son landed at Cerdic's shore from five ships. And six years after they landed, they subdued the West-Saxons' kingdom; and they were the first kings, who conquered the West-Saxons' land from the Welsh; and he had the kingdom sixteen years; and when he died, then his son Cynric succeeded to the kingdom, and held it twenty-seven winters. When he died, then Ceol succeeded to the kingdom, and held it seven years. When he died, then Ceolwulf his brother succeeded, and he reigned seventeen years; and their kin reaches to Cerdic. Then Cynegils, Ceolwulf's brother's son, succeeded to the kingdom, and reigned thirty-one winters; and of the West-Saxons' kings, he first received baptism; and then Cenwalh succeeded, and held it thirty-one winters; and Cenwalh was the son of Cynegils, Chr. Erl. 2, 1-20. Hér, A. D. dxxxiv, Cerdic forþférde, and Cynríc his sunu ríxode xxvii wintra and hie gesealdon heora twám nefum, Stufe and Wihtgáre, Wihte eáland here, A. D. 534, Cerdic died, and Cynric his son reigned twenty-seven years, and they gave their two nephews, Stuf and Wihtgar, the isle of Wight, Chr. 534; Th. 26, 40. v. Cerdices ford, Cerdices leáh, Cerdices óra, Birīnus, Cynegils.

Cerdices ford, es; m. Cerdic's ford, the ford of a little river in the south of Dorsetshire on Cerdices óra, q. v; Cerdĭci vadum :-- Hér Cerdic and Cynríc West-Sexena ríce onféngun; and ðý ilcan geáre hie fuhton wið Brettas, ðær mon nú nemneþ Cerdices ford in this year Cerdic and Cynric took the kingdom of the West-Saxons; and in the same year they fought against the Britons, where it is now named Cerdic's ford, Chr. 519; Th. 26, 21-26, col. 1.

Cerdices leáh; gen. leáge; f. Cerdic's ley, in the south of Dorsetshire; Cerdăci campus :-- Hér Cerdic and Cynríc [MS. Cinric] fuhtan wið Bryttas on ðære stówe ðe is gecweden Cerdices leág [MS. Land ford] in this year Cerdic and Cynric fought against the Britons at the place which is called Cerdic's ley, Chr. 527; Th. 26, 30-33, col. 3.

Cerdices óra, Certices óra. an; m. Cerdic's shore, on the south of Dorsetshire, v. Cerdices ford; Cerdăci lítus :-- Ðá Cerdic and Cynríc his sunu cwom up æt Cerdices óran mid v scipum then, A. D. 495, Cerdic and Cynric his son came up to Cerdic's shore with five ships, Chr. Erl. 2, 3. Hér cwómon Cerdic and Cynríc his sunu on Breteue, mid v scipum, in ðone stede ðe is gecweden Cerdices [Certices, 25, 29, col. 1. 2] óra here, A. D. 495, Cerdic and Cynric his son came to Britain, with five ships, at the place which is called Cerdic's shore, Chr. 495; Th. 24, 31, col. 1, 2, 3: 514; Th. 26, 16, col. 1.

ceren, cæren, cyren, es; n? New wine boiled down one third or one half, sweet wine; carenum = GREEK :-- Hí, ða sylfe betweónum, indrencton mid ðám cerenum ðære gódspellícan swétnysse between themselves, they pledged with the wines of gospel sweetness, Guthl. 17; Gdwin. 72, 7. Cærenes gódne bollan fulne meng togædere mingle together a good bowl full of boiled wine, L. M. 1, 1; Lchdm. ii. 24, 19. Cyren vel awilled wín dulcisapa, Cot. 62.

CEREN, cyrin, e; f. A CHURN; vas in quo lac agitatur et butyrum cogitur, fidelia, sinum :-- Cyrin sinum, Wrt. Voc. 290, 31. [Prompt. chyrne: Scot. kirn: Plat. karne: Ger. dial. kerne, f: Dan. kjerne, m. f: Swed. kärna, f: Icel. kirna, f.]

cerfe shall separate; secabit :-- Ne cerfe non secabit, Lev. 1, 17. v. ceorfan.

CERFILLE, cærfille, cyrfille, an; f. CHERVIL; cærefolium = GREEK, chærophyllum sylvestre, Lin :-- Genim ðysse wyrte ðe man cerefolium, and óðrum naman ðam gelíce cerfille UNCERTAIN nemneþ þrý croppas take three heads of this herb, which is named cerefolium, and by the other like name chervil, Herb. 106; Lchdm. i. 220, 9: Lchdm. ii. 72, 6. To monnes stemne nim cerfillan for a man's voice take chervil, 1, 83; Lchdm. ii. 152, 15: 2, 52; Lchdm. ii. 272, 10. [Plat. karwel: Dut. kervel, f: Ger. kerbel, m: M. H. Ger. kërvele, f: O. H. Ger. kerfola. f: Dan. kiörvel, m. f: Swed, kyrfvel, m: Icel. kerfill, m. Rask Hald: Lat. cærefolium; from. Grk. GREEK .] DER. wudu-cerfille.

cerg; adj. [= cearig, q. v.] Sad, dire, wicked; tristis, sollicitus, dirus, malus :-- Cerge reótaþ fóre onsýne éces déman the wicked shall wail before the face of the eternal judge, Exon. 20a; Th. 52, 20; Cri. 836.

cerian to murmur, Wanl. Catal. 4, 6. v. ceorian.

cerlic, es; m? n? The herb CARLOCK or CHARLOCK; rapum sylvestre :-- Nim cerlices sǽd take seed of charlock, L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 2: 2, 34; Lchdm. ii. 238, 30.

cernan; p. de; pp. ed [ceren a churn] To churn; agitare butyrum, Som. Ben. Lye.

cerr, es; m. A turn, time; versio, temporis spatium :-- Æt óðrum cerre alio tempore, Bt. 35, 2; Fox 156, 17. v. cyrr.

cerran; p. de; pp. ed To turn, return; verti, reverti :-- On wóh cerde turned to wrong, deviated; deviavit, Cot. 61. Cer ðé on bæcling turn thee behind, Cd. 228; Th. 308, 26; Sat. 698. Hió cerrende Criste hérdon they returning obeyed Christ, Ps. C. 50, 56; Ps. Grn. ii. 278, 56. Cerreþ on upródor leóht light returns to the sky, Bt. Met. Fox 29, 102; Met. 29, 50. v. cyrran.

cerrednes, -ness, e; f. [cerred, pp. of cerran; -nes] A turning; versio, Ben. Lye. DER. a-cerrednes. v. cyrrednes.

cerse, an; f. Cress; nasturtium, Herb. 21; Lchdm. i. 116, 17, MS. B: L. M. 1, 26; Lchdm. ii. 68, 4: 1, 31; Lchdm. ii. 74, 10: 128, 13: ii. 182, 15: 188, 8: ii. 340, 24. v. cærse.

Certes íg, e; f. CHERTSEY; Certesia :-- Hér [MS. hier] wurþan ða canonicas gedrifen út of ealdan mynstre fram Eádgáre cynge, and eác of niwan [MS. niwen] mynstre and of Certes íge, and of Mideltúine, and he sette ðárto munecas and abbodas: to niwan [MS. niwen] mynstre Ægel-gárum, to Certes íge Ordberhtum, to Mideltúne Cyneward here the canons were driven out of the old monastery [at Winchester] by king Edgar, and also from the new monastery, and from Chertsey, and from Milton, and he placed thereto monks and abbots: Æthelgar to the new monastery, Ordberht to Chertsey, [and] Cyneward to Milton, Chr. 964; Th. 223, 1-11. v. Ceortes íg.

Certices óra, an; m. Cerdic's shore; Cerdĭci lĭtus :-- On ðone stede ðe is geháten Certices óra at the place which is called Cerdic's shore, Chr. 495; Th. 25, 29, col. 1, 2: 514; Th. 27, 15, col. 1, 2. v. Cerdices ðra.

ceruille chervil, Lchdm. iii. 106, 19. v. cerfille.

cés chose, elected; p. of ceósan.

cése a cheese, L. In. 70; Th. i. 146, 19. v. cýse.

cése-lib rennet or runnet; coagulum, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cýs-lib.

cesol a cottage, Glos. Epnl. Red. 157, 8. v. ceosol.

cest, e; f. A chest; cibotium = GREEK, cistella, loculus, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 64: Jn. Rush. War. 13, 29. v. cyst.

cester a city, Chr. 491; Erl. 14, 6. v. ceaster.

cete, an; f. A cabin, cellar; cella, Ælfc. Gl. 108; Som. 78, 99; Wrt. Voc. 58, 14. v. cote, cyte.

cetel, cetil, es; m. A KETTLE; cācăbus = GREEK :-- Cetil cacabum, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 155, 26. v. cytel.

cetel-hrúm, es; m. Kettle-soÓt; cacabi fuligo :-- Genim cetelhrúm take kettle-soot, L. M. 1, 61; Lchdm. ii. 134, 2.

Cetrehta, an; m. Catterick, near Richmond, Yorkshire; Cataracta, oppidi nomen in agro Richrnondensi :-- Tún, ðe he oftust oneardode wel neáh Cetrehtan, gyt to-dæg mon his naman cneódeþ cujus nomine vicus in quo maxime solebat habitare, juxta Cataractam, usque hodie, cognominatur, Bd. 2, 20; S. 522, 24.

cewl a basket, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 16, 9: Mk. Skt. Lind. 8, 8. v. cawl.

chor, es; m? A dance, chorus, choir; chŏrus = GREEK :-- Chor chorus, Wrt. Voc. 81, 21.

chor-gleów, es; n. [gleó, gleów glee, joy, music] A musical dance, dance; chorus = GREEK :-- Hérian híg naman his on chorgleówe laudent nomen ejus in choro, Ps. Lamb. 149, 3: 150, 4.

cicel; gen. cicles; m. A morsel, little mouthful, cake; buccella, placenta :-- Cicel buccella, Cot. 26: 126. Se cicel the cake, Lchdm. iii. 30, 21. Gemenged wið meolowe and to cicle abacen mingled with meal and baked to a cake, Med. ex Quadr. 9, 17; Lchdm. i. 364, 14. Bac hym ánne cicel bake him a cake, Lchdm. iii. 134, 20: L. M. 1, 46; Lchdm. ii. 114, 25: Lchdm. iii. 30, 19, 26: 96, 17.

CICEN, es; pl. nom. acc. cicenu; gen. a; dat. um; n. A CHICKEN; pullus :-- Cicen pullus, Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 49; Wrt. Voc. 30, 4: 281, 24. Cicen oððe brid oððe fola pullus, Wrt. Voc. 77, 37. Henne mid cicenum gesihþ ceápas eácan getácnaþ a dream of a hen with chickens betokens trade to be increasing, Lchdm. iii. 204, 31. Seó henn hyre cicenu under hyre fyðeru gegaderaþ gallina congregat pullos suos sub alas, Mt. Bos. 23, 37. Cicena mete chickens' meat, chick-weed; modera, alsíne = GREEK, Ælfc. Gl. 44; Som. 64, 66; Wrt. Voc. 32, 3: 69, 27: 79, 39: L. M. 3, 8; Lchdm. ii. 312, 16: Lchdm. iii. 6, 14: 118, 29: 134, 1. [Wyc. chykenys, pl: Piers P. chicknes, pl: Chauc. chike: Prompt. chekyn: Plat. kiken, küken: Dut. kieken, kuiken, n: Kil. kiecken: Ger. küch-lein, n: Dan. kylling, m. f: Swed. kyckling, m : Icel. kjúk-lingr, m: O. Nrs. kyk-lingr, m. Rask Hald.]

cicene, an; f. A KITCHEN; coquina, culina :-- Cicene [MS. cicen] coquina vel culina, Ælfc. Gl. 107; Som. 78, 77; Wrt. Voc. 57, 55. v. cycene.

cicle to a cake, Med. ex Quadr. 9, 17; Lchdm. i. 364, 14; dat. of cicel.

cíd, cýd, es; m? Strife, chiding, contention; contentio, jurgium, rixa, Somn. 305. DER. ge-cíd.

CÍDAN, to cídenne; p. cídde, pl. cíddon, cídon; pp. cíded, cídd [cíd strife, chiding] To CHIDE, rebuke, blame, contend, strive, quarrel, complain; increpare, rixari, altercari, queri :-- Cídan on swefnum ceápes eácan getácnaþ to chide in dreams betokens increase of trade, Lchdm. iii. 208, 3: 204, 32. Rihtwís cídeþ me justus increpabit me, Ps. Spl. 140, 6. Cídde him se Hǽlend increpavit ilium Jesus, Lk. Bos. 4, 35: Mk. Bos. 1, 25: 8, 33: Homl. Th. i. 300, 24: ii. 44, 21. His leorningcnihtas cíddon him discipuli ejus increpabant illos, Lk. Bos. 18, 15. Cíde he wið God let him blame God, Homl. Th. i. 96, 1. Gif men cídaþ si rixati fuerint viri, Ex. 21, 18. Begunnon hí to cídenne they begun to quarrel, Homl. Th. ii. 158, 13. Ic cíde altercor, Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 27, 12. Ic cíde oððe ceorige queror, 29; Som. 33, 53. [Wyc. chide, chiden: Piers P. chiden: Chauc. chide: Laym. chiden: Ger. kiden, kyden to sound.] DER. ge-cídan.

cídde told, Gen. 9, 22, = cýðde; p. of cýðan.

CIDER, es; m? CIDER; vinum pomarium, Lye. [Wyc. sydur, sidir: Dut. cider, f: Ger. cider, m: Fr. cidre: Span. cidra: It. cidro, sidro.]

cíding, cýdung, e; f. A CHIDING, reproving, rebuke; increpatio :-- For his cídinge for his chiding, Ors. 4, 12; Bos. 99, 8. Of cýdunge ðínre hí fleóþ ab increpatione tua fugient, Ps. Spl. T. 103, 8.

ciefes, e; f. A concubine; concubina, Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 126, 41. v. cyfes.

ciégan to call, call upon, invoke, Ps. Th. 52, 5: 74, 1. v. cígan.

cíele, es; m. Cold; frigus :-- For cíele nele se sláwa erian propter frigus piger arare nonvult, Past. 39, 2; Hat. MS. 53a, 14, 16, 18. v. cíle.

cielf a calf, Ps. Spl. C. 105, 20. v. cealf.

ciellan; pl. m. Vessels for drink, wooden tankards, leather bottles; obbæ, Dial. 1, 5. v. cyll.

ciepe an onion; cæpe :-- Genim ciepan take an onion, L. M. 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 40, 6. v. cipe.

ciépe-mon a merchant, Som. Ben. Lye. v. ceáp-man.

cier, cierr, es; m. A turn, time, business, affair; versio, temporis spatium, negotium :-- Æt ánum cierre uno eodemque tempore, Past. 61, 2. Mid óðrum cierrum with other affairs, Past. 4, 1; Hat. MS. 9b, 7. v. cyrr.

cierlisc churlish, rustic, L. In. 37; Th. i. 124, 20, 21. v. ceorlisc.

ciern, es; n? Must or new wine toiled thick; sapa, Cot. 170: 184. v. ceren.

CÍFAN ? p. cáf, pl. cifon; pp. cifen To quarrel; litigare. [Dut. kijven to quarrel: Ger. keifen to scold: Icel. kífa to strive, quarrel.] DER. cáf, cáf-líce, -scype; un-cáf-scipe: cáfer-tún.

cifes a harlot; pellex, Alb. resp. 64: Cot. 150: 190. v. cyfes.

cifes-gemána, an; m. Fornication; concubinatus :-- We lǽraþ, ðæt man geswíce cifesgemánan [MS. cifesgemanna] docemus, ut cessent concubinatus, L. Edg. C. 21; Wilk. 84, 1.

CÍGAN, cígean, cýgan, cýgean, ciégan, cégan, cégean; part. cígende; p. de; pp. ed. I. v. trans. To call, name, call upon, invoke, call together, summon; vocare, nominare, invocare, convocare :-- Drihten mæg steorran be naman cígean ealle the Lord can call all the stars by name, Ps. Th. 146, 4. Ealle gewunedon hí móder cýgean all were accustomed to call her mother, Bd. 4, 23; S. 594, 39. Swá hine cígþ Engle and Seaxe as the Angles and Saxons call it, Menol. Fox 366; Men. 184. Ðone [MS. þonne] niða bearn nemnaþ and cígaþ Pentecostenes dæg which children of men name and call the day of Pentecost, Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 15; Edg. 7. He cígde hunger ofer eorþan vocavit famem super terram, Ps. Spl. 104, 15. Ufan engla sum Abraham cýgde an angel from above called Abraham, Cd. 141; Th. 176, 9; Gen. 2909. Dú UNCERTAIN eart líðe eallum cígendum ðé tu es mitis omnibus invocantibus te, Ps. Lamb. 85, 5: PS. Spl. 146, 10. Swá hwylce daga ic ðé cíge, gehýr me in quacumque die invocavero te, exaudi me, Ps. Th. 137, 4. Ðínne naman we cígaþ nomen tuum invocabimus, Ps. Lamb. 79, 19. Ðe cígaþ naman his qui invocant nomen ejus, Ps. Spl. 98, 6. Abraham wordum God torhtum cígde Abraham called upon God with fervent words, Cd. 86; Th. 108, 16; Gen. 1807: Ps. Th. 90, 15. God híg ne cígdon Deum non invocaverunt, Ps. Lamb. 52, 6: 78, 6: Ps. Spl. 98, 7. Us gehýr swilce we ðé daga, Drihten, cígen hear us, 0 Lord, on whatever day we may call upon thee, Ps. Ben. 19, 9; Ps. Grn. ii. 148, 19, 9. Moyses bebeád eorlas cígean sweot sande neár Moses bade his men summon the multitude near to the sand, Cd. 154; Th. 191, 24; Exod. 219. II. v. intrans. To cry, call; clamare, vocare :-- Abeles blód to me cígeþ Abel's blood crieth to me, Cd. 48; Th. 62, 12; Gen. 1013. Ic cígde to Dryhtne I called to the Lord, Ps. Th. 117, 5. DER. a-cígan, ge-.

cígnis, niss, e; f. A name, naming; nomen, Som. Ben. Lye.

cilct; part. [cealc chalk] Chalked; calce illitus. DER. niw-cilct.

CILD; gen. cildes, pl. cild, sometimes cildru, cildra; n. A CHILD, infant; infans, puer :-- Arís and nim dæt cild surge et accipe puerum, Mt. Bos. 2, 13, 14. Ðæt cild wixþ and gewurþ eft cnapa and eft syððan cniht the child grows, and then becomes a boy, and afterwards a young man, Hom. Sax. Þurh cildes hád in the state of childhood, Exon. 65a; Th. 240, 15; Ph. 639. Eálá cild, hú eów lícaþ ðeós spæc O pueri, quomodo vobis placet ista locutio? Col. Monast. Th. 32, 7. Eálá ge cildra O pueri, 35, 33. Mid cilde beón, weorþan, or wesan to be with child, Bd. Whelc. 487, 22. [Chauc. Laym. Orm. child: O. Sax. O. Frs. kind, n: Ger. kind, n: M. H. Ger. kint, n: O. H. Ger. kind, kint, n. proles: Goth. kilþei, f. fætus: Icel. kind, f.] DER. módor-cild, steóp-.

cilda hyrde, oððe láreów, es; m. A herder or teacher of children, schoolmaster; pædagogus. = GREEK, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 103; Wrt. Voc. 46, 60.

cilda mæsse-dæg, es; m. Childermas [Innocents'] -day; festum innocentium :-- Ðys Gódspel sceal on cilda [MS. cylda] mæsse-dæg this Gospel must be on Childermas [Innocents']-day, Dec. 28th, Rubc. Mt. Bos. 2, 13-18; Notes, p. 574.

cilda trog, es; m. [cild, trog a trough, cradle] A child's cot, cradle; cunæ, arum, pl. f. Som. Ben. Lye.

cild-claþ, es; n. A child-cloth, a swaddling-cloth; infantilis pannus :-- Hine mid cildcláðum bewand pannis eum involvit, Lk. Bos. 2, 7.

cild-cradol, es; m. A child's cradle; cunabula, pl. Ælfc. Gr. 13; Som. 16, 23. On cildcradole in a child's cradle, Homl. Th. i. 82, 29.

cild-faru, e; f. A carrying of children. v. cyld-faru.

cild-fostre, -festre, an; f. A child-fosterer, nurse; nutrix :-- Mót he habban mid him his cildfostran [-festran, Roff.] debet habere secum nutricem infantis sui, L. In. 64; Wilk. 25, 4.

cild-geong; adj. Young as a child; infans. Andr. Kmbl. 1369; An. 685.

cild-hád, es; m. CHILDHOOD, infancy; infantia :-- Of cildháde ab infantia, Mk. Bos. 9, 21: Elen. Kmbl. 1826; El. 915.

cild-hama, an; m. The womb; matrix, uterus, Ælfc. Gl. 74; Som. 71, 57; Wrt. Voc. 44, 39.

cild-isc; adj. CHILDISH, puerile; puerilis :-- Cildisc wesan to be childish, Cd. 106; Th. 139, 32; Gen. 2318. v. cild-líc.

cildiung-wif, es; n. A child-bearing woman; puerpera, Wrt. Voc. 7, 17.

cild-líc, cildisc; adj. Childish; infantilis, puerilis :-- Cildlíc puerilis, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 5, 23: 9, 28; Som. 11, 38. For ðære cildlícan yldo propter infantilem ætatem, Bd. 4, 8; S. 575, 28.

cildru children, Homl. Th. i. 80, 20; acc. pl. of cild.

cild-sung, e; f. Childishness; puerilitas, Som. Ben. Lye.

cíle, es; m. A cold; frigus :-- Cíle wið hǽto cold with heat, Bt. Met. Fox 29, 101; Met. 29, 50: Gen. 8, 22. v. cýle.

cilfer-lamb, cilfor-lamb, es; n. A female lamb; agna femina :-- Bringe án cilforlamb offerat agnam, Lev. 5, 6.

cílian, ic cílige; p. ode; v. intrans. To be cold; algere :-- Ic cílige algeo, Ælfc. Gr. 26, 3; Som. 28, 55. v. calan.

cilic, es; m. Hair-cloth; cilicium, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 11, 21.

cille a leather bag; ascopera = GREEK, Wrt. Voc. 288, 37. v. cyll.

Cilt-ern, es; n. [ceald cold, ærn place] The CHILTERN, high hills in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire; montes quidam excelsi in agris Bucingamiensi et Oxoniensi :-- Námon hí [Þurkilles here] ǽnne upgang út þuruh Ciltern, and swá to Oxena forda, and ða buruh forbærndon they [Thorkell's army] took an upward course out through Chiltern, and so to Oxford, and burned that town, Chr. 1009; Th. 262, 21, col. 1.

cim, cim-stanas; pl. m. The bases of a pillar; bases, Som. Ben. Lye.

cimbal, es; m: cimbala, an; m; A cymbal; cymbalum :-- Cimbal cymbalum, Ælfc. Gl. 20; Wrt. Voc. 82, 17. Cimbalan oððe psalteras æt-hrínan [MS. ætrínan] saca hit getácnaþ to touch cymbals or psalteries betokens a lawsuit, Somn. 74; Lchdm. iii. 202, 14; Greg. Dial. 1, 9.

cimban ? p. camb, pl. cumbon; pp. cumben To join; jungere. DER. camb; bannuc-camb, neðe-, UNCERTAIN wulfes-.

cimbing, e; f. A joint, conjunction; commissura, Som. Ben. Lye.

cime, es; m. A coming, Cd. 29; Th. 39, 1; Gen. 618. v. cyme.

cimþ comes, Ps. Th. 15, 11; 3rd pres. of cuman.

CIN, cyn, e; f. The CHIN; mentum :-- Cin mentum, Wrt. Voc. 71, 1. [Chauc, chinne: Piers P. chyn: Laym. chin: O. Sax. kinni, n: O. Frs. kin, ken: Dut. kin, f: Ger. M. H. Ger. kinn, n: O. H. Ger. kinni, n: Goth. kinnus, f. the cheek: Dan. kind, m. f: Swed. kind, f: Icel. kinn, f: Lat. gena; Grk. GREEK : Sansk. hanu, m. f. the jaw.] DER. cin-bán.

cin a kind; genus. v. cinn, cyn, cynn.

cínan a chink, Bt. 35, 3; Fox 158, 28, note; acc. of cíne.

cínan; p. cán, pl. cinon; pp. cinen To gape, to break into chinks; hiare, dehiscere, Som. Ben. Lye. DER. to-cínan.

cin-bán, es; n. The CHIN-BONE; mandibula, mentum :-- Cin-bán man- dibula, Ælfc. Gl. 71; Som. 70, 81; Wrt. Voc. 43, 14. Cin-bán mentum, Text. Rof. 40, 1. Se ðe cin-bán forslæhþ, mid xx scillingum forgelde let him who breaks the chin-bone pay for it with twenty shillings, L. Ethb. 50; Th. i. 16, 1.

cin-berg, e; f. That part of the helmet which protects the chin; menti protectio :-- Grímhelm gespeón cining, cinberge the king clasped his grim helmet, the protection of his chin, Cd. 151; Th. 188, 28; Exod. 175.

cincg a king, Th. Diplm. A. D. 743-745; 28, 21. v. cyning.

cincung, e; f. A loud or cackling laughter; cachinnatio :-- Ceah-hetung, UNCERTAIN vel cincung cachinnatio, Ælfc. Gl. 88; Som. 74, 86.

cind a kind, nature, v. cynd.

cine, es; m. I. a commander of four men, or a fourth part of an army; quaternio :-- Cine oððe feówer manna ealdor quaternio, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 3; Som. 8, 34. II. a sheet of parchment folded into four parts, a quarto sheet; quaternio :-- Cine quaternio, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 108; Wrt. Voc. 46, 65: 75, 10. Bod on cine a command in folded parchment; diploma = GREEK, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 110; Wrt. Voc. 46, 67.

CÍNE, cýne, an; f. A chink, fissure, vault; rima, caverna :-- Ic geseah áne lytle cýnan [Cott. cínan] I saw a little chink, Bt. 35, 3; Fox 158, 28. Cínan rimas, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 149, 5. Cínum cavernis, 148, 81. [Wyc. chyne: Dut. keen, f.]

cine-líc; adj. [cyn fit, suitable] Of a like kind, agreeable, suitable, adequate; congruus, cornpetens :-- Ðæt we wilnian to heorn fultum be swá manegum mannum swá us cinelíc þince æt swá micelere spræce that we desire aid from them of so many men as may seem to us adequate for so great a suit, L. Ath. v. § 8, 3; Th. i. 236, 16.

cinen, cínende gaping; pp. and pres. Part. of cínan.

cing a king, Deut. 11, 3: Chr. 894; Erl. 92, 17. v. cyning.

Cinges tún, es; m. [cinges tún the king's town] KINGSTON; regia villa :-- Æðelstán wæs to cinge æt Cinges túne gehálgod Athelstan was consecrated king at Kingston, Chr. 925; Th. 198, 7, col. 3; 8, col. 2: 979; Th. 234, 9, col. 1; 235, 6, col. 2. v. Cynges tún.

cining a king. Cd. 151; Th. 188, 28. v. cyning.

cín-líc gaping. v. cíne.

cinn, es; n. A kind; genus :-- Fleógende cinn flying kind; volatile, Gen. 1, 20. Creópende cinn creeping kind; reptilia, 1, 24. Æfter his cinne after its kind, 1, 11. v. cyn, cynn.

cinnan, ic cinne, ðú cinnest, he cinneþ, cinniþ, pl. cinnaþ; p. ic, he can, ðú cunne, pl. cunnon; pp. cunnen To generate, procreate; generare, procreare :-- Sorgum cinniþ brings forth with sorrows, Exon. 94b; Th. 354, 28; Reim. 52. From this verb, the p. ic, he can are taken as a present tense. Hence it is called one of the twelve præterito-præsentia, enumerated under ágan. For cúðe the weak p. of cunnan, v. the inf. cunnan. DER. for-cinnan.

cin-tóþ, es; m. A front tooth, grinder; molaris, Prov. 30, Lye.

cínu, e; f. A chink, fissure; rima, fissura :-- Cínu rima vel fissura, Wrt. Voc. 85, 18. Gemétte he ðæt fæt swá gehál dæt ðǽr nán cínu on næs gesewen he found the vessel so whole that there was no chink seen in it, Homl. Th. ii. 154, 22. v. cíne, an; f.

ció a chough, sort of crow; cornicula, Wrt. Voc. 281, 2. v. ceó.

ciól, es; m. A ship; navis :-- He lét him behindan ciólas nigon and hundnigontig he left behind him ninety-nine ships, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 46; Met. 26, 23. v. ceól.

ciole, an; f. The throat; guttur :-- Sting finger on ciolan thrust a finger into the throat, L. M. 1, 59; Lchdm. ii. 130, 5.

ciorian to complain, Ælfc. Gr. 29, MS. D; Som. 33, 52. v. ceorian.

ciorl a rustic, L. In. 40; Th. i. 126, 12, note 28. v. ceorl.

ciorlisc churlish, rustic, common, L. In. 18; Th. i. 114, 6, note 8. v. ceorlisc.

ciósan to choose, accept, Beo. Th. 4742; B. 2376. v. ceósan.

cípan; p. cípte, pl. cípton, cíptun; pp. cípt To sell; vendere :-- Híg cíptun vendiderunt, Gen. 47, 20. v. cýpan.

cipe, ciepe, an; f. An onion; cæpa, allium cæpe, Lin :-- Cipe an onion, L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 24. Genim garleac and cipan take garlic and onion, 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 40, 15. Twá cipan oððe þreó gebrǽd on ahsan roast two or three onions in ashes, 1, 69; Lchdm. ii. 144, 14.

cipe-leac, es; n. A leek; cipus, Cot. 55.

cipp, es; n? A coulter, ploughshare; dentale :-- Cipp dentale, Ælfc. Gl. 1; Som. 55, 7; Wrt. Voc. 15, 7.

Cippan-ham, -hamm, es; m. [Hunt. Cipenham: Brom. Chipenham] CHIPPENHAM, Wilts; villæ nomen in agro Wiltoniensi :-- Hér hine bestæl se here on midne winter ofer twelftan niht to Cippanhamme in this year [A. D. 878], at mid-winter, after twelfth night, the army stole itself away to Chippenham, Chr. 878; Erl. 79, 29. Hér fór se here to Cirenceastre of Cippanhamme, and sæt ðǽr án geár in this year [A. D. 879] the army went from Chippenham to Cirencester, and remained there one year, Chr. 879; Erl. 80, 26; 81, 23.

cipresse, an; f. The cypress-tree; cupressus, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cypresse.

cíptun bought, Gen. 47, 20; p. pl. of cípan. v. cýpan.

cir a turn, time :-- Æt ðam fiftan cire at the fifth turn or time, Lchdm. i. 214, 6, MS. B. note 8. v. cirr, cyrr.

circe, an; f. A church; ecclesia = GREEK :-- Circe ecclesia, Ælfc. Gl. 107; Som. 78, 82; Wrt. Voc. 57, 58. We lǽraþ, ðæt man innan circan ǽnigne man ne birige we enjoin that they do not bury any man within a church, L. Edg. C. 29; Th. ii. 250, 15: Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 5. v. cyrice.

Circe, Kirke, an; f. Circe the sorceress; Circe, es; f. = GREEK; f :-- Cyninges dóhtor sió Circe wæs Circe was the king's daughter, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 112; Met. 26, 56.

circe-weard, es; m. A churchwarden; ecclesiæ custos, Chr. 1131; Erl. 260, 12. v. cyric-weard.

circe-wíca, an; m. A church-dwelling, sacristy; sacrarium :-- To ðe circewícan to the sacristy, Chr. 1137; Erl. 263, 13.

circ-líc; adj. [circe a church] Like a church, ecclesiastical; ecclesiasticus :-- Mid circlícum þénungum with ecclesiastical services, Wanl. Catal. 118, 4, col. 2. v. cyric-líc.

circ-nyt, -nytt, e; f. [nyt duty, service] Church-duty or service; ecclesiæ ministerium vel officium :-- Sum cræft hafaþ circnytta fela one has skill in many church-services, Exon. 79b; Th. 298, 27; Crä. 91.

circol-wyrde, es; m. A calculator, reckoner; computator :-- Feówer síðon syx byþ feówer and twentig: ða syx tída sind genemned þurh ðæra circolwyrda gleáwnysse quadrantes four times six are four-and-twenty: the six hours are called by the wisdom of calculators quadrants, Bridf. 63.

circul, es; m. A circle, the zodiac; circulus, zodiacus = GREEK :-- Ðǽr ðæs emnihtes circul is geteald where the circle of the equinox is reckoned, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 4, 18; Lchdm. iii. 238, 23. Ætýwdan feówer circulas onbútan ðære sunnan four circles appeared round the sun, Chr. 1104; Erl. 239, 17. For ðam brádan circule ðe is zodiacus geháten, under ðam circule yrnþ seó sunne on account of the broad circle which is called zodiacus, under which circle the sun runs, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 5, 20, 21; Lchdm. iii. 242, 2. Ðæt heó be-yrne ðone miclan circul zodiacum that she runs through the great circle the zodiac, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 7, 1; Lchdm. iii. 244, 21.

circul-ádl, e; f. Circle-disease, the shingles; zona, circĭnus :-- Lǽce-dðmas UNCERTAIN wið ðære ádle ðe mon hǽt circuládl leechdoms for the disease, which man calls the circle-disease or shingles, L. M. Cont. 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 8, 18: L. M. 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 5.

circul-cræft, es; m. Circle-craft, the zodiac; sphæræ cognitio :-- Sceal on circule cræfte findan hálige dagas shall by circle-craft [or the zodiac] find out holy days, Menol. Fox 134; Men. 67.

cire-bald; adj. Bold in decision; arbitrii strenuus :-- Ðá him cirebaldum Meotud mancynnes módhord onleác then the Lord of mankind unlocked the treasure of words to him bold in decision, Andr. Kmbl. 341; An. 171.

Ciren-ceaster, Cyren-ceaster, Cyrn-ceaster; gen. ceastre; f. [Asser. Cirrenceastre: Hunt. Cirecestere: Brom. Circestre] CIRENCESTER, Cicester, Gloucestershire; Cirencestria in agro Glocestriensi :-- Hie genámon iii ceastra, Gleawanceaster, and Cirenceaster [Cyrenceaster, col. 2, 3], and Baðanceaster they took three cities, Gloucester, and Cirencester, and Bath, Chr. 577; Th. 32, 41, col. 1. Æt Cirenceastre [Cyrenceastre, col, 2, 3] at Cirencester, 628; Th. 44, 13, col. 1. Hér fór se here to Cirenceastre [Cyrenceastre, col. 2, 3] of Cippanhamme, and sæt ðǽr án geár in this year [A. D. 879] the army went from Chippenham to Cirencester, and remained there one year, 879; Th. 148, 38, col. 1: 880; Th. 150, 8, col. 1. Hér, on Eastron, wæs micel gemót æt Cyrenceastre in this year [A. D. 1020], at Easter, there was a great council at Cirencester, 1020; Th. 286, 12, col. 2. Him eóde on hand se cyning and ða burhware ðe wǽron on Cyrnceastre the king came into his hands and the townspeople who were in Cirencester, Ors. 5, 12; Bos. 110, 22.

ciric-belle, an; f. [cirice a church] A church-bell; ecclesiæ campana :-- Of ciricbellan from a church-bell, L. M. 1, 63; Lchdm. ii. 136, 29.

ciric-bryce, cyric-bryce, es; m. [cirice a church, brice, bryce a breaking, violation, breach] Church-breach, a breaking into a church; in ecclesiam irruptio :-- Be ciricbryce of church-breach, L. Ath. i. 5; Th. i. 202, 5, 6.

ciric-dór, es; n. A church-door; ecclesiæ porta :-- Se ðe man ofslehþ binnan ciricdórum [MS. -derum] sylle ðære cirican cxx scillinga let him who slays a man within church-doors give to the church 120 shillings, L. Eth. vii. 13; Th. i. 332, 9.

cirice, an; f. A church; ecclesia = GREEK :-- We lǽraþ, ðæt preóstas cirican healdan to godcundre þénunge we enjoin that priests keep their churches for divine service, L. Edg. C. 26; Th. ii. 250, 3: 30; Th. ii. 250, 19. v. cyrice, circe.

ciric-friþ church-peace, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 62, 5. v. cyric-friþ.

ciric-fultum, es; m. [fultum help, aid] Church-help, ecclesiastical support; ecclesiæ auxilium :-- We lǽraþ, ðæt preóstas geóguþe geornlíce lǽran ðæt hí ciricfultum habban we enjoin that priests diligently teach youth that they may have ecclesiastical support, L. Edg. C. 51; Th. ii. 254, 26.

ciric-griþ, cyric-griþ; es; n. Church-peace, right of sanctuary; ecclesiæ pax :-- Stande ǽlc ciiicgriþ [cyric- MS. A.] swá swá hit betst stód let every church-peace stand as it has best stood, L. Edg. i. 5; Th. i. 264, 25: L. E. G. 1; Th. i. 166, 20. Gif ǽnig man Godes ciricgriþ swá abrece, ðæt he binnon ciricwagum mannslaga weorþe, ðonne síg ðæt bótleás if any man so break God's church-peace, that he be a homicide within church-walls, then let that be bootless, L. C. E. 2; Th. i. 358, 22: 2; Th. i. 360, 4: L. Eth. vi. 14; Th. i. 318, 24: ix. 1; Th. i. 340, 1, 5.

ciriclec ecclesiastical, Chr. 716; Erl. 44, 19. v. cyriclíc.

ciric-mangung, e; f. Church-mongering, the sale or purchase of ecclesiastical offices, simony; sacrorum nundinatio :-- Ǽnig man ciric-mangunge ne macie let no man commit simony, L. Eth. v. 10; Th. i. 306, 28: vi. 15; Th. i. 318, 27.

ciric-mitta, an; m. [mitta a measure, bushel] A church measure; ecclesiastica mensura :-- VI ciricmittan ealaþ six church measures of ale, Th. Diplm. A. D. 900; 144, 33.

ciric-ragu, e; f. Church-lichen or moss; ecclesiæ muscus, L. M. 1, 63; Lchdm. ii. 138, 1.

ciric-sceat, es; m. Church-scot, church-money, tax or rate; ecclesiæ census. v. cyric-sceat.

ciric-sócn, cyric-sócn, e; f Church-privilege; ecclesiæ immunitas :-- Be ciricsócnum of church-privileges, L. In. 5; Th. i. 104, 12.

ciric-þén, es; m. [þén a servant, minister] A church-minister, clergyman; ecclesiæ minister, clericus :-- Ǽnig man ciricþén ne útige búton biscopes geþehte let no man turn out a church-minister without the bishop's counsel, L. Eth. v. 10; Th. i. 306, 29: vi. 15; Th. i. 318, 27.

ciric-þénung, e; f. [þénung duty, service] Church-duty or service; ecclesiæ ministerium :-- We lǽraþ ðæt preóstas on ciricþénungum ealle án dreógan, and beón efenweorþe on geáres fæce on eallum ciricþénungum eve enjoin that priests in church-duties all perform service at the same time, and, in the space of a year, be like worthy in all church-duties, L. Edg. C. 50; Th. ii. 254, 22-24.

ciric-tún, es; m. [tún an inclosure] A church-inclosure, church-yard, cemetery; ecclesiæ sepimentum, cœmetērium = GREEK :-- Ne binnan cirictúne ǽnig hund ne cume let not any dog come within the churchyard, L. Edg. C. 26; Th. ii. 250, 7.

ciric-wæcce, an; f. A church-watch or wake; vigilia :-- We lǽraþ ðæt man, æt ciricwæccan, swíðe gedreóh sí we teach that a man, at the church-wakes, be very sober, L. Edg. C. 28; Th. ii. 250, 12.

ciric-wag, es; m. A church-wall; ecclesiæ murus :-- Se ðe ofslehþ man binnan ciricwagum biþ feorhscyldig he who slays a man within church-walls is life-guilty, L. Eth. viii. 13; Th. i. 332, 8: ix. 1; Th. i. 340, 5: L. C. E. 2; Th. i. 358, 23.

ciris-beám, es; m. A CHERRY-tree; cĕrăsus = GREEK :-- Cirisbeám cerasus, Wrt. Voc. 285, 44. Cirisbeám [MS. cisirbeam] cerasus, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 156, 19.

cirlisc rustic, Chr. 893; Erl. 88, 33. v. ceorlisc.

CIRM, cyrm, es; m. A noise, shout, clamour, uproar; strepitus, clamor, fragor, clangor :-- Hlynn wearþ on ceastrum, cirm árleásra cwealmes on óre din was in the cities, the clamour of the shameless at the point of death, Cd. 119; Th. 153, 31; Gen. 2547. In the following references it is written cirm, Exon. 20a; Th. 52, 19; Cri. 836: 22b; Th. 62, 7; Cri. 998: 36a; Th. 118, 5; Gú. 235; 38a; Th. 125, 34; Gú. 364: 83b; Th. 314, 26; Mód. 20: Andr. Kmbl. 82; An. 41: 2476; An. 1239. Cyrm, dyne fragor, Mone B. 4413. Cyrm clangor, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 40. Wæs on eorþan cyrm a noise was on the earth, Byrht. Th. 134, 61; By. 107: Andr. Kmbl. 2252; An. 1127. Hlúd herges cyrm loud was the shout of the host, Cd. 148; Th. 184, 14; Exod. 107. Ic gehýre synnigra cyrm swíðe hlúdne I hear the uproar of sinners very loud, 109; Th. 145, 17; Gen. 2407. Cyrmum clangoribus, Mone B. 6276. DER. here-cirm, wíg-. UNCERTAIN

cirman, cyrman; p. de; pp. ed; v. intrans. [cirm a noise, shout] To make a noise, CHIRM, cry out, shout; strepere, clamare, exclamare :-- Hí ongunnon cirman hlúde they began to cry out aloud, Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 20; Jud. 270. Ic hlúde cirme I cry out aloud, Exon. 103a; Th. 390, 18; Rä. 9, 3. Ða hlúde cirmaþ they loudly cry out, 114b; Th. 439, 4; Rä. 58, 4. He hlúde stefne ne cirmde he did not cry out with a loud voice, 113a; Th. 432, 20; Rä. 49, 3. Swá wilde deór cirmdon they cried out as wild beasts, 46a; Th. 156, 25; Gú. 880. Herewópa mǽst láðe cyrmdon the enemies shouted the loudest of army-cries, Cd. 166; Th. 207, 3; Exod. 461. [Scot, chirm: Dut. Kil. kermen: Ger. M. H. Ger. karmen to wail.]

Cirn-ceaster Cirencester, Chr. 628; Erl. 25, 14. v. Ciren-ceaster.

cirnel a kernel, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cyrnel.

cirpsian; p. ede; pp. ed To crisp, curl; crispare, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cyrpsian.

cirps-loccas crisped or curled locks, Som. Ben. Lye. v. crisp, cyrps.

cirr a turn, business, affair; versio, negotium :-- Mid óðrum cirrum with other affairs, Past. 4, l; Swt. 36, 23. v. cir, cyrr.

cirran; p. de; pp. ed To turn; vertere :-- Him cirde to Þurferþ eorl earl Thurferth turned to him, Chr. 921; Erl. 107, 27: Invent. Crs. Recd. 1833; El. 915. v. cyrran.

cís; adj. Choice, nice in eating; fastidiosus in edendo :-- Gyf hwá sý cís if any one be choice, Herb. 8, 2; Lchdm. i. 98, 15.

cisil sand, gravel; glarea, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 157, 12. v. ceosel.

cisil-stán sand-stone. v. ceósel-stán.

císnes, -ness, e; f. Choiceness, niceness; fastidium, curiositas, R. Ben. 39: L. M. 2, 1; Lchdm. ii. 174, 21. v. ceásnes.

Cisse-ceaster; gen. -ceastre; f. [Flor. Cissaceaster: Sim. Dun. Cissacestre] Cissa's city, CHICHESTER, Sussex; Cissæ castellum, Cicestria in agro Sussexiensi :-- Hergodon hie upon Súþ-Seaxum neáh Cisseceastre they harried on the South-Saxons near Chichester, Chr. 895; Erl. 93, 27. To Cisseceastre at Chichester, L. Ath. i. 14; Th. i. 208, 3.

cist, e; f. A band, company; cohors :-- On folcgetæl fíftig cista: hæfde cista gehwilc x hund tíreádigra in the number of the people were fifty bands: each band had ten hundred illustrious warriors, Cd. 154; Th. 192, 9-16; Exod. 229-232. DER. eóred-cist, here-.

cist goodness, bounty, Ælfc. T. 9, 1. v. cyst.

cist, e; f. A chest; cista, Wrt. Voc. 288, 31. v. cyst.

císt chooses, Deut. 28, 9; 3rd sing. pres. of ceósan.

cisten-beám, es; m. A chesnut-tree; castanea = GREEK :-- Cisten-beám [MS. cistenbean] castanea, Wrt. Voc. 285, 46. v. cyst-beám.

cist-mǽlum earnestly; certatim, Som. Ben. Lye.

citel a kettle, Wrt. Voc. 288, 35. v. cytel.

CITELIAN; p. ode; pp. od To tickle; titillare, Ettm. [Scot. kittle; Plat. kiddeln, keddeln, kitteln, ketteln: Dut. kittelen, ketelen: Ger. kitzeln: O. H. Ger. kizilón, kuzilón: Dan. kildre: Swed. kittla: Icel. kitla.]

citelung, e; f. A tickling; titillatio :-- Citelung [MS. kitelung] titillatio, Wrt. Voc. 289, 21.

CÍÞ, cýþ, es; m. I. a young shoot of a herb or tree, a CHIT, sprout, germ, sprig, mote; germen, festuca :-- Swá dropan ofer gærsa cíþas quasi stillæ super graminum germina, Deut. 32, 2. Forhwí ǽlc sǽd to cíþum and wyrtrumum weorþe why should every seed turn to germs and roots? Bt. 34, 10; Fox 148, 32. On eallum cedrum cíþ alǽded [MS. cuþ, ciiþ = cíþ alædeð] the germ formed on all cedar trees, Ps. Th. 148, 9. Eall eorþan cíþ every shoot of the earth, 103, 12. Se snáw bewríhþ wyrta cíþ the snow covers the germ of herbs, Salm. Kmbl. 605; Sal. 302. Seó eorþe cýþ mid hire cíþum, ðæt se tíma is geáres anginn the earth makes known by her plants, that the time is the beginning of the year, Homl. Th. i. 100, 16. Forst sceal lúcan eorþan cíþas frost shall lock up the germs of the earth, Exon. 90a; Th. 338, 7; Gn. Ex. 75. Genim wegbrǽdan þrý cýþas take three sprouts of plantain, Herb. 2, 14; Lchdm. i. 84, 14. Ðú meaht gesión lytelne cíþ on ðínes bróður eágan thou canst see a little mote in thy brother's eye, Past. 33, 6; Cot. MS. 42b, 32. Se smala cíþ the small mote, 33, 6; Hat. MS. 43a, 2, 3. Cunna hwæðer ðú mǽge adón ðone cíþ of ðínes bróður eágan try if thou canst remove the mote from thy brother's eye, 33, 6; Hat. MS. 43a, 6. II. seed; crementum :-- Cýþ crementum, Glos. Brux. Recd. 38, 7; Wrt. Voc. 64, 16. Cíþ, vel weres sǽd crementum, vel hominis semen vel crementum, Ælfc. Gl. 74; Som. 71, 73; Wrt. Voc. 44, 55. [O. Sax. kíð, m: O. H. Ger. kídi, n.] DER. gærs-cíþ.

cíþ-fæst; adj. Rooted, growing; radicatus, crescens :-- Se man ðe plantaþ treówa oððe wyrta he hí wæteraþ óþ-ðæt hí beóþ cíþfæste the man who plants trees or herbs waters them until they are rooted, Homl. Th. i. 304, 26.

citil a kettle, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cytel.

CLÁ, cleó, clawu; gen. dot. acc. clawe; pl. nom. acc. cleó, clawa, clawu, clawe; gen. clawena; dat. clám, clawum; f. A nail, CLAW, hoof; unguis, ungula :-- Fénix fýres láfe clám biclyppeþ the Phænix seizes the relics of the fire with its claws, Exon. 59b; Th. 217, 8; Ph. 277. Nægl oððe clawu unguis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 46. Wurdon forþaborene ísene clawa iron claws were brought forth, Homl. Th. i. 424, 19. Sume wǽron mid ísenum clawum totorene some were torn with iron claws, Homl. Th. i. 542, 30. Hóf oððe clawu ungula, Wrt. Voc. 71, 66. Ðe clawe ne todǽlaþ qui ungulam non dividunt, Lev. 11, 4. Hearde cleó hard hoofs, Ps. Th. 68, 32. Hira clawe todǽlede beóþ their hoofs are divided, Lev. 11, 3. Gelícaþ Gode ofer cealf iungne forþbringende clawu [clawa, Spl.] placebit Deo super vitulum novellum producentem ungulas, Ps. Lamb. 68, 32. [Wyc. cle, clee a hoof: Wrt. Gl. 12th cent. p. 87, 26 clau ungula: O. Sax. cláuua, f. a claw, hoof: Frs. klauwe: O. Frs. klewe a claw: Dut. klaauw, m: Ger. klaue, f. unguis, ungula: M. H. Ger. klá, f: O. H. Ger. klawa, kloa, f. unguis, ungula: Dan. klo, m. f: Swed. klo, m: Icel. kló, f.] DER. clawan, clawung, cleweða.

clæc-leás, clac-leás; adj. Free; immunis :-- Clæcleás immunis, Cot. 104. Clacleás [clacles MS.] free, Hick. Thes. i. 149, 51, 57.

clæfer-wyrt, e; f. Clover-wort, clover; trifolium minus :-- Nim ða smalan clæfer-wyrt nioðowearde take the netherward part of the small clover-wort,L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 26.

CLÆFRE, an; n. f. CLOVER; trifolium pratense :-- Ðysse wyrte man crision and óðrum naman UNCERTAIN clæfre nemneþ a man names this herb GREEK, and by another name clover, Herb. 70; Lchdm. i. 172, 16. Clæfre nom. 172, 14. Hwíte clæfran wyrc clame work white clover to a paste, L. M. 1, 21; Lchdm. ii. 64, 4. Clæfre calta vel trillion, Ælfc. Gl. 41; Som. 64, 3; Wrt. Voc. 31, 15. Nim reád clæfre take red clover, L. M. 3, 8; Lchdm. ii. 312, 20. Clæfran seáwes of juice of clover, 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 214, 11. Nim clæfran wyrttruman take roots of clover, 2, 40; Lchdm. ii. 250, 12. [Plat. klever, klewer: Dut. klaver, f: Ger. klee, m: M. H. Ger. klé; gen. kléwes, m: O. H. Ger. klé, chléo; gen. chléwes: Dan. klöver, n: Swed. klöfver, m.]

CLǼG, es; m? CLAY; Samia terra, Ælfc. Gl. 56; Som. 67, 36; Wrt. Voc. 37, 26. [Wyc. cley: Chauc. clei: Plat. klei: Frs. klaey: O. Frs. klai: Dut. klei, f: Kil. kleye: Ger. klei, klai, m; Dan. kläg, kleg, m. f. n: O. Nrs. kleggi, m. massa compacta, Rask Hald. The fundamental idea is slimy, tenacious.]

clǽig; def. se clǽiga, clǽia; adj. CLAYEY; argillaceus :-- On ða clǽian lane, of ðære clǽian lane to the clayey lane, from the clayey lane, Cod. Dipl. 741; A. D. 1024; Kmbl. iv. 31, 8, 9.

Clǽig-hangra, an; m. [clǽig = clǽg clay] Clay-hanger or Claybury, Essex :-- Eádmund cyning gegaderede fyrde and férde to Lundene, eal be norþan Temese, and swá út þuruh Clǽighangran king Edmund gathered a force and went to London, all north of the Thames, and so out through Clayhanger, Chr. 1016; Erl. 156, 24.

CLÆMAN; p. de; pp. ed To CLAM, smear, anoint; linere :-- Ic clæme lino, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 1. UNCERTAIN Som. 30, 35. Ðú wircst wununge binnan ðam arce and clæmst wiðinnan and wiðútan mid tyrwan mansiunculas in arca facies et bitumine linies intrinsecus et extrinsecus, Gen. 6, 14. Clæm on ðone cancer smear it on the cancer, L. M. 1, 44; Lchdm. ii. 110, 4: 3, 45; Lchdm. ii. 336, 22. Clæme on ðæt geswel smear it on the swelling, Lchdm. iii. 38, 23. [Wyc. clemede smeared: Kil. kleemen: O. H. Ger. kleimjan, chleimen; Icel. kleima.] DER. ge-clǽman.

clæmende hardening; obfirmans, Cot. 145.

clæmming, e; f. A blotting, daubing, smearing, hardening; litura, oblimatio, Ælfc. Gr. 47, Som. Ben. Lye.

CLǼNE, cléne; def. se clǽna, seó, ðæt clǽne; comp. m. clǽnra, f. n. clǽnre; sup. clǽnest; adj. I. CLEAN, pure, clear; mundus, purus, merus, serenus :-- Ðonne án unclǽne gást biþ adrifen of ðæm men, ðonne biþ ðæt hús clǽne when an unclean spirit is driven out of a man, then the house is clean, Past. 39, 1; Hat. MS. 53a, 8. Swá swá clǽne nýten eodorcende in ðæt swéteste leóþ gehwyrfde quasi mundum animal ruminando in carmen dulcissimum convertebat, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 6: Homl. Th. i. 138, 20. Clǽne oflete, and clǽne wín, and clǽne wæter a pure oblation, and pure wine, and pure water, L. Edg. C. 39; Th. ii. 252, 13. Wæs seó lyft swíðe cléne the air was very clear, Chr. 1110; Erl. 243, 1. Se clǽna óþscúfeþ scearplíce the pure [bird] files quickly away, Exon. 58a: Th. 209, 8; Ph. 167. Ðæt land ic selle Cynulfe for syxtigum mancesa clǽnes goldes I sell the land to Cynulf for sixty mancuses of pure gold, Cod. Dipl. 313; A. D. 883; Kmbl. ii. 111, 21. Calic on handa Drihtnes wínes [MS. win] clǽnes [MS. clænis] full is calix in manu Domini vini meri plenus, Ps. Spl. 74, 7. Forbærne hit man on clǽnum fíre let a man burn it in a pure fire, L. Edg. C. 38; Th. ii. 252, 8: Exon. 55a; Th. 194, 11; Az. 137: Bt. Met. Fox 12, 9; Met. 12, 5. Clǽnre heortan mundo corde, Ps. Spl. 23, 4. Gebærnedne hláf clǽnne seóþ on ealdum wíne seethe pure toasted bread in old wine, L. M. 2, 2; Lchdm. ii. 180, 26. Cyning [MS. kynincg] sceal on Drihtne clǽne blisse habban a king shall have pure bliss in the Lord, Ps. Th. 62, 9. Ne acyr ðú fram ðínum cnihte ðín clǽne gesihþ ne avertas faciem tuam a puero tuo, 68, 17. Gewát him se hálga sécan ðone clǽnan hám the holy one departed to seek the pure home, Andr. Kmbl. 1956; An. 980. Húslfatu Caldéas clǽne genámon the Chaldeans took the clean vessels of sacrifice, Cd. 210; Th. 260, 10; Dan. 707. Clǽnum stefnum with pure voices, Elen. Kmbl. 1496; El. 750. God ðone ǽrestan ælda cynnes of ðære clǽnestan foldan geworhte God made the first of the race of men from the purest earth, Exon. 44b; Th. 151, 12; Gú. 794. II. chaste, innocent; castus, innoxius :-- Clǽne castus, Ælfc. Gl. 90; Som. 74, 121; Wrt. Voc. 51, 34. Clǽne [MS. cleane] oððe heofonlíc [MS. -lice] Cælebs, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 49; Som. 13, 13. Ðú byst clǽne absjue peccato eris, Deut. 23, 22: Chr. 1066; Erl. 198, 4; Edw. 23. Gif heó clǽne sý if she be innocent, L. Ath. V. § 1, 1; Th. i. 228, 17: L. Eth. iii. 7; Th. i. 296, 9. On háligra clǽnre cyricean in ecclesia sanctorum, Ps. Th. 149, 1. Ic onféng fǽmnan clǽne I received a chaste damsel, Exon. 10b; Th. 12, 18; Cri. 187. Ðone clǽnan sacerd the pure priest, 9b; Th. 9, 18; Cri. 136. Beón ða óðre ciǽne let the others be innocent, Gen. 44, 10. Sint spræcu Drihtnes spræcu clǽne sunt eloquia Domini eloquia casta, Ps. Lamb. 11, 7. Seó clǽneste cwén the most chaste woman, Exon. 11b; Th. 17, 26; Cri. 276. [Piers P. clene: Laym. clæne, clene, clane: Orm. clene: Plat. kleen parvus: Frs. klien parvus: O. Frs. klen parvus; Dut. kleen little: Kil. kleyn exilis, minutus: Ger. klein parvus: M. H. Ger. kleine subtilis, parvus: O. H. Ger. kleini subtilis: Dan. klein: Swed. klen thin, slight: Icel. klénn snug, tiny.] DER. hyge-clǽne, un-.

clǽne, cláne, cléne; adv. CLEAN, entirely; penitus, omnino :-- Ne rípe ge ðæt land tó clǽne reap not the land too clean, Lev. 23, 22: Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 76, 30: Bd. 3, 10; S. 534, 35. Clǽne biþ beorhtast nesta bǽle forgrunden the brightest of nests is entirely destroyed by the fire, Exon. 59a; Th. 213, 18; Ph. 226: Ps. Th. 88, 37. Ðæt mín cynn clǽne [MS. clane] gewíte that my race be clean gone, Cod. Dipl. 235; A. D. 835; Kmbl. i. 311, 16. Cléne entirely, Cd. 213; Th. 265, 14; Sat. 7.

clǽn-georn; adj. Yearning after purity; puritatis amans :-- Clǽngeorn and cystig yearning after purity and bountiful, Exon. 128a; Th. 492, 25; Rä. 81, 21. Ne mágon ná swilce men macian wununge ðam clǽn-geornan Gode on clǽnre heortan no such men can make a dwelling in a pure heart for a God desirous of purity, Basil, admn. 7; Norm. 48, 19.

clǽn-heort; def. se clǽn-heorta; adj. Clean-hearted, pure in heart; mundo corde :-- Eádige synd ða clǽnheortan, forðamðe hí God geseóþ beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt, Mt. Bos. 5, 8: Homl. Th. ii. 580, 33.

clǽn-líc; adj. Pure. CLEANLY; purus, mundus :-- Mid clǽnlícre lufe with pure love, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 38: Bt. Met. Fox 11, 183; Met. 11, 92.

clǽn-líce; adv. Purely, cleanly; puré, UNCERTAIN L. Ælf. C. 36; Th. ii. 360, 25.

clǽnnes, -ness, -niss, -nyss, e; f. CLEANNESS, chastity, purity, modesty; puritas, castimonia :-- Clǽnnesse riht castimoniæ jura, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 1. Heó on clǽnnesse Gode þeówode she served God in chastity, 4, 9; S. 576, 21: L. Eth. v. 9; Th. i. 306, 20. Mid clǽnnesse with purity, L. Eth. v. 7; Th. i. 306, 15: vi. 4; Th. i. 316, 2: Ps. Th. 88, 37. Ðæt he healdan wille his clǽnnisse that he will keep his chastity, L. Eth. v. 6; Th. i. 306, 8. Þurh ða heálícan clǽnnysse through exalted purity, Homl. Th. i. 346, 1: L. Edg. S. 1; Th. i. 272, 16: Ps. Spl. 17, 22, 26. DER. un-clǽnnes.

clǽnsend, es; m. [part. of clǽnsan = clǽnsian] A cleanser; purgator. DER. eár-clǽnsend.

clǽnsere, es; m. A cleanser, purifier, priest; purgator, Som. Ben. Lye.

clǽnsian, clénsian, to clǽnsianne; part. clǽnsiende; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad [clǽne clean, pure] To CLEANSE, purify, chasten, clear oneself; mundare, purgare, castigare, se liberare :-- Gif man eard wille clǽnsian if a man wishes to cleanse the land, L. Eth. ix. 40; Th. i. 348, 25: L. C. S. 7; Th. i. 380, 7. Sió wamb biþ to clǽnsianne the stomach is to be cleansed, L. M. 2, 46; Lchdm. ii. 260, 12. Clǽnsie man ða þeóde let a man cleanse the people, L. E. G. 11; Th. i. 174, 2. HÉ tiliaþ hí selfe to clǽnsianne mid ðý wópe they strive to purify themselves with mourning, Past. 54; Hat. MS. Ðis wæter cristnaþ and clǽnsaþ cwicra menigo this water cristeneth and purifieth a multitude of men, Salm. Kmbl. 791; Sal. 395. Heó ða iungran lǽrde and clǽnsade ge mid hire láre ge mid lífes býsne she taught and purified the younger ones both by her doctrine and by the example of her life, Bd. 4, 9; S. 576, 23. Clǽnsa me munda me, Ps. Spl. 18, 13. Clǽnsiende clǽnsode me Drihten castigans castigavit me Dominus, Ps. Spl. 117, 18. Gif he mid ða ádle clǽnsad beón sceolde if he must be chastened by disease, Bd. 4, 31; S. 610, 26. Gif hwá þeóf clǽnsian wylle if any one will clear a thief, L. Eth. iii. 7; Th. i. 296, 7. Preóst hine clǽnsie sylfes sóþe let a priest clear himself by his own truth, L. Win. 18; Th. i. 40, 14, 16: 19; Th. i. 40, 17: 20; Th. i. 40, 19: L. Eth. ii. 8; Th. i. 288, 19: ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 10. Hine geréfa clénsie let the reeve clear him, L. Wih. 22; Th. i. 42, 4. [Wyc. Piers P. clense: Orm. clennsenn.] DER. a-clǽnsian, be-, ge-, un-: un-geclǽnsod.

clǽnsnian, clǽnsnigan; p. ode; pp. od To cleanse, clear oneself; se purgare :-- Clǽnsnaþ [MS. clænsnoþ] he ðone he clears him, L. Eth. ii. 8; Th. i. 288, 20. Clǽnsnige hine sylfne let him clear himself, ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 11. Búton he frínd hæbbe ðe hine clǽnsnian unless he have friends who may clear him, ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 13. v. clǽnsian.

clǽnsung, e; f. A CLEANSING, purifying, chastening, expiation, chastity; emundatio, purificatio, castigatio, expiatio, castitas :-- Ðú towurpe hine fram clǽnsunge destruxisti eum ab emundatione, Ps. Lamb. 88, 45: Mk. Bos. 1, 44. Wæs Rómána gewuna ðæt hí clǽnsunge þweáles and bæþes sóhton Romanorum usus fuit lavacri purificationem quærere, Bd. 1, 27; S. 495, 15. Wæs he mid clǽnsunge forhæfednesse weorþ and mǽre erat abstinentiæ castigatione insignis, 4, 28; S. 606, 39. Biþ heó fremiende to his clǽnsunge erit in expiationem ejus proficiens, Lev. 1, 4. Ðe belumpon to ðære mynsterlícan clǽnsunge quæ monasticæ castitatis erant, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 14. DER. ge-clǽnsung, mynster-, un-.

clæppettan; p. tte; pp. ted To palpitate, have a palpitation; palpitare :-- Gif sino clæppette if a sinew have palpitation, L. M. 1, 26; Lchdm. ii. 68, 8. v. clappan.

clæppetung, e; f. The pulse; pulsus, Ælfc. Gl. 76; Som. 71, 109; Wrt. Voc. 45, 15. Ǽdra clæppetung the pulse of the veins, L. M. 2, 46; Lchdm. ii. 258, 16.

clǽsnian; p. ode; pp. od To cleanse; mundare, purgare :-- Sceal mon clǽsnian ða yflan wǽtan one must cleanse the evil humours, L. M. 2, 30; Lchdm. ii. 228, 14, note 4: 2, 32; Lchdm. ii. 234, 25, note 2: 2, 35; Lchdm. ii. 240, 23, note 4: 2, 48; Lchdm. ii. 262, 17, note 2. v. clǽnsian.

clǽþ a cloth :-- Dó on clǽþ put on a cloth, L. M. 2, 47; Lchdm. ii. 260, 28. v. cláþ.

clæwetða a clawing, scratching, Past. 11, 6; MS. Oth. v. cleweða.

cláf, pl. clifon clave, adhered; p. of clífan.

clam; gen. clammes; m. n? I. what is clammy, mud, clay; malagma, lutum :-- Wyrc swá to clame so work to clam [a clammy substance], Herb. 2, 11; Lchdm. i. 84, 3. Mid heardum weorcum clames operibus duris luti, Ex. l, 14. II. a bandage, what holds or retains, as a chain, net, fold, prison; vinculum :-- He ðé clamme belegde he loaded thee with a chain, Andr. Kmbl. 2386; An. 1194. Of ðǽm clammum with tnose chains, Bt. Met. Fox 1, 165; Met. 1, 83: Exon. 112a; Th. 429, 30; Rä. 43, 12. Gebindan ǽrenum clammum to bind with brazen bands, Cd. 200; Th. 248, 28; Dan. 520: Beo. Th. 2675; B. 1335: 1931; B. 963. v. clom; gen. clommes.

clám with claws, Exon. 59b; Th. 217, 8; Ph. 277; dat. of clá.

clamb, clomm, pl. clumbon climbed; p. of climan, climban.

cláne clean, clear, L. M. 2, 65; Lchdm. ii. 296, 6. v. clǽne.

clang shrunk, Andr. Kmbl. 2522; An. 1262; p. of clingan.

clappan to CLAP, move, palpitate; palpitare, Som. Ben. Lye.

CLÁTE, an; f. The herb CLOT-bur, a bur that sticks to clothes, burdock, goose-grass, clivers; philanthropos = GREEK, lappa, arctium lappa, galium aparine, Lin :-- Ðás wyrte man philanthropos nemneþ, ðæt ys on úre geþeóde menlufigende, forðý heó wyle hrædlíce to ðam men geclyfian: ða man eác óðrum naman cláte nemneþ this herb is called philanthropes, that is in our language men-loving, because it will readily cleave to a man: it is also named by another name clivers, Herb. 174, 1; Lchdm. i. 306, 2-5: Ælfc. Gl. 40; Som. 63, 105; Wrt. Voc. 30, 53: 41; Som. 63, 108; Wrt. Voc. 30, 56: 66, 67. Cláte lappa, Wrt. Voc. 67, 75: 79, 41: Ælfc. Gl. 40; Som. 63, 91; Wrt. Voc. 30, 41. Wið ceolan swile clátan wyl on ealaþ for swelling of throat boil burdock in ale, L. M. 1, 12; Lchdm. ii. 56, 3: I. 45; Lchdm. ii. 110, 13: 2, 53; Lchdm. ii. 274, 3. Nim ða smalan clátan take the small burdock, 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 100, 23. Genim doccan oððe clátan, ða ðe swimman wolde take dock or clote, such as would swim, 1, 50; Lchdm. ii. 122, 22. [Wyc. clote, cloote: Chauc. clote-lefe a leaf of the clot-bur: Ger. M. H. Ger. klette. f: O. H. Ger. kletta, kledda. f.]

CLÁÞ; gen. cláðes; m. CLOTH; pannus: in the plural, clothes; vestirnenta :-- Ne déþ nán man niwes cláðes scyp on eald reáf nemo immittit commissuram panni rudis in vestimentum vetus, Mt. Bos. 9, 16. Heó ða moldan on cláðe bewand she wound the mould in a cloth, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 8. Dó on cláþ put on a cloth, L. M. 2, 2; Lchdm. ii. 180, 5, 10, 28: 2, 47; Lchdm. ii. 262, 2. Awring þurh cláþ wring through a cloth, 2, 53; Lchdm. ii. 274, 7. Híg bewundon hine mid línenum cláðe ligaverunt illud linteis, Jn. Bos. 19, 40. Ðæt is heora bíwist; wǽpnu, and mete, and ealo, and cláðas this is their provision; weapons, and meat, and ale and clothes, Bt. 17; Fox 60, 5. Him wyrþ oftohen ðara cláða he is deprived of the clothes, 37, 1; Fox 186, 14: Bt. Met. Fox 25, 46; Met. 25, 23. Of ðínum cláðum a vestimentis tuis, Ps. Th. 44, 10: Exon. 18b; Th. 45, 27; Cri. 725: 28b; Th. 87, 12; Cri. 1424. Ruben tær his cláðas Reuben tore his clothes, Gen. 37, 29: Bt. 37, 1; Fox 186, 10. [R. Glouc. cloth: Laym. claðe, cloð, claed: Orm. claþ: Scot. claith, clayth: Plat. kleed: Frs. klaed: O. Frs. klath, klad, kleth, n: Dut. Kil. kleed, n: Ger. kleid, n: M. H. Ger. kleit, n: Dan. Swed. kläde, n: Icel. klæði, n.] DER. bearm-cláþ, cild-, feax-, heáfod-, sár-, swát-.

cláþ-scear a pair of shears. v. scear IV.

clatrung, e; f. Anything that makes a clattering, a drum, rattle; crepitaculum. Cot. 51.

clauster; gen. claustres; n. An inclosed place, a cloister; claustrum :-- Eálá ge cildra, gáþ út, bútan hygeleáste, to claustre, oððe to leorninge O vos pueri, egredimini, sine scurrilitate, in claustrum, vel in gymnasium, Coll. UNCERTAIN Monast. Th. 36, 9. Fæsten vel clauster claustrum, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 79, 15; Wrt. Voc. 58, 56. v. clústor.

clawan, ic clawe; p. ede; pp. ed [clá a nail, claw] To CLAW; scalpere :-- Ic clawe scalpo, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 4; Som. 31, 20. [Dut. klaauwen: Ger. klauen: O. H. Ger. klawjan: Dan. klöe: Swed. klá: UNCERTAIN Icel. klá to scratch, klóask to fight with claws.]

clawu a nail, claw, hoof, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 46; Wrt. Voc. 71, 66. v. clá.

clawung, e; f. [clá a claw] A pain, the gripes; tormina :-- Lǽcedómas wið clawunga leechdoms for the gripes, L. M. cont. 2, 32; Lchdm. ii. 164, 16: 2, 32; Lchdm. ii. 236, 1.

cleacian; p. ode; pp. od To go nimbly, hurry; festinare, trepidare :-- He cleacode swíðe earhlíce to porte he hurried very timidly to town; in via totus trepidabat, M. H. 115a.

cleadur a clatter, drum, rattle; crepitaculum, Som. Ben. Lye.

cleáf, pl. clufon clove, separated; p. of cleófan.

cleáfa, an; m. A cellar; cellarium :-- Hwá gefylþ cleáfan his quis replet cellaria sua? Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 17. v. cleófa.

Clede-múþa, an; m. [the mouth of the river Cleddy] GLADMOUTH, CLEDMOUTH, South Wales :-- Hér Eádweard cyning getimbrede ða burh æt Cledemúþan in A. D. 921, king Edward built the burgh at Cledmouth, Chr. 921; Th. 194, 1-3, col. 3; Th. 195, 1-3, col. 1.

clemman; p. de; pp. ed [clam II. a chain] To fetter, bind, inclose; vincire, includere. DER. be-clemman.

clencan; p. te; pp. ed To CLINCH, hold fast; prehendere, prensare. v. be-clencan, Supl.

cléne clean, pure, clear, Ps. C. 50, 88; Ps. Grn. ii. 278, 88: Chr. 1110; Erl. 243, 1. v. clǽne; adj.

cléne cleanly, entirely; penitus :-- Deópne ymblyt cléne ymbhaldeþ meotod the lord entirely upholdeth the deep expanse, Cd. 213; Th. 265, 14. v. clǽne; adv.

clengan; p. de; pp. ed To exhilarate; exhilarare :-- Dreám clengeþ joy exhilarates. Exon. 107b; Th. 411, 6; Rä, 29, 8.

clénsian to cleanse, clear oneself, L. Win. UNCERTAIN 22; Th. i. 42, 4. v. clǽnsian.

cleó a claw, hoof, Ps. Th. 68, 32. v. clá.

cleof a cliff, rock, Exon. 101b; Th. 384, 15; Rä. 4, 28. v. clif.

cleófa, cleafa, cliófa, an; m. That which is cloven, a cleft, chasm, den, cell, chamber; cubīle, cellarium, cubiculum :-- On heora cleófum oððe holum híg beóþ gelogode in cubilibus suis collocabuntur, Ps. Lamb. 103, 22. Unriht he byþ smeágende on his cliófan iniquitatem meditatus est in cubili suo, Ps. Th. 35, 3. Sinewealt cleófa vel portic absida, Ælfc. Gl. 108; Som. 78, 122; Wrt. Voc. 58, 34. Ðeós sweoster wæs útgangende of hire cleófan hæc soror egressa est de cubiculo, Bd. 4, 9; S. 576, 31. DER. clústor-cleófa, ferhþ-, hord-, in-, nýd-. v. clýfa.

CLEÓFAN, ic cleófe, ðúclýfst, he clýfþ, pl. cleófaþ; p. cleáf, pl. clufon; pp. clofen To CLEAVE, separate, split; findere, dissecare :-- Cleófan secare, Glos. Prudent Recd. 149, 54: scindere, 150, 9. Bordweall clufon aforan Eádweardes Edward's sons clove the board-wall, Chr. 937; Th. 200, 38, col. 3; Æðelst. 5. Clufon, Byrht. Th. 140, 4; By. 283. [Piers P. cleven: Chauc. cloven, pp: Orm. clofenn, pp; Plat. klöwen, klöven: O. Sax. klioban: UNCERTAIN Dut. klieven, klooven: Ger. klieben: M. H. Ger. kliuben, klieben: O. H. Ger. kliuban: Dan. klöve: Swed. klyfva: Icel. kljúfa.] DER. to-cleófan: cleófa, cleáfa, clýfa, clífa, bed-, clúster-, ferhþ-, gebed-, hord-, in-, nýd-.

Cleofes hoo Clif, near Rochester, Chr. 822; Th. 110, 14, col. 3. v. Clofes hoo.

cleofian, he cleófaþ, pl. cleofiaþ; p. ode; pp. od To cleave, adhere, stick; adhærere :-- Ða ðe him on cleófiaþ those who cleave to him, Exon. 97b; Th. 364, 20; Wal. 73. v. clifian.

cleopian; p. ode; pp. od To cry, call; clamare :-- Ic nú wille geornlíce to Gode cleopian I will now earnestly call upon God, Bt. 3, 4; Fox 6, 28: Andr. Kmbl. 2796; An. 1400. Ic cleopode to ðé clamavi ad te, Ps. Th. 118, 146, 147. v. clypian.

cleopigend, cleopend, es; m. A vowel; vocalis, Som. Ben. Lye.

cleopung, e; f. A cry; clamor, Mt. Rush. Stv. 25, 6. v. clypung.

cleót a clout, Som. Ben. Lye. v. clút.

cleóða, an; m. A plaster, salve, poultice; malagma :-- Ðone hálwendan cleóðan malagma, Mone B. 2976. v. clíða.

cleowen a clew, ball of thread or yarn, ball, Ælfc. Gl. 111; Som. 79, 68; Wrt. Voc. 59, 37: Exon. 59a; Th. 213, 17; Ph. 226. v. cliwen.

clepian; p. ode; pp. od To cry, call; clamare, vocare :-- Ic clepode forðanðe ðú gehýrdest me eálá ðú God ego clamavi quoniam exaudisti me Deus, Ps. Lamb. 16, 6. v. clypian.

clepung, e; f. A calling; vocatio, clamor :-- Se nán clepunge ðǽrto ná hafde máre he had not any more calling thereto, Chr. 1129; Erl. 258, 9. Clepung mín on ansýne oððe on gesihþe his ineóde to his eárum clamor meus in conspectu ejus introivit in aures ejus, Ps. Lamb. 17, 7. v. clypung.

clerc, cleric, clerec, es; m. [Lat. Clericus = GREEK belonging to the clergy, clerical] A CLERK, clergyman, generally a deacon or priest; clericus :-- Gregorius wæs clerc Gregory was a priest, Chr. 1129; Erl. 258, 25: 1123; Erl. 250, 20. He dráf út ða clerca of ðe biscopríce he drove the clergy out of the bishopric, 963; Erl. 121, 13. Preóst oððe cleric clericus, Wrt. Voc. 71, 77. We lǽraþ ðæt preósta gehwilc to sinoþe hæbbe his cleric we enjoin that every priest at a synod have his deacon, L. Edg. C. 4; Th. ii. 244, 14. Hí wǽron ealle ðæs cynges clerecas they were all the king's clergy, Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 22.

clerc-hád, cleric-hád, cleroc-hád, es; m. The clerical office, priesthood; sacerdotium, clericatus :-- Clerchádes man a man of the clerical order, Chr. 1123; Erl. 250, 11. Clerichád clericatus, C. R. Ben. 60. Clerochád clericatus, Cot. 45.

cleweða, clæweða, an; m. A clawing, scratching; scalpturigo, scalpurigo :-- Se giecþa [gicþa MS. Cot.] biþ swíðe unsár, and se cleweða [MS. Oth. clæweða] biþ swíðe rów, and ðeáh-hwæðere gif him mon tó longe fylgþ, he wundaþ, and wund sáraþ the itch is very free from pain, and the scratching is very comfortable, and yet if it be kept up too long, it produces a wound, and the wound is painful, Past. 11, 6; Hat. MS. 15b, 23. DER. clawu, clá a nail, claw.

CLIBBOR; adj. [clifian to cleave, adhere] Sticky, adhesive; tenax :-- Weá biþ wundrum clibbor grief is wonderfully adhesive, Menol. Fox 485; Gn. C. 13. [M. H. Ger. klëber: O. H. Ger. klebar adhesive.]

cliewe a clew, Som. Ben. Lye. v. clywe.

CLIF, clyf, cleof, es; n. A CLIFF, rock, steep descent, promon ory; clivus, rupes, promontorium :-- Ða ludéi lǽddon Crist to ánum clife, and woldon hine niðerascúfan the Jews led Christ to a cliff, and would cast him down, Homl. Th. ii. 236, 33. Æt Eádwines clife at Edwin's cliff, Chr. 761; Th. 89, 24, col. 1. Ðæt hí ne hlipen on ðæt scorene clif that they leap not down the abrupt cliff, Past. 33, 1; Hat. MS. 41a. 9. Be clifum on the cliffs, Exon. 81b; Th. 306, 15; Secf. UNCERTAIN 8. Ðæt hie Geáta clifu ongitan meahton that they might perceive the cliffs of the Gauts, Beo. Th. 3826; B. 1911. Ofer cald cleofu over the cold cliffs, Andr. Kmbl. 619; An. 310: Exon. 101b; Th. 384, 15; Rä. 4, 28. Ðú hluttor lǽtest wæter of clife clǽnum thou lettest forth clear waters from the pure rock, Exon. 55a; Th. 194, 11; Az. 137: Bt. Met. Fox 5, 25; Met. 5, 13. Se ðe gecyrde clyf on wyllan wætera qui convertit rupem in fontes aquarum, Ps. Spl. M. C. 113, 8. God clifu cyrreþ on wæteres wellan God turneth rocks into wells of water, Ps. Th. 113, 8. Clif promontorium, Ælfc. Gl. 67; Som. 69, 117; Wrt. Voc. 41, 67. Nílus seó eá, hyre ǽwylme, is neáh ðæm clife ðære Reádan Sǽs the spring of the river Nile is near the promontory of the Red Sea, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 17, 19, 29. [O. Sax. klif, n. a rock; Dut. klip, f. a rock, cliff: Kil. kleppe, klippe rupes, petra; Ger. klippe, f. rupes: O. H. Ger. clep promontorium: Dan. klippe, m. f. a rock, cliff: Swed. klippa, f: Icel. klif, n. a cliff] DER. brim-clif, ég-, heáh-, holm-, stán-, weal-.

clífa, an; m. A den, cave; cubile, spelunca, Bd. 3, 23; S. 554, 22. v. clýfa.

CLÍFAN, ic clífe, ðú clífest, clífst, he clífeþ, clífþ, pl. clifaþ; p. cláf, pl. clifon; pp. clifen To CLEAVE, adhere; adhærere. [Piers P. clyven: Plat. kleeven; O. Sax. bi-klíban: UNCERTAIN Frs. be-klieuwen: O. Frs. bi-kliva: M. H. Ger. klíben: O. H. Ger. klíban: Dan. kläbe: Swed. klibba.] DER. óþ-clífan; clifian, cleofian, cliofian.

clife, an; f. I. the greater burdock; arctium lappa :-- Dó clifan use burdock, L. M. 1, 67; Lchdm. ii. 142, 16. II. the small burdock :-- Seó smæle clife the small burdock, CLIVERS; galium aparine, L. M. 1, 50; Lchdm. ii. 124, 2. DER. gar-clife.

clifer; gen. clifres; m. A claw, talon; ungula :-- Clifras [MS. cifras] ungulas, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 150, 37. Clifra ungularum, 149, 7. DER. clifrian.

clif-hlép, clif-hlýp right down, under foot; pessum, Cot. 155, Som. Ben. Lye.

clifian, cleofian, cliofian, clyfian; p. ode; pp. od To cleave, adhere; adhærere :-- Hí willaþ clifian on ðǽm monnum they will cleave to the men, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 54, 19. Woldon hí on ðam clifian they would cleave to him, 16, 3; Fox 56, 10: L. M. 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 38, 20. His flǽsces lima clifaþ ǽlc on óðrum each of the limbs of his flesh cleaves to another, Past. 47; Hat. MS. Ðín tunge clifaþ to ðínum goman thy tongue cleaveth to thy gums, Homl. Th. ii. 530, 28. To ðære lifre clifiaþ adhærent jecori, Lev. 1, 8. Ðæt dust, ðæt of eówre ceastre on úrum fótum clifode, we drígeaþ on eów pulverem, qui adhæsit nobis de civitate vestra, extergimus in vos, Lk. Bos. 10, 11. [Wyc. cleuyde cleaved: Laym. cleouieþ cleaveth: O. Sax. klibón: UNCERTAIN Dut. kleeven: Ger. kleben, kleiben: O. H. Ger. klebén, klebjan.] DER. æt-clifian, ge-, on-, to-, to-ge-.

clifig, clifiht; adj. CLIFFY, steep; clivosus, Ælfc. Gl. 9; Som. 56, 120; Wrt. Voc. 19, 4: Cot. 34: 209.

clifon cleaved, adhered; adhæserunt; p. pl. of clífan.

clifrian, ic clifrige; p. ode; pp. od [clifer a claw] To claw, scratch; scabere :-- Ic clifrige scabo, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 6; Som. 32, 25. DER. to-clifrian.

clif-stán, es; m. A rough stone, rock; cautes :-- Clifstánas cautes, Cot. 44.

clif-wyrt, e; f. Maiden-hair, water-wort, fox-glove; agrimonia :-- Clifwyrt, sume men hataþ foxes clife, sume eá-wyrt cliff-wort, some men call fox-glove, some water-wort, L. M. l, 15; Lchdm. ii. 58, 3.

climan, ðú climst, he climþ; p. clomm to climb, v. climban and ofer-clomm.

CLIMBAN, ic climbe, ðú climst, he climþ, pl. climbaþ; p. clamb, pl. clumbon; pp. clumben; v. a. To CLIMB; scandere, ascendere :-- Clumbon [MS. Clumben] upp to ðe stépel climbed up to the steeple, Chr. 1070; Erl. 209, 9. Clumbon [MS. Clumben] upp to ðe hálge róde climbed up to the holy cross, Erl. 209, 6. [Laym. climben to climb, he climbeth; p. cluombe, pl. clumben; pp. iclumben: Orm. climbenn to climb: Dut. klimmen scandere: O. H. Ger. klimban: M. H. Ger. klimmen, klam, klummen, geklummen: Sansk. kram incedere, ascendere.] DER. ofer-climan, ofer-climban: climan, clymmian.

climmian to climb. v. clymmian, climan, climban.

climst, he climþ climbest, climbs; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of climan, climban.

CLINGAN, ic clinge, ðú clingst, he clingþ, pl. clingaþ; p. clang, pl. clungon; pp. clungen, geclungen. I. to wither, pine, to CLING [in this sense, rarely used in English] or shrink up; se contrahere, marcescere :-- Clang wæteres þrym ofer eástreámas: ís brycgade blǽce brimráde the glory of water shrank over river streams: ice bridged a pale water­road, Andr. Kmbl. 2522; An. 1262. Ic clinge marcesco, Ælfc. Gr. 35; Som. 38, 7. [Piers P. clyngen to shrink, wither, pine.] v. for-clingan, ge-clungen. II. to CLING, stick close; circumcludere, includere. v. be-clingan.

cliof a cliff, rock, pointed rock, crag; cautes, Cot. 30. v. clif.

cliófa a den, chamber, Ps. Th. 35, 3. v. cleófa.

cliofian, he cliofaþ, pl. cliofiaþ; p. ode; pp. od To cleave; adhærere :-- Hí willaþ cliofian on ðǽm monnum they will cleave to the men, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 54, 19, note 9. v. clifian.

cliofung, e; f. A CLEAVING; sectio :-- Cliofung sectio, Ælfc. Gl. 62; Som. 68, 83; Wrt. Voc. 39, 66.

cliopian; part. clioppende; p. ode; pp. od To cry, call; clamare :-- Se Hǽland ongann cliopian [MS. cliopia] the Saviour began to cry, Mk. Skt. Lind. 10, 47. Clioppende, 9, 36: 15, 39: Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 14, 26. v. clypian, clipian.

cliowen a clew, ball, Mone B. 1662. v. cliwen.

clipian, clipigan, pl. clipiaþ; p. ode; pp. od To make a vocal sound, call, address, invoke; vocare, alloqui :-- We clipiaþ to ǽlcum þinge we address everything, Ælfc. Gr. 7; Som. 6, 25. v. clypian, clipigendlíc.

clipigendlíc; adj. I. calling, vocative; vocativus :-- Vocativus is clipigendlíc oððe gecígendlíc: mid ðam casu we clipiaþ to ælcum þinge, Eálá ðú man cum hider O! homo veni huc: Eálá ðú man sprec to me O! homo loquere ad me: Eálá ðú láreów tǽce me sum þing O! magister doce me aliquid: vocative is calling or invoking: with this case we address everything, as -- O! thou man come nither: 0! thou man speak to me: O! thou master teach me something, Ælfc. Gr. 7; Som. 6, 24-27. II. making a vocal sound; vocalis. v. clypiendlíc, clypigendlíc.

clipur, es; m. A CLAPPER of a bell; tintinnabuli vel campanæ malleus :-- Se bend ðe se clipur ys mid gewriðen, ys swylce hyt sý sum gemetegung ðæt ðære tungan clipur mǽge styrian, and ða lippan æt-hwega beátan. Sóþlíce mid ðæs rápes æt-hríne se bend styraþ ðone [MS. ðæne] clipur the band with which the clapper is tied, is as it were a method for moving the clapper of the tongue, and beating more or less the lips. So with the touch of the rope the band moves the clapper, Wanl. Catal. 109, col. 2, 16-20. [Dut. klepel, f: M. H. Ger. klepfel, m. tubillus; klepfer, m. clapper.]

cliroc, es; m. A clerk, priest; clericus :-- Cliroc hine clǽnsie let a clerk clear himself, L. Wih. 19; Th. i. 40, 17. v. clerc.

Clistún, es; m. CLIST or CLYST, near Exeter, Devon, Chr. 1001; Gib. 132, 16; Ing. 175, 7. v. Glistún.

clite, an; f. The herb colt's foot; tussilago :-- Genim ða langan clitan [MS. lancge cliton] take the long colt's foot, Lchdm. iii. 22, 16.

clíða, clýða, an; m. A plaster, salve, poultice; emplastrum, malagma = GREEK :-- Se wítega Isaias worhte ðam cyninge Ezechie clíðan to his dolge the prophet Isaiah made for king Hezekiah a plaster for his sore, Homl. Th. i. 476, 1. Clíða malagma, Wrt. Voc. 74, 9: Ælfc. Gr. 9, 1; Som. 8, 22. Man sceal him wyrcean clíðan tofóran his heáfde one must make him a poultice for his forehead, Lchdm. iii. 8, 13, 16. Swylce ðǽr clýða togelǽd wǽre as if a poultice were laid there, Herb. 51, 2; Lchdm. i. 154, 18. Ðyssa wyrta genim ða læssan, wyrc to clýðan take the lesser of these herbs, make it into a poultice, 143, 5; Lchdm. i. 266, 15: 173, 4; Lchdm. i. 304, 15. Genim ðyssa wyrta wyrtruman, gecnucude mid ele, and mid hwǽtenan meluwe, and mid sápan, ðam gemete ðe ðú clýðan wyrce take roots of these herbs, pounded with oil, and with wheaten meal, and with soap, in the manner in which thou wouldst make a poultice, 184, 4; Lchdm. i. 322, 14: 130, 1; Lchdm. i. 240, 21: 125; Lchdm. i. 236, 21.

cliwen, clywen, cleowen, cliowen, es; n. [cliwe = clywe] A clew, anything that is globular, a ball of thread, ball; glomus, globus :-- Cliwen glomus, Wrt. Voc. 66, 18: 82, 8: 282, 1. Clywen glomus, Ælfc. Gl. 28; Som. 61, 5; Wrt. Voc. 26, 4. Cleowen glomer, globellum, Ælfc. Gl. 111; Som. 79, 68; Wrt. Voc. 59, 37. Án cliwen gódes nettgernes one ball of good net-yarn, Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 461; A. D. 956; Kmbl. iii. 451, 7. Cliwenes globi, Mone B. 560. Mintan wel getrifulade meng wið hunig, wyrc to lytlum cliwene mingle mint, well triturated, with honey, make it into a little ball, L. M. 1, 48; Lchdm. ii. 122, 11. Ða ýslan onginnaþ lúcan togædere geclungne to cleowenne the ashes begin to combine together shrunk up into a ball, Exon. 59a; Th. 213, 17; Ph. 226. Aráfaþ ðæt cliwen ðære twífaldan heortan unravels the clew of the double heart, Past. 35, 5; Hat. MS. 46b, 2. Men gesáwon scínan æt his hnolle swilce fýren clywen men saw shining on his crown as it were a fiery circlet, Homl. Th. ii. 514, 2. Cliwene glomere, Mone B. 3713. Cleóne [= cleowene] glomere, 526. Cliowena globos, 1662.

CLOCCIAN; p. ode; pp. od To CLUCK, sigh; glocire, glocitare, singultire, bombum sive sonitum edere :-- Ðeáh seó bródige henn sárlíce cloccige though the brooding hen sorely cluck, Bridf. 76. [Scot, clock: Plat. klukken: Dut. klokken: Kil. klocken: Ger. M. H. Ger. klucken, glucken: Dan. klukke: Swed. klokka, klukka: Icel. klókkva: Lat. glocíre: Grk. GREEK ]

clod-hamer, es; m? A field-fare? turdus pilāris ?-- Clodhamer vel feldefare a field-fare; scorellus? [turdus pilāris? Lin.], Wrt. Voc. 63, 27.

Clod-hangra, an; m. [clod, hangra a meadow] Clodhanger :-- Þurh út Clodhangran; of ðan hangran andlang róde út on Mules dene out through Clodhanger; from the meadow along the road out to Mule's dean, Cod. Dipl. 1198; A. D. 956; Kmbl. v. 374, 28.

clofen cloven, separated; pp. of cleófan.

Clofes hoo -- Clofes hó; gen. hós; pl. nom. acc. hóas; gen. hóa; dat. hóum; m. Cliff, near Rochester :-- Her sinoþ wæs æt Clofes hoo [æt Clofes , col. 2] in this year [A. D. 822] there was a synod at Cliff, Chr. 822; Th. 111, 14, col. l; 110, 14, col. l, 2. Æt Clofes hóum at Cliff, Th. Diplm. A. D. 803; 52, 32: A. D. 825; 73, 12. Ðá wæs sionoþlíc gemót on ðære mǽran stówe ðe mon háteþ Clofes hóas then there was a synodal meeting in the famous place which is called Cliff, Th. Diplrn. A. D. 825; 70, II.

clof-þung, -þunc, e; f. The herb crow-foot, Herb. 9, l; Lchdm. i. 98, 23, 25, MS. B: Lchdm. iii. 54, 21. v. cluf-þung.

clof-wurt the herb buttercup, Herb. 10; Lchdm. i. 100, 14, MS. B. v. cluf-wyrt.

CLOM gen. clommes; m; clam; gen. clammes; m. A band, bond, clasp, bandage, chain, prison; vinculum, carcer :-- Habbaþ me swá helle clommas fæste befangen the clasps of hell have so firmly grasped me, Cd. 19; Th. 24, 6; Gen. 373. Ðes wítes clom this bond of torture, 215; Th. 271, 10; Sat. 103. Dysne wites clom this bond of torment, 216; Th. 274, 21; Sat. 157: 223; Th. 293, II; Sat. 453. On ðissum fæstum clomme in this fast bondage, 21; Th. 26, 17; Gen. 408. Clommum fæste fast in bonds, Andr. Kmbl. 260; An. 130. Cealdan clommum with cold bands, 2425; An. 1214. DER. bealu-clom, fýr-, hæfte-, helle-, wæl-, wíte-, wundor-. v. clam; gen. clammes; m. clomm climbed; scandit; p. of climan.

clough a cleft of a rock, or down the side of a hill, Som. Ben. Lye.

CLÚD. es; m. A stone, rock, hill; saxum, rupes, collis :-- Clúdas feóllan of muntum stones fell from the mountains, Ors. 6, 2; Bos. 117, 12. Clúd rupes, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 27; Som. II. 24. Mid clúdum ymbweaxen surrounded with rocks, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 67, 22. Sumra wyrta eard biþ on clúdum the soil of some herbs is on rocks, Bt. 34, 10; Fox 148, 24. Beorh oððe clúd collis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. Ii, 46. [Laym. clude, chlud a cliff, rock: Orm. cludess hills: Plat. kluut, klute, kloot: Dut. kluit, f; kloot, m: Kil. klot: Ger. klosz, m. gleba: M. H. Ger. klóz, m. a lump: O. H. Ger. kloz, m. massa: Dan. klode, m. f. a ball: Swed. klot, n: Icel. klót, n. knob on a sword's hilt: hence the Eng. CLOD.] DER. stán-clúd.

clúdig; adj. Stony, rocky; saxeus :-- Ðæt Norþ-manna land is on sumum stówum swýðe clúdig the country of the Northmen is in some places very rocky, Ors. I, I; Bos. 20, 42.

clufe an ear of corn, a clove of garlic; spica, Som. Ben. Lye. Clufe ? f. pl. in e, A clove, the bulb or tuber of a plant, Glos. of Lchdm. ii. Twá clufe two cloves, L. M. 3, 41; Lchdm. ii. 336, 3. Garleaces iii clufe three cloves of garlic, 3, 62; Lchdm. ii. 350, 8. clufeht, clufiht; adj. Bulbed; bulbosus :-- Nim clufehte wenwyrt take the bulbed wenwort, L. M. i. 58; Lchdm. ii. 128, 17. Gegníd on twá clufe ðære clufehtan wenwyrte rub them upon two bulbs of the bulbed wenwort, 3, 41; Lchdm. ii. 336, 3.

clufon clove, separated. Chr. 937; Th. 200, 38, col. 3; Æðelst. 5; p. pl. of cleófan.

cluf-þung, e; f: cluf-þunge, an; f. [clufe, þung monkshood, hellebore; aconítum = GREEK] The herb crow-foot; ranunculus sceleratus, Lin :-- Clufþung crow-foot, L. M. I, I; Lchdm. ii. 20, 4: I, 24; Lchdm. ii. 66, 14: I, 28; Lchdm. ii. 70, 2: I, 47; Lchdm. ii. 120, l: 3, 8; Lchdm. ii. 312, 20: iii. 12, 27. Ðeós wyrt ðe man sceleratam, and óðrum naman clufþunge nemneþ, biþ cenned on fuhtum and on wæteregum stówum this herb which is called scelerata, and by another name crow-foot, is produced in damp and watery places. Herb. 9, l; Lchdm. i. 98, 24-26. Genim clufþungan wós take juice of crow-foot, 110, 3; Lchdm. i. 224, 7.

cluf-wyrt, e; f. The herb buttercup; batrachion = GREEK, ranunculus acris, Lin :-- Ðeós wyrt ðe man batrachion, and óðrum naman clufwyrt nemneþ, biþ cenned on sandigum landum and on feldum: heó biþ feáwum leáfum and þynnum this herb which is called batrachion , and by another name buttercup, is produced on sandy lands and in fields: it is of few and thin leaves, Herb. 10, l; Lchdm. i. 100, 15-17: L. M. 3, 8; Lchdm. ii. 312, 13.

CLUGGE, an; f. A bell, small bell; campana :-- Hleóðor heora clug-gan, ðære hí gewunedon to gebédum gecígde and awehte beón, ðonne heora hwylc of weorulde geféred wæs the sound of their bell, by which they were wont to be called and awaked to prayers, when any of them had gone out of the world, Bd. 4, 23; S. 595, 40. [Plat. klokke a bell, clock: O. Frs. klokke: Dut. klok, f. a clock, bell: Ger. glocke, f: M. H. Ger. glogge, f: O. H. Ger. glokka. f: Dan. klokke , m. f. a bell, clock: Swed, klocka. f. a bell, clock: Icel. klukka, klocka, f.]

clumbon; pp. clumben climbed, Chr. 1070; Erl. 209, 9; p. pl. and pp. of climban.

clumian; p. ode; pp. od To murmur, mutter; mussitare :-- Hí clumiaþ mid ceaflum ðǽr hí scoldon clypian they mutter with their jaws where they ought to speak aloud, Wanl. Catal. 30, 14.

clungon; pp. clungen withered, pined; p. pl. and pp, of clingan.

CLÚS, e; f: clúse, an; f. An inclosure, a narrow passage, close, bond, prison; claustrum, carcer :-- Ðeáh he hie mid fíftigum clúsum beclemme though he surround it with fifty bonds, Salm. Kmbl. 143; Sal. 71. Alǽd of carcernes clúse míne sáwle educ de carcers animam meam, Ps. Th. 141, 8. He fram ðære clúsan afaren wæs wið ðara scipa he was gone from the pass towards the ships, Ors. 6, 36; Bos. 131, 26, 22. Ðá hæfdon hý heora clúsan belocene when they had closed their passes, 3, 7; Bos. 60, 4. Annas and Caiphas wǽron forþgangende to ðære clúsan Annas and Caiaphas were going forth to the prison, Nicod. 14; Thw. 7, 10: 16; Thw. 8, 6, 9. [Plot. kluse: Dut. kluis , f: Kil. kluyse: Ger. klause , f: M. H. Ger. klóse, klús, klúse , f: O. H. Ger. klúsa, f: M. Lat. clusa, clausa: Lat. clausus, pp. of claudere to shut, inclose.]

clúse, an; m. An inclosure; claustrum, Ors. 6, 36; Bos. 131, 26. v. clús.

cluster, es; n. A CLUSTER, bunch; botrus = GREEK, f: -- Cluster ðæt bitereste botrus amarissima, Cant. Moys. Isrl. Lamb. 193 b, 32. v. clyster.

CLÚSTOR, clúster, clauster; gen. clústres; pl. nom. acc. clústor, clustro; n. A lock, bar, barrier, cell; claustrum, clausura :-- Meahte ðæs ceasterhlides clústor onlúcan might unlock the lock of the city-gate, Exon. 12 a; Th. 20, 8; Cri. 314. Wæs mid clústre carcernes duru behliden the door of the prison was shut with a lock, Exon. 69 a; Th. 256, 23; Jul. 236. Ða locu feólion [feollan MS.], cluster of ðám ceastrum the locks fell, the barriers from that city, 120 a; Th. 461, 23; Hö. 40. Ðæt he mihte cuman þurh ðás clústro that he might pass through these barriers. Cd. 22; Th. 27, II; Gen. 416. He hine héht on carcernes [MS. carcerne] clúster belúcan he commanded him to be locked in a prison's cell, Bt. Met. Fox l, 146; Met. l, 73. [O. Sax. klústar, n: Frs. klooster, kleaster: O. Frs. klaster, n: Dut. klooster, n: Kil. klooster: Ger. kloster, n: M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. klóster, n: Dan. Swed. kloster, n: Icel. klaustr, n: Lat. claustra, pl. n. a lock, bar, bolt.]

clústor-cleófa, an; m. A prison-chamber, cell; carceris cubiculum :-- On clústorcleófan in the prison-chamber, Andr. Kmbl. 2041; An. 1023.

clústor-loc, clúster-loc, es; pl. nom. -loca; n. A prison-lock, lock, bar; claustellum, claustrum :-- Clústor-loca [MS. -locæ] claustella, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 156, 2. Clúster-loc claustellum, Cot. 34: claustrum, 181.

CLÚT es; m. A small piece of cloth, CLOUT, patch, piece of metal, plate; pittacium, commissura, lamina :-- Clút pittacium, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 161, 19: commissura, Ælfc. Gl. 28; Som. 61, 4; Wrt. Voc. 26, 3: 82, 2. Wurdon forþaborene ísene clútas iron plates were brought forth, Homl. Th. i. 424, 19. Lecgaþ ða ísenan clútas háte glówende to his sídan lay the iron plates glowing hot to his side, Homl. Th. i. 424, 35. [Wyc. Piers P. clout: Chauc. cloutes rags: Orm. clutess, pl: Dan. klud, m. f: Swed. klut, m: Icel. klútr, m: Wel. clwt, m: Gael. clúd, clúid, m. a clout, rag, patch.] DER. ge-clútod. v. clúd.

clyf a cliff, rock, Ps. Spl. M. C. 113, 8. v. clif.

clýfa, clífa, an; m, [cleófa, cleófan to cleave, divide, separate]. I. a separate place for man, -- A chamber; cubiculum, cubile :-- Ne máge we hreppan ǽnne wyrm binnon ðlnum clýfan we may not touch a worm in thy chamber, Homl. Th. ii. 416, 23. On díglum oððe on incófan, oððe on clýfum in cubīlibus, Ps. Lamb. 4, 5. On his incófan oððe on his clýfan in cubīli suo, 35, 5. II. a separate place for wild beasts, -- A cave, den; antrum, caverna, cubile :-- On ðám clífum ðe dracan oneardedon in the dens which dragons dwelt in; in cubīlibus, in quĭbus dracōnes habitābant, Bd. 3, 23; S. 554, 22. DER. bed-clýfa, gebed-, hord-, in-, v. cleófa.

clyfer-fete; adj. [clifer a claw, talon] Claw-footed, talon-footed, cloven-footed; fissipes :-- Ða fugelas ðe be flǽsce lybbaþ syndon clyferféte the birds which live by flesh are cloven-footed, Hexam. 8; Norm. 14, 19.

clyfian, clyfigan; p. ode; pp. od To cleave, adhere; adhærere :-- Ðæt feax ðe on ðam cambe clyfige somnige let her collect the hair that cleaveth to the comb, Med. ex Quadr. l, 7; Lchdm. i. 332, 21, MS. B.

clyfigende ádl a joint-disease, the gout, Som. Ben. Lye.

clýfst, he clýfþ cleavest, cleaves; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. sing. of cleófan.

clyf-wyrt clivers, fox-glove, Ælfc. Gl. 40; Som. 63, 91; Wrt. Voc. 30, 41: 79, 41. v. clif-wyrt.

clymmian. he clymmaþ, pl. clymmiaþ; p. ode; pp. od [climan to climb] To climb; scandere :-- Leóht clymmaþ light ascends [climbeth], Salm. Kmbl. 829; Sal. 414.

CLYMPRE, an; n? A lump or CLUMP of metal, metal; massa metalli, metallum :-- Hefigere ic eom ðonne unlytel leádes clympre I am heavier than a huge clump of lead, Exon. III b; Th. 426, 18; Rä. 41, 75. Wyrc greáte clympran [MS. clymppan] feówur make four great lumps, Lchdm. iii. 134, 31. Clympre metallum, Wrt. Voc. 286, 73. [Plot, klump: Dut. klomp, m: Kil. klompe: Ger. klump, klumpen, m: Dan. klump, m. f: Swed. klump, m; O. Nrs. klumbr, klumpr, m. Raskl Hald.]

clynan; p. ede; pp. ed [clyne metal] To ring, sound; clangere :-- Rand dynede, campwudu clynede the shield rang, the war-wood sounded, Elen. Kmbl. 101; El. 51.

clyne, es; m? n? clyna, clyne, clyno; indecl. f. A mass, lump, ball, metal; massa, sphæra = GREEK, metallurn :-- Clynes, trendles sphæræ, Mone B. 3491. Ǽlces cynnes wecg, vel óra oððe clyna metallum, Ælíc. Gl. 51; Som. 66, 8; Wrt. Voc. 34, 67. Clyne, clyno massa, metallum, Cot. 132: 182. Sile hym áne clyne give him one lump, Lchdm. iii. 134, 33. Trendel, clyne sphæra, Mone B. 3465. Clyne, clottum massa, 3478.

clypenes, -ness an embrace, Bd. 3, 24; S. 557, 6, note. v. clypnys.

CLYPIAN, clypigan, clipian, cleopian, clepian; part. clypiende, clypigende; ic clypie, clypige, ðú clypast, he clypaþ, pl. clypiaþ; p. ode, ade; impert. clypa, pl. clypiaþ; pp. od, ad To make a vocal sound, speak, speak aloud, to cry out, call, say; loqui, clamare, vocare, dicere :-- He ongan clypian cæpit clamare, Mk. Bos. 10, 47. Ne corn ic rihtwíse clypian I came not to call the righteous, Lk. Bos. 5, 32: 19, 15. Hlúddre stæfne clypigan to cry with a loud voice, Bd. 4, 19; S. 589, 12, note. Clypiende dicens, R. Ben. 44. Mid micelre stemne clypigende crying with a loud voice, Homl. Th. i. 48, 5. Ic clypie to Gode clamabo ad Deum, Ps. Lamb. 56, 3. Drihten gehýrþ me ðonne ic clypige to him Dominus exaudiet me cum clamavero ad eum, Ps. Lamb. 4, 4. Ðú clypast thou callest, Hy. 7, 45; Hy. Grn. ii. p. 288, 45. Hwí clypaþ Dauid hyne Drihten quomodo David vocat eum Dominum? Mt. Bos. 22, 43, 45. Ge clypiaþ me láreów vos vocatis me magister, Jn. Bos. 13, 13. To ðé ic clypode ad te clamavi, Ps. Lamb. 60, 3: 65, 17. Ic to ðé, Drihten, clypade ego ad te, Domine, clamavi, Ps. Th. 87, 13. He clypode mid micelre stemne he cried with a loud voice, Homl. Th. i. 596, 5: Bd. 3, 2; S. 524, 21: Byrht. Th. 132, 33; By. 25: 139, 19; By. 256. Israéla folces prafostas clypodon to Pharaone præpositi filiorum Israel vociferati sunt ad Pharaonem, Ex. 5, 15: Homl. Th. i. 72, 28. Clypa ða wyrhtan voca operarios, Mt. Bos. 20, 8: Lk. Bos. 14, 12, 13: Jn. Bos. 4, 16. Clypiaþ hyne vocate eum, Ex. 2, 20. [Wyc. Piers P. Chauc. clepe: Laym. clepie, clepien, cleopie, cleopien: Orm. clepenn: Scot. clep, clepe to call, name.] DER. be-clypian. forþ-, of-, on-, to-, toge-: healf-clypiende.

clypiendlíc, clypigendlíc, clipigendlíc; adj. Making a vocal sound; vocalis [from vox, vocis the voice] :-- Syndon fíf vocales, ðæt synd clypigendlíce, a, e, i. o, u. Ðás fíf stafas æteówiaþ heora naman þurh hí silfe, and búton ðám stafum ne mæg nán word beón awriten, and forðí híg sind quinque vocales gehátene there are five vocales, a, e, i, o, u, which are vocal [sounds]. These five letters indicate their names by themselves, and without these letters no word can be written, and therefore they are called the five vocal sounds, Ælfc. Gr. 2; Som. 2, 44-46. Consonantes, ðæt is samod-swégende, forðanðe hí swígaþ mid ðám fíf clypigendlícum consonants, that is, sounding together, because they are made articulate by the five vocal sounds, Som. 2, 50. v. sylf-swégend.

clypnys, clypenes, -nyss, -ness, e; f. An embrace; complexus :-- To clypnysse ðæs heofonlícan brýdguman eádig fǽmne ineóde ad complexum sponsi cælestis virgo beata intraret, Bd. 3, 24; S. 557, 6.

clypol; adj. Vocal; vocalis, Bridf. 101.

clypola, an; m. A vowel; vocalis, Bridf. 101.

CLYPPAN; p. clypte; pp. clypt To embrace, clasp, CLIP, cherish; complecti, amplexari :-- Ðæt he his mondryhten clyppe and cysse that he embrace and kiss his lord, Exon. 77a; Th. 289, 2; Wand. 42. Náwuht ðes woruldgielp is ðe hie clyppaþ and lufiaþ this worldly glory is worthless which they embrace and love, Past. 41, 1; Hat. MS. 563, 3. Ðá Laban gehírde ðæt Iacob wæs cumen his swustor sunu, ðá arás he togeánes and clypte hine cum audisset Laban venisse Iacob filium sororis suæ, cucurrit obviam ei complexusque eum, Gen. 29, 13. Iosep clypte hira ǽlcne and cyste híg and weóp amplexatus et osculatus est Ioseph et ploravit super singulos, 45, 15. Ongan seó abbudisse clyppan and lufian ða Godes gife abbatissa amplexata gratiam Dei, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 1. Hine sybbe and lufu swylce clyppeþ justitia et pax complexæ sunt se, Ps. Th. 84, 9. Clyppende amplexans, Prœm. R. Cone. Hý hí lufan fæste clyppaþ they firmly clasp them with love, Exon. 107a; Th. 409, 8; Rä. 27, 26. Heáfodswíma heortan clypte insensibility seized his heart, Cd. 76; Th. 94, 30; Gen. 1569. Ǽghwæðer óðerne earme beþehte, cyston hie and clypton each embraced the other with his arm, they kissed and clasped each other, Andr. Kmbl. 2031; An. 1018. [Wyc. Piers P. Chauc. clippe: Laym. cluppe: Orm. clippenn: O. Frs. kleppa: Dan. klippe: Swed. Icel. klippa.] DER. be-clyppan, bi-, ymb-.

clypung, clepung, e; f. Articulation, speaking out, the forming of words, a cry; eloquium, clamor :-- Se múþ drýfþ út ða clypunge, and seó lyft biþ geslagen mid ðære clypunge the mouth produces [driveth out] the articulation, and the air is struck in the articulation, Ælfc. Gr. 1; Som. 2, 31. Clypung mín infærþ [ineóde, Lamb.] on eárum his clamor meus introivit in aures ejus, Ps. Spl. 17, 8. Clypunga the kalends; kalendæ, Ælfc. Gr. 13; Som. 16, 19.

clýsan; p. de; pp. ed To close, shut; claudere. DER. be-clýsan: clýsing.

clýsing, clýsung, e; f. A CLOSING, inclosure, conclusion of a sentence, period; claustrum, periodus = GREEK :-- Seó fæstnung ðære hellícan clýsinge ne geþafaþ ðæt ða wiðercoran ǽfre útabrecon the fastening of the hellish inclosure never allows the wicked to break out, Homl. Th. i. 332, 20. Hí on hellícere clýsunge andbídodon they waited in the hellish inclosure, Homl. Th. ii. 80, 6. Clýsunga claustra, R. Ben. Interl. 67. Periodos is clýsing oððe ge-endung ðæs ferses a period is the conclusion or ending of a sentence [lit. verse], Ælfc. Gr. 50, 14; Som. 51, 18. DER. be-clýsing.

CLYSTER; gen. clystres; pl. nom. acc. clystru; gen. clystra; dat. clystrum; n. A CLUSTER, bunch, branch; botrus GREEK, f. racemus, propago :-- Clyster botrus, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 32; Wrt. Voc. 33, 31. Hira wínberie ys gealla and ðæt biteroste clyster uva eorum uva fellis et botri amarissimæ, Deut. 32, 32. Clystru botros, Mone B. 2548. Clystrum racemis, 3835. Ic geseah wíneard, on ðam wǽron þreó clystru videbam vitem in qua erant tres propagines, Gen. 40, 10, 12. [Prompt. clustyr: Plat. kluster: Kil. klister.]

clýsung an inclosure, Homl. Th. ii. 80, 6. v. clýsing.

clýða a poultice; emplastrum, malagma, Herb. 51, 2; Lchdm. i. 154, 18. v. clíða.

CLYWE, an; f. n? A CLEW, ball of thread or yarn, ball; globus, glomus :-- Clywe globus, Ælfc. Gl. 111; Som. 79, 66; Wrt. Voc. 59, 35. [Plat. kluwe, klouwen: Dut. kluwen, klouwen, n: Kil. klouwe, kluwe: Ger. kläuel, kleuel, knäuel, n. m: M. H. Ger. kliuwel, n: O. H. Ger. kliuwa. f. cliuwi, n.] v. cliwen.

clywen a clew, ball of thread or yarn, ball, circlet, Ælfc. Gl. 28; Som. 61, 5; Wrt. Voc. 26, 4: Homl. Th. ii. 514, 2. v. cliwen.

cnæd, ðú cnǽde, pl. cnǽdon kneaded, hast kneaded, fermented; p. of cnedan.

CNÆP, cnæpp, cnep, es; m. A top, cop, KNOP; vertex, jugum, supercilium :-- Uppan ðæs muntes cnæp in montis vertice, Ex. 19, 20. Híg astigon to ðæs muntes cnæppe ascenderunt in verticem montis, Num. 14, 44. Ofer cneppas trans juga, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 149, 55. Híg láeddon hine ofer ðæs muntes cnæpp duxerunt illum ad supercilium montis, Lk. Bos. 4, 29. [Piers P. knappe: Chauc. knoppes, pl: Plat. knoop: O. Frs. knop, knap, m: Dut. knop, m: Kil. knoppe: Ger. M. H. Ger. knopf, m. nodus, globulus: O. H. Ger. knoph, m: Dan. knap, m. f: Swed. knapp, m: Icel. knappr, m: Wel. Ir. cnap: Gael. cnap, cnaip, m.]

cnæpling, es; m. A stripling, youth, boy; adolescens, puer :-- Eom ic cnæpling I am a boy, Homl. Th. ii. 576, 14: Mone B. 2514.

cnǽwe, cnáwe; adj. Knowing, conscious, aware; cognoscens, conscius. DER. ge-cnǽwe, or-.

cnǽwst, he cnséwþ knowest, knows; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of cnáwan.

CNAPA, cnafa, an; m. I. a boy, young man, KNAVE; puer, juvenis, adolescens :-- He betǽhte hys cnapan and se cnapa hit ofslóh he gave it [a calf] to his young man and the young man slew it, Gen. 18, 7. Heó sealde ðam cnapan drincan dedit puero bibere, 21, 19: 22, 19: 42, 22: 48, 16: Homl. Th. i. 186, 14. Ic hæbbe sumne cnapan habeo quemdam puerum, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 27. Abraham férde mid twám cnapum to fyrlenum lande Abraham ducens secum duos juvenes abiit in locum, Gen. 22, 3, 5. Syle cnapan [cnafan C.] ðínum da puero tuo, Ps. Spl. 85, 15. Ðæt wíf wearþ wráþ ðam cnapan mulier molesta erat adolescenti, Gen. 39, 10. II. a servant; servus :-- He hét his cnapan behealdan to ðære sǽ he ordered his servant to look towards the sea, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 18, 23; Lchdm. iii. 276, 24. [Wyc. knaue-child a male child: Piers P. Chauc. knave: Laym. cnaue: Orm. cnapess, gen: Plat. knape, knawe: O. Sax. knapo, m: Frs. knape: O. Frs. knapa, knappa, m: Dut. knaap, m: Kil. knape: Ger. M. H. Ger. knabe, m; O. H. Ger. knabo, knappo: Swed. knape, m: Icel. knapi, m.] DER. þeów-cnapa.

CNÁWAN; ic cnáwe, ðú cnáwest, cnáwst, he cnáweþ, cnǽwþ, pl. cnáwaþ; p. cneów, pl. cneówon; pp. cnáwen To KNOW; noscere :-- Ða byþ cnáwene noscuntur, Mone B. 169. [Wyc. Piers P. Chauc. knowen, knowe: Laym. i-cnawen: Orm. cnawenn: O. H. Ger. knájan; Icel. kná: Lat. novi, old form gnovi I came to know: Grk. GREEK : Sansk. jnā.] DER. an-cnáwan, be-, ge-, on-, to-.

cnáwing, e; f. Knowledge, a knowing; cognitio, Som. Ben. Lye. DER. on-cnáwing.

CNEAR, cnearr, es; m. A small ship, galley used for ships of the Northmen; navis, septentrionaluim naves :-- Cnear on flot the ship on float, Chr. 937; Erl. 114, 1, notes, p. 326; Æðelst. 35. [Icel. knarri, m. navis, id. qu. knörr, m. navis, in specie mercatoria; Olafs Saga hins helga, 27, 1, ubi promiscue ponuntur knörru et kaupskipum, Egils. sub knörr.] DER. nægled-cnear.

cneátian; p. ode; pp. od To argue, dispute, contend; disceptare, contendere :-- Cneátian disceptare, Mone B. 967. Cneátiaþ contendunt, 1867.

cneátung, e; f. A debate, an inquiry, a search; disputatio, scrutinium, Scint. 14.

CNEDAN; ic cnede, ðú cnidest, cnist, he cnit, pl. cnedaþ; p. ic, he cnæd, ðú cnǽde, pl. cnǽdon; pp. cneden To KNEAD, ferment; subigere, fermentare :-- Cnede to ðam [MS. ðan] hláfe to knead bread, Lchdm. iii. 134, 21. Óþ-ðæt sie cneden donec fermentaretur, Lk. Skt. Rush. 13, 21. [Chauc. knede: Orm. knedenn: Dut. Kil. knéden: Ger. kneten: M. H. Ger. knëten: O. H. Ger. knetan: Dan. knede: Swed. knåda: Icel. knoða.] DER. ge-cnedan.

CNEÓ, cneów, es; n. I. a KNEE; genu :-- Ðæt he on cneó lecge honda and heáfod that he lays his hands and head on his knee, Exon. 77a; Th. 289, 3; Wand. 42. Me synt cneówu unhále genua mea infirmata sunt, Ps. Th. 108, 24. Cneówu genua, Wrt. Voc. 283, 68. Hie on cneówum sǽton they sat on their knees, Cd. 181; Th. 227, 2; Dan. 180: Chr. 979; Erl. 129, 22: Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 68, 35: Exon. 48a; Th. 164, 19; Gú. 1014. Cneó bígeþ bends the knees, Exon. 62b; Th. 229, 23; Ph. 459. Cneó bégean scolden genua flectere deberent, Bd. 3, 17; S. 544, 39, col. 2: Elen. Kmbl. 1693; El. 848: Exon. 63a; Th. 232, 29; Ph. 514: 112b; Th. 431, 9; Rä. 45, 5. II. a generation, relationship; generatio, propinquitatis gradus :-- On ánum cneówe in generatione una, Ps. Th. 108, 13. Óþ hund cneówa [MS. cnea] to a hundred generations, Exon. 124a; Th. 476, 16; Ruin. 8. Binnan cneówe within relationship, L. E. G. 12; Th. i. 174, 25. In ðam þriddan cneówe mid Crécum mót man wif niman, in fiftan mid Rómánum in tertio propinquitatis gradu apud Græcos viro licet uxorem ducere, in quinto apud Romanos, L. Ecg. C. 28; Th. ii. 152, note h. Binnan ðam feórþan cneówe within the fourth degree of relationship, L. Eth. vi. 12; Th. i. 318, 15. [Piers P. knowes knees: Laym. cneo: Orm. cnewwe: Plat. knee knee, generation: O. Sax. knio, kneo, n. knee: O. Frs. kni, kne, n. knee, degree of relationship: Dut. Kil. knie, f. knee: Ger. M. H. Ger. knie, n: O. H. Ger. kniu, kneo, n: Goth. kniu, n: Dan. knæ, n: Swed. knä, n: Icel. kné, n: Lat. genu, n: Grk. GREEK, n: Sansk. jānu, m. n.]

cneódan; he cneódeþ; p. cneád, pl. cnudon; pp. cnoden To give; trĭbuĕre, cognominare :-- He naman cneódeþ he gives a name, Bd. 2, 20; S. 522, 24. v. cnódan.

cneóeht; adj. [cneó a knee, -eht = -iht, adj. termination, q. v.] Knotty; geniculatus :-- Sió cneóehte wenwyrt the knotty wenwort, L. M. 1, 64; Lchdm. ii. 140, 8.

Cneoferis burh, burg, e; f. Burghcastle, Suffolk; villæ nomen in agro Suffolciensi :-- Ðá wæs fæger mynster getimbred on wuda neáh sǽ on sumre ceastre, seó is nemned on Englisc Cneoferis burh erat monasterium silvanum, et mares vicinitate amænum, constructum in castro quodam, quod lingua Anglorum Cnobheres burg, id est, urbs Cnobheri vocatur, Bd. 3, 19; S. 547, 22. v. Cnobheres burh.

cneó-holen, es; m. The shrub knee-holm, butcher's broom; ruscum, Wrt. Voc. 285, 48. v. cneÁw-holen.

cneoht a boy, Bd. 2, 6; S. 508, 18: 3, 18; S. 545, 45, col. 2. v. cniht.

cneó-mǽgas, cneów mǽgas, -mágas; pl. m. [cneó II. generation, mǽg relation] Relations of the same sex or the same generation; consanguinei :-- Cneówmǽgas relations, Cd. 83; Th. 104, 11; Gen. 1733. From cneómǽgum from their relations, Chr. 937; Erl. 112, 8; Æðelst. 8. Enos ongon, mid ðám cneómágum, ceastre timbran Enoch began, with his kinsmen, to build a city, Cd. 50; Th. 64, 28; Gen. 1057: Andr. Kmbl. 1370; An. 685: Elen. Kmbl. 1170; El. 587.

cneord; adj. Diligent, intent; sollers, intentus. DER. ge-cneord.

cneord-lǽcan; p. -lǽhte; pp. -lǽht To be diligent, study; studere, M. H. 14a. DER. ge-cneordlǽcan.

cneordnys, -nyss, e; f. Diligence, study, learning; studium, disciplina :-- Cneordnysse studio, Mone B. 2464: disciplina, 1034. DER ge-cneordnys.

cneóres, cneórys, cneóris, cneórnis, -ress, e; f. A generation, posterity, race, tribe, family; generatio, posteritas, gens, tribus, familia :-- Cneóres generatio, Ælfc. Gl. 91; Som. 75, 18; Wrt. Voc. 51, 63: Mt. Bos. 1, 18. Ðeós cneórys is mánfull cneórys generatio hæe generatio nequam est, Lk. Bos. 11, 29. Hwí sécþ ðeós cneóris tácen quid generatio ista signum quærit? Mk. Bos. 8, 12: Ps. Lamb. 23, 6: Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 9. Cneóresse generationis, Mone B. 896. Mid ðisse cneórysse mannum cum viris generationis hujus, Lk. Bos. 11, 31. Cneórisse bóc liber generationis. Mt. Bos. 1, 1: Ps. Th. 94, 9. Ne gesihþ nán man of ðisse wiirestan cneóresse ðæt góde land non videbit quispiam de hominibus generationis hujus pessimæ terram bonam, Deut. 1, 35: Ps. Th. 44, 18. On ðære þriddan cneórisse in the third generation, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 8: Mk. Bos. 8, 12: Lk. Bos. 11, 30. Fram cynrene on cneórisse a generatione in generationem, Ps. Lamb. 89, 1: 101, 19. Mid ðisse cneórysse cum generatione hac. Lk. Bos. 11, 32: 17, 25. Ealle cneóressa omnes generationes, Mt. Bos. 1, 17. Ðás sind ðære heofenan and ðære eorþan cneórnisse istæ sunt generationes cæli et terræ, Gen. 2, 4. Ðás sind Noes cneórnissa hæ sunt generationes Noe, Gen. 6, 9. Ða on cneóressum cýðed syndan they are known to generations, Ps. Th. 101, 16. Sie gefeá gehwám ðe in cneórissum cende weorþen let there be joy to each one who in their generations shall be born, Exon. 11a; Th. 15, 6; Cri. 232: Cd. 190; Th. 236, 10; Dan. 319: Ps. Th. 144, 13. Cneóresse posteritatem, Mone B. 648. Ðære cneórisse wæs Cainan weard Cainan was guardian of that race, Cd. 57; Th. 70, 18; Gen. 1155: 106; Th. 139, 31; Gen. 2318. Hine weorþiaþ wera cneóressa races of men worship him, Ps. Th. 71, 15. Ealle wera cneórissa ðé weorþiaþ omnes gentes adorabunt te, 85, 8: 74, 6. Com God wera cneórissa weorc sceáwigan God came to behold the work of the races of men, Cd. 80; Th. 101, 8; Gen. 1679. Secgaþ on cneórissum dicite in gentibus, Ps. Th. 95, 9: Cd. 64; Th. 77, 12; Gen. 1274. Cneóres tribus, Ælfc. Gl. 49; Som. 65, 73; Wrt. Voc. 34, 8. Cneórisse cende wǽron ascenderunt tribus, Ps. Th. 121, 4. Se biþ wiðerbreca wera cneórissum he shall be an adversary to the tribes of men, Cd. 104; Th. 138, 8; Gen. 2288: Exon. 44b; Th. 151, 7; Gú. 791. Mon awóc on ðære cneórisse cynebearna rím one raised up in that family a number of princely children, Cd. 82; Th. 102, 22; Gen. 1704. Of Cames cneórisse wóc wermǽgþa fela from Ham's family arose many tribes of men, 79; Th. 98, 29; Gen. 1637.

cneó-rím, cneów-rím, es; n. The number of kin, progeny, family; cognatorum numerus, progenies, familia :-- Of ðam wíd folc, cneórím micel, cenned wǽron from whom a wide-spread people, a great progeny, were born, Cd. 79; Th. 98, 32; Gen. 1639. Cneórím [MS. cneorisn] Caines the family of Cain, 63; Th. 76, 12; Gen. 1256. He his cynnes cneórím ícte he increased the progeny of his race, 59; Th. 72, 22; Gen. 1190. Ða ðæs cynnes cneówrím ícton they increased the progeny of the race, 52; Th. 65, 13; Gen. 1065.

cneóris a generation, race, tribe, family, Mk. Bos. 8, 12: Ps. Th. 74, 6: 121, 4: Cd. 79; Th. 98, 29; Gen. 1637. v. cneóres.

cneórnis, -niss, e; f. A generation, Gen. 2, 4: 6, 9. v. cneóres.

cneórys a generation, Lk. Bos. ll, 29, 31, 32: 17, 25. v. cneóres.

cneó-sib a race, generation. v. cneów-sib.

cneów, es; n, I. a knee; genu :-- Cneów genu, Ælfc. Gl. 75; Som. 71, 87; Wrt. Voc. 44, 69: 71, 52. Heó on cneów sette she knelt down, Elen. Kmbl. 2270; El. 1136: Ps. Th. 94, 6. Hí bígdon heora cneów befóran him they bowed their knees before him, Mt. Bos. 27, 29. II. a generation; generatio :-- In ðære þeóde awóc his ðæt þridde cneów in that nation rose the third generation from him, Cd. 209; Th. 258, 16; Dan. 676. v. cneó.

cneów, pl. cneówon knew; p. of cnáwan.

cneó-wærc, cneów-wærc, es; n? A pain in the knees; genuum dolor :-- Wið cneówærce for a pain in the knees, Lchdm. iii. 16, 16. Wið cneów-wærce, L. M. 1, 24; Lchdm. ii. 66, 11.

cneów-holen, cneó-holen, es; m. n? KNEEHOLM, knee-hulver, knee-holly, butcher's broom; ruscum, victoriola, ruscus aculeatus, Lin :-- Genim twegen scenceas fulle wóses ðysse wyrte, ðe man victoriola, and óðrum naman cneówholen, nemneþ take two cups full of the juice of this herb, which is called victoriola, and by another name knee-holly, Herb. 59; Lchdm. i. 162, 6. Genim cneówholen take knee-holly, L. M. 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 10: 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 9: 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 266, 15: iii. 4, 29: 30, 14. Wyrc to drence twá cneówholen make into a drink the two knee-hollies, L. M. 1, 47; Lchdm. ii. 120, 8.

cneówian, cneówigan; part. cneówigende; p. ode; pp. od [cneó, cneów a knee] To bow the knee, to kneel; genuflectere :-- Benedictus on his gebédum cneówode Benedict knelt down in prayer, Homl. Th. ii. 154, 20: 178, 33. Cneówigende genuflectens, Proæm. R. Conc. DER. ge-cneówian.

cneówlian; p. ode; pp. od To KNEEL; genuflectere, MS. Tib. A. iii. fol. 94. v. cneówian.

cneów-mǽgas, -mágas relations, Cd. 83; Th. 104, 11; Gen. 1733: Elen. Kmbl. 1372; El. 688. v. cneó-mǽgas.

cneów-rím progeny, Cd. 52; Th. 65, 13; Gen. 1065. v. cneó-rím.

cneów-sib; gen. -sibbe; f. A race, generation; generatio :-- Cende cneówsibbe cénra manna he begot a race of brave men, Cd. 161; Th. 200, 13; Exod. 356.

cneówung, cnéwung, e; f. A kneeling; genuflectio, Bd. 3, 17; S. 544, 39, note.

cneów-wærc a pain in the knees, L. M. 1, 24; Lchdm. ii. 66, 11. v. cneó-wærc.

cneów-wyrste; pl. f. [wrist, wyrst the wrist] Knee-joints; genicula, Ælfc. Gl. 75; Som. 71, 88; Wrt. Voc. 44, 70.

cnep a top, summit, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 147, 55. v. cnæp.

cnídan; p. cnád, pl. cnidon; pp. cniden To beat; cædere :-- Ða sume cnidon [MS. cnidun] they beat some; alium ceciderunt, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 21, 35. DER. for-cnídan.

cnidest, cnist, he cnit kneadest, kneads; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of cnedan.

CNÍF, es; m. A KNIFE; culter, cultellus, artavns, Low Latin = cultellus :-- Cníf artavus, Wrt. Voc. 82, 40. [Chauc. knyfes, pl: Laym. Orm. cnif: Plat. knief, kniiv: Frs. knyf: Kil. knijf: Ger. kneif, m: Dan. kniv, m. f: Swed. knif, m: Icel. knifr, m. a knife or dirk.] v. seax.

CNIHT, cneoht, cnyht, es; m. A boy, youth, attendant, servant, KNIGHT: hence the modern knights of a shire are so called because they serve the shire; puer, juvenis, adolescens, servus :-- Sum lytel sweltende cniht a little dying boy, Bd. 4, 8; S. 575, 23: Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 58, 43. Tyn wintra cniht a boy of ten years, L. In. 7; Th. i. 106, 18: Lk. Bos. 7, 7: Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 4: Byrht. Th. 136, 18; By. 153. Fram ðínum cnihte a puero tuo. Ps. Th. 68, 17. Heó cwæþ to ðam cnihte ait ad puerum, Gen. 24, 65. Cwicne abregd cniht of áde take the boy alive from the pile, Cd. 141; Th. 176, 20; Gen. 2914: 162; Th. 203, 20; Exod. 406. Ðú ðone cnyht to us brohtest in Bethlem thou broughtest the boy to us in Bethlehem, Exon. 121a; Th. 463, 33; Hö. 79. He seðle gesette in ðære cneohtas and geonge menn lǽrde wǽron he set up a school in which boys and young men were taught, Bd. 3, 18; S. 545, 45, col. 2. Ðyssum cnyhtum wes líðe be gentle to these boys, Beo. Th. 2443; B. 1219. Ðæt hie ðæs cnihtes cwealm gesóhton that they should seek the young man's death, Andr. Kmbl. 2243; An. 1123: 1824; An. 914. Ða cnihtas cræft leornedon the youths learned science, Cd. 176; Th. 221, 4; Dan. 83: 182; Th. 228, 2; Dan. 196. To cwale cnihta for the destruction of the youths, Cd. 184; Th. 229, 32; Dan. 226. Cnyhta of the youths, Exon. 55a; Th. 195, 32; Az. 165. Wundor Godes on ðám cnihtum gecýðed wæs the miracle of God was manifest on the youths, Cd. 197; Th. 245, 32; Dan. 472. Moises sende cnihtas Moyses misit juvenes, Ex. 24, 5: Cd. 176; Th. 221, 16; Dan. 89: Cd. 195; Th. 243, 5; Dan. 431. Cnihtas wurdon ealde ge giunge ealle forhwerfde to sumum dióre the attendants [of Ulysses], old and young, were all transformed to some beast, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 170; Met. 26, 85. Agynþ beátan ða cnihtas and ða þínena cæperit percutere servos et ancillas, Lk. Bos. 12, 45. Ic, Oswold bisceop, landes sumne dǽl sumum cnihte ðæm is Osulf nama, for uncre sybbe, forgeaf I, bishop Oswald, have given a portion of land to a knight named Osulf, for our kinship, Cod. Dipl. 557; A. D. 969; Kmbl. iii. 49, 32: 612; A. D. 977; Kmbl. iii. 159, 25. [Wyc. kniʒt, knyʒt: R. Brun. knyght: Chauc. knight, knyght: R. Glouc. knygt: Laym. cniht: Orm. cnihtess, pl: Scot. knecht, knycht: Plat. knecht, knekt: Frs. knecht: O. Frs. kniucht, knecht, m: Dut. Kil. Ger. knecht, m: M. H. Ger. knëht, m: O. H. Ger. kneht, m: Dan. knegt, m. f: Swed. knekt, m.] DER. in-cniht, leorning-.

cniht-cild, es; n. A male child, boy; puer :-- Wæs on ðam ylcan mynstre cnihtcild sum, ne wæs yldre ðonne þrý-wintre there was in the same monastery a boy, he was not older than three years, Bd. 4, 8; S. 575, 27.

cniht-gebeorþor; gen. -gebeorþres; n. A boy-bearing, child-bearing; pueri partus :-- On ðæm cnihtgebeorþre heó á clǽne þurhwunode in child-bearing she continued ever immaculate, Homl. Blick. 3, 12.

cniht-geong; adj. Young as a child; puerilis, Elen. Kmbl. 1276; El. 640.

cniht-hád, es; m. The period between childhood and manhood, youth, boyhood, KNIGHTHOOD; pubes :-- Cnihthád pubes, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 50. Óþ cnihtháde to youth; pube tenus, 47; Som. 48, 8.

cniht-iugoþ, e; f. Youth, boyhood; juventus :-- Cnihtiugoþ and sumor beóþ gelíce youth and summer are alike, Bridf. 11: 12.

cniht-leás; adj. KNIGHTLESS, without an attendant; sine servo, M. H. 113b.

cniht-líc; adj. Boyish, childish; puerilis :-- Ne he cnihtlíce gálnysse næs begangende nor was he [Guthlac] addicted to boyish levity, Guthl. 2; Gdwin. 12, 16. Swá oft swá cnihtlícu yldo begǽþ as childish age is often wont, 2; Gdwin. 12, 19.

cniht-wesende; part. Being a boy or youth, while a youth; dum puer est :-- On ðam mynstre on ðam cnihtwesendum in monasterio tunc puero, Bd. 3, 12; S. 537, 17: 2, 15; S. 518, 36. Cnihtwesende being a youth, Exon. 85a; Th. 320, 34; Wíd. 39: Beo. Th. 750; B. 372: 1075; B. 535.

cniht-wíse, an; f. Youthwise, boy's-manner; pueri mos :-- Sprecan æfter cnihtwísan to speak after the manner of a boy, Guthl. 2; Gdwin. 12, 13.

cnittan to knit, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 22, MS. C. v. cnyttan.

Cnobheres burh; gen. burge; f. [MS. Cneoferis burh] Burghcastle, Suffolk; Cnobheri urbs, in agro Suffolciensi ad ostia Garionis fluvii :-- Ceaster, seó is nemned on Englisc Cneoferis burh. In his original Latin, Bede says, -- Castrum, 'quod lingua Anglorum Cnobheres burg, id est, urbs Cnobheri vocatur,' Bd. 3, 19; S. 547, 22.

cnocian to knock. DER. ge-cnocian. v. cnucian.

cnódan, cneódan; ic cnóde, ðú cnódest, he cnódeþ, cneódeþ, pl. cnódaþ; p. cneád, pl. cnudon; pp. cnoden, gecnoden To give, assign, call, carry out, exalt; tribuĕre, attribuĕre, efferre :-- Gyt mon his naman cneódeþ yet man calls by his name, Bd. 2, 20; S. 522, 24. Gif hwæt welgedónes biþ, ðonne cnódaþ him ealle mid hérenesse if anything be well done, then all exalt him with praise; si qua bene gesta sunt, omnes laudibus efferunt, Past. 17, 3; Hat. MS. 22b, 3.

CNOLL, es; m. A KNOLL, hill-top, cop, summit; cacumen, vertex :-- On ðam teóðan mónþe æteówodon ðæra munta cnollas decimo mense apparuerunt cacumina montium, Gen. 8, 5. Garganus hine gemétte standan uppon ðam cnolle ðære heálícan dúne Garganus found him standing on the knoll of the high hill, Homl. Th. i. 502, 13. Heá dúne, hyllas and cnollas high downs, hills and knolls, Exon. 18a; Th. 45, 11; Cri. 717. On cnolle in vertice, Mone B. 927. To ufeweardum ðam cnolle ad verticem montis, Jud. 16, 3. He hit ne sette upon ðone héhstan cnoll he should not set it upon the highest hill-top, Bt. titl. xii; Fox xii. 15. On ðam lytlan cnolle ðe Ermon hátte Hermonis a monte modico, Ps. Th. 41, 7. [Prompt. knolle: Plat. knulle: Dut. knol, m: Kil. knolle: Ger. knolle, knollen, m: M. H. Ger. knolle: Dan. knold, m. f: Swed. knöl, m.]

CNÓSL, es; n. A race, progeny, offspring, kin, family; proles, genus, generatio :-- Gewít ðú nú féran, and ðíne fare lǽdan, ceápas to cnósle begin thow now to depart, and lead thy family, thy cattle for progeny, Cd. 83; Th. 105, 2; Gen. 1747. Mínes cnósles of my progeny, Exon. 105a; Th. 399, 22; Rä. 19, 4: 112a; Th. 430, 15; Rä. 44, 9. Gódes and yfles ðǽr ic cunnade, cnósle bidǽled there I tried good and evil, separated from my offspring, 85b; Th. 321, 27; Wld. 52. Bearn vel cnósl soboles vel proles, Ælfc. Gl. 91; Som. 75, 19; Wrt. Voc. 51, 64. Cnósle genere, Mone B. 1608. Héht from hweorfan mánscyldigne cnósle sínum he bade the crime-guilty depart from his kindred, Cd. 50; Th. 64, 12; Gen. 1049. On cnósle oððe on cynne in generatione, Ps. Lamb. 32, 11. Gewát him mid cnósle he departed with his family, Cd. 83; Th. 104, 4; Gen. 1730. [O. Sax. knósal, n: Ger. knösel, m. a little man: O. H. Ger. knuosli, knósli, n.] DER. fæderen-cnósl, geóguþ-.

cnossian, he cnossaþ; p. ode; pp. od To beat, strike, dash; tundi, quassari, illidi :-- Yða gewealc mec oft bigeat, æt nacan stefnan, ðonne he be clifum cnossaþ the rolling of the waves has often caught me, at the vessel's prow, when it strikes on rocks, Exon. 81b; Th. 306, 15; Seef. 8.

CNOTTA, an; m. A KNOT, fastening, knitting; nexus :-- Cnotta nexus, Ælfc. Gr. 11; Som. 15, 10. Gyt hér is óðer cnotta ealswá earfoðe there is yet another knot equally difficult, Homl. Th. ii. 386, 22. To onlýsanne [MS. onlýsenne] ða fæstan cnottan [MS. cnotten] to loosen the fast knots, Th. Diplm. A. D. 1035; 334, 9: Wanl. Catal. 42, 23. Mid cnottum nexibus, Mone B. 3128: Homl. Th. ii. 28, 26. [Prompt. Chauc. knotte: Plat. knutte: Frs. knotte: Dut. knot, f; Kil. knutte: Ger. knoten, knote, m: M. H. Ger. knode, knote, m: O. H. Ger. knodo, m; Dan. knude, m. f: Swed. knut, m: Icel. knútr, m.]

CNUCEL; gen. cnucles; m. A KNUCKLE, joint; articulus, Som. Ben. Lye. [Prompt. knokylle: Relq. Ant. W. i. 190, 30, knokelys, pl: Plat. knukkel, knüchel: Frs. kneukel: O. Frs. knokele, knokle: Dut. kneukel, m: Kil. knokel: Ger. knöchel, m: Dan. knogle, m. f: Swed. knoge, m: Icel. knúi, m.]

CNUCIAN, cnucigan; p. ode; pp. od To KNOCK, beat, pound; pulsare, tundere, pertundere :-- Cnuciaþ and eów biþ ontýned pulsate et aperietur vobis, Mt. Bos. 7, 7: Lk. Bos. 11, 9. Ðám cnuciendum biþ ontýned pulsanti aperietur, Mt. Bos. 7, 8: Lk. Bos. 11, 10. He cnucode æt ðære dura he knocked at the door, Homl. Th. ii. 382, 17, 22. Ic cnucige tundo, pertundo, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 7; Som. 32, 56, 65. Ða leáf cnuca on ánum mortere pound the leaves in a mortar, Herb. 41, 4; Lchdm. i. 142, 18: 57, 1; Lchdm. i. 158, 20: 63, 7; Lchdm. i. 166, 29: 64; Lchdm. i. 168, 5: 65; Lchdm. i. 168, 11. Cnucige ealle ða wyrta pound all the herbs, Lchdm. i. 382, 15. [Prompt. knokkyn': UNCERTAIN Wyc. Piers P. knocken: Chauc. knocke: Plat. knukken to utter a deep sound: Icel. knoka: Wel. cnociaw: Corn. cnoucye.] DER. ge-cnucian.

cnuian; p. ode; pp. od To pound, Lchdm. ii. 340, 15. v. cnuwian.

Cnut, es; m. Cnut was the Danish king of England for twenty-one years, from A. D. 1014-1035 :-- Hér, on ðissum geáre, Swegen ge-endode his dagas to Candelmæssan iii n UNCERTAIN Feb'. And se flota ðá eal gecurón Cnut to cyninge here, in this year, A. D. 1014, Sweyn ended his days at Candlemas, on the 3rd of the Nones of February [Feb. 3rd]. And then all the fleet chose Cnut for king, Chr. 1014; Erl. 150, 20-22. Hér forþférde Cnut cing, on ii Id' Novemb' æt Sceftes byrig, and hine man ferode ðánon to Winceastre, and hine ðǽr bebyrigde here departed king Cnut, on the 2nd of the Ides of November [= Nov. 12] at Shaftesbury, and they bore him thence to Winchester, and buried him there, 1035; Erl. 164, 17-19. Hér man drǽfde út Ælfgife, Cnutes cynges láfe, seó wæs Hardacnutes cynges módor here, A. D. 1037, they drove out Ælfgifu, widow of king Cnut, who was mother of king Hardacnut, 1037; Erl. 167, 1. [Knúta, os, ossis. Leggja mót wið marga prúða knútu cum multis splendidis [nitidis] artubus congredi, Hh. 83, 1. i. e. cum multis militibus, prædæ destinatis. Raskius, F. vi. 403, pro nom. propr. accipit, a Knútr, aut de principibus virls aut bellaloribus, Egils.]

cnuwian, cnuian; p. ode; pp. od To knock, pound; pinsere :-- Genim læfre neoðowearde, cnuwa and wring take the netherward part of a bulrush, pound it and wring, Lchdm. i. 382, 18. Cnua beolenan pound henbane, L. M. 3, 50; Lchdm. ii. 340, 15. DER. ge-cnuwian. v. cnucian.

cnyht a boy, youth, Exon. 121a; Th. 463, 33; Hö. 79: 55a; Th. 195, 32; Az. 165: Beo. Th. 2443; B. 1219. v. cniht.

CNYLL, es; m. A KNELL, sound of a bell; signum campanæ :-- Hwílon ic gehýre cnyll and ic aríse aliquando audio signum el surgo, Coll. Monast. Th. 35, 29. [Prompt. knyll-ynge tintillacio: Relq. Ant. W. ii. 31, cnul sound of a bell: Ger. knall, m. fragor, crepitus: Dan. knald, n. sound: Swed. knall, m. a loud noise: Wel. cnul, cnull, m. a passing bell.]

CNYLLAN, cnyllsan; p. de; pp. ed To KNELL, sound a bell; pulsare, campaná signum dare :-- Ðæm cnyllende ontýned biþ pulsanti aperietur, Lk. Skt. Rush. 11, 10. Cnyllaþ [cnyllsaþ, Lind.] and ontýned biþ iów pulsate et aperietur vobis, 11, 9: 12, 36: R. Ben. 48. Cnylled pulsatus, R. Cone. 1. [Ger. knallen, knellen crepare, fragorem edere: M. H. Ger. knillen, knüllen to beat: Dan. knalde fragorem edere: Swed. knalla to make a noise: Icel. knylla to beat with a blunt weapon.]

cnyllsan to knell, sound a bell, Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 9: 12, 36. v. cnyllan.

CNYSSAN, cnysan; part. cnyssende; p. cnyssede, cnysede, cnysde, cnyste; pp. cnyssed To press, trouble, toss, strike, dash, beat, overcome; premere, tribulare, pulsare, contundere, vincere :-- Ic wæs hearde cnyssed I was hard pressed, Ps. Th. 117, 13. Ne lǽt úsic costunga cnyssan tó swíðe let not temptations trouble us too much, Exon. 122a; Th. 469, 7; Hy. 5, 9. Me costunge [MS. costunce] cnyssaþ trials trouble me, Ps. Th. 63, 1: Exon. 81b; Th. 308, 2; Seef. 33. Me costunge cnyssedan trials troubled me, Ps. Th. 65, 13: 85, 6: 114, 4. Cnysedon, 58, 17. Cnysdon, 119, 1. Cnysdan, 118, 143: 137, 7. Se storm biþ cnyssende ðæt scip the storm is tossing the ship, Past. 9, 2; Hat. MS. 13b, 10. Ne mec sceal ámas cnyssan the weaver's reeds shall not strike me, Exon. 109a; Th. 417, 22; Rä. 36, 8. Cnysseþ ðæt sár on ða rib the sore striketh upon the ribs, L. M. 2, 46; Lchdm. ii. 258, 3. Ne se hearda forst cnyseþ ǽnigne the hard frost strikes not any, Exon. 56b; Th. 201, 21; Ph. 59. He cnyste Petres sídan he struck Peter's side, Homl. Th. ii. 382, 7. Ðás stánhleoðu stormas cnyssaþ storms dash these stony rocks, Exon. 78a; Th. 292, 19; Wand. 101. Gaius Inlius se Cásere Brettas mid gefeohte cnysede Caius Julius Ctesar beat the Britons in battle, Chr. Erl. 4, 24. Ahteniense bí mid gefeohte cnysedon the Athenians beat them in battle, Ors. 3, 1; Bos. 53, 5. Ðæt hine ne cnysse sió wilnung lest desire overcome him, Past. 19, 1; Hat. MS. 28a, 6. [Scot. knuse to press down with the knees: Plat. knusen to squeeze: Frs. Japx. kniesen to bruise: Dut. kneuzen to bruise: Kil. knisschen terere, quassare: Ger. knüssen to push, beat: M. H. Ger. knüsen, knüssen to press, push, beat: O. H. Ger. knusjan, kimssan concutere: Goth. knussyan to press down: Dan. knuse to bruise: Swed. knusa to bruise: Icel. knosa to bruise, beat.] DER. a-cnyssan, ge-, on-, to-, úta-.

cnyssung, e; f. A striking, stroke; ictus :-- Of ðære lyfte cnyssunge from the striking of the air, Ælfc. Gr. 1; Som. 2, 30. Sweng oððe cnyssung ictus, 43; Som. 44, 55.

CNYTTAN, cnittan; p. cnytte; pp. cnytted, cnytt, cnyt To tie, bind, KNIT; nectere, nexere, ligare :-- Ic cnytte necto, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 22. Ic cnytte [MS. C. cnitte] nexo, 36; Som. 38, 23: 28, 3; Som. 30, 61. Genim ðysse ylcan coliandran sǽd, endlufon corn oððe þreóttyne, cnyte mid ánum þrǽde take seed of this same coriander, eleven or thirteen grains, knit them with a thread, Herb. 104, 2; Lchdm. i. 218, 20. [Prompt. knyttyn UNCERTAIN nodo, confedero: Wyc. knyt, knyttide, pp: Piers P. knytte; R. Brun. knytte: Chauc. knitte: Laym. icnutten, p. pl. knotted: Plat. knutten nodare: Dut. knotten to tie; Kil. knodden nodare: Ger. knoten, knöten nodare: Dan. knytte to knit: Swed. knyta to knit, tie: Icel. knytja to knit together: Lat. nodare to tie: Sansk. nah to bind, tie.] DER. be-cnyttan, ge-, un-.

cnyttels, es; m? A knitting thread, string, thong; nervus :-- Strenga, cnyttelsa nervorum, Mone B. 2858.

COC, cocc, es; m. A COCK, a male fowl or bird; gallus, pullus :-- Coc gallus, Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 47; Wrt. Voc. 30, 2: 63, 8: 77, 34. Creów se cocc gallus cantavit, Mt. Bos. 26, 74, 34: Jn. Bos. 13, 38. Cocca pullorum, Mone B. 4913. Ðonne coccas cráwan when cocks crow, Lchdm. iii. 6, 5. [Prompt. cok: Chauc. cok, cock: Kil. kocke: Dan. kok, m: Icel. kokkr, m: Fr. coq, m: O. Fr. coc.] DER. sǽ-coc, wudu-.

CÓC, es; m. A COOK; coquus :-- Cóc coquus, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 32, 7; Wrt. Voc. 82, 50. Hwæt secgaþ we be cóce quid dicimus de coquo? Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 5. Hí cócas gehyrstan cooks roasted them, Ps. Th. 101, 3. [Prompt. cooke: Piers P. coke: Chauc. coke: Laym. coc: Plat. kokk: O. Sax. kok, m: Dut. kok, m: Kil. kock: Ger. M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. koch, m: Dan. kok, m. f: Swed. kock, m: Icel. kokkr, m; Ital. cuóco, m: Lat. cocus, coquus, m: Wel. cóg: Corn. cog, m: Ir. Gael. coca: Armor. cok: O. Slav. kuchari.]

COCCEL, es; m. COCKLE, darnel, tares; zizania :-- Æteówde se coccel hine apparuerunt zizania, Mt. Bos. 13, 26. He oferseów hit mid coccele on middan ðam hwǽte superseminavit zizania in medio tritici, 13, 25: Homl. Th. i. 526, 20. Se sóða Déma hit his englas gadrian ðone coccel the true Judge shall bid his angels gather the cockle, 526, 21: Mt. Bos. 13, 27, 29, 30. Coccela zizaniorum, Mone B. 2332. [Prompt. cokylle: Wyc. cockil, cokil: Chauc. cockle.]

COCER, cocor, cocur, es; m. I. a quiver for arrows, a case; pharetra = GREEK :-- Cocer pharetra, Wrt. Voc. 84, 31. Hý gyrdon flána heora on cocere paraverunt sagittas suas in pharetra, Ps. Spl. 10, 2. Nim ðín gesceót, ðinne cocur and ðínne bogan, and gang út sume arma tua, pharetram et arcum, et egredere foras, Gen. 27, 3. II. a sword, spear; framea :-- Ageót cocor effunde frameam, Ps. Spl. 34, 3. Genera fram cocore míne sáwle erue a framea animam meam, 21, 19. [Prompt. cocur cothurnus: Piers P. cokeres stockings: Laym. koker, m: Plat, köker, käker: O. Sax. cocáre, m; Frs. O. Frs. koker: Dut. Kil. kóker: Ger. köcher, m: M. H. Ger. kochære, kocher, m: O. H. Ger. kochar: Dan. kogger, n: Swed. kogur, n.]

cócer-panne, cócor-panne, an; f. [cóc a cook, panne a pan] A cooking-pan, frying-pan; sartago, frixorium :-- On cócerpannan in frixorio, Ps. Th. 101, 3. Cócorpanne sartago, Mone B. 4694.

cócnunga, pl. f. [cóc a cook] Things cooked, pies :-- Metegearwa and cócnunga sint to forbeódanne meat-preparations and things cooked must be forbidden, L. M. 2, 23; Lchdm. ii. 210, 26: 2, 32; Lchdm. ii. 236, 10.

cocor, es; m. A sword; framea, Ps. Spl. 21, 19. v. cocer II.

cócor-mete, es; m. [cóc a cook, mete meat, food] Meal divided into four parts? quadripartiturn, Wrt. Voc. 290, 41.

cocur a quiver, Gen. 27, 3. v. cocer I.

cod-æppel, es; m. A quince-pear, quince; malum cydoneum vel cotoneum, Cot. 93.

CODD, es; m. A bag, sack, COD, husk; pera = GREEK, folliculus, siliqua :-- Codd folliculus, Ælfc. Gl. 59; Som. 67, 128; Wrt. Voc. 38, 50. Ne nime ge nán þing on wege, ne gyrde, ne codd nihil tuleritis in via, neque virgam, neque peram, Lk. Bos. 9, 3: 22, 36: Mt. Bos. 10, 10: Mk. Bos. 6, 8. Nim wínberian coddas [MS. coddes] take husks of the grape, Lchdm. iii. 112, 13. [Prompt. codde: Wyc. coddes, coddis pods: Chauc. cod: Scot. cod a pillow: Kil. kodde a bag, sack: Swed. kudde, m. a cushion: Icel. koddi, m. a pillow.] DER. bién-codd, sceát-.

coelnes coolness, Wanl. Catal. 304, 49. v. cólnes.

coerin boiled wine, Cot. 61. v. ceren.

COFA, an; m. A COVE, cave, repository, inner room, chamber, ark; cubile, cubiculum, arca :-- On cófan in a chamber, Exon. 125a; Th. 480, 18; Rä. 64, 4. Wæs culufre eft of cófan sended the dove was sent again from the ark, Cd. 72; Th. 88, 13; Gen. 1464. On cyninga cófum in cubilibus regum, Ps. Th. 104, 26. DER. bán-cófa, bed-, breóst-, ferhþ-, gást-, heolstor-, hord-, hreðer-, in-, mearh-, morþor-, nýd-, rún-, þeóster-: cóf-godas.

Cofan-treó, Cofen-treó, Conen-tré, es; n. [a monachorum conventu sic dictum putant quidam] COVENTRY, Warwickshire; Coventria in agro Warwicensi :-- Leófwine abbod on Cofantreó féng to ðam bisceopríce Leofwine, abbot at Coventry, succeeded to the bishopric, Chr. 1053; Erl. 188, 7. Leofríc líþ æt Cofentreó Leofric lieth at Coventry, 1057; Erl. 192, 30. Of Couentré at Coventry, 1066; Erl. 203, 16: 1130; Erl. 258, 37.

Cofer-flód, Cofor-flód, es; n. m. The sea of Galilee; Galilæum mare :-- Ic fare on wæteres hricg ofer Coferflód, Caldéas sécan I depart upon the water's back over the sea of Galilee, to seek the Chaldeans, Salm. Kmbl. 39; Sal. 20. Ðú gewítest on Wendelsǽ, ofer Coforflód, cýððe sécean thou goest on the Mediterranean sea, over the sea of Galilee, to seek thy country, 407; Sal. 204.

cóf-godas; pl. m. Household-gods; penates, Ælfc. Gl. 113; Som. 79, 113; Wrt. Voc. 60, 20: Glos. Prudent. Recd. 152, 28.

cófincel, es; n. A hand-mill; pistrilla, Cot. 155.

cóf-líce quickly, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cáf-líce.

cóf-scipe quickness, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cáf-scype.

cohhetan; p. te; pp. ed To bluster; tumultuari UNCERTAIN :-- Hí ongnnnon cohhetan they began to bluster, Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 20; Jud. 270.

CÓL; gen. cóles; pl. nom. acc. cóla, cólu; gen. cóla; dat. cólum; n. COAL; carbo :-- Cól carbo, Wrt. Voc. 86, 20: 286, 79. Swá sweart swá cól as black as coal, L. M. 3, 39; Lchdm. ii. 332, 19. Cól [MS. coll] carbo, Ælfc. Gl. 30; Som. 61, 75; Wrt. Voc. 27, 4. On hát cól upon a hot coal, L. M. 1, 50; Lchdm. ii. 124, 6. Cóla onælde synd fram him carbones succensi sunt ab eo, Ps. Spl. 17, 10, 15. Feallaþ ofer hí cólu cadent super eos carbones, Ps. Spl. C. 139, 11. Þurh ða cólu ðæs alteres by the coals of the altar, Past. 7, 1; Hat. MS. 12a, 10. Ða twegen drýmen wurdon awende to có1a gelícnyssum the two wizards were turned to the likeness of coals, Homl. Th. ii. 496, 18. [Prompt. cole carbo: Wyc. colis, pl: Chauc. cole: Laym. col: Scot. coill, coyll:. Plat. köle: Frs. koal: O. Frs. kole: Dut. kool, m. f: Kil. kole: Ger. kohle, f: M. H. Ger. kol, m: O. H. Ger. kolo, m; kol, n: Dan. kul, n: Swed. kol, n: Icel. kol, n.] DER. heofon-cól.

CÓL; comp. ra; sup. ost; adj. COOL, cold; frigidus :-- Oft ǽspringe útawealleþ of clife hárum cól and hlutor a fountain often springs out of a hoar rock cool and clear, Bt. Met. Fox 5, 26; Met. 5, 13. Hrér mid sticcan óþ-ðæt hit cól síe stir it about with a spoon till it be cool, L. M. 3, 26; Lchdm. ii. 324, 1: 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 270, 2: 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 326, 6: 3, 31; Lchdm. ii. 326, 15. Wyrc him leage of ellenahsan, þweah his heáfod mid cólre make him a ley of elder ashes, wash his head with this cold, 3, 47; Lchdm. ii. 338, 26. Ða cearwylmas cólran wurþaþ. the anxious emotions become cooler, Beo. Th. 570; B. 282: 4139; B. 2066. [Prompt. cole algidus: R. Glouc. cole: Plat. kölig, köl: Dut. koel; Kil. koel: Ger. kühl, kühle: M. H. Ger. küele: O. H. Ger. kuol: Dan. kölig, köl: Swed. kylig.]

cóledon cooled, became cold, Andr. Kmbl. 2514; An. 1258; p. pl. of cólian.

cólian; p. ode, ede; v. intrans. To COOL, to be or become cold; algere, refrigerari :-- Lét ðonne hyt cólian then let it cool, Herb. 94, 4; Lchdm. i. 204, 23. Flǽsc onginneþ cólian the flesh begins to cool, Runic pm. 29; Kmbl. 345, 14. Cólaþ Cristes lufu the love of Christ cooleth, Exon. 33a; Th. 104, 17; Gú. 9. Sumur-hát cólaþ summer-heat becomes cold, Exon. 95a; Th. 354, 58; Reim. 67. Líc cólode the corpse became cold, Exon. 51b; Th. 180, 18; Gú. 1281. Weder cóledon the storms were cold, Andr. Kmbl. 2514; An. 1258. Leomu cólodon the limbs became cold, Elen. Grm. 882. DER. a-cólian, ge-. v. calan.

coliandre, an; f. The herb coriander; coriandrum = GREEK :-- Cnuca coliandran sǽdes nigon corn pound nine grains of coriander seed, Herb. 52, 2; Lchdm. i. 156, 3: 104, 2; Lchdm. i. 218, 19. v. celendre.

colla, an; m. Rage, strife; ardor, furor. DER. morgen-colla.

collen-ferhtan; p. -ferhte; pp. -ferhted To make empty or void, render desolate; exinanire :-- Ða ðe cweðaþ, ge collenferhtaþ oððe aídliaþ óþ grundweal oððe to staðolfæstnunga on hire qui dicunt, exinanite, exinanite usque ad fundamentum in ea, Ps. Lamb. 136, 7.

collen-ferhþ, -ferþ, -tyrhþ; UNCERTAIN adj. [collen, pp. of cellan to swell? p. ceall, pl. cullon; pp. collen, Ettm: ferhþ mind] Fierce-minded, bold of spirit, bold; animi ferox, audax :-- Cleopode collenferhþ cearegan reórde the fierce-minded cried out in a sorrowful voice, Andr. Kmbl. 2217; An. 1110. Wígan wǽron blíðe, collenferhþe the warriors were blithe, bold of spirit, Elen. Kmbl. 493; El. 247: Judth. 11; Thw. 23, 22; Jud. 134. Ðonne he beót spriceþ collenferþ when he bold of spirit utters a promise, Exon. 77b; Th. 290, 26; Wand. 71: Apstls. Kmbl. 107; Ap. 54. In ceól stigon collenfyrhþe the bold of spirit stept into the ship, Andr. Kmbl. 698; An. 349. Collenferþ bold of spirit, Exon. 96b; Th. 361, 9; Wal. 17. Eódon mid collenferhþe the bold went together, Elen. Kmbl. 755; El. 3?8: 1694; El. 849. Hwæðer collenferþ cwicne gemétte whether he should find the bold [warrior] living, Beo. Th. 5563; B. 2785. Cuma collenferhþ the bold guest, 3616; B. 1806. Hleóþrade cempa collenferhþ the bold warrior spake, Andr. Kmbl. 1075; An. 538. Stóp út hræðe, collenferþ he quickly stept out, firm of mind, 3154; An. 1580.

collon-cróh, -cróg, es; m. A water-lily; nymphæa = GREEK :-- Colloncróh nymphæa, Wrt. Voc. 68, 20: Mone A. 461. Colloncróg nymphæa, Cot. 140.

cól-máse, an; f. [cól coal, máse a titmouse] A coal-titmouse, coal-tit; parus ater :-- Cólmáse parra, Wrt. Voc. 62, 39: parula, 281, 11: bardioriolus, Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 52; Wrt. Voc. 30, 7. [Dut. koolmees. f. a titmouse.]

Coln, e; f? The river COLNE, Essex; Colnius, in agro Essexiensi :-- Hie flugon ofer Temese, ðá up be Colne on ánne íggaþ they fled over the Thames, then up by the Colne to an island, Chr. 894; Erl. 90, 28.

coln a pebble stone; calculus, Som. Ben. Lye.

cólne pertaining to coals; carbonarius, Som. Ben. Lye.

Colne-ceaster; gen. -ceastre; f. COLCHESTER, Essex, so called from the river Colne; Colcestria, in agro Essexiæ, ad ripam Colnii fluvii :-- Hí fóron to Colneceastre they went to Colchester, Chr. 92i; Erl. 107, 9; 108, 5.

cól-nes, -ness, e; f. COOLNESS, cool air, a breeze; refrigerium, aura :-- On cólnesse in refrigerium, Ps. Th. 65, 11. v. cél-nes, calan.

cólode cooled, Exon. 51b; Th. 180, 18; Gú. 1281; p. of cólian.

cól-pyt, -pet; gen. -pyttes, -pettes; m. A COAL-PIT; carbonis fossa :-- Fram Hlypegete to ðam cólpytte: fram cólpette from Lipgate to the coal-pit: from the coal-pit, Cod. Dipl. 1322; A. D. 1035; Kmbl. vi. 186, 9.

COLT, es; m. A COLT; pullus :-- He asyndrode þrítig gefolra olfendmyrena mid heora coltum, and twentig assmyrena mid heora coltum [MS. coltun] separavit camelos fætas cum pullis suis triginta, et asinas viginti et pullos earum, Gen. 32, 15. [Prompt. colte: Wyc. Chauc. colt.]

colt-græig, e; f? [græg, grig grey?] The herb colt's foot; tussilago farfara, Lin. v. Prior 51 :-- Coltgræig caballopodia vel ungula caballi, Ælfc. Gl. 44; Som. 64, 63; Wrt. Voc. 31, 73.

cól-þrǽd, -þréd, es; m. A coal or blackened thread, plumb-line; perpendiculum :-- Cólþréd perpendiculum, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 160, 73.

coltræppe, an; f? Ram, whin or Christ's thorn; rhamnus = GREEK, Cot. 156.

Coludes burh, burhg; gen. burge; dat. byrig; f. Colud's city, Coldingham, Berwickshire, Scotland; Coludi vel Coludana urbs, Colania, in agro Barovici :-- Eóde Æðeldryþ on Æbban mynstre ðære Abbudissan, seó wæs Ecfriþes faðu ðæs cyninges, ðæt is geseted on ðære stówe ðe mon nemneþ Coludes burh Ædilthryda intravit monasterium Æbbæ abbatissæ, quæ; erat amita regis Ecgfridi, positum in loco quem Coludi urbem nominant, Bd. 4, 19; S. 587, 42. Ǽrðamðe ðæt mynster æt Coludes byrig mid byrne fornumen wære priusquam monasterium Coludanæ urbis esset incendio consumptum, 4, 25; S. 599, 18. Hér Coludes burh forbarn mid godcundum fýre in this year [A. D. 679] Coldingham was burnt with divine fire, Chr. 679; Erl. 41, 12. Ðæt nunmynster ðæt mon nemneþ Coludes burhg þurh ungýmenne synne fýres líge wæs fornumen monasterium virginum quod Coludi urbem cognominant per culpam incuriæ, flammis absumptum est, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 19.

Columba, an; m. An Irish priest, the Apostle of the Highlands, born about A. D. 520, and arrived in Scotland in 565. He preached to the Picts, whose king gave him the Western Isle, Iona, in which he founded his abbey and college. Columba was abbot 32 years, and died there, at the age of 77, on the 9th of June, 597 [Bd. 3, 4; S. 106, 107: it is not in king Alfred's A. Sax. version]. Columba is thus spoken of in the Chr. A. D. 565 :-- Colnmba, messapreóst, com to Pyhtum, and hí gecyrde to Cristes geleáfan; ðæt sind ðonne [ðone MS.] wærteras [MS. wærteres] be norþum mórum; and heora cyning him gesealde ðæt égland ðe man nemnaþ Ií, ðǽr sindon v hída, ðæs ðe men cweðaþ. Ðiér se Columba getymbrade mynster; and he ðǽr wæs abbot xxxii wintra; and ðǽr forþférde, ðá ðá he wæs lxxvii wintra. Ða stówe habbaþ nó git his erfewærdas [MS. erfewærdes]. . . . Nú, sceal beón ǽfre on Ií abbod, næs bisceop; and ðam sculon beón underþǽdde ealle Scotta biscopas, forðam ðe Columba wæs abbod, nes bisceop Columba, mass-priest, came to the Picts, and converted them to the faith of Christ; who are now dwellers by the northern mountains; and their king gave him the island which men name Iona, where there are five hides, from what men say. There Columba built a monastery; and he was abbot there thirty-two years, and there died when he was seventy-seven years. His inheritors yet have the place. . . . Now, in Iona, there must ever be an abbot, not a bishop; and to him must all the bishops of the Scots be subject, because Columba was an abbot, not a bishop, Chr. 565; Th. 31, 29, col. 1-33, 7, col. 1.

com, pl. cómon came, Beo. Th. 865; B. 430: Cd. 160; Th. 199, 20; Exod. 341; p. of cuman.

comb, es; m. A low place inclosed with hills, a valley; vallis, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cumb.

combol, es; n. An ensign, military standard. DER. here-combol.

cométa, an; m. A comet; cométa, cométes, æ; m. = GREEK, ov; m. long-haired :-- Higegleáwe hátaþ cométa be naman the wise-minded call a comet by name, Chr. 975; Th. 228, 38, col. 1, 2, 3; Edg. 52.

commuc, es; n. m? The cammoc, kex, brimstone wort; peucedănum officinale, Lin, L. M. 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 324, 20. v. cammoc.

comp, es; m. A battle, contest; certamen, pugna, Exon. 105b; Th. 402, 26; Rä. 21, 35: 102b; Th. 389, 3; Rä. 7, 2: Andr. Kmbl. 468; An. 234. v. camp.

comp-dóm warfare, Rtl. 8, 15. v. camp-dóm.

comp-gim; gen. -gimmes; m, A precious gem; pretiosa gemma :-- Mid ðám neorxna wonges compgimmum astǽned stoned with the gems of paradise, Salm. Kmbl. 150, 10.

comp-hád warfare, Som. Ben. Lye. v. camp-hád.

compian to fight, contend against; militare, pugnare, Exon. 37b; Th. 123, 1; Gú. 316: Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 12: 3, 9; S. 533, 17: Ps. Lamb. fol. 183b, 18. v. campian.

compung, e; f. A combating, fighting, contest; pugna, concertatio, Cot. 49.

comp-wǽpen, es; n. A battle-weapon, military weapon; arma :-- Oft ic gǽstberend cwelle compwǽpnum I often kill the living with battle-weapons, Exon. 105 b; Th. 401, 9; Rä. 21, 9. v. camp-wǽpen.

comp-weorod, es; n. An army; exercitus, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 40. v. camp-wered.

comp-wíg, es; m. n. A battle; pugna :-- Compwíge in battle, Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 18; Jud. 333.

con I know, he knows; I, he can, Cd. 227; Th. 304, 13; Sat. 629: Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 16. v. cunnan.

cón, coon bold, Som. Ben. Lye. v. coon, céne.

condel, condell, e; f. A candle; candela, lampas, Chr. 937; Th. 202, 16, col. 1; Æðelst. 15: Exon. 51b; Th. 179, 20; Gú. 1264: 72a; Th. 269, 23; Jul. 454. v. candel.

Cone-ceaster; gen. -ceastre; f. Caster, a town seven miles from Newcastle; oppidum septimo a Novo-castro milliario, N. Som. Ben. Lye.

conned proved; probatus, Lye. v. cunnian.

consolde, an; f. The herb comfrey; consolida :-- Dó him Ðis to lǽcedóme, streáwbergean leáf, consolde, etc. give him this for a remedy, strawberry leaves, comfrey, etc. L. M. 3, 63; Lchdm. ii. 350, 27.

const knowest, canst, Beo. Th. 2759; B. 1377; 2nd pers. pres. of cunnan.

Constantīnus, as Lat. gen. i; dat. o; acc. um; m: also gen. es; dat. e; m. Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor, A. D. 306-337. He is said to have been converted to Christianity, about 312, by the vision of a luminous cross in the sky, on which was the inscription GREEK by this, conquer. In 330 he removed the seat of empire to Byzantium, which he called after his own name GREEK, the city of Constantine, CONSTANTINOPLE :-- Férde Constantius forþ on Breotone, and Constantínus his sunu, ðam gódan Cásere, his ríce forlét. Wríteþ Eutropius ðæt Constantínus, se Cásere, wǽre on Breotene acenned Constantius died in Britain [A. D. 306], and left his kingdom to his son Constantine, the good emperor. Eutropius writes that the emperor Constantine was born in Britain, Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 30-32. Constantius, se mildesta man, fór on Bryttanie, and ðǽr gefór; and gesealde his suna ðæt ríce, Constantínuse, ðone he hæfde be Elenan his wife Constantius, the most merciful man, went into Britain, and died there; and gave the empire to Constantine, his son, whom he had by Helena his wife, Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 126, 39-41. Notes and various readings, p. 28, col. 2, § 4, 41h, MS. C. wífe; L. ciefese. Ðá wæs syxte geár Constantínes cáserdómes then was the sixth year of Constantine's imperial power, Elen. Kmbl. 15; El. 8. Ðá sige forgeaf Constantino cyning ælmihtig þmrh his róde then the king Almighty gave victory to Constantine through his cross, 289; El. 145. Mid Constantíne with Constantine, Ors. 6, 31; Bos. 127, 42. Also dat. Constantínuse, 6, 30; Bos. 127, 7, 17, 23. v. Elene.

consul, es; m. A consul; one of the two chief magistrates of the Romans chosen annually after the expulsion of their kings; geár-cyning, q. v; consul :-- Him ða Rómáne æfter ðǽm [cyningum] látteówas gesetton, ðe hí consulas héton, ðæt hiora ríce heólde án geár an man after them [the kings] the Romans appointed over themselves leaders, whom they called consuls, that one man of them should hold power one year, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 41, 36. Brutus wæs se forma consul Brutus was the first consul, Ors. 2, 3; Bos. 41, 40, 41: 2, 4; Bos. 42, 27. Án consul forsóc ðone [MS. þæne] triumphan one consul [Fabius] declined the triumph, 2, 4; Bos. 42, 43. Senátas cómon ongeán hyra consulas the senators came to meet their consuls, 2, 4; Bos. 43, 5, 20, 26. Under ðám twám consulum under the two consuls, 2, 4; Bos. 42, 33, 39: 2, 4; Bos. 43, 10, 16. Hæfdon him consulas, ðæt we cweðaþ rǽdboran they had consuls, that we call counsellors, Jud. Thw. 161, 22. [Consul, consul-ere to consult, take counsel, hence counsellor.]

consula béc, cyninga béc, pl. f. Books of consuls, or kings' annals, calendars; fastorum libri, fasti, Cot. 92.

Contwara burg Canterbury, Chr. 851; Erl. 66, 34. v. Cantwara burg.

Cont-ware inhabitants of Kent, Chr. 616; Erl. 20, 38. v. Cant-ware.

coon bold, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cón, céne.

coorta, an; m. A band of soldiers, cohort; cohors :-- He hæfde eahta ond hund-eahtatig coortena [MS. coortana], ðæt we nú truman hátaþ, ðæt wæs, on ðám dagum, fíf hund manna, and án þúsend he had eighty-eight cohorts, which we now call bands, each of which was, in those days, one thousand five hundred men, Ors. 5, 12; Bos. 111, 14, 17.

cop; gen. coppes; m. A top, COP, summit; vertex, summitas :-- Coppe summitate, Mone B. 1576.

cóp, es; m? A cope, an outer garment worn by priests; ependytes = GREEK :-- Cóp vel hoppada vel nfrescrúd ependeton [= ependytes], Ælfc. Gl. 112; Som. 79, 83; Wrt. Voc. 59, 52.

cope-man a merchant, Som. Ben. Lye. v. ceáp-man.

copenere, es; m. A lover; amator :-- Ðú eart forlegen wið manigne copenere tu fornicata es cum amatori multo, Past. 52, 3; Hat. MS.

copest chiefest, most precious; pretiosissimus, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cop a summit.

copian; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad To plunder, pillage, steal; compilare :-- Copade and stæl compilabat, Cot. 53.

cop-líc fit; coplíce fitly, well; apte, Gr. Dial. 1, 1, Lye.

copor, es; n? Copper; cuprum :-- Nim hwetstán brádne and gníd ða buteran on ðæm hwetstáne mid copore take a large whetstone and rub butter on the whetstone with copper, Lchdm. iii. 16, 22.

copp, es; m. A cup, vessel; calix, vas :-- Calic oððe copp wætres calicem aquæ, Mk. Skt. Lind. 9, 41. Copp vas, Cot. 175. v. cuppe.

copped; part. [cop a top] Having the top cut off, topped, polled; capite recisus, decacuminatus :-- To ðan coppedan þorne to the topped thorn, Cod. Dipl. 1121; A. D. 939; Kmbl. v. 240, 28, 29. Andlang weges on ða coppedan ác along the way to the polled oak, Th. Diplm. A. D. 900; 145, 29.

COPS, cosp, es; m. A rope, cord, fetter; funis, anquina, compes :-- Cops anquina [anguina, MS.], Ælfc. Gl. 104; Som. 78, 10; Wrt. Voc. 56, 56. Hí sǽdon ðæt hió sceolde sleán on ða raccentan and on cospas they said that she should throw them into chains and fetters, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 32. [O. Sax. cosp, m: Lat. compes a fetter.] DER. fót-cops, hand-, swur-.

corcíþ, es; m. An increase; incrementum :-- Loc hine geseón corcíþ getácnaþ capillum se videre incrementum significat, Lchdm. iii. 212, 9. v. cíb.

coren chosen, elected, Chr. 675; Th. 58, 34; pp. of ceósan.

corenes, -ness, e; f. [coren, pp. of ceósan to choose] An election, a choice; electio, C. R. Ben. 62. DER. ge-corenes, wið-, wiðer-.

corfen cut, carved, Exon. 107b; Th. 410, 24; Rä. 29, 4; pp. of ceorfan.

Corfes geat, Corf-geat, es; n. [Sim. Dun. Coruesgeate: Hovd. Coruesgate] Corfgate, Purbeck, Dorsetshire :-- Hér wæs Eádweard cyning ofslægen æt Corfes geate [Corfgeate, Th. 233, 2, col. 2] in this year [A. D. 979] king Edward was slain at Corfgate, Chr. 979; Th. 232, 3, col. 2.

corflian; p. ode; pp. od [ceorfan to cut] To cut up small, mince; concidere :-- Ðás wyrta sý swýðe smæl corflode let these herbs be minced very small, Lchdm. iii. 292, 5. coríon, es; n? [= GREEK for GREEK = GREEK, Anac. 138] The herb coriander; coriandrum [ GREEK hyperícon, Diosc. 3, 171], Som. Ben. Lye. v. celendre.

CORN, es; n. I. CORN, a grain, seed, berry; frumentum, granum, bacca :-- Corn frumentum, Ælfc. Gl. 59; Som. 67, 122; Wrt. Voc. 38, 44. Wæs corn swá dýre, swá nán man ǽr ne gemunde corn was so dear, as no man before remembered it, Chr. 1044; Erl. 168, 21: Homl. Th. ii. 68, 17. Hie wǽron benumene ǽgðer ge ðæs ceápes ge ðæs cornes they were deprived both of the cattle and of the corn, Chr. 895; Erl. 93, 18: Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 10, 8; Lchdm. iii. 254, 4. Se Déma gegaderaþ ðæt clǽne corn into his berne the Judge will gather the pure corn into his barn, Homl. Th. ii. 68, 18: Chr. 894; Erl. 93, 11. Hý heora corn ripon they reaped their corn, Ors. 4, 8; Bos. 90, 33: Chr. 896; Erl. 94, 6: Past. 52; Hat. MS. Corn granum, Wrt. Voc. 83, 16. Ðæt hwǽtene corn wunaþ ána granum frumenti solum manet, Jn. Bos. 12, 24: Bt. 35, 1; Fox 156, 2, 4. Senepes corn granum sinapis, Lk. Bos. 17, 6. Heofena ríce is geworden gelíc senepes corne, ðæt seów se man ou hys æcre simile est regnum cælorum grano sinapis, quod homo seminavit in agro suo, Mt. Bos. 13, 31: Lk. Bos. 13, 19. Hægl byþ hwítust corna hail is the whitest of grains, Runic pm. 9; Kmbl. 341, 4; Hick. Thes. i. 135. Se æppel monig corn oninnan him hæfþ the apple has many seeds inside it, Past. 15, 5; Hat. MS. 19b, 23. Ifig byrþ corn golde gelíce ivy bears berries like gold, Herb. 121, 1; Lchdm. i. 234, 4. Genim ðysse wyrte twentig corna take twenty grains of this herb [ivy], 121, 2; Lchdm. i. 234, 6. II. a hard or cornlike pimple, a corn, kernel on the feet; pustula, clavus :-- Ðis mæg horse wið ðon ðe him biþ corn on ða fét this may be for a horse which has corns on his feet, Lchdm. iii. 62, 22. [Prompt. corne: Wyc. Chauc. R. Glouc. corn: Laym. corn, n: Orm. corn: Plat. koren, koorn: O. Sax. korn, korni, kurni, n: O. Frs. korn: Dut. kóren, n: Ger. M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. korn, n : Goth. kaurno, n. a grain of corn; Dan. Swed. Icel. korn, n. a grain of corn.] DER. giþ-corn, mete-, sand-, sund-.

corn-æsceda Corn-sweepings, chaff; quisquiliæ :-- Æppelscreáda vel cornæsceda quisquiliæ, Ælfc. Gl. 17; Som. 58, 97; Wrt. Voc. 22, 13.

corn-appla, pl. n. Pomegranates; mala Punica, Mone B. 3822.

corn-bǽre; adj. Corn-bearing; graniger :-- Corn-bǽre graniger, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 20: Homl. Th. i. 450, 11. Cornbǽrum granigera, Mone B. 1435.

corn-gesǽlig; adj. [gesiǽlig fortunate, rich] Wealthy in corn; frumento opulentus :-- Cild corngesǽlig biþ a child will be wealthy in corn, Obs. Lun. § 9; Lchdm. iii. 188, 11.

corn-gesceót, es; n? A payment or contribution of corn; frumenti solutio vel munus :-- Se wudu beó gelǽst binnan þrým dagum æfter ðam corngesceóte let the wood be supplied within three days after the contribution of corn, Cod. Dipl. 942; Kmbl. iv. 278, 10.

corn-hrycce, an; f. A CORN-RICK; frumenti acervus :-- Wearþ gemét ðæt feoh uppon ánre cornhryccan the money was found upon a corn-rick, Homl. Th. ii. 178, 8.

corn-hús, es; n. A corn-house, granary; granarium, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 78, 130; Wrt. Voc. 58, 42.

corn-hwæcca, an; m. A corn-chest, bin; arca frumentaria. v. hwæcca, Som. Ben. Lye.

cornoch, es; m. A crane; grus, Som. Ben. Lye.

corn-treów, es; n. A cornel-tree; cornus :-- Corntreów cornus, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 64, 124; Wrt. Voc. 32, 58: Cot. 49.

corn-troh, -trog, es; m. [troh a trough] A corn-trough, bin, a vessel for cleansing grains of corn; cista frumentaria, capisterium :-- Corntroh capisterium, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 62; Wrt. Voc. 16, 35.

Corn-weal, es; m. CORNWALL; Cornubia, Som. Ben. Lye.

Corn-wealas; gen. -weala; dat. -wealum; pl. m. Cornishmen, the inhabitants of Cornwall in a body, Cornwall; Cornubienses, Cornubia :-- Cómon hí to lande on Cornwealum they came to land in Cornwall, Chr. 892; Th. 160, 39, col. 3: 997; Erl. 134, 8. v. Wealh.

corn-wurma, an; m. A corn-worm, weevil; vermiculus, Ælfc. Gl. 17; Som. 58, 84; Wrt. Voc. 22, 2.

cors, es; m. A curse; execratio, Ben. Lye. v. curs.

corsian to curse, Ben. Lye. v. cursian.

cor-snǽd, e; f. [cor, cer, cyrr a choice; snǽd a bit, piece] A choice or trial piece; panis conjurátus, offa consecrāta. A sort of ordeal in which the person accused had placed in his mouth an ounce of bread or cheese. If he ate it freely and without hurt, he was considered innocent; but guilty, if he could not swallow it, or had a difficulty in doing so. The Host was used for this purpose in Christian times :-- Gif man freónd­leásne weofod-þén mid tihtlan belecge, gá to corsnǽde if a friendless servant of the altar be charged with an accusation, let him go to the corsnǽd, L. Eth. ix. 22; Th. i. 344, 23: L. C. E. 5; Th. i. 362, 19. To corsnǽde to the corsnǽd, Th. i. 362, 25: Th. i. 344, 29.

corþer; gen. corþres; n: corþer; gen. corþre; f. A band, multitude, company, troop, body, train, pomp; multitudo, cohors, copia, pompa :-- Cirmdon caldheorte, corþer óðrum getang the cold-hearted cried out, troop thronged on troop, Andr. Kmbl. 276; An. 138. Cyning corþres georn a king desirous of pomp, Cd. 176; Th. 221, 28; Dan. 95. Wǽron ealle ætgædere cyningas on corþre the kings were altogether in a body, 151; Th. 189, 27; Exod. 191: 166; Th. 207, 11; Exod. 465: Exon. 15a; Th. 31, 11; Cri. 494: 46a; Th. 156, 25; Gú. 880. Stígeþ cirm on corþre clamour arises in the company, 83b; Th. 314, 26; Mód. 20. Cyning on corþre a king amid his train, Beo. Th. 2310; B. 1153: Ps. Th. 54, 16. On wera corþre in the company of men, Elen. Kmbl. 608; El. 304: 1081; El. 543: 140; El. 70. Heó cleopade fór corþre she cried before the assemblage, Exon. 74b; Th. 279, 23; Jul. 618: Bt. Met. Fox 26, 169; Met. 26, 85: Andr. Kmbl. 3428; An. 1718. Se sunu Wihstánes acígde of corþre cyninges þegnas the son of Wihstan called the king's thanes from the band, Beo. Th. 6233; B. 3121. Mid corþre with a troop, Andr. Kmbl. 2151; An. 1077: 2244; An. 1123: 2410; An. 1206: Elen. Kmbl. 1379; El. 691. Corþre ne lytle with no little train, Exon. 16a; Th. 36, 19; Cri. 578. Hér Eádgár wæs Engla waldend corþre micelre in this year [A. D. 973] Edgar became ruler of the Angles with much pomp, Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 10; Edg. 2. Hí cwómon in ða ceastre corþra mǽste they came to the city with the greatest of companies, Elen. Kmbl. 548; El. 274: Exon. 58a; Th. 209, 7; Ph. 167. Corþrum miclum in large bands, Cd. 80; Th. 99, 27; Gen. 1652: 112; Th. 148, 7; Gen. 2453. [O. H. Ger. kortar, n. grex: Lat. cohors, gen. cohortis = cors, gen. cortis a company.] DER. hilde-corþer, mægen-.

cor-wurma, an; m. A purple colour; múrex :-- Corwurmum mūrĭ-cĭbus, Mone B. 6170.

COS, coss, es; m. A Kiss; osculum :-- Cos osculum, Wrt. Voc. 72, 44. Ic hine to mínum cosse arǽrde I raised him to my kiss, Homl. Th. ii. 32, 11. Coss ðú me ne sealdest osculum mihi nan dedisti, Lk. Bos. 7, 45. Mannes sunu ðú mid cosse sylst osculo filium hominis tradis, 22, 48. Betwux ðám cossum between the kisses, Homl. Th. i. 566, 19. Cossas syllan hearm getácnaþ to give kisses betokens harm, Lchdm. iii. 208, 27. [Wyc. cos, coss, cosse: Laym. coss: Plat. kuss: O. Sax. kus, m: O. Frs. kos, m: Dut. Kil. kus, m: Ger. kuss, m: M. H. Ger. kus, m: O. H. Ger. kus, m: Dan. kys, n: Swed. kyss, m: Icel. koss, m: Wel. cusan, m: Corn. cussin, m: Sansk. kus to embrace.]

Coshám, es; m. COSHAM or CORSHAM, Wilts; loci nomen in agro Wiltoniensi :-- Læg se cyng seóc æt Coshám the king lay sick at Corsham, Chr. 1015; Erl. 152, 13.

cosp, es; m. A fetter; compes :-- On cospas into fetters, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 32. v. cops.

cossas kisses, Lchdm. iii. 208, 27; acc. pl. of cos.

cossian; p. ode; pp. od [cos a kiss] To kiss; osculari :-- Heó hit cossode she kissed it, Homl. Th. i. 566, 19. v. cyssan.

cost, es; m? The herb costmary; costus = GREEK, balsamita vulgaris, Lin:-- Cost costus, Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 71: Wrt. Voc. 30, 23: 79, 21. Costes gódne dǽl gebeát smæle and gegníd to duste beat small a good deal of costmary and rub to dust, L. M. 2, 55; Lchdm. ii. 276, 6: 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 212, 26. Genim pipor and cymen and cost take pepper and cummin and costmary, 1, 17; Lchdm. ii. 60, 15: 1, 23; Lchdm. ii. 66, 9: 1, 47; Lchdm. ii. 120, 9. Ænglisc [MS. Æncglisc] cost English costmary, tansy; [tanacetum vulgare, Lin.], Lchdm. iii. 24, 8.

cost; adj. [costian to tempt, try, prove] Tried, proved; probatus :-- Cempan coste cyning weorþodon the tried champions glorified the king, Andr. Kmbl. 2111; An. 1057. DER. ge-cost.

costere, costnere, es; m. A tempter; tentator :-- Manna cynnes [MS. manna kynnes] costere hafaþ acenned on ðé ða unablinnu ðæs yfelan geþohtes the tempt?? ILLEGIBLE of mankind [lit. of the race of men] hath begotten in thee the unrest of this evil thought, Guthl. 7; Gdwin. 46, 9. Se costere cwæþ to him tentator dixit ei, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. Lind. 4, 3.

costere, es; m? A digging tool, spade; fossorium :-- Costere vel delfísen vel spadu vel pal fossorium, Ælfc. Gl. 2; Som. 55, 40; Wrt. Voc. 16, 14.

COSTIAN, costigan, costnian; p. ode, ade, ede; pp. od, ad, ed To tempt, try, prove; probare, tentare. I. v. trans. gen. acc. 1. with the genitive; cum genitivo :-- Ðæs rinces se ríca ongan cyning costigan the powerful king began to tempt the chief, Cd. 137; Th. 172 18; Gen. 2846. Ðú mín costadest, Drihten Domine, probasti me, Ps. Th. 138, 1. He mín costode he tried me, Beo. Th. 4175; B. 2084. Úre costade, God probasti nos, Deus, Ps. Th. 65, 9. Costodon mín tentaverunt me, Ps. Spl. C. M. 94, 8. Hí Godes costodon [MS. Costodan] tentaverunt Deum, Ps. Th. 77, 41. Hí on wéstenne heora Godes costedon [MS. costedan] tentaverunt Deum in inaquoso, 105, 12, 31. Costa mín, God proba me, Deus, 138, 20. 2. with the accusative; cum accusativo :-- He ðæt folc costian lét he let [them] try the people, Ors. 6, 3; Bos. 118, 6. He costode cyning alwihta he tempted the king of all creatures, Cd. 228; Th. 306, 28; Sat. 671: Homl. Blíck. 29, 24, 34. Hí costodon God tentaverunt Deum, Ps. Spl. 105, 14: Mt. Bos. 16, 1. Ne costa ðú ðínne Drihten God tempt not the Lord thy God, Homl. Blick. 29, 33: Ps. Spl. C. T. 25, 2. II. v. intrans :-- Ðonne bryne costaþ hú gehealdne sind sáwle wið synnum when the burning proveth how abstinent are souls from sins, Exon. 23b; Th. 65, 24; Cri. 1059. Feówertig daga he wæs fram deófle costod diebus quadraginta tentabatur a diabolo, Lk. Bos. 4, 2: Homl. Blick. 29, 14. [Laym. i-costned, pp. proved, tried: O. Sax. kostón to try, tempt: Ger. kosten to taste, try by tasting; tentare, gustare: O. H. Ger. kostón tentare: Goth. kausyan to taste: Icel. kosta to try, tempt.] DER. fore-costian, ge-.

costigan to tempt, Cd. 137; Th. 172, 18; Gen. 2846. v. costian.

costigend, costnigend, es; m. A tempter; tentator :-- Se costigend eóde to him the tempter went to him, Homl. Blick. 27, 4. Se costnigend tentator, Mt. Bos. 4, 3.

costing a temptation, Exon. 33a; Th. 104, 18; Gú. 9. v. costnung.

costnere, es; m. A tempter; tentator :-- Swá swá se geleáfa strengra biþ, swá biþ ðæs costneres miht læsse as the faith is stronger, so is the might of the tempter less, Homl. Th. ii. 392, 20, v. costere.

costnes, -ness, e; f. A temptation; tentatio, Som. Ben. Lye. DER. ge-costnes.

costnian; part. costnigende; p. ode; pp. od; v. trans. gen. acc. To tempt; tentare :-- Hyne costnigende tentantes eum, Mt. Bos. 19, 3. Ic hys costnode I tempted him, Nicod. 26; Thw. 14, 15. Costnodon me tentaverunt me, Num. 14, 22: Ps. Lamb. 94, 9. Afanda me Drihten, and costna me proba me Domine, et tenta me, Ps. Spl. 25, 2. Ne costna ðú Drihten dínne God non tentabis Dominum Deum tuum, Mt. Bos. 4, 7: Lk. Bos. 4, 12. v. costian.

costnigend, es; m. A tempter; tentator, Mt. Bos. 4, 3. v. costigend.

costnung, costung, costing, e; f. [costnian, costian to tempt, try] A temptation, trying, trial, tribulation; tentatio, probatio, tribulatio :-- Ðeós costnung is of ðam níþfullan deófle this temptation is from the. malicious devil, Boutr. Scrd. 23, 10, 8. Wæs seó ǽreste costung ofercumen the first temptation was overcome, Exon. 39a; Th. 128, 24; Gú. 409: Homl. Th. ii. 156, 26: Ex. 17, 7. On ðære costnunge tíman in tempore tentationis, Lk. Bos. 8, 13. Æfter dæge costunge secundum diem tentationis, Ps. Spl. 94, 8. Ne gelǽd ðú us on costnunge ne nos inducas in tentationem, Mt. Bos. 6, 13: 26, 41: Mk. Bos. 14, 38: Lk. Bos. 11, 4: 22, 40, 46: Homl. Th. ii. 596, 9: 600, 16. On costunge in tentatione, Deut. 9, 22. Sindan costinga monge arisene many temptations are arisen, Exon. 33a; Th. 104, 18; Gú. 9. Ðæt he us gescylde wið ða þúsendlícan cræftas deófles costunga that he shield us from the thousand crafts of the devil's temptations, Homl. Blick. 19, 17. Micle costnunge ge gesáwon tentationes magnas viderunt oculi tui, Deut. 29, 3. Drecþ se deófol mancynn mid mislícum costnungum the devil vexes mankind with various temptations, Boutr. Scrd. 19, 44. Seó costnung ðære éhtnesse gestilled wæs the trial of the persecution was stilled, Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 19. Me costung and sár cnyssedan tribulation and sorrow troubled me, Ps. Th. 114, 4. Hí on costunge cleopedan to Drihtne clamaverunt ad Dominum cum tribularentur, 106, 12, 18, 27: 117, 5: 142, 12. Ðonne me costunge cnysedon in die tribulationis meæ, Ps. Th. 58, 17: 65, 13. Me costunga cnysdan tribulatio et angustia invenerunt me, Ps. Th. 118, 143: 119, 1: 137, 7. DER. nýd-costing.

costung, e; f. A temptation, trying; tentatio, tribulatio, Ex. 17, 7: Ps. Spl. 94, 8: Deut. 9, 22: Ps. Th. 114, 4. v. costnung.

COT, cott, es; pl. nom. acc. cotu; gen. cota; dat. cotum, cottum; n. A COT, cottage, house, bed-chamber, den; casa, domus, cubiculum, cubile, spelunca UNCERTAIN :-- Onbútan ða cotu about the cots, Cod. Dipl. 551; A. D. 969; Kmbl. iii. 35, 6. Ongeán ða cotu towards the cots, 559; A. D. 969; Kmbl. iii. 52, 16. We witan ðæt hý ne durran hý selfe æt hám æt heora cotum werian we know that they dare not defend themselves at home in their own houses, Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 69, 26. Ingá in cotte ðínum intra in cubiculum tuum, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 6. In cotum [Lind, cottum] in cubiculis, Lk. Skt. Rush. 12, 3: ll, 7. Ge worhton ðǽt to þeófa cote fecistis illam speluncam latronum, Mt. Bos. 21, 13. [Prompt. coote: Wyc. Piers P. cotes, pl: Chauc. cote: Plat. kate, katen: Dut. kot, n: Ger. kot, n: Dan. koje, m, f: Swed. kette, m; koja, f: Icel. kot, n: Wel. cwt: Gael. cot, m.]

cote, an; f. A cot, cottage, house; casa, domus :-- Gif hwilc man for­stolen þingc hám to his cotan bringe if any man bring a stolen thing home to his house, L. C. S. 77; Th. i. 418, 18. v. cyte.

cóða diseases; nom. gen. acc. pl. of cóðu.

cóð-líce; adv. [cóða, cóðu a disease] Badly, miserably; male, misere :-- Cóðlíce racentan gerǽped miserably bound in chains, Bt. Met. Fox 25, 72; Met. 25, 36.

cóðu, e; f: cóðe, an; f; cóða, an; m. A disease, sickness, pestilence; morbus :-- Mycel orfes wæs ðæs geáres forfaren þurh mistlíce cóða much cattle was destroyed this year through various diseases, Chr. 1041; Erl. 169, 9. Swylc cóðe com on mannum . . . ðæt mænige swulton such a disease came on men . . . that many died, Chr. 1087; Th. 353, 37. Seó miccle cóða the great disease, leprosy; elephantinus morbus, Homl. Th. ii. 480, 10. Seó cóðu ðe lǽcas hátaþ paralisin the disease which physicians call palsy, ii. 546, 29. He fram ðære cóðe hine gehǽlde he healed him from the disease, i. 400, 10. Wið wambe cóðum for diseases of the stomach, L. M. 2, 32; Lchdm. ii. 234, 1. DER. ban-cóða, -cóðu, bræc-, eár-, fǽr-, fót-, heort-, in-, múþ-, sweor-, un-.

cot-líf, es; pl. nom. acc. -líf; gen. -lífa; n. [cot a cot, cottage; líf, II. a place to live in] A village; villa :-- Ðæt cotlíf the village, Cod. Dipl. 828; A. D. 1066; Kmbl. iv. 191, 13: 845; Kmbl. iv. 204, 31: 855; Kmbl. iv. 211, 25: 859; Kmbl. iv. 214, 6: 864; Kmbl. iv. 217, 7. He bohte feola cotlíf he bought many villages, Chr. 963; Erl. 121, 24. Hý forbærndon óðra cotlífa fela they burned many other villages, 1001; Erl. 136, 32.

cot-sǽta, an; m. An inhabitant of a cottage, a cottager; casæ habitator, Som. Ben. Lye.

cot-setla, cote-setla, an; m. [MS. kot-setla, kote-setla] A cottager; casārius :-- Cotsetlan [MS. kotsetlan] riht a cottager's right, L. R. S. 3; Th. i. 432, 15. Cotesetlan [MS. kotesetlan] riht, be ðam ðe on lande stent. On sumon he sceal ǽlce Móndæge ofer geáres fyrst his láforde wyrcan, óðð iii dagas ǽlcre wucan on hærfest: ne þearf he landgafol syllan. Him gebýriaþ v æceras to habbanne, máre gyf hit on lande þeáw sý, and tó lytel hit biþ beó hit á læsse, forðan his weorc sceal beón oft rǽde. Sylle his heorþ-pænig on hálgan Þunres dæg, eal swá ǽlcan frigean men gebýreþ, and werige his hláfordes inland, gif him man beóde æt sǽ-wearde and æt cyniges deór-hege, and æt swilcan þingan swilc his mǽþ sý, and sylle his ciric-sceát to Martinus mæssan cotsetle rectum esi juxta guod in terra constitutum est. Apud quosdam debet omni die Lunæ, per anni spatium, operari domino suo, et tribus diebus unaquaque septimana in Augusto. [Apud quosdam, operatur per totum Augustum, omni die, et unam acram avene metit pro diurnale opere. Et habeat garbam suam quam præpositus vel minister domini dabit ei.] Non dabit landgablum. Debet habere quinque acras ad perhabendum, plus si consuetudo sit ibi, et parum nimis est si minus sit quod deservit, quia sæpius est operi illius. Det super heorþpenig in sancto die Jovis, sicut omnis liber facere debet, et adquietet inland domini sui, si submonitio fiat de sewarde, id est, de custodia maris, vel de regis deorhege, et ceteris rebus quæ suæ mensuræ sunt: et del suum cyricsceatum in festo sancti Martini, L. R. S. 3; Th. i. 432, 16-434, 2.

cot-stów, e; f. [stów a place] A place of cottages; casarum situs :-- On ða ealdan cotstówa to the old cot-places, Cod. Dipl. 578; A. D. 973; Kmbl. iii. 97, 30.

cott a bed-chamber, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 6: Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 7: 12, 3. v. cot.

cottuc, es; m. Mallow; malva :-- Cottuc wyl on wætere boil mallow in water, L. M. 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 78, 19: 1, 60; Lchdm. ii. 130, 23. Nim niðeweardne cottuc take the netherward part of mallow, 1, 68; Lchdm. ii. 144, 5.

cowen chewed, eaten; pp. of ceówan.

coxre a quiver, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cocer.

CRABBA, an; m. I. A CRAB, crayfish; cancer :-- Crabba cancer, Ælfc. Gl. 102; Som. 77, 74; Wrt. Voc. 55, 78: 77, 68. Hwæt féhst ðú on sæ? Crabban and lopystran quid capis in mari? Cancros et polypodes, Coll. Monast. Th. 24, 11. II. a sign of the zodiac, cancer; signum zodiaci, cancer :-- . Feórþa ðæra tácna ys geháten cancer, ðæt is crabba the fourth of the signs is called cancer, that is, a crab, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 7, 5; Lchdm. iii. 244, 25. [Dut. krab, f: Kil. krabbe: Ger. krabbe, f; krebs, m: M. H. Ger. krebez, m: O. H. Ger. chrëpazo, m: Dan. krabbe, m. f: Swed. krabba, f: Icel. krabbi, m; Lat. karabus, m: Grk. GREEK, m. a crab: Sansk. sarabha, m. a grasshopper, crab.]

cracettan to CROAK; crocitare, Gr. Dial. 2, 8, Som. Ben. Lye.

Crac-gelád Cricklade, Chr. 905; Th. 180, 21, col. 2. v. Crecca-gelád.

CRACIAN; part. craciende; p. ode; pp. od To CRACK, quake; crepare :-- Craciendum crepante, Mone B. 123. Sió eorþe eall cracode the whole earth quaked, Ps. Th. 45, 3. [Piers P. craked broke: Chauc. crakke: Laym. crakeden, chrakeden, p. pl: Plat. Dut. kraken: Ger. M. H. Ger. krachen: O. H. Ger. krachjan, krachón: Gael. crac crepare.]

CRADEL, cradol, es; m. A CRADLE; cunabula :-- Cradel cunabula, pl. [MS. cunabulum], Ælfc. Gl. 27; Som. 60, 112; Wrt. Voc. 25, 52. On cradele [MS. B. cradole] in a cradle, L. C. S. 77; Th. i. 420, 1. [Prompt. credel, cradel: R. Brun. credille: Chauc. R. Glouc. cradel: Gael. creathail, f. a cradle.] DER. cild-cradol.

cradol a cradle, L. C. S. 77; Th. i. 420, 1, MS. B. v. cradel.

cradol-cild, es; n. A cradle-child, infant; e cunabulis infans :-- Syndon cradolcild geþeówode infantes e cunabulis sunt mancipati, Lupi Serm. 1, 5; Hick. Thes. ii. 100, 30.

cræcetung, e; f. A croaking; crocitatio :-- Cræcetung hræfena the croaking of ravens, Guthl. 8; Gdwin. 48, 4.

Cræcilád Cricklade, Chr. 1016; Erl. 153, 5. v. Crecca-gelád. cræfian to crave, Cod. Exon. 5b. Lye. v. crafian.

CRÆFT, es; m. I. power, might, strength as of body or externals; vis, robur, potentia :-- On ðam gefeohte Mǽða cræft gefeól in that battle the power of the Medes fell, Ors. l, 12; Bos. 35, 43. He cwæþ ðæt ðín abal and cræft mára wurde he said that thy strength and power would become greater, Cd. 25; Th. 32, 9; Gen. 500: 155; Th. 193, 13; Exod. 245; 212; Th. 262, 3; Dan. 738: Beo. Th. 2571; B. 1283. His ágnes cræftes of his own strength, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 54, 5. Þurh his cræftes miht by the might of his power, Andr. Kmbl. 1170; An. 585: Elen. Kmbl. 1112; El. 558: Exon. 24b; Th. 70, 29; Cri. 1146. He cræft máran hæfde he had greater power, Cd. 14; Th. 18, 6; Gen. 269: 22; Th. 27, 12; Gen. 416: 23; Th. 29, 21; Gen. 453: Exon. 33b; Th. 107, 14; Gú. 58: Beo. Th. 1402; B. 699. Nýdaþ cræfte tíd the tide forces it with power, Salm. Kmbl. 790; Sal. 394: Cd. 23; Th. 29, 13; Gen. 449: Exon. 71b; Th. 266, 3; Jul. 392: Beo. Th. 1969; B. 982. Mid eallum hiora cræftum with all their forces, Ors. 1, 13; 805. 37, 4: Exon. 109a; Th. 417, 24; Rä. 36, 9. He his dryhtne hýrde þurh dýrne cræftas he obeyed his lord through secret powers, Salm. Kmbl. 904; Sal. 451: Cd. 184; Th. 230, 1; Dan. 226: Exon. 88b; Th. 332, 33; Vy. 94: 92b; Th. 346, 27; Sch. 5. II. an art, skill, CRAFT, trade, work; ars, peritia, artificium, occupatio, opus :-- Se cræft ðæs lareówdómes biþ cræft ealra cræfta the art of teaching is the art of all arts, Past. 1, 1; Hat. MS. 6b, 8. Cræft ars. Wrt. Voc. 73, 35. Wolde ic ánes to ðé cræftes neósan I would inquire of one art from thee, Andr. Kmbl. 968; An. 484. He byþ forlǽten fram ðam cræfte ipse dimittetur ab arte, Coll. Monast. Th. 31, 35. Ic gearcie híg mid cræfte mínum [MS. minon] præparo eas arte mea, 27, 31: Bt. 39, 4; Fox 216, 24. Seó þeód ðone cræft ne cúðe ðæs fiscnóþes the people knew not the art of fishing, Bd. 4, 13; S. 582, 43. Betweoh ðás cræftas inter istas artes, Coll. Monast. Th. 30, 17. On his mycclum cræfte by his great skill, Hexam. 1; Norm. 4, 3. Nán mon ne mæg nǽnne cræft cýðan bútan tólum no man can shew any skill without tools, Bt. 17; Fox 58, 29: Boutr. Scrd. 17, 8. Wundorlíce cræfte ðú hit hæfst gesceapen with wonderful skill thou hast made it, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 11: Ors. l, 12; Bos. 35, 35. Cræft biþ betere ðonne ǽhta a craft [= trade] is better than wealth, Prov. Kmbl. 20: Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 27: 28, 5, 7, 9: 30, 11. Ǽlces cræftes andweorc the materials of any trade, Bt. 17; Fox 58, 30. Hwæt begytst ðú of ðínum cræfte what gettest thou by thy trade? Coll. Monast. Th. 23, 3: 28, 3, 31. Ðeáh ðé ðíne sǽlþa forlǽton, ne forlǽt ðú ðínne cræft though thy wealth desert thee, desert not thou thy trade, Prov. Kmbl. 57: Coll. Monast. Th. 21, 1, 11: 22, 35, 37: Bt. 17; Fox 58, 31: 17; Fox 60, 2. Mistlícra cræfta big­genceras workers of various trades, Coll. Monast. Th. 30, 1. To cræftum [MS. cræftan] teón to educate in trades, L. Edg. C. 51; Th. ii. 254, 26. Gif ðú bearn hæbbe, lǽr ða cræftas, ðæt hí mǽgen be ðám libban if thou have children, teach them trades, that they may live by them, Prov. Kmbl. 20: 57. Seó cwén bebeád cræftum getýde girwan Godes tempel the queen commanded men skilled in crafts [= trades] to make a temple of God, Elen. Kmbl. 2034; El. 1018. Wæs ǽfre unbegunnen Scyppend, se ðe gemacode swylcne cræft the Creator, who made such a work, was ever without beginning. Hexam. 1; Norm. 4, 5. III. craft of mind, cunning, knowledge, science, talent, ability, faculty, excellence, virtue; astutia, machinatio, scientia, facultas, præstantia, virtus :-- Þurh deófles cræft through the devil's craft, Cd. 25; Th. 31, 29; Gen. 492. Ðeáh Eue on deófles cræft bedroren wurde though Eve had been deceived by the devil's craft, 38; Th. 51, 7; Gen. 823: Exon. 17b; Th. 43, 7; Cri. 685: Andr. Kmbl. 2590; An. 1296: Frag. Kmbl. 56; Leas. UNCERTAIN 30. Feóndes cræfte by a fiend's craft, Andr. Kmbl. 2394; An. 1198: Exon. 71a; Th. 264, 5; Jul. 359. Mínum cræftum by my devices, 72b; Th. 271, 11; Jul. 480. Beald biþ se ðe onbýrigeþ bóca cræftes he is bold who tasieth of book-knowledge, Salm. Kmbl. 484; Sal. 242. On bóclícum cræfte in book-knowledge, Boutr. Scrd. 17, 7. Ða cnihtas cræft leornedon the youths learned science, Cd. 176; Th. 221, 5; Dan. 83. Ic wilnode ðæt míne cræftas ne wurden forgitene I was desirous that my talents should not be forgotten, Bt. 17; Fox 60, 9. Ða yfelan nǽfre habbaþ nǽnne cræft the wicked never have any ability, 36, 3; Fox 174, 35. Seó gesceádwísnes is synderlíc cræft ðære sáwle reason is a peculiar faculty of the soul, 33, 4; Fox 132, 10: 32, 1; Fox 116, 3. Ða cræftas de we ǽr ymbe sprǽcon ne sint to wiðmetanne wið ðære sáwle cræfta ǽnne the faculties which we have before spoken about are not to be compared with any one of the faculties of the soul, 32, 1; Fox 116, 1, 2, 4. Omérus on his leóþum swíðe hérede ðære sunnan cræftas Homer in his poems greatly praised the sun's excellences, 41, 1; Fox 244, 7. Sint ða cræftas betran ðonne ða unþeáwas the virtues are better than the vices, 36. 5; Fox 180, 15. Simmachus is wísdðmes and cræfta full Symmachus is full of wisdom and virtues, 10; Fox 28, 17. Se eorþlíca ánweald nǽfre ne sǽwþ ða cræftas earthly power never sows the virtues, 27, 1; Fox 94, 25: 30, 1; Fox 110, 5. Nán man for his ríce ne cymþ to cræftum, ac for his cræftum he cymþ to ríce no man by his authority comes to virtues, but by his virtues he comes to authority, 16, 1; Fox 50, 21, 23, 24. IV. a CRAFT, any kind of ship; navis qualiscunque :-- Gif massere geþeah ðæt he férde þríge ofer wíd-sǽ be his ágenum cræfte, se wæs ðonne syððan þegenrihtes weorþe if a merchant thrived, so that he fared thrice over the wide sea in his own craft, then was he thenceforth worthy of thane-right, L. R. 6; Th. i. 192, 10. Ic ǽfre ne geseah on sǽ leódan syllícran cræft I never saw a more wonderful craft sailing on the sea, Andr. Recd. 1004; An. 500. [Wyc. Piers P. Chauc. craft: Laym. cræft, craft: Orm. crafft: Plat, kraft, kracht: O. Sax. kraft, m. and f: Frs. O. Frs. kreft: Dut. kracht, f: Kil. kracht: Ger. M. H. Ger. O. H. Ger. kraft, f: Dan. kraft, m. f: Swed. kraft, m: Icel. kraptr, kraftr, m.] DER. aclǽc-cræft, ǽ-, átor-, beadu-, bealo-, bóc-, deófol-, dreám-, drý-, dwol-, ellen-, firen-, flíter-, galdor-, gleó-, gúþ-, hell-, hyge-, lǽce-, lár-, leornung-, leóþ-, leoðo-, leóðu-, mód-, morþor-, nearo-, ofer-, rím-, sang-, sceóp-, scín-, scip-, scóp-, searo-, snytro-, stæf-, sundor-, swinsung-, tungel-, tungol-, un-, wæl-, wic-, wicce-, wíg-, word-, woruld-, wóþ-, wundor-.

cræfta, an; m. [cræft art] An artist, a craftsman, workman; artifex :-- Cræfta artifex, Ælfc. Gr. 10; Som. 14, 43. v. cræftiga.

cræftan; p. te; pp. ed [cræft art] To exercise a craft, to build; architectari :-- Ic cræfte architector, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 35. DER. a-cræftan, ge-.

cræftca a workman; artifex, opifex, Wrt. Voc. 73, 36, 38. v. cræftiga.

cræftega a workman, Past. 37, 3; Hat. MS. 50b, 6. v. cræftiga, cræfta.

cræftga an artificer, Bt. Met. Fox ii. 184; Met. 11, 92. v. cræftiga.

cræftgast most skilful, Bt. Met. Fox 30, 4; Met. 30, 2; sup. of cræftig.

cræftgian to strengthen, make powerful. DER. ge-cræftgian.

cræft-gleáw; adj. Sage-minded, science-learned; animi prudens :-Cræft-gleáwe men sage-minded men, Chr. 975; Erl. 126, 26; Edg. 52.

cræftica a workman, Ælfc. Gl. 81; Som. 73, 2; Wrt. Voc. 47, 9. v. cræftiga.

cræftig; adj. Ingenious, skilful, CRAFTY, cunning, virtuous, powerful; ingeniosus, peritus, astutus, probus, potens :-- Sum biþ fugelbona hafeces cræftig one is a fowler skilful with the hawk, Exon. 79 b; Th. 298, 6; Crä. 81: 97a; Th. 361, 24; Wal. 24: Ps. C. 50, 11; Ps. Grn. ii. 277, 11. Án reordode, ðam wæs Iudas nama, wordes cræftig one spake, whose name was Judas, crafty in word, Elen. Kmbl. 837; El. 419: Exon. 97 b; Th. 364, 18; Wal. 72 : Beo. Th. 2936; B. 1466. He sende cræftige wyrhtan misit architectos, Bd. 5, 21; S. 643, 7. Móde ðæs cræftig with a mind so cunning, Exon. 79 b; Th. 299, 6; Crä. 98. Céne and cræftig brave and virtuous, Bt. Met. Fox 10, 101; Met. 10, 51: Bt. 36, 6; Fox 182, 10, 11. Sume men bióþ cræftige some men are virtuous, 39, 10; Fox 228, 7. Yldo beóþ on eórþan ǽghwæs cræftig age is powerful over everything on earth, Salm. Kmbl. 584; Sal. 291: Beo. Th. 3929; B. 1962: Chr. 1066; Th. 334, 1; Edw. 5. Weras wísfæste, wordes cræftige wise men, powerful of speech, Elen. Kmbl. 628, 630; El. 314, 315. Nán cræftigra is ðonne ðu no one is more skilful than thou, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 18. Omérus wæs leóþa cræftgast Homer was most skilful in poems, Bt. Met. Fox 30, 4; Met. 30, 2. Elþeódge wíf hæfdon gegán ðone cræftgestan dǽl strange women had overcome the most powerful part, Ors. 1. 10; Bos. 33, 41. DER. ǽ-cræftig, æl-, ár-, beadu-, bóc-, eácen-, hyge-, lagu-, leóþ-, leoðu-, má-, mód-, rím-, rún-, searo-, sundor-, un-, wíg-.

cræftiga, cræftega, cræftica, cræftca, cræftga, an; m. A craftsman, workman, artificer, architect; artifex, opifex, architectus :-- Se micla cræftiga the great craftsman, Past. 8, 1; Hat. MS. 12b. 15: Andr. Reed. 3264; An. 1635. Cræftica [MS. D. cræftca] artifex, Ælfc. Gr. 10; Som. 14, 43, MS. C: Ælfc. Gl. 81; Som. 73, 2; Wrt. Voc. 47, 9. Cræftca artifex. Wrt. Voc. 73, 36. Ðyssera cræftcena horum artificum, Ælfc. Gr. 10; Som. 14, 44. Se cræftega wyrcean mæg to ðæm ðe he wile the workman can make what he likes of it, Past. 37, 3; Hat. MS. 50b, 6. Cræftiga opifex, Ælfc. Gl. 9; Som. 56, 128; Wrt. Voc. 19, 11. Cræftca opifex, Wrt. Voc. 73, 38. Swá swá ǽlc cræftega þencþ his weorc as every artificer considers his work, Bt. 39, 6; Fox 220, 4. Se cræftga geférscipas fæste gesamnaþ the artificer firmly unites societies, Bt. Met. Fox 11. 184; Met. 11. 92: Exon. 8a; Th. 1. 22; Cri. 12. Cræftiga [MS. C. cræftica] architectus, Ælfc. Gr. 36; Som. 38, 35, MS. D.

cræftig-líce; adv. Workmanlike, CRAFTILY; fabre, artificiose :-- Cræftig-líce fabre, Cot. 84. Seó heáfodstów cræftiglíce geworht ætýwde locus capitis fabrefactus apparuit, Bd. 4, 19; S. 590, 1.

cræftigra more skilful, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 128, 18; comp. of cræftig.

cræft-leás; adj. Artless, unskilful, innocent, simple, inexpert; iners, indoctus, innocens :-- Cræftleás iners, Wrt. Voc. 73, 50. Dǽl-leás vel cræftleás expers, indoctus, Ælfc. Gl. 18; Som. 58, 123; Wrt. Voc. 22, 36.

cræft-líc; adj. Artificial; artificialis, Bridfr. Som. Ben. Lye.

cræft-líce; adv. Cunningly, craftily; affabre :-- Cræftlíce vel smícere affabre, Ælfc. Gl. 99; Som. 76, 113; Wrt. Voc. 54, 55 : Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 32. v. cræftig-líce.

cræft-searo; gen. -searowes; n. An instrument of war, a device, stratagem; machina. Som. Ben. Lye.

cræft-wyrc, es; a. Workmanship; artificium, Scint. 29.

cræn a crane. Som. Ben. Lye. v. cran.

cræsta, an; m. A CREST, tuft, plume; crista, Som. Ben. Lye.

CRÆT, crat, es; pl. nom. acc. cratu, crætu; gen. cræta; dat. cratum, crætum; n. A chariot, CART; currus, pilentum :-- Cræt currus, Ælfc. Gl. 49; Som. 65, 91; Wrt. Voc. 34, 22: 85, 71. Betogen [MS. betogan] caæt capsus, 49; Som. 65, 93; Wrt. Voc. 34, 23. Wǽrun Godes cræta gegearwedra tyn þúsendo currus Dei decem millibus, Ps. Th. 67, 17. On horsum and on cratum equis ac curribus, Deut. 11, 4. Mid gebeótlícum crætum and gilplícum riddum with threatening chariots and proud horsemen, Homl. Th. ii. 194, 23: Ps. Spl. C. 19, 8. He hæfde cratu and rídende men habuit currus et equites, Gen. 50, 9: Ex. 14, 27. Heó oferarn Pharao, and ealle his crætu and riddan it [the sea] overwhelmed Pharaoh, and all his chariots and horsemen, Homl. Th. ii. 194, 27. Crat pilentum vel petorrĭtum, Ælfc. Gl. 49; Som. 65, 95; Wrt. Voc. 34, 25. [Prompt, cart biga, rheda, quadriga: Wyc. cart, carte: Piers P. cart-wey: Chauc. carte: R. Glouc. carte-staf: Laym. carte, dat: Dut. krat, n: Ger. krätze, kretze, m. f: M. H. Ger. kretze, m. f: O. H. Ger. cratto, m: Icel. kartr, m: Wel. cart: Ir. cairt: Gael, cairt, cartach, f.]

cræte-hors, es; n. [cræt a cart, hors a horse] A cart-horse; veredus, Ælfc. Gl. 5; Som. 56, 17; Wrt. Voc. 17, 21.

cræt-wǽn, es; m. [wǽn a waggon] A chariot, wain; currus :-- Crætwǽn mid seolfre gegyred a chariot mounted with silver, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 43, 14. Mid crætwǽne with a chariot, 2, 4; Bos. 43, 6. Sceoldon senátas rídan on crætwǽnum the senators must ride in chariots, 2, 4; Bos. 43, 9.

crǽwst, he crǽwþ crowest, crows, Lk. Bos. 22, 34; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of crawan.

CRAFIAN, crafigan; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed To ask, CRAVE, implore, demand, summon; petere, postulare, in jus vocare :-- Gif hwá wíte crafige if any one crave a fine, L. C. S. 70; Th. i. 412, 24. Se man crafode hine on hundrede the man summoned him before the hundred court Lchdm. iii. 288, 4. He mid rihte crafede ðás ða he crafede he with right craved those things which he craved, Chr. 1070; Erl. 208, 18, 23. [Piers P. craven: Dan. kræve: Swed, kräfva: Icel. krefja.] DER. be-crafian: un-crafod, unbe-.

crammian, ic crammige; p. ode; pp. od To CRAM, stuff; farcire :-- Ic crammige oððe fylle farcio, Ælfc. Gr. 30, 2; Som. 34, 36. [Wyc. crammyd, pp: Piers P. ycrammed, pp.] DER. under-crammian.

CRAN, es; m: e; f. A CRANE; grus :-- Cran grus, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 33; Som. 12, 20: Ælfc. Gl. 38; Som. 63, 34; Wrt. Voc. 29, 53: 62, 20: 77, 16: 280, 25. [Prompt, crane grus: Laym. cron, crane: Plat. kraan: O. Sax. kranc, m: Dut. kraan, f: Kil. kraene: Ger. kranich, m: M. H. Ger. kranech, m: O. H. Ger. kranuh, m: Dan. trane, m. f; Swed. trana, f: Icel. trani, m; trana. f: Lat. grus, f: Grk. GREEK, m. and f: Wel. Corn. garan, f: Ir. Gael, garan, m: Armor, garan, f.]

cranc, pl. cruncon yielded; p. of crincan.

cranc-stæf, es; m. A weaver's instrument; instrumenti genus ad textores pertinentis, Som. Ben. Lye.

crang, pl. crungon fell, perished, died; p. of cringan.

crang dead, killed; mortuus, occisus, Mann.

crano-hawc [cran a crane; hafoc, es; m. a hawk] A crane-hawk; accipiter, qui gruem mordet, Spelm. Gl. Ben. Lye.

crápe should creep, Chr. 1131; Erl. 260, 3, =creápe; p. subj. of creópan.

crat a waggon, Ælfc. Gl. 49; Som. 65, 95; Wrt. Voc. 34, 25. v. cræt.

CRÁWAN, ic cráwe, ðú cráwest, crǽwst, he cráweþ, crǽwþ; p. creów, pl. creówon; pp. cráwen To CROW as a cock; cantare instar galli :-- Ne crǽwþ se hana to-dæg non cantabit hodie gallus, Lk. Bos. 22, 34. Ne crǽwþ se cocc, ǽr ðú wiðsæcst me þríwa. Jn. Bos. 13, 38; the koc schal not crowe, til thou schalt denye me thries, Wyc. Ǽrðamðe cocc cráwe, þriwa ðú wiðsæcst mín antequam gallus cantet, ter me negabis. Mt. Bos. 26, 34. Ǽrðamðe se cocc cráwe, þríwa ðú me wiðsæcst, 26, 75; bifore the cok crowe, thries thou shall denye me. Wyc. Ǽr hana cráwe priusquam gallus vocem dederit, Mk. Bos. 14, 30. Ǽr se hana cráwe, 14, 72; bifore the cok synge, Wyc: Lk. Bos. 32, 61. Sóna se cocc creów statim gallus cantavit, Jn. Bos. 18, 27. Hrædlíce ðá creów se cocc. Mt. Bos. 26, 74, anon the cok crew. Wyc. Se hana creów gallus cantavit, Mk. Bos. 14, 68: Lk. Bos. 22, 60. Ðá eftsóna creów se hana, Mk. Bos. 14, 72; anon eftsoones the cok song, Wyc. [Wyc. crowe : Plat. kreien, kreijen: Dut. kraaijen: Kil. kraeyen: Ger. krähen: M. H. Ger. kræjen: O. H. Ger. krájan, kráhan.]

CRÁWE, an; f. I. a CROW; cornix :-- Cráwe cornix, Ælfc. Gl. 37; Som. 63, 8; Wrt. Voc. 29, 31: 62, 29: 280, 34. II. a raven; corvus :-- Se selþ nýtenum mete heora, and briddum cráwan cígendum hine qui dat jumentis escam ipsorum, et pullis corvi invocantibus eum, Ps. Spl. T. 146, 10. [Chauc. crow: Plat. kreie, kraie: O. Sax. kráia, f: Frs. Japx. krie: Dut. kraai, f; Kil. kraeye: Ger. krähe, f; M. H. Ger. krá, f: O. H. Ger. kráa. f: Lat. corvus, cornix: Grk. GREEK, GREEK: Sansk. kárava, m. a crow.]

cráw-leác, es; n. [cráwe a crow, leác a leek] Crow-garlic; allium vineale, Lin :-- Nim hermodactylos =. GREEK [MS. datulus] ða wyrt ... ðæt is on úre geþeóda ðæt greáte [MS. greáta] cráwleác [MS. crauleac] take the wort attium vineale ... that is in our language the great crow-garlic, Lchdm. i. 376, 3. Cráwan leác hermodactylus, Ælfc. Gl. 44; Som. 64, 84; Wrt. Voc. 32, 20.

Creacan ford Crayford, Chr. 456; Th. 22, 5, col. 2, 3. v. Crecgan ford.

Creácas; gen. Creáca; pl. m. The Greek; Græci :-- Mid eallan Creáca cræftum with all the arts of the Greeks, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 29, 31: Bos. 34, 6. v. Grécas.

Creacc-gelád Cricklade, Chr. 905; Th. 181, 21, col. l. v. Crecca-gelád.

Creácisc; adj. Greek, Grecian; Græcus, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 12. v. Grécisc.

creád pressed, Chr. 937; Th. 204, 14, col. 1; Æðelst. 35; p. of creódan.

creáp, pl. crupon crept, crawled, Glostr. Frag. 6, 7: Ors. 1, 7; Bos. 29. 33; p. of creópan.

Creca-lád Cricklade, Chr. 1016; Erl. 153, 38. v. Crecca-gelád.

Crécas; gen. Créca; pl. m. The Greeks; Græci :-- Fór on Crécas he went against the Greeks, Ors. 2, 5; Bos. 46, 15, 31. Ymbe Créca land about the land of the Greeks, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 23, 11: 23, 12, 13, 17, 22: 1. 6; Bos. 29, 6. Perseus of Créca lande in Asiam fór Perseus went from the land of the Greeks into Asia, 1. 8; Bos. 31, 14. v. Grécas.

crecca, an; m. A CREEK, bay, wharf; crepido, Som. Ben. Lye.

Crecca-gelád, Cre-gelád, e; f. [gelád a road, way: Flor. Criccelade: Hunt. Crikelade: Sim. Dun. Criccelad: Brom. Criklade] CRICKLADE, Wiltshire; oppidi nomen in agro Wiltoniensi :-- Hie hergodon ofer Mercna land óþ hie cómon to Creccageláde, and fóron ðǽr ofer Temese they harried over the Mercians' land until they came to Cricklade, and there they went over the Thames, Chr. 905; Erl. 98, 15. On ðissum geáre com Cnut mid his here ofer Temese into Myrcum æt Cregeláde in this year [A. D. 1016] Cnut came with his army over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade, 1016; Erl. 153, 23.

Creccan ford Crayford, Chr. 456; Th. 23, 4, col. 2. v. Crecgan ford.

Créce; gen. a; dat. um; pl. m. The Greeks; Græci :-- He belytegade ealle Créce on his geweald he allured all the Greeks into his power, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 59, 39, 40. Philippus alýfde eallum Crécum Philip gave leave to all the Greeks, 3, 7; Bos. 61, 42. v. Crécas, Grécas.

Crecgan ford, Creccan ford, es; m. [Hunt. Creganford: the ford of the river Cray] CRAYFORD, Kent; loci nomen in agro Cantiano :-- Hér Hengest and Æsc fuhton wið Brettas in ðære stówe ðe is gecweden Crecgan ford in this year [A. D. 457] Hengest and Æsc fought against the Britons at the place which is called Crayford, Chr. 457; Erl. 12, 18.

Crecisc Grecian, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 55; Met. 26, 28. v. Grécisc.

créda, an; m. [Lat. crēdo I believe] The creed, belief; symbolum fidei :-- Se læssa créda the less or Apostles' creed, Homl. Th. ii. 596, 11. We andettaþ on úrum crédan ðæt Drihten sitt æt his Fæder swiðran we confess in our creed that the Lord sits at the right hand of his Father, i. 48, 28: 274, 23. Ǽlc cristen man sceal æfter rihte cunnan his crédan ... mid ðam crédan he sceal his geleáfan getrymman every Christian man by right ought to know his creed ... with the creed he ought to confirm his faith, 274, 20, 21. DER. mæsse-créda.

Cre-gelád Cricklade, Chr. 1016; Erl. 153, 23. v. Crecca-gelád.

crencestre, crencistre, an; f. A female weaver, a spinster; textrix, Cod. Dipl. 1290; A. D. 995; Kmbl. vi. 131, 32.

Creocc-gelád Cricklade, Chr. 905; Erl. 99, 20. v. Crecca-gelád.

CREÓDAN, ic creóde, ðú creódest, crýtst, crýst, he creódeþ, crýdeþ, crýt, pl. creódaþ; p. ic, he creád, ðu crude, pl. crudon; pp. croden To CROWD, press, drive; premere, premi, pellere, pelli :-- Ðonne heáh geþring on cleofu crýdeþ when the towering mass on the cliffs presses, Exon. 101b; Th. 384, 15; Rä. 4, 28. Creád cnear on flot the bark drove afloat, Chr. 937; Th. 204, 14; col. 1; Æðelst. 35. [Prompt. crowdyñ' UNCERTAIN impello: Chauc. croude, crowde push: Kil. kruyen, kruyden trudere, propellere.]

CREÓPAN; part. creópende; ic creópe, ðú crýpest, crýpst, creópest, creópst, he crýpeþ, crýpþ, creópeþ, creópþ, pl. creópaþ; p. creáp, pl. crupon; pp. cropen To CREEP, crawl; repere, serpere :-- He næfþ hjs fóta geweald and onginþ creópan he has not the use of his feet and begins to creep, Bt. 36, 4; Fox 178, 14, Cote. MS. Him cómon to creópende fela næddran many serpents came creeping to them, Homl. Th. ii. 488, 21. Mægen creópendra wyrma biþ on heora fótum the power of reptiles [lit. creeping worms] is in their feet. Ors. 4, 6; Bos. 84, 44: Gen. 7, 21. Nán wilde deór, ne on fyðerfótum ne on creópendum, nis to wiðmetenne yfelum wífe no wild beast, neither among the four-footed nor the creeping, is to be compared with an evil woman, Homl. Th. i. 486, 29. Lǽde seó eorþe forþ creópende cinn æfter heora hiwum producat terra reptilia secundum species suas, Gen. 1, 24, 25, 26. Ic creópe repo, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 4; Som. 31, 23. Se biþ mihtigra se ðe gǽþ ðonne se ðe crýpþ he is more powerful who goes than he who creeps, Bt. 36, 4; Fox 178, 16. Hí creópaþ and snícaþ they creep and crawl, Bt. Met. Fox 31, 12; Met. 31, 6. Heó creáp betwux ðám mannum she crept among the men, Homl. Th. ii. 394, ii: Glostr. Frag. 6, 7. Ða munecas crupon under ðam weofode the monks crept under the altar, Chr. 1083; Erl. 217, 22: Ors. 1, 7; Bos. 29, 33. [Piers P. crepen: Chauc. R. Glouc. crepe: Laym. crepen: Plat. krupen: O. Sax. criepan: Frs. krippen: O. Frs. kriapa: Dut. kruipen: Kil. kruypen; Ger. kriechen: M. H. Ger. kriuchen: O. H. Ger. kriuchan: Dan. krybe : Swed. krypa : Icel. krjupa.] DER. be-creopan, þurh-, under-.

creópere, es; m. A CREEPER, cripple; serpens, clinicus :-- Seó ealde cyrce wæs eall behangen mid criccum and mid creópera sceamelum the old church was all hung around with crutches and with cripples' stools, Glostr. Frag. 12, 17.

creópung, e; f. A CREEPING, stealing; obreptio, Cot. 144.

creów, pl. creówon crew. Jn. Bos. 18, 27; p. of cráwan.

crépel, es; m. A burrow; cuniculum, Mone B. 2774.

cresse cress, Glos. Epnl. Reed. 162, 61. v. cærse.

CRICC, crycc, e; f. A CRUTCH, staff baculus :-- Gird din and cricc ðín me fréfredon virga tua et baculus tuus me consolata sunt, Ps. Spl. C. 22, 5. He, mid his cricce wreðiende, on cyricean eóde baculo sustentans intravit ecclesiam, Bd. 4, 31; S. 610, 28. He, mid his crycce hine awreðiende, hám becom baculo innitens domum pervenit, 4, 31; S. 610, 17, He mid criccum his féðunge underwreðode he supported his gait with crutches, Homl. Th. ii. 134, 24. [Laym, crucche, dat: Plat. krukke, krükke: Dut. kruk, f: Kil. krucke: Ger. krücke, f: M. H. Ger. krücke, krucke, f; O. H. Ger. krucka, f: Dan. krykke, m. f: Swed. krycka. f.]

Cric-gelád Cricklade, Chr. 1016; Th. 276, 29, col. 2. v. Crecca-gelád.

Cridian tun, es; m. [tún a town: Flor. Cridiatun] CREDITON, Devonshire, formerly the seat of the bishops of Devonshire, so called because it is situated on the banks of the river Creedy; oppidi nomen in agro Devoniensi :-- Hér æt Kyrtlingtúne forþférde Sideman bisceop, on hrædlícan deáþe: se wæs Defnascíre bisceop, and he wilnode ðæt his lícræst sceolde beón æt Cridian túne, æt his bisceopstóle in this year [A. D. 977] bishop Sideman died at Kirtlinglon, by sudden death: he was bishop of Devonshire, and he desired that his body's resting-place might be at Crediton, at his episcopal see, Chr. 977; Erl. 127, 35-38: Cod. Dipl. 1334; A. D. 1046; Kmbl. vi. 196, 15.

crimman; p. cramm, cram, pl. crummon; pp. crummen To crumb, crumble, mingle; friare, inserere :-- Homes sceafoðan crim on ðæt dolh crumble shavings of horn on the wound, L. M. 1. 61; Lchdm. ii. 132, 12. Cram inseruit, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 151, 33. DER. a-crimman.

crincan, ic crince, ðú crincst, he crincþ, pl. crincaþ; p. cranc, pl. cruncon; pp. cruncen To yield; occumbere :-- Wígend cruncon, wundum wérige the fighters yielded, oppressed with wounds, Byrht. Th. 140, 43; By. 302. DER. ge-crincan.

crincgan to fall. Byrht. Th. 140, 23; By. 292. v. cringan.

cringan, crincgan; ic cringe, crincge, ðú cringest, cringst, he cringeþ, cringþ, pl. cringaþ, crincgaþ; p. crang, crong, pl. crungon; pp. crungen To yield, CRINGE, fall, perish, die; occumbere, mori :-- Sume on wæl crungon some had fallen in the slaughter, Beo. Th. 2231; B. 1113. Hí sceoldon begen crincgan on wælstówe they should both fall on the battle-field, Byrht. Th. 140, 23; By. 292 : Andr. Kmbl. 2062; An. 1033: Chr. 937; Th. 202, 6; col. 2; Æðelst. 10. Crungon they perished, Exon. 124a; Th. 477, 17; Ruin. 26: 124a; Th. 477, 24; Ruin. 29. Fǽge crungon the fated died. Cd. 167; Th. 208, 11; Exod. 481: Beo. Th. 1275; B. 635. DER. ge-cringan. v. gringan.

crisma, an; m. [chrisma, ătis, n. = GREEK; n. an unction, from GREEK [fut. GREEK] I touch the surface of a body, I rub or anoint], I. the chrism, unction or holy oil, used for anointing by the Roman Catholic church after baptism; oleum chrismatis :-- Eálá ge mæsse-preóstas, míne gebróðra, we secgaþ eów nú ðæt we ǽr ne sǽdon, forðonðe we to-dæg sceolan dǽlan úrne ele, on þreó wísan gehálgodne, swá swá us gewissaþ seó bóc; i. e. oleum sanctum, et oleum chrismatis, et oleum infirmorum, ðæt is on Englisc, hálig ele, óðer is crisma, and seóccra manna ele: and ge sceolan habban þreó ampullan gearuwe to ðam þrým elum; forðanðe we ne durran dón hí togædere on ánum elefate, forðanðe hyra ǽlc biþ gehálgod on sundron to synderlícre þénunge. Mid ðam háligan ele, ge scylan ða hǽðenan cild mearcian on ðam breóste, and betwux ða gesculdru, on middeweardan, mid róde tácne, ǽrðanðe ge hit fullian on ðam fantwætere; and ðonne hit of ðæm wætere cymþ, ge scylan wyrcan róde tácen uppon ðæm heáfde mid ðam háligan crisman. On ðam háligan fante, ǽrðanðe ge hý fullian, ge scylon dón crisman on Cristes róde tácne; and man ne mót besprengan men mid ðæm fantwætere, syððan se crisma biþ ðǽron gedón O ye mass-priests, my brethren, we will now say to you what we have not before said, because to-day we are to divide our oil, hallowed in three ways, as the book points out to us; i. e. oleum sanctum, et oleum chrismatis, et oleum infirmorum, that is, in English, holy oil, the second is chrism, and sick men's oil: and ye ought to have three flasks ready for the three oils; for we dare not put them together in one oil vessel, because each of them is hallowed apart for a particular service. With holy oil, ye shall mark heathen children on the breast, and between the shoulders, in the middle, with the sign of the cross, before ye baptize it in the font water; and when it comes from the water, ye shall make the sign of the cross on the head with the holy chrism. In the holy font, before ye baptize them, ye shall pour chrism in the figure of the cross of Christ; and no one may be sprinkled with the font water, after the chrism is poured in, L. Ælf. E. Th. ii. 390, 1-17. Mid crysman smyreþ his breóst chrismate pectis eorum unguet, L. Ecg. C. 36; Th. ii. 162, 1. Ðonne he crisman fecce when he fetches chrism, L. Edg. C. 67; Th. ii. 258, 20: L. N. P. L. 9; Th. ii. 292, 3. II. the white vesture, called chrisom, which the minister puts upon the child immediately after dipping it in water, or pouring water upon it in baptism; chrismale, id est, vestis candida, quæ super corpus baptlzati ponitur. In the Liturgy of Edward VI, 1549, it is said, 'Then the minister shall put upon the child the white vesture, commonly called the Chrisom; and say, Take this white vesture for a token of the innocency, which, by God's grace, in this holy sacrament of baptism, is given unto thee,' p. 112. This white vesture was worn for a month after the child's birth, and if it died before the expiration of that time, it had the chrisom for its shroud. A child, thus dying, was called a Chrisom-child :-- Wǽron eác gefullade æfter-fyligendre tíde óðre his [Eádwines] bearn of Æðelburhge ðære cwéne aceude, Æðelhfún, and Ædeldriþ his dóhter, and óðer his suna Wuscfreá hátte, ac ða ǽrran twegen under crisman forþgeférdon, and on cyrican in Eoferwícceastre bebyrigde wǽron baptizati sunt tempore sequente et alii liberi ejus [Æduini] de Ædilberga regina progeniti, Ædilhun, et Ædilthryd fllia, et alter filius Vuscfrea quorum primi albati adhuc rapti sunt de hac vita [lit. the former two died under chrism], et Eburaci in Ecclesia sepulti, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 1: 5, 7; S. 620, 40. Under crysmum baptizatus in albis, Mone B. 2096.

crism-hálgung, e; f. The consecration of the oil of chrism; chrismatis consecratio, Wanl. Catal. 121, col. 2, 57.

crism-lýsing, -lísing, e; f. A leaving off the baptismal vest; chrismatis solutio :-- His crismlýsing [crismlising MS. A.] wæs æt Wedmor the leaving off his baptismal vest was at Wedmore, Chr. 878; Erl. 81, 20. v. crisma.

crisp; adj. CRISP, curly; crispus :-- He hæfde crispe loccas he had curly locks, Bd. 5, 2; S. 615, 30. v. cyrps.

Crist, Krist, es; m. CHRIST; Christus = GREEK the anointed one, as a translation of the Heb. HEBREW Messiah :-- Se Hǽlend, ðe is genemned Crist Iesus, gui vocatur Christus; ' GREEK, GREEK, Mt. Bos. 1, 16. Crist wæs acenned, Hǽlend geháten Christ was born, called Jesus [Saviour], Menol. Fox 1-7. Hér is on cneórisse bóc Hǽlendes Cristes liber generationis Iesu Christi, Mt. Bos. 1, 1. Hér ys gódspelles angyn Hǽlendes Cristes, Godes suna initium evangelii Iesu Christi, filii Dei, Mk. Bos. 1, 1. Beseoh onsýne cristes ðínes behold the face of thine anointed, Ps. Th. 83, 9: 88, 32, 44. Feówer Cristes béc the four Gospels, Ælfc. T. Grn. 12, 27: Bd. 5, 19; S. 638, 16. Seó Cristes bóc the Gospel, Ælfc. T. 30, 1. Feoh bútan gewitte ne can Crist gehérian cattle without understanding cannot praise Christ, Salm. Kmbl. 48; Sal. 24. Ofer ealle Cristes béc over all Christ's books [Gospels], 100; Sal. 49. On Cristes onlícnisse in Christ's likeness, Salm. Kmbl. 146, 15.

cristalla, an; m: cristallus, i; m. Lat. I. crystal; crystallus = GREEK :-- Ðæt wæs hwítes bleós swá cristalla it was of a white colour like crystal, Num. 11, 7. Cristallan crystallum, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 140, 49. He his cristallum sendeþ mittit crystallum suum, Ps. Th. 147, 6. II. the herb crystallium, flea-bane, flea-wort; crystallion = GREEK, psyllion = GREEK :-- Nim cristallan and disman take crystallium and tansy, Lchdm. iii. 10, 29.

cristen; def. se cristena; sup. se cristenesta; adj. [Crist Christ] Christian; christianus :-- Ǽlc cristen man hæfde sibbe every Christian man had peace, Ors. 6, 13; Bos. 122, 7: 6, 30; Bos. 127, 22. Cristnu gesamnung the Christian church, Ps. Th. 44, 11. Gif hwá cristenes mannes blód ageóte if any one shed a Christian man's blood, L. Edm. E. 3; Th. i. 246, 2 : Ps. Th. 106, 31. He forbeád ðæt man nánum cristenum men ne abulge he forbade men to annoy any Christian man, Ors. 6, 11; Bos. 121, 10: L. Edm. E. 2; Th. i. 244, 16: Elen. Kmbl. 1974; El. 989. Hí bebudon ðæt man ǽlcne cristenne man ofslóge they commanded men to slay every Christian man, Ors. 6, 13; Bos. 121, 32. Him sealde Iustinus áne cristene bóc Justin gave him a Christian book, 6, 12; Bos. 121, 24. Godes þeówas for eall cristen folc þingian let the servants of God intercede for all Christian people, L. Eth. v. 4; Th. i. 304, 25: vi. 2; Th. i. 314, 18: L. C. E. 6; Th. i. 364, 7. Cristene men secgaþ Christian men say, Bt. 39, 8; Fox 224, 14: Ors. 6, 11; Bos. 121, 8. Nero wæs ǽrest éhtend cristenra manna Nero was the first persecutor of Christian men, 6, 5; Bos. 119, 22: 6, 9; Bos. 120, 18: Elen. Kmbl. 1956; El. 980. Fram óðrum cristenum mannum from other Christian men, Ors. 6, 9; Bos. 120, 22: 6, 12; Bos. 121, 25. Hí cristene men pinedon they tormented Christian men, 6, 11; Bos. 121, 17: 6, 19; Bos. 123, 16. Oswig se cristena cyning to his ríce féng Oswy the Christian king succeeded to his kingdom, Bd. 3, 21; S. 551, 30. Se cristena dóm christianity, Bt. 1; Fox 2, 15. Bǽdon [MS. bædan] hí ða cristenan men they asked the christian men, Ors. 6, 13; Bos. 121, 41: 6, 30; Bos. 127, 14. Se mon wæs se cristenesta and se gelǽredesta the man was most christian and most learned, Bd. 2, 15; S. 518, 43: 3, 1; S. 523, 7: 3, 9; S. 533, 6.

cristen, es; m: cristena, an; m. A christian; christianus :-- He wæs cristen he was a christian, Bt. 1; Fox 2, 7: Chr. 167; Erl. 8, 16: Bd. 3, 21; S. 551, 4. He hét ealle ða cristenan he ordered all the Christians, Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 127, 10.

Cristen-dóm, es; m. Christianity, CHRISTENDOM, the christian world; christianitas :-- Se cristendóm weóx on heora tíman christianity increased in their time, Jud. Grn. Epilog. 264, 7: Jud. Thw. 161, 21. Ǽghwylc cristen man gýme his cristendómes georne let every christian man strictly keep his christianity, L. Eth. v. 22; Th. i. 310, 5: vi. 27; Th. i. 322, 5: L. C. E. 19; Th. i. 370, 32: Ælfc. T. 28, 3. Gif hwá cristendóm wyrde if any one violate christianity, L. E. G. 2; . Th. i. 168, 1: L. Eth. v. 1; Th. i. 304, 4, 7: L. C. S. 11; Th. i. 382, 7. On cristendóm in christendom, Chr. 1129; Erl. 258, 29.

cristenest, se cristenesta the most Christian, pious, holy, Bd. 3, 9; S. 533, 6: 2, 15; S. 518, 43; sup. of cristen.

Cristes bóc, e; f. CHRIST'S BOOK, the Gospel; Christi liber, evangelium, Ælfc. T. 30, 1: Salm. Kmbl. 100; Sal. 49. v. Crist.

cristlíc; adj. Christlike, christian; christianus :-- We lǽraþ, ðæt ǽghwilc cristen man cristlíce lage rihtlíce healde we direct, that every christian man rightly observe the christian law, L. Eth. vi. 11; Th. 1. 318, 11. note 4.

cristnian; p. ode; pp. od To christianize, catechize; catechizare :-- Ðæt Paulinus ðǽr ðæt folc cristnode and fullode [MS. cristnade RUNE fullade] that Paulinus might there christen and baptize the people, or as the original Latin of Bede has it, with greater precision, -- ut Paulinus cum eis catechizandi et baptizandi officio deditus morarelur, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 7, 8; Latin 95, 34.

croc, crocc, crog, crogg, crohh, es; m. A crock, pitcher, waterpot, flagon, a little jug or lentil-shaped vessel; urceus, lagena, lenticula, legythum :-- Croccas, Cot. 209: Grm. iii. 458, 15. DER. croc-wyrhta.

CROCCA, an; m. A CROCK, pitcher, earthenware pot or pan; vas fictile, testa, olla :-- Mín mægen ys forseárod, swá swá lǽmen crocca exaruit velut testa virtus mea, Ps. Th. 21, 13. Crocca olla, Ps. Lamb. 59, 10: Ælfc. Gr. 7; Som. 6, 53: Wrt. Voc. 82, 56. Wyl wæter on croccan boil water in a crock, L. M. I. 40; Lchdm. ii. 104, 19. On ǽnne croccan ðone ðe sie gepicod útan in a crock that is pitched on the outside, 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 26, 23. Ic gedó ðæt ðú hí miht swá eáðe abrecan, swá se croccwyrhta mæg ǽnne croccan tamquam vas figuli confringes eos, Ps. Th. 2, 9: Herb. 126, 2; Lchdm. i. 238, 6. [Piers P. krokke: Plat. kruke: O. Sax. crúka, f: Frs. kruwch: O. Frs. krocha, m: Dut. kruik, f: Kil. kruycke: Ger. krug, m: M. H. Ger. kruoc, m: O. H. Ger. króg, m: Dan. krukke, m. f: Swed. kruka, f: Icel. krukka, f.]

croc-hwær, es; m. [hwer an ewer] A kettle; cacabus, Som. Ben. Lye.

croc-sceard, es; n. [sceard a shred, fragment] A shred or fragment of a crock or pot, a potSHERD; ERROR testa, testu :-- Adruwode oððe forseárode swá swá blýwnys oððe crocsceard mægen mín aruit tamquam testa virtus mea, Ps. Lamb. 21, 16. Mid ánum crocscearde with a potsherd, Job Thw. 166, 34: Homl. Th. ii. 452, 29. Crocsceard testu, Ælfc. Gr. 11; Som. 15, 29.

croc-wyrhta, crocc-wyrhta, -wirhta, an; m. A crockworker, potter; figulus, luti figulus :-- Crocwyrhta figulus vel luti figulus, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 31, 62. Ic gedó dæt ðú hí miht swá eáðe abrecan, swá se croccwyrhta mæg ǽnne croccan tamquam vas figuli confringes eos, Ps. Th. 2, 9. Fæt crocwirhtan vel tygelwirhtan vas figuli, Ps. Lamb. 2, 9.

croda, an; m. [croden, pp. of creódan to crowd, press, drive] A crowd, press; collisus. DER. lind-croda.

croden crowded, pressed; pp. of creódan.

croft, es; m. A CROFT, a small inclosed field; prædiolum, agellulus septus :-- Æt ðæs croftes heáfod at the top of the croft, Cod. Dipl. 553; A. D. 969; Kmbl. iii. 37, 23. In ðone croft, of ðæm crofte to the croft, from the croft, 681; A. D. 972; Kmbl. iii. 261, 11: 679; A. D. 972-992; Kmbl. iii. 258, 27, 28.

crog, crogg, crohh, es; m. A small vessel, chrismatory, bottle; legythum, lenticula, lagena :-- Crog oððe ampella lenticula, Cot. 124. v. croc.

croh, es; m? Saffron; crocus = GREEK, crocus sativus, Lin :-- Meng mid [MS. wið] croh mingle it with saffron, L. M. 2, 37; Lchdm. ii. 244, 23: Herb. 118, 2; Lchdm. i. 232, 7: Med. ex Quadr. 5, 4; Lchdm. i. 348, 14.

crohh a pitcher; legythum, lagena vel ampulla, Cot. 119. v. crog.

croma a crumb, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 15, 27. v. cruma.

crompeht; adj. Full of crumples, wrinkled; folialis, Cot. 91.

crong killed, perished; p. of cringan.

CROP, cropp, es; m. I. a sprout or top of a herb, flower, berry, an ear of corn, a bunch of berries or blooms, cluster; cyma= GREEK, thyrsus = GREEK, spica, corymbus = GREEK, racermus, uva; :--Crop cyma, Ælfc. Gl. 60; Som. 68, 18; Wrt. Voc. 39, 4. Crop tarsus, cimia [= thyrsus, cyma], 42; Som. 64, 28; Wrt. Voc. 31, 38. Dó him merscmealwan crop give him a sprout of marsh mallow, L. M. 3, 63; Lchdm. ii. 350, 25. Genim ðysse wyrte þrý croppas take three sprouts of this herb, Herb. 106; Lchdm. i. 220, 10. Genim ðysse wyrte croppas take the tops of this herb, 110, 4; Lchdm. i. 224, 9: 130, 1; Lchdm. i. 240, 18. Genim ðysse wyrte croppas take berries of this herb [ivy], 100, 3; Lchdm. i. 214, 3. Þegnas his ða croppas eton discipuli ejus spicas manducabant, Lk. Skt. Lind. 6, 1. Wið ðon biþ gód lustmocan crop a bunch of 'lustmock' is good for that, L. M. 1, 38; Lchdm. 11, 92, 9. Genim lustmocan crop take a bunch of 'lustmock,' 1, 38; Lchdm. ii. 98, 16. Croppas racemos, Mone B. 2572. Croppum uvis, 3836. II. the CROP or craw of a bird; vesicula gutturis :-- Wurp ðone cropp and ða feðera wiðæftan ðæt weofod vesiculam gutturis et plumas projiciet prope altare, Lev. 1, 16. III. a kidney; rien :-- Crop rien, Ælfc. Gl. 76; Som. 71, 107; Wrt. Voc. 45, 13. [Prompt. croppe cyma; Piers P. crop: Chauc. crop, croppe: Plat. kropp: Dut. krop, m: Kil. krop, kroppe: Ger. M. H. Ger. kropf, m: O. H. Ger. kroph, m; Dan. krop, m. f: Swed. kropp, m: Icel. kroppr, m.] DER. ifig-crop.

cropen crept, crawled; pp. of creópan.

crop-leác, es; n. Garlic; alliurn satīvum, UNCERTAIN Lin :-- Genim cropleác take garlic, L. M. 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 42, 14: 3, 68; Lchdm. ii. 356, 5.

croppa, an; m. The top or flower of a herb; corymbus, pluma :-- Bánwyrt hæbbe croppan bonewort hath clusters of flowers, L. M. 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 266, 6. v. crop I.

croppiht; adj. [crop I. a bunch, cluster; -iht, adj. termination, q. v.] Croppy, full of clusters; racemosus, L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 12.

cruce, an; f. A cruse, pitcher, waterpot; urceus, urceolus :-- Cruce viciolum [= urceolus], Wrt. Voc. 290, 67.

crucet-hús, es; n. A torment house; afflictionis domus :-- Sume hí diden in crucet-hús, dæt is in án ceste ðæt was scort, and nareu, and undép, and dide scærpe stánes ðérinne, and þrengde ðe man ðǽrinne, ðæt him brǽcon alle ðe limes some they put into a crucet-house, that is into a chest that was short, and narrow, and undeep, and put sharp stones therein, and pressed the man therein, so that they brake all his limbs, Chr. 1137; Th. 382, 28.

crudon crowded, pressed; p. pl. of creódan.

cruft, es; m? crufte, an; f. A vault, crypt, hollow place under the ground; crypta :-- Cruftan, cruftes cryptæ, Mone B. 2017. Crufte crypta, 4931. Cruftan crypta, 3298. [Ger. gruft, f. a crypt.]

Crúland, Crúwland, es; n. [Interprete Ingulpho crūda et cænosa terra, Gib. Chr. explicatio, p. 22, col. 1] CROWLAND or CROYLAND, Lincolnshire; loci nomen in agro Lincolniensi. St. Guthlac, hermit of Crowland, passed a great part of his life and died here in A. D. 714. After his death, king Æthelbald of Mercia founded a monastery at Crowland in A. D. 716 :-- Ðæt abbotríce of Crúlande the abbacy of Crowland, Chr. 1066; Erl. 203, 17: 963; Erl. 123, 5. Hér wæs Walþeóf eorl beheáfdod on Wincestre, and his líc wearþ gelǽd to Crúlande, and he ðǽr is bebyrged in this year [A. D. 1077] earl Waltheof was beheaded at Winchester, and his body was taken to Crowland, and he is there buried, 1077; Th. 350, 10. Hí cómon to ðære stówe ðe man háteþ Crúwland they came to the place which is called Crowland, Guthl. 3; Gdwin. 22, 1: 12; Gdwin. 58, 12. Ðá wæs se eahtoða dæg ðæs kalendes Septembres, ðá se eádiga wer, Gúþlác, com to ðære fore­sprecenan stówe, Crúwlande. . . hæfde he ðá on ylde six and twentig wintra it was the eighth day before the kalends of September [Ang. 24th, A. D. 699], when the blessed man, Guthlac, came to the aforesaid place, Crowland. . . he was then twenty-six years of age, Guthl. 3; Gdwin. 22, 25-24, 3: 22; Gdwin. 96, 21. v. Gúþ-lác.

CRUMA, an; m. A CRUMB, fragment; mica :-- Cruma mica, Wrt. Voc. 83, 1. We hédaþ ðæra crumena ðæs hláfes we take care of the crumbs of the bread, Homl. Th. ii. 114, 33. Ða hwelpas etaþ of ðám crumum catelli edunt de micis, Mt. Bos. 15, 27: Lk. Bos. 16, 21. Lege on ðone magan hláfes cruman lay crumbs of bread on the stomach, L. M. 2, 12; Lchdm. ii. 190, 15: Homl. Th. ii. 114, 29. [Prompt. crumme mica: Wyc. crummes, pl: Chauc. Piers P. cromes, pl; Orm. crummess, pl: Scot. crum: Plat. kröme, kroom: Dut. kruim, f: Kil. kruyme: Ger. krume. f: Dan. krumme, m. f; Swed. krumma, f.]

CRUMB, crump; adj. Bent down, stooping; cernuus, obuncus :-- Crump obuncus, Cot. 144. Ða crumban obunca, 185. [Prompt. crombe, crome bucus: Orm. crumb: Scot. crummet: O. Sax. O. Frs. crumb: Dut. krom: Ger. krumm: M. H. Ger. krump: O. H. Ger. krumb: Dan. Swed. krum: Wel. crwm bent: Corn. crom crooked: Ir. Gael. crom bent.]

cruncon; pp. cruncen yielded, Byrht. Th. 140, 43; By. 302; p. pl. and pp. of crincan.

crundel, crundol, crundul; gen. crundeles, crundles; dat. crundle, crundelle; m. I. a barrow, mound raised over graves to protect them; tumulus :-- On ðone durnan [MS. durnen] crundel; of ðam durnan crundelle on ðone þorn to the retired barrow; from the retired barrow to the thorn, Cod. Dipl. 1053; A. D. 854; Kmbl. v. 105, 26. Ðonan on morþcrundle; of morþcrundle on ðone brádan herpæþ [MS. herpaþ] thence to the death-barrow [to the tumulus of the dead]; from the tumulus of the dead to the broad military road, Cod. Dipl. 543; A. D. 968; Kmbl. iii. 23, 34, 35. Ðér þwyres ofer þrý crundelas there across over three barrows, Cod. Dipl. 985; Kmbl. v. 13, 32. II. in later times crundel is n :-- On dæt crundel to the barrow, Cod. Dipl. 1283; Kmbl. vi. 120, 8. [Kemble, in his Glossary Cod. Dipl. iii. pref. p. xxi, says, -- 'It seems to denote a sort of water-course, a meadow through which a stream flows.' Yet the following example in this same vol. proves that a crundel could not be a meadow through which a stream flows, as it was on a hill :-- Cráwan crundul on Wereðan hylle Crow's crundle on Weretha's hill, Cod. Dipl. 698; A. D. 997; Kmbl. iii. 301, 35. Professor Leo says, -- 'A crundel or crundwel is a spring or well, with its cistern, trough, or reservoir,' and cites, -- Ðonon eft on crundwylle then again to crund-spring, Cod. Dipl. 1188; Kmbl. v. 354, 20, 28. The crundle on Weretha's hill militates against Dr. Leo's view, as well as Kemble's; Mr. Thorpe therefore concludes, -- 'My belief is, that the word is not Anglo-Saxon, nor Germanic, but British, and signifies a tumulus or barrow, and is akin to the Welsh carneddaw a cairn or heap of stones,' Th. Diplm. Glossary, p. 654.] DER. morþ-crundel, stán-.

crungon; pp. crungen yielded, perished, Exon. 124a; Th. 477, 17; Ruin. 26; p. pl. and pp. of cringan.

crupon crept, crawled, Ors. 1, 7; Bos. 29, 33: Chr. 1083; Erl. 217, 22; p. pl. of creópan.

crusene, crusne, an; f. A robe made of skins; mastruga :-- Crusene oððe deórfellen roc crusen or a beastfelt or skin garment, Wrt. Voc. 82, 4. Crusne mastruga, Ælfc. Gl. 65; Som. 69, 39; Wrt. Voc. 40, 66.

cruþ a crowd; multitudo, turba confertissima, Som. Ben. Lye. v. creódan.

Crúwland Crowland, Lincolnshire, Guthl. 12; Gdwin. 58, 12. v. Crúland.

CRYB; gen. crybbe; f. A CRIB, bed, stall; stratum, præsepe :-- Ic læg cildgeong on crybbe I lay as a young child in a crib, Exon. 28b; Th. 87, 16; Cri. 1426. [Prompt. crybbe præsepe: Orm. cribbe: Scot. crufe, cruife, crofe: Plat. kribbe, krubbe: O. Sax. cribbia, f: Frs. O. Frs. kribbe, f: Dut. krib, kribbe, f: Kil. krippe: Ger. M. H. Ger. krippe, f: O. H. Ger. krippa, kripha, f: Dan. krybbe, m. f: Swed. Icel. krubba, f. Fr. crèche, f: Prov. crepcha: It. gréppia. f: Slav. kripa, f. a basket.]

crycc a crutch, staff, Bd. 4, 31; S. 610, 17. v. cricc.

crýdeþ presses, Exon. 101b; Th. 384, 15; Rä. 4, 28; 3rd pers. Pres. of creódan.

crýfele a den, passage under ground; spelunca, meatus subterraneus, Som. Ben. Lye. v. crýpele.

crymbig crooked, Som. Ben. Lye. v. crumb.

crymbing, e; f. A bending; curvatura, Cot. 56.

crýpan; p. crýpte; pp. crýped To creep; repere :-- He næfþ his fóta geweald and onginþ crýpan he has not the use of his feet and begins io creep, Bt. 36, 4; Fox 178, 14. v. creópan.

crýpele, es; m? A den, burrow; cuniculum, Mone B. 2774.

crýpest, crýpst, he crýpeþ, crýpþ creepest, creeps; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of creópan.

crysma chrism, L. Ecg. C. 36; Th. ii. 162, 1. v. crisma.

crysum-lýsing a leaving off the baptismal vest, Chr. 879; Th. 148, 32, col. 3. v. crism-lýsing.

crýt = crýdeþ crowdeth: ðú crýtst, crýst thou crowdest; 3rd and 2nd pers. pres. of creódan.

; nom. acc; gen. cúe, cú, cuus, cús; dat. cý; pl. nom. acc. cý; gen. cúa, cúna; dat. cuum, cúm; f. A cow; vacca, bucula :-- Cú vacca, Wrt. Voc. 287, 56. Cú vacca vel bucula, Ælfc. Gl. 21; Som. 59, 82; Wrt. Voc. 23, 40: 78, 42. Iung cú a young cow; juvenca, Ælfc. Gl. 22; Som. 59, 89; Wrt. Voc. 23, 46. Án cú wearþ gebroht to ðam temple a cow was brought to the temple, Homl. Th. ii. 300, 33: Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 36. Gesomna cúe mesa collect the dung of a cow, L. M. 1, 38; Lchdm. ii. 98, 5. On ðære cú hricge on the cow's back, M. H. 194a. Be cuus horne of a cow's horn, L. In. 59; Th. i. 140, 1, 3. Cús eáge a cow's eye, 59; Th. i. 140, 4. Of ðære cý from the cow, M. H. 194a. Gif mon cú forstele if a man steal a cow, L. Alf. pol. 16; Th. i. 70, 24: L. In. 38; Th. i. 126, 5: L. Ath. v. § 6, 2; Th. i. 234, 1: L. O. D. 7; Th. i. 356, 5. Cúa of cows, Cod. Dipl. 201; A. D. 814; Kmbl. i. 353, 28. Feówertig cúna vaccas quadraginia, Gen. 32, 15: Cod. Dipl. 732; A. D. 1016-1020; Kmbl. iv. 10, 23: 949; A. D. 1649-1052; Kmbl. iv. 284, 8. On cuum in vaccis, Ps. Lamb. 67, 31. Ðú wást, ðæt ic hæbbe hnesce litlingas and ge-eáne eówa and gecelfe cý mid me nosti quod parvulos habeam teneros et oves et boves fætas mecum, Gen. 33, 13: Cod. Dipl. 235; A. D. 835; Kmbl. i. 310, 18, 25, 27: 675; A. D. 990; Kmbl. iii. 255, 13. [Prompt, cowe vacca: Piers P. kow, cow: R. Brun. kie, pl: Plat. ko, pl. koie: O. Sax. kó, f: Frs. kw, pl. ky, f: O. Frs. ku, f: Dut. koe, f: Kil. koe, koeye: Ger. kuh, f: M. H. Ger. kuo, f: O. H. Ger. kua, kó, f: Dan. ko, koe: Swed. ko, f: Icel. kýr, f. dat. and acc. kú: Lat. c&e-long;va a heifer: Sansk. go, gaus bos, vacca.] DER. folc-cú, mete-.

cualme-stów, e; f. A place of burial; calvariæ locus, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cwealm-stów.

cú-butere, an; f. Cow's butter, butter made of cow's milk; vaccæ butyrum :-- Reáde netlan awylle on hunige and on cúbuteran boil red nettles in honey and in cow's butter, L. M. 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 268, 18: iii. 16, 20.

cuc quick, alive; vivus :-- He lét cucne he left alive, Ors. 6, 2; Bos. 116, 41: Gen. 1, 20: Ælfc. Gl. 35; Som. 62, 90. v. cwic.

cú-cealf, es; n. A cow's calf; vaccæ vitulus :-- Gif man of myran folan adrífþ oððe cúcealf if a man drives off a mare's foal or a cow's calf, L. Alf. pol. 16; Th. i. 70, 23.

cuceler, cuculer, cucler, es; m. A spoon, half a drachm; cochlear :-- Fíf cuceleras fulle five spoonsful, Herb. 26, 3; Lchdm. i. 122, 23. Þrý cuculeras three spoons, 26, 3; Lchdm. i. 122, 24. [Lat. cochlear, āris; n.]

cucen alive; vivus, Wanl. Catal. 3, 12. v. cucon.

cucian; p. ode; pp. od To quicken, make alive; vivificare, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cwician.

cucler, es; m. A spoon; cochlear :-- Ðæt seáw sele on cuclere give the juice in a spoon, L. M. i. 48; Lchdm. ii. 120, 19. Genim celeþonian [MS. cileþonian] seáwes cucler fulne take a spoon full of juice of celandine, L. M. 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 28, 3. The following are examples of cucler :-- 2, 1; Lchdm. ii. 178, 6: 2, 4; Lchdm. ii. 182, 23: 2, 7; Lchdm. ii. 186, 5: 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 214, 5, 25. v. cuceler.

cucler-mǽl, es; n. [mǽl a measure] A spoon measure; cochlearis mensura :-- Án cuclermǽl one spoon measure, L. M. 2, 7; Lchdm. ii. 186, 10. Tú cuclemiǽl two spoon measures, 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 28, 3.

cucon, cucun alive, quick; vivas :-- Ðæt he Wulfnóþ cuconne oððe deádne begytan sceolde that he should take Wnlfnoth alive or dead, Chr. 1009; Erl. 142, 3. v. cuc, cwic.

cuculer, es; m. A spoon; cochlear :-- Þrý cuculeras three spoons, Herb. 26, 3; Lchdm. i. 122, 24. v. cuceler.

cucumis; gen. eris; m. Lat. A cucumber; cucumis :-- Cucumeres, ðæt synd eorþæppla cucumbers, which are earth-apples, Num. 11, 5.

cud, cudu, es; n? A CUD, what is chewed; rumen :-- Ðe heora cudu ne ceówaþ: ða clǽnan nýtenu ðe heora cudu ceówaþ which chew not the cud: the clean beasts which chew their cud, M. H. 138b. v. cwudu.

cudele a cuttlefish; sepia = GREEK :-- Cudele vel wasescite sepia, Ælfc. Gl. 102; Som. 77, 82; Wrt. Voc. 56, 6.

cú-eáge, an; f. A cow's eye; vaccæ oculus :-- Cúeáge biþ scillinges weorþ a cow's eye is worth a skilling, L. In. 59; Th. i. 140, 4, note 11.

cuellan to kill, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cwellan.

cúe mesa, an; m. Cow's dung; lætāmen :-- Gesomna cúe mesa collect cow's dung, L. M. 1, 38; Lchdm. ii. 98, 5.

cuén a queen, Chr. 672; Erl. 34, 35: 737; Erl. 46, 22: 836; Erl. 64, 33: 855; Erl. 68, 30: 885; Erl. 84, 5: 888; Erl. 86, 18. v. cwén.

cuffie, UNCERTAIN an; f. A cap, coif, hood, head dress; pileus, cucullus, capitis tegmen:-- Hió an Æðelflǽde hyre cuffian she gives to Æthelfled her hoodm, Cod. Dipl. 1290; A. D. 995; Kmbl. vi. 133, 20.

cugele, cugle, cuhle, an; f. A COWL, monk's hood; cuculla :-- Twá cugelan two cowls, R. Ben. 55. Cugle cuculla, Wrt. Voc. 81, 71. Seó cuhle the cowl, R. Ben. 55. [Ger. kogel, gugel, f: M. H. Ger. gugele, f: O. H. Ger. cucula, f: M. Lat. cuculla: Span. cogúlla, f.]

cú-horn, cuu-horn, es; m. A cow's horn; vaccæ cornu :-- Cuuhorn [cú- MSS. B. H.] biþ twegea pæninga wurþ a cow's horn shall be worth two pence, L. In. 59; Th. i. 140, 2.

cú-hyrde, es; m. [hyrde a keeper, guardian] A cowherd, person who has the charge of cows; vaccarius, bubulcus :-- Cúhyrde gebýreþ ðæt he hæbbe ealdre cú meolc vii niht, syððan heó nige cealfod hæfþ, and frymetlinge býstinge xiv niht; and gá his metecú mid hláfordes cú vaccarii rectum est, ut habeat lac vaccæ veteris vii noctibus, postquam enixa erit, et primitivarum bistinguium xiv noctibus; el eat ejus vacca cum vaccis domini, L. R. S. 13; Th. i. 438, 18-20. Cúhyrdas bubulcos, Mone B. 2408.

cuic living, Jn. Lind. War. 4, 10. v. cwic.

cuic-beám, es; m. A juniper-tree; juniperus. v. cwic-beám.

cuide a saying, Past. 35, 5; Hat. 46b, 4. v. cwide.

cúle a cowl, Wanl. Catal. 131, 74, col. 1. v. cugele.

CULFRE, culufre, culefre, an; f: culfer, e; f. A dove, CULVER, pigeon; columba :-- Se hálega Gást astáh swá án culfre descendit Spiritus sanctus sicut columba, Lk. Bos. 3, 22: Wrt. Voc. 77, 20: 280, 31. Wæs culufre of cófan sended a dove was sent from the ark, Cd. 72; Th. 88, 12; Gen. 1464. Culfer columba, Ælfc. Gl. 37; Som. 63, 2; Wrt. Voc. 29, 25. Ðæt híg offrunge sealdon, twegen culfran briddas ut darent hostiam, duos columbæ pullos, Lk. Bos. 2, 24: Ps. Th. 67, 13. On culfran hiwe in likeness of a dove, Homl. Th. i. 104, 21. Fyðeras culefran oferseolfrade pennæ columbæ deargentatæ, Ps. Lamb. 67, 14. He asende út áne culfran emisit columbam, Gen. 8, 8, 10, 12. He forlét háswe culufran he let out a livid dove, Cd. 72; Th. 87, 20; Gen. 1451: 72; Th. 89, 8; Gen. 1477. Ða hálgan apostolas wǽron swilce culfran the holy apostles wen as doves, Homl. Th. i. 586, 1: Homl. Blick. 23, 27. Bilwyte swá culfran simplices sicut columbæ, Mt. Bos. 10, 16: Ps. Th. 54, 6. [Wyc. culver, culvere: Chauc. culver: Piers P. colvere: R. Glouc. colfren, pl: Orm. cullfre: Laym. culveren, pl: Lat. columba.] DER. wudu-culfre.

culmille, an; f. The lesser centaury; erythræa centaurium, Lin :-- Genim ða lytlan culmillan take the small centaury, L. M. 1, 16; Lchdm. ii. 58, 20. v. curmealle.

culpa, an; m. A fault; culpa :-- Ne ic culpan in ðé ǽfre onfunde I have never found any fault in thee, Exon. 10b; Th. 11, 28; Cri. 177.

culpian; p. ode; pp. od To humiliate, cringe; humiliare :-- Hú ne is ðæt ðonne sum dǽl ermþa, ðæt mon scyle culpian to ðam ðe him gifan scyle is not this then somewhat of misery, that a man must cringe to him who can give to him? Bt. 32, 1; Fox 114, 15.

CULTER, cultur; gen. cultres; m? A COULTER or CULTER, dagger; culter, sica :-- Hwanon ðam yrþlinge culter, búton of cræfle mínon unde aratori culter, nisi ex arte mea? Coll. Monasl. Th. 30, 31: Wrt. Voc. 74, 73. Cultur sica, 287, 5. Gefæstnodon sceare and cultre mid dære syl confirmato vomere et cultro aratro, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 21. [Prompt. culter: Wyc. culter, cultre: Piers P. cultour, kultour: Fr. coutre: It. coltro: Lat. culter:. Sansk. krit to cut.]

culufre a dove, Cd. 72; Th. 88, 12; Gen. 1464. v. culfre.

cum come :-- Nú ðú cum now come thou, Exon. 10a; Th. 10, 9; Cri. 149; imp. of cuman.

cuma, an; m. [cum, imp. of cuman to come; -a, termination, q. v.] A comer, guest, stranger; advena, hospes :-- Ic wæs cuma eram hospes, Mt. Bos. 25, 35, 38, 43: Wrt. Voc. 86, 43. Mon cýðe cynewordum, hú se cuma hátte let a man make known in fitting words, how the guest is called, Exon. 112b; Th. 430, 30; Rä. 44, 16: Beo. Th. 3616; B. 1806. Gúþlác swýðe blíðe wæs ðæs heofonlícan cuman Guthlac was right glad of the heavenly guest, Guthl. 4; Gdwin. 30, 2. Fram eallum ðám cumum UNCERTAIN a cunctis hospitibus, Bd. 4, 31; S. 610, 6. Metodes þeów grétan eóde cuman the Lord's servant went to meet the guests, Cd. 111; Th. 146, 32; Gen. 2431. Ðæt he wolde ǽlcne cuman swíde árlíce underfón that he would very honourably receive every stranger, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 52, 31. Cuman árfæste righteous strangers, Cd. 114; Th. 150, 3; Gen. 2486. Cómon Sodomware cuman acsian the inhabitants of Sodom came to demand the strangers, 112; Th. 148, 8; Gen. 2453: Ors. l, 8; Bos. 31, 4. Cumena árþegn an attendant of guests, Bd. 4, 31; S. 610, 4. Cumena búr a guest-chamber, 4, 31; S. 610, 11. Cumena inn a guesthouse, an inn, Lk. Bos. 2, 7: 22, 11. Cumena inn a guest-house, an inn, Greg. Dial. 2, 22. Cumena wícung a guest-dwelling, an inn, Ælfc. Gl. 58; Som. 67, 85; Wrt. Voc. 38, 11. DER. cwealm-cuma, wil-.

CUMAN; part. cumende; ic cume, ðú cymst, cymest, he cumeþ, cymþ, cymeþ, cimþ, pl. cumaþ; p. ic, he com, cwom, ðú cóme, pl. cómon, cwómon; imp. s. cum, cym, pl. cumaþ; subj. indef. ic cume, cyme, pl. cumon, cumen, cymen; p. cóme, pl. cómen; pp. cumen, cymen. I. to COME, go, happen; venire, ire, accidere, evenire :-- Sceal se gást cuman the spirit shall come, Soul Kmbl. 17; Seel. 9. Cuman ongunnan they attempted to come, Beo. Th. 494; B. 244. Cum to ðam lande, ðe ic ðé geswutelige come to the land, which I will shew thee, Gen. 12, 1. Ne cumon eów ðás worde of gemynde let not these words depart out of your mind, Deut. 4, 9. Ðonne wíg cume when war happens, Beo. Th. 46; B. 23. Ðonne his fyll cóme when his fall has happened, Cd. 200; Th. 248, 15; Dan. 513. Cumaþ ðonne mid cumendum venientes autem venient, Ps. Th. 125, 6. II. cuman is used with the infinitive expressing manner or purpose; as, Com féran came walking or happened to walk, Cd. 40; Th. 52, 31; Gen. 852. Com lǽdan came leading or came to lead, 85; Th. 106, 19; Gen. 1773. Sunnan leóma cymeþ scýnan a sunbeam shall come shining or begin to shine, Exon. 21a; Th. 56, 17; Cri. 902. Secgan cymeþ shall come to say, Cd. 22; Th. 28, 20; Gen. 438. Com grétan came to greet, 97; Th. 126, 31; Gen. 2103. Com weorc sceá-wigan came to view the work, 80; Th. 101, 7; Gen. 1678. [Prompt. cum, come: Wyc. Chauc. Piers P. come: Laym. come, cumen, cummen, kumen: Orm. cumenn: Plat. kamen: O. Sax. kuman: Frs. kommen: O. Frs. kuma, coma: Dut. komen: Ger. kommen: M. H. Ger. komen: O. H. Ger. queman: Goth. qiman: Dan. komme: Swed. komma: Icel. koma: Lat. venire: Grk. GREEK : Sansk. gam.] DER. a-cuman, an-, aweg-, be-, fór-, fóre-, forþ-, ge-, in-, of-, ofer-, oferbe-, onbe-, ongeán-, þurh-, to-, tobe-, up-.

CUMB, es; m. I. a hollow among hills, narrow valley, COMB; caverna inter colles, vallis angusta :-- Andlang cumbes along the valley, Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 354; A. D. 931; Kmbl. iii. 406, 10: 489; A. D. 962; Kmbl. iii. 457, 29. In cumb, of ðam cumbe to a valley, from the valley, Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 118; A. D. 770; Kmbl. iii. 380, 5. II. a liquid measure; mensura quædam liquidorum: UNCERTAIN hence, perhaps, our dry measure COMB or COOMB = four bushels :-- Cumb fulne líðes aloþ, and cumb fulne Welisces aloþ a comb fall of mild ale and a comb full of Welsh ale, Th. Diplm. A. D. 791-796; 40, 5: Lchdm. iii. 28, 9. [Dut. kom, f. a basin: Ger: kumpf, kump, m. I. a dry measure for corn and fruit; II. a cup, basin: M. H. Ger. kumpf a vessel, dry measure: O. H. Ger. chumph cimpus? O. Fr. combe a deep valley: Grk. GREEK the hollow of a vessel, cup, bowl; GREEK a basin: Wel. cwm, m. a hollow, deep valley: Sansk. kumbha, m. a pot, jug.] DER. fild-cumb.

cumbel-gehnád, es; n. [cumbel = cumbol, gehnád a conflict] A conflict of ensigns or banners, a battle; signorum conflictus, prœlium, Chr. 937; Erl. 114, 15; Æðelst. 49, note.

Cumber-land, Cumbra-land, Cumer-land, es; n. [Sim. Dun. Cumbreland: Hunt. Hovd. Brom. Cumberland] CUMBERLAND; Cumbria :-- Hér Eádmund cyning oferhergode eal Cumbraland in this year [A. D. 945] king Edmund overran all Cumberland, Chr. 945; Th. 212, 10; 213, 10, col. 1, 2: Cumberland, 213, 10, col. 3. On ðisum geáre se cyning férde into Cumerlande [Cumberlande, col. 2] in this year the king went into Cumberland, 1000; Th. 248, 29, col. 1; 249, 29.

CUMBOL, cumbl, cuml, es; n. I. a sign, image, military standard, ensign, banner; signum, imago, signum militare, vexillum :-- In campe gecrong cumbles hyrde the standard's guardian fell in battle, Beo. Th. 5004; B. 2505. Hie fór ðam cumble on cneówum sǽton they sat on their knees before the image, Cd. 181; Th. 227, 1; Dan. 180. Cumbol lixton wíges on wénum ensigns glittered in hopes of battle, 151; Th. 188, 29; Exod. 175: Andr. Kmbl. UNCERTAIN 8; An. 4. To weallgeatum wígend þrungon, céne under cumblum the warriors thronged to the wall-gates, bold beneath their ensigns, Andr. Kmbl. 2409; An. 1206: Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 18; Jud. 333. II. a sign or evidence of disease, a wound; morbi signum, vulnus :-- Se lǽce, ðonne he cymþ ðone untruman to sníðanne, ǽrest [MS. æresð] he sceáwaþ ðæt cumbl [cuml MS. Oth.] the surgeon, when he comes to cut the patient, first examines the wound; ad ægrum medicus venerat, secandum vulnus videbat, Past. 26; Hat. MS. 36a, 7. [O. Sax. kumbal, n. a heavenly sign: O. H. Ger. cumpal cohortes: Swed. kummel, n. tessera, signum: Icel. kuml, kumbl, kubl, n, a sign, badge, mark, war-badge.]

cumbol-gebrec a crash or clashing of banners. v. cumbul-gebrec.

cumbol-gehnád a conflict of ensigns or banners, a battle. v. cumbel-gehnád.

cumbol-gehnást, es; n. [cumbol I. an ensign, banner; gehnást a conflict] A conflict of ensigns or banners, a battle; signorum conflictio, bellum :-- Ðæt hie beadoweorca beteran wurdon on campstede, cumbolgehnástes that they were better in works of war on the battle-field, at the conflict of banners, Chr. 937; Th. 206, 2, col. 2; 207, 2.

cumbol-haga, an; m. [haga a hedge] A compact rank, phalanx; phalanx :-- Ic sceal sécan óðerne under cumbolhagan cempan I must seek another soldier in the rank, Exon. 71b; Th. 266, 8; Jul. 395.

cumbol-hete, es; m. [hete hate] Warlike hate; bellicum odium :-- Þurh cumbolhete through warlike hate, Exon. 75a; Th. 280, 30; Jul. 637.

cumbol-wíga, an; m. [wíga a warrior] A warrior, soldier; bellator, miles, Judth. 12; Thw. 25, 5; Jud. 243: 12; Thw. 25, 14; Jud. 259.

cumbor; gen. cumbres; n. [= cumbol, q. v.] A banner, standard, ensign; signum militare :-- Hroden hilte cumbor a banner adorned on the hilt, Beo. Th. 2048.

Cumbra-land Cumberland, Chr. 945; Erl. 116, 29. v. Cumber-land.

cumbul-gebrec, es; n. [cumbul = cumbol I, gebrec a noise, crashing] A crashing of banners or ensigns; signorum fragor, Ps. C. 50, 11; Ps. Grn. ii. 277, 11.

cumen come, Gen. 48, 2; pp. of cuman.

cumende coming, Ps. Lamb. 125, 6; part. of cuman.

cú-meoluc, e; f. [meolc milk] Cow's milk; vaccæ lac :-- Gáte geallan meng wið cúrneoluc mingle goat's gall with cow's milk, L. M. 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 40, 19.

Cumer-land Cumberland, Chr. 1000; Erl. 137, 1. v. Cumber-land.

cum-feorm, e; f. [cuma a stranger, feorm food, support, hospitality] Entertainment of strangers; hospitium, Th. Diplm. A. D. 848; 102, 30.

cú-migoþa, an; m. [migþa, migoþa urine] Cow's urine; vaccæ urina :-- Gesomna cúmigoþan [MS. -migoþa] collect cow's urine, L. M. 1, 38; Lchdm. ii. 98, 5.

cumin the herb cummin, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cymen.

cuml a wound, swelling, Past. 26; MS. Oth. v. cumbol II.

cum-líðe; adj. [cuma a comer, líðe mild, gentle] Kind to comers or strangers, hospitable; hospitalis :-- Cumlíðe hospitalis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Som. 11, 37. Cild cumlíðe a child will be hospitable, Obs. Lun. § 15; Lchdm. iii. 192, 1: 16; Lchdm. iii. 192, 8. Beóþ cumlíðe eów betwýnan buton ceorungum be hospitable among yourselves without grudging, Homl. Th. ii. 286, 14.

cum-líðian [cuma a guest, líðian to nourish] To lodge, to receive as a guest; hospitari, R. Ben. Interl. 1.

cum-líðnys, -nyss, e; f. Hospitableness, hospitality; hospitalitas :-- Cumlíðnys is swíðe hlísful þing hospitality is a very excellent thing, Homl. Th. ii. 286, 16. Þurh ða cumlíðnysse by hospitality, 286, 2, 7, 8, 11, 13, 17, 27.

cummáse a coal-titmouse, coal-tit, Wrt. Voc. 281, 10. v. cól-máse.

cum-pæder, es; m. A godfather; compater :-- Ðe Æðeréd his cum-pæder healdan sceolde which Æthelred his godfather had to defend, Chr. 894; Erl. 92, 2.

cumul, es; pl. nom. acc. cumulu; n. A glandular swelling; tumor glandulósus :-- Wið cyrnlu and wið ealle yfele cumulu for kernels and for all evil lumps, Herb. 158, 5; Lchdm. i. 286, 17. v. cumbol II.

cúna of cows, Gen. 32, 15; gen. pl. of cú.

-cund, an adjective termination, denoting KIND , sort, or origin, likeness; as, æðel-cund, deóful-, engel-, eorþ-, feor-, feorran-, gǽst-, god-, heofon-, híw-, in, sáwel-, ufan-, up-, woruld-. [O. Sax. -kund oriundus, in god-kund divine: O. H. Ger. -kund: Goth. -kunds: Grk. GREEK : Lat. -gena.]

cune-glæsse, an; f. The herb hound's or dog's tongue; cynoglossos = GREEK, cynoglossum officinale, Lin :-- Wið cancerádle, cune-glæsse nioðoweard for cancer, the netherward part of hound's tongue, L. M. 1, 44; Lchdm. ii. 110, 1.

cunelle, an; f. Thyme; thymus [= GREEK ] vulgaris :-- Wylcunellan [MS. cunille] boil thyme, L. M. 1, 31; Lchdm. ii. 74, 22. DER. wudn-cunelle.

cuning a king, Greg. Dial. MS. Hat. Bodl. fol. 9a, 7. v. cyning.

CUNNAN, ic can, con, ðú canst, const, he can, con, pl. cunnon; p. ic, he cúðe, ðú cúðest, pl. cúðon; subj. cunne, pl. cunnen; p. cúðe, pl. cúðen; pp. [on]-cunnen, cúþ; v. a. I. to be or become acquainted with, to know; noscĕre, scire :-- Ic ða stówe ne can I know not the place, Elen. Kmbl. 1363; El. 683: 1267; El. 635. Ic eów ne con I know you not, Cd. 227; Th. 304, 13; Sat. 629. ÐÚ canst thou knowest, Andr. Kmbl. 135; An. 68. Const, Beo. Th. 2759; B. 1377. Cann, Ps. Th. 91, 5: 93, 11. Conn, Exon. 43a; Th. 145, 12; Gú. 693. Ge ne cunnon ye know not, Cd. 179; Th. 224, 25; Dan. 141. Ðæt ðú cunne that thow knowest, 228; Th. 308, 34; Sae. 702: Elen. Kmbl. 748; El. 374. Ic cúðe I knew, Cd. 216; Th. 273, 26; Sat. 142: 19; Th. 24, 30; Gen. 385: Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 26, 34. Hwanon cúðest ðú me unde me nosti? Jn. Bos. 1, 48. Cúðon, Cd. 18; Th. 23, 10; Gen. 357: Andr. Kmbl. 1504; An. 753: Gen. 29, 5. Heó weán cúðon they became acquainted with woe, Cd. 4; Th. 5, 20; Gen. 74. Men ne cunnon men know not, Beo. Th. 327; B. 162. Ic ne conn þurh gemæcscipe monnes ówér I know not anywhere of a man through cohabitation, Exon. 10b; Th. 13, 6; Cri. 198. II. with inf. To know how to do, to have power, to be able, CAN; scire, posse :-- Ic can eów lǽran I can teach you, Cd. 219; Th. 280, 3; Sat. 250. Ðe can naman ðínne neóde hérigean qui scit jubilationem, Ps. Th. 88, 13. Hérian ne cúðon wuldres waldend they knew not how to praise the ruler of glory, Beo. Th. 367; B. 182. Dydon swá hie cúðon they did as they could, Cd. 187; Th. 232, 11; Dan. 258. [Cunnan is the second of the twelve Anglo-Saxon verbs, called præterito­præsentia, given under ágan, q. v. The inf. cunnan and the pres. can, pl. cunnon, retaining preterite inflections, are taken from the p. of the strong verb cinnan, ascertained from can, pl. cunnon, which shews the ablaut or internal change of the vowel in the p. tense of the twelfth class of Grimm's division of strong verbs [Grm. i. edn. 2, p. 898; Koch, i. p. 252], and requires, by analogy with other verbs of the same class, the inf. cinnan, q. v. and the pp. cunnen. Thus we find the original verb cinnan, p. can, pl. cunnon; pp. cunnen. The weak p. cúðe, pl. cúðon, for cunde, cundon, is formed regularly from the inf. cunnan. The pp. generally takes the weak form, in Anglo-Saxon as well as in the cognate words; but strong and weak forms are both found, in A. Sax. the strong on-cunnen, and the weak cúþ, and in M. H. Ger. the strong ver-kunnen, and the weak kunt. The same præterito-præsens may be generally observed in the following cognate words :--

inf. pres. pl. p. pp.
Eng. can, could,
Laym. cunne, can, cunnen, cuðe, conðe, cup.
Wyc. kunne, can, kan, cunnen, kunnen, konde, kouthe, cunde, koud.
Plat. könen, kann, könen, kunden, kunnen, kunt.
O. Sax. kunnan, kan, kunnun, costa, kuþ.
O. Frs. kunna, kan, kunnon, kunda, kuth, kud.
Ger. können, kann, können, konnte, gokonnt.
M.H.Ger. kunnen, kan, kunnen, kunde, -kunnen, kunt.
O.H.Ger. kunnan, kan, kunnumés, kunda, kunsta, kund.
konda, konsta,
Goth. kunnan, kann, kunnum, kunþa, kunþs.
O. Nrs. kunna, kann, kunnum, kunna, kunnat.]
DER. for-cunnan, on-.

cunne, pl. cunnen know, can, Cd. 228; Th. 308, 34; Sat. 702: Elen. Kmbl. 748; El. 374; subj. pres. of cunnan.

cunnere, es; m. A tempter; tentator, Mt. Lind. Stv. 4, 3.

cunnian; p. ode, ade, ede; pp. od, ad, ed; v. a. I. to prove, try, inquire, search into, seek for, explore, examine, investigate, tempt, venture; probare, tentare, explorare, requirere, experiri, periclitari :-- Woldon cunnian, hwæðer. . . they would prove, whether. . ., Andr. Kmbl. 257; An. 129. Mót ic nú cunnian may I now inquire? Bt. 5, 3; Fox 10, 34. Uncúþne eard cunnian to seek for an unknown home, Exon. 28b; Th. 87, 1; Cri. 1418: Beo. Th. 2893; B. 1444. Se cunnaþ Dryhtnes meahta he tempteth the Lord's might, Salm. Kmbl. 454; Sal. 227. He ðín cunnode he has proved thee, Cd. 163; Th. 204, 16; Exod. 420: Bd. 3, 2; S. 525, 15. II. with gen. To have, experience of, to make trial of; periclitari, experiri :-- Gódes and yfles ðǽr ic cunnade there I had experience of good and evil, Exon. 85b; Th. 321, 26; Wíd. 52. Git wada cunnedon ye made a trial of the fords, Beo. Th. 1021; B. 508. [Orm. cunnenn to try, attempt: O. H. Ger. kunnén experiri, tentare.] DER. a-cunnian, be-, ge-.

cunning, e; f. Experience, CUNNING; experientia, Som. Ben. Lye. v. on-cunning.

cunnung, e; f. Probation; probatio, tentatio. Exon. 118a; Th. 453, 33; Hy. 4, 24.

cuopel; gen. cuople; f? A coble, small ship; navicula :-- Ofstígende hine oððe he ofstág in lytlum scipe oððe in cuople ascendente eo in naviculam, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 23.

CUPPE, an; f. A small drinking vessel, CUP; poculum, obba :-- Cuppe obba, Ælfc. Gl. 24; Som. 60, 43; Wrt. Voc. 24, 43. Nime áne cuppan let him take a cup, L. M. 2, 64; Lchdm. ii. 290, 2: Lchdm. iii. 72, 17: Cod. Dipl. 492; Kmbl. ii. 380, 35. Ic ge-an mínum hláforde iv cuppan I give four cups to my lord, Th. Diplm. A. D. 972; 519, 24. [Prompt. Wyc. cuppe: Piers P. coppe, coupe: Chauc. cuppe: R. Glouc. coupe: Orm. cuppess, pl: Laym. cuppe: Plat. kop-jen, kop-ken a little basin: Frs. O. Frs. Dut. kop, m: Dan. kop, m. f: Swed. kopp, m: Icel. koppr, m: Fr. coupe, f: It. cóppa, f: Span. cópa, f: Lat. cupa, f. a tub, cask: Grk. GREEK a cup, goblet: Wel. cwpan, f; cwb, m; Ir. cupa: Sansk. kūpa, kumbha, m. a vessel for water.] DER. scencing-cuppe, sop-.

curfon carved, Lev. 8, 20; p. pl. of ceorfan.

curmealle, curmelle, curmille, an; f. Centaury; centaurēurn = GREEK :-- Wið útsihtádle; curmealle, etc. for diarrhæa; centaury, etc. L. M. 3, 22; Lchdm. ii. 320, 11: 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 76, 20. Curmille centaury, 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 78, 21. Wring curmeallan seáw wring juice of centaury, 3, 3; Lchdm. ii. 310, 9: Lchdm. iii. 38, 26: 58, 10. Genim gréne curmeallan take green centaury, 10, 19: 18, 23: 28, 28: L. M. 3, 26; Lchdm. ii. 322, 21: 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 324, 21. Wyl on ealaþ twá curmeallan boil in ale the two centauries, L. M. 3, 38; Lchdm. ii. 330, 14. The centaury may be spoken of as, I. the greater centaury; chlora perfoliata, Lin :-- Genim ðás wyrte ðe Grécas cenlauria major and Angle curmelle seó máre nemnaþ take this herb which the Greeks name centaurea major and the English the greater centaury, Herb. 35, 1; Lchdm. i. 134, 3. Curmelle centaurea major, Ælfc. Gl. 42; Som. 64, 29; Wrt. Voc. 31, 39. II. the lesser centaury; erythræa centaurium, Lin :-- Ðeós wyrt ðe man centauriam minorem and óðrum naman curmelle seó læsse nemneþ, biþ cenned on fæstum landum this herb which is named centaurea minor and by another name the lesser centaury, is produced on stiff lands, Herb. 36, 1; Lchdm. i. 134, 17. v. eorþ-gealla.

curn-stán a mill-stone, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 149, 79. v. cweorn-stán.

curon chose, Cd. 86; Th. 108, 9; Gen. 1803; p. pl. of ceósan.

CURS, es; m. A CURSE; maledictio :-- On ǽnigne man curse asettan to set a curse on any man, Offic. Episc. 3. Git híg ǽnig man útabrede, hæbbe he Godes curs if any man take them away let him have God's curse, Wanl. Catal. 81, 5: Cod. Dipl. 310; A. D. 871-878; Kmbl. ii. 107, 5: 1057; Kmbl. v. 114, 25: Chr. 656; Erl. 33, 12: 675; Erl. 39, 20, 21, 27, 28: 963; Erl. 123, 14. [Prompt, curce: Wyc. curs: Chauc. cursing: R. Brun. cursyng.]

cursian; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed To CURSE; maledicere :-- Cursiende [MS. cursiynde] maledicentes, Ps. Spl. C. 36, 23. Ðe biscopes and léred men heó cursede the bishops and clergy cursed them, Chr. 1137; Erl. 262, 37.

cursung, e; f. A CURSING, curse, torment, hell; maledictio, damnatio, gehenna = GREEK :-- He lufode cursunge, and heó cume him dilexit maledictionem, et veniet ei, Ps. Spl. C. 108, 16: Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 5, 29: 10, 28: Lk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 20, 47.

cús of a cow :-- Cús eáge biþ scillinges weorþ a cow's eye shall be worth a shilling, L. In. 59; Th. i. 140, 4; gen. of cú.

CÚSC; adj. Chaste, modest, pure, clean; castus, purus :-- Ðurh cúscne siodo through modest conduct, Cd. 29; Th. 39, 2; Gen. 618. [Plat. küsk: Dut. kuisch: Kil. kuysch: O. Sax. kúsko, adv. Frs. kuwsch: O. Frs. kusk: Ger. keusch: M. H. Ger. kiusche, kiusch: O. H. Ger. kiuski, kúski sobrius, pudicus: Dan. kydsk: Swed. kysk.]

cusceote, cuscote, cuscute, an; f. [Lancashire, cowshot] A ringdove, wood-pigeon; palumbes, palumbá UNCERTAIN :-- Cusceote palumba, Wrt. Voc. 280, 32. Cuscote, wuduculfre palumbes, 62, 27. Cuscutan palumbes, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 161, 58.

cúslyppe, cúsloppe, an; f. A COWSLIP; primula veris, Lin :-- Nim wudubindes leáf and cúslyppan take leaves of woodbine and cowslip, L. M. 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 326, 4: 3, 31; Lchdm. ii. 326, 10: iii. 30, 8: 46, 22. Cúsloppe britannica, Ælfc. Gl. 42; Som. 64, 30; Wrt. Voc. 31. 40.

cúsnis choiceness; fastidium, Glos. Epnl. Recd. 156, 40. v. císnes.

cú-tægel, -tægl, es; m. A cow's tail; vaccæ cauda :-- Cútægl biþ fíf penega weorþ a cow's tail shall be worth five pence, L. In. 59; Th. i. 140, 3, MS. B.

cuter resin; mastix, resina :-- Cuter mastix vel resina, Ælfc. Gl. 48; Som. 65, 53; Wrt. Voc. 33, 49.

cúþ; comp. -ra; sup. -ost, -est; adj. [cúþ known, pp. of cunnan]. I. known, clear, plain, evident, manifest; notus, cognĭtus, manifestus :-- Ðæt wæs monegum cúþ that was known to many, Exon. 100b; Th. 378, 21; Deór. 19: Lk. Bos. 8, 17. Cúþ is wíde it is widely known, Exon. 40b; Th. 134, 14; Gú. 507. Cúþ is, ðæt it is manifest, that, Cd. 198; Th. 246, 20; Dan. 482. Cúþ standeþ, ðæt he gescylded wæs quem essu servatum constat, Bd. 3, 23; S. 555, 27: 1, 27; S. 492, 38. Ðæt wæs ðara fæstna folcum cúþost that was of those fastnesses most known to nations, Cd. 209; Th. 259, 16; Dan. 692. II. known, well known, sure, safe, noted, known as excellent, famed, celebrated; notus, certus, præstans, egregius :-- Cúþe ǽrenddracan nuntii certi, Bd. 4, 1; S. 564, 40. Cúþran gewitnesse certiori notitia, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 40. Se cúþesta gewita certissimus testis, 4, 19; S. 587, 27. Cúþes werodes of the famed host, Cd. 154; Th. 192, 12; Exod. 230: Beo. Th. 1738; B. 867: 4362; B. 2178: Cd. 226; Th. 302, 9; Sat. 596. III. familiar, intimate, related, friendly; notus, familiāris, amīcus, benevŏlus :-- Swá swá he cúþre stæfne wæs to me sprecende quasi familiari me voce alloquens, Bd. 4, 25; S. 600, 43. Ne sint me winas cúþe eorlas elþeódige the strange men are no affable friends to me, Andr. Kmbl. 396; An. 198. Feor ðú me dydest freóndas cúþe longe fecisti notos meos a me, Ps. Th. 87, 8. Míne cúþe notos meos, 87, 18: 54, 13: 131, 18. [Wyc. koud, kowd known, pp. of kunne: Chauc. couth, kouth, pp. of conne: Orm. cuþ, pp. of cunnenn: Laym. cuð, coð, icuð known, renowned, pp. of cuðe to make known: O. Sax. kúð known: O. Frs. kuth, kund, kud: Dut. kond: Ger. kund: M. H. Ger. kunt: O. H. Ger. kund: Goth. kunþs known, pp. of kunnan: Icel. kunnr, kuðr known.] DER. folc-cúþ, for-, hiw-, híw-, in-, un-, unfor-, wíd-: cýþig, on-, un-.

cúða, an; m. [cúþ known, pp. of cunnan; -a, termination, q. v.] One known, an acquaintance, a familiar friend, a relation; notus, cognātus :-- Ðú cúða mín tu notus meus, Ps. Spl. 54, 14: Lk. Bos. 2, 44. Ne clypa ðú ðíne frýnd ne ðíne cúdan noli vocare amicos tuos neque cognātos, 14, 12: 1. 58. v. cúþ.

cúðe; adv. Clearly; manifeste :-- Ic cúðe gesette I have clearly set, Ps. Th. 88, 3.

cúðe, pl. cúðon knew, could, Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 26, 34; p. of cunnan.

cúþe-líc, cúþ-líc; adj. Known, certain; notus, Som. Ben. Lye. DER. un-cúþlíc.

cúþe-líoe; adv. Certainly :-- Ac we ðæt cúþelíce oncneówan but that we certainly have known, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 4. v. cúþlíce.

cúðe-men; pl. m. Relations; cognati :-- Ða cúðemen cognati, Lk. Skt. Rush. 1, 58.

cúðen knew, could, Exon. 25a; Th. 73, 6; Cri. 1185; subj. p. of cunnan.

cúðest knewest, couldst; 2nd pers. p. of cunnan.

cúþice; adv. = cúþlíce Clearly; manifeste :-- Forðon ic cúþlíce [MS. cuþice] on ðǽm, hér nú cwicu lifige quia in ipsis vivificasti me, Ps. Th. 118, 93.

cúþ-lǽtan [cúþ = cýþ relationship, lǽtan to admit] To enter into friendship; societatem facere, Som. Ben. Lye.

cúþ-líce, cúþe-líce; comp. or; adv. I. certainly, manifestly; certo, aperte :-- Ic cúþlíce wát scio certissime, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 42: 4, 19; S. 589, 25. Ðæt his líf ðe cúþlícor ascíneþ cujus ut vita clarescat certius, 5, 1; S. 613, 14, note. Acyrred cúþlíce from Cristes ǽ turned manifestly from Christ's law, Exon. 71b; Th. 267, 6; Jul. 411: Ps. Th. 103, 16: 106, 6: 121, 1: 146, 4: 149, 8. II. for, indeed, therefore; nempe, igitur :-- Cweðaþ cúþlíce for indeed they said, Ps. Th. 70, 10: 82, 4: Hy. 10, 20; Hy. Grn. ii. 293, 20. III. familiarly, courteously, kindly; familiariter, civiliter, comiter :-- Ðæt he ðe cúþlícor from ðám hálgum ge-earnode in heofonum onfongen beón quo familiarius a sanctis recipi mereretur in cælis, Bd. 5, 7; S. 621, 12: Cd. 111; Th. 146, 32; Gen. 2431. Ðæt he eáþmédum ellorfúsne oncnáwe cúþlíce that he should with affability kindly treat the ready to depart, Andr. Kmbl. 643; An. 322: Ps. Th. 118, 146, 154: 54, 16: 90, 15. DER. for-cúþlíce, in-, un-.

cúþ-nes, -ness, e; f. Knowledge, acquaintance; scientia, Scint. 38, Som. Ben. Lye. DER. cúðe knew; p. of cunnan to know.

cúþ-noma, an; m. A surname; cognomen. Mt. Kmbl. Præf. p. 8, 13.

cúðo-menn; pl. m. Relations; cognati :-- Cúðornen cognátos, acc. m. Lk. Skt. Lind. 14, 12. v. cúðe-men.

cúðon knew, could, Cd. 18; Th. 23, 10; Gen. 357; p. pl. of cunnan.

cúþra more sure, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 40; comp. of cúþ.

cúðudyst = cýddest innotuisti, Ps. Spl. C. 143, 4; 2nd pers. p. of cýðan.

Cuþ-wulf, es; m. Cuthwulf :-- Cúþwulf wæs Cúþwining Cuthwulf was the son of Cuthwin, Chr. Th. 2, 3. Hér DLXXI Cúþwulf feaht wið Bretwalas æt Bedcan forda in this year, A. D. 571, Cuthwulf fought with the Brito-Welsh at Bedford, Chr. 571; Th. 32, 25, col. 1.

cuu; gen. cuus; f. A cow; vacca :-- Be cuus horne of a cow's horn, L. In. 59; Th. i. 140, i. 3: Ps. Lamb. 67, 31. v. cú.

cuwon chewed, Ælfc. T. 42, 9; p. pl. of ceówan.

CWACIAN, cwacigan; part. cwaciende, cwacigende; p, ode; pp. od To QUAKE, shake, tremble; tremere, contremere :-- Seó eorþe wæs cwaciende the earth was quaking, Ors. 2, 6; Bos. 49; 41. Seó cwacigende swustor the quaking sister, Homl. Th. ii. 32, 26, 31. Heó gemétte ealle hire bearn cwacigende eallum limum she found all her children quaking in every limb, 30, 20. Heard ecg cwacaþ the hard edge shaketh, Elen. Kmbl. 1513; El. 758. Céne cwacaþ the bold shall quake, Exon. 19b; Th. 50, 8; Cri. 797. Ða téþ cwaciaþ on swíðlícum cýle their teeth shall quake in the intense cold, Homl. Th. i. 132, 27: 530, 35. Ic cwacode eal on fefore I quaked all in a fever, ii. 312, 19. Cwacode eorþe contremuit terra, Ps. Spl. C. 17, 9. Cwacode he sóna he instantly quaked, Homl. Th. ii. 312, 15: 32, 3, 19. [Prompt. quakyn̄ tremere: Wyc. Piers P. quaken: R. Brun. Chauc. R. Glouc. quake: Laym. quakien, cwakie.]

cwacung, e; f. A QUAKING, trembling; tremor :-- Sóna biþ ætstilled sió cwacung the quaking will soon be stilled, L. M. 1, 26; Lchdm. ii. 68, 11. Cwacung gegráp híg tremor apprehendit eos, Ps. Spl. C. 47, 5. On cwacunge in tremore, Ps. Spl. C. 2, 11. Wæs se múnt Garganus bifigende mid ormætre cwacunge the mount Garganus was trembling with immense quaking, Homl. Th. i. 504, 28. Búton cwacunge without guaking, ii. 32, 18.

cwǽde, pl. cwǽdon said, Ps. Th. 89, 3: Cd. 191; Th. 238, 28; Dan. 361; 2nd sing. p. and p. pl. of cweðan.

cwæl, pl. cwǽlon died; p. of cwelan.

cwælm death, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cwealm.

cwælu a violent death, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cwalu.

cwǽman to please, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cwéman.

cwǽn a queen :-- Æðelfriþ cwǽn, seó wæs Ælfrédes swuster, forþférde, and hire líc líþ æt Pauian queen Æthelfrith, who was Alfred's sister, died, and her body lies at Pavia, Chr. 888; Erl. 87, 16-18. v. cwén.

cwært-ern a prison. Mt. Kmbl. Rl. 25, 43, 44. v. cweart-ern.

cwæstednys a trembling, Som. Ben. Lye. UNCERTAIN DER. to-cwæstednys.

cwæþ QUOTH, said, spoke, Deut. 32, 26: Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 30, 31; p. of cweðan.

cwæðst sayest, Ælfc. Gr. 2; Som. 3, 7, = cweðst; 2nd pres. sing. of cweðan.

CWALU, e; f. A quelling with weapons, torment, a violent death, slaughter, destruction; nex, cædes, exitium :-- Se cyning Eádwine mid árleásre cwale ofslegen wæs rex Æduini impia nece occisus, Bd. 2, 14; S. 517, 32: 2, 12; S. 513, 9, 12, 16. Þurh ánes engles cwale, on Cristes cwale through an angel's death, by Christ's death, Boutr. Scrd. 17, 38. Hú nyt is ðe mín slæge, oððe mín cwalu slaughter, oððe mín rotung on byrgenne? Ps. Th. 29, 8. To cwale cnihta for the destruction of the youths, Cd. 184; Th. 229, 32; Dan. 226. To cwale syllan to give to death. Exon. 70a; Th. 259, 29; Jul. 289. To cwale lǽdan to lead to death, 74b; Th. 279, 14; Jul. 613. [Laym. quale murrain; quale-huse, cwal-huse a torture-house: O. Sax. quala, f: Dut. kwaal malum, morbus: Kil. quaele languor, ægritudo: Ger. qual, f: M. H. Ger. quël, f. torment: O. H. Ger. quála nex, pernicies: Dan. qwal, m. f: Swed. qual, n. anguish, agony: Icel. kwal- in compounds, pain, torment.] DER. deáþ-cwalu, feorh-, gást-, hearm-, hell-, líg-, níþ-, swylt-, sylf-.

cwanc, pl. cwuncon disappeared; p. of cwincan.

CWÁNIAN; part. cwániende; p. ode, ede; pp. od, ed To bewail, deplore, lament, mourn; plorare, deplorare, queri, lugere. I. v. trans :-- Sum sceal, leómena leás, sár cwánian one, void of light, shall bewail his pain, Exon. 87b; Th. 328, 18; Vy. 19: 73b; Th. 274, 23; Jul. 537. II. v. intrans :-- Cwániendra cirm the cry of mourning men, Exon. 20a; Th. 52, 19, note; Cri. 836. Weras cwánedon the men lamented, Andr. Kmbl. 3071; An. 1538. [Plat. kwinen to languish: Dut. kwijnen to linger, pine: Kil. quenen, quynen tabescere: M. H. Ger. quinen to languish: Goth. qainon lamentari, lugere: Icel. kweina to wail, lament.]

cwánig; adj. [cwánian to bewail, lament, mourn] Complaining, bewailing, sad; querulus, tristis. DER. mód-cwánig.

Cwanta-wíc, es; n. [wíc a dwelling] St. Josse-sur-Mer or Estaples, the ancient name of which was Quantovic or Quentawich :-- Hér wæs micel wælsliht on Lundenne and on Cwanta-wíc and on Hrófes ceastre in this year [A. D. 839] there was a great slaughter at London and at Estaples and at Rochester, Chr. 839; Erl. 66, 17.

cwart-ern a prison :-- Ic wæs on cwarterne eram in carcere, Mt. Kmbl. Hat. 25, 36, 39. v. cweart-ern.

Cwat-brycg, -bricg, e; f. [Ethelw. Cantbricge: Flor. Quatbrig: Hunt. Quadruge: Matt. West. Quantebridge] Bridgenorth in Shropshire; oppidi nomen UNCERTAIN in agro Salopiensi :-- Hí gedydon æt Cwatbricge be Sæfern they arrived at Bridgenorth on the Severn, Chr. 896; Th. 173, 43, col. 1: col. 2 has Brygce. Æt Cwatbrycge, Th. 174, 1, col. 1, 2. Sǽton hie ðone winter æt Cwatbrycge [Bricge, Th. 174, 10, col. 2; 175, 9, col. 1: Brygcge, 175, 10, col. 2] they remained that winter at Bridgenorth, Chr. 896; Th. 174, 11, col. 1. v. Bricg.

CWEAD, es; n. Dung, filth, ordure; stercus :-- Sume nimaþ wearm cwead some take warm dung, L. M. 1, 50; Lchdm. ii. 124, 8: 2, 48; Lchdm. ii. 262, 18. Of cweade de stercore, Ps. Spl. 112, 6. [Wyc. quad, quade, adj. bad: Piers P. queed the evil one, devil: Plat. quaad, adj. bad, evil: O. Frs. quad, qwad, adj. bad, evil: Dut. kwaad, n. evil, mischief: Kil. quaed, quaet, quat, kat stercus, oletum: Ger. koth, m. merda, lutum: M. H. Ger. kát, kót, quat, m. n. stercus: O. H. Ger. chot stercus: Zend gútha, m. dirt: Sansk. gūtha, m. n. execrement.]

cweahte, pl. cweahton quaked, vibrated; p. of cweccan.

cwealde, pl. cwealdon slew, Exon. 65b; Th. 243, 3; Jul. 5: Ors. 4, 4; Bos. 80, 41; p. of cwellan.

cwealm, cwélm, es; m. n. [cwelan to die] Death, destruction, a violent death, slaughter, murder, torment, plague, pestilence, contagion, QUALM; mors, pernicies, nex, cædes, homicidium, cruciatus, lues, pestis, pestilentia, contagium :-- Hine se cwealm ne þeáh death profited him not, Exon. 74b; Th. 278, 30; Jul. 605: Cd. 79; Th. 98, 1; Gen. 1623: Elen. Kmbl. 1349; El. 676. Him cwelm gesceód death destroyed him, Cd. 208; Th. 257, 36; Dan. 668. Yida UNCERTAIN cwealm a slaughter of men, Andr. Kmbl. 363; An. 182. Cwealmes wyrhta a worker of murder, a murderer, Cd. 48; Th. 61, 29; Gen. 1004. Ðider sóþfæstra sáwla mótun cuman æfter cwealme thither the souls of the just may come after death, Exon. 32b; Th. 103, 14; Cri. 1688: Cd. 166; Th. 207, 18; Exod. 468. To wera cwealme for the destruction of men, Andr. Kmbl. 3013; An. 1509. Ic honda gewemde on Caines cwealme míne I have polluted my hands in Cain's murder, Cd. 52; Th. 67, 4; Gen. 1095. In Caines cynne ðone cwealm gewræc Drihten the Lord avenged the death [of Abel] on Cain's race, Beo. Th. 215; B. 107: Exon. 28b; Th. 87, 17; Cri. 1426: Andr. Kmbl. 2243: An. 1123. Ðú wást cwealm hátne in helle thou knowest hot torment in hell, 2374; An. 1188: 562; An. 281. Þurh deáþes cwealm through pain of death, Exon. 35b; Th. 115, 26; Gú. 195: Cd. 224; Th. 296, 9; Sat. 499. Mid morþes cwealme with pain of death, 35; Th. 47, 9; Gen. 758. Cwealma mǽst the greatest of torments, hell, Exon. 31b; Th. 99, 20; Cri. 1627. Micel cwealm wearþ ðæs folces the mortality of the people was great, Homl. Th. ii. 122, 18. Cwealm pestilentia vel contagium vel lues, Ælfc. Gl. 9; Som. 57, 8; Wrt. Voc. 19, 18. Ðæt us cwealm on ne becume ne forte occidat nos pestis, Ex. 5, 3. To ðam swíðe awédde se cwealm ðæt hundeahtatig manna of lífe gewiton the plague raged to that degree that eighty men departed from life, Homl. Th. ii. 126, 18: Exon. 89a; Th. 335, 7; Gn. Ex. 30. On ðissum geáre com micel máncwealm on Brytene ígland, and on ðam cwealme forþférde Tuda biscop in this year [A. D. 664] there was a great plague in the island of Britain, and bishop Tuda died of the plague, Chr. 664; Erl. 35, 19: Homl. Th. ii. 124, 2. Godes miltsung ðone rédan cwealm gestilde God's mercy stilled the cruel pestilence, ii. 126, 22. Beóþ mycele eorþan styrunga geond stówa, and cwealmas terræmotus magni erunt per loca, et pestilentiæ, Lk. Bos. 21, 11. In the following example cwealm is neuter :-- Sume ic þurh mislíc cwealm mínum hondum slóg some I slew by my hands through various deaths, Exon. 73a; Th. 272, 2; Jul. 493. [Chauc. qualm sickness: Laym. qualm mortality, plague: Plat. qualm vapour, smoke: O. Sax. qualm, m. violent death, murder: Dut. kwalm, m. reek, moist: Ger. qualm, m. vapour, smoke: M. H. Ger. qualm, m. anguish: O. H. Ger. qualm, m. nex: Dan. qwalm, m. f. vapour, smoke: Swed. qwalm, n. sultriness.] DER. beadu-cwealm, bealo-, bróðor-, deáþ-, feorh-, gár-, mán-, morþor-, níþ-, orf-, út-, wael-, yrf-.

cwealm-bǽre, cwylm-bǽre; adj. [-bǽre, an adj. termination; producing, bearing] Death-bearing, deadly; mortifĕrus :-- Ðeáh ðe he cwealmbǽre wǽre though he was death-bearing, Wanl. Catal. 164, 48, col. 1. Drenc mid ðam cwealmbǽrum áttre gemenged a drink mingled with deadly poison, Homl. Th. ii. 158, 17: 260, 11. Cwealmbǽrne mortifĕrum, Mone B. 4905. Cómon ða cempan mid cwylmbǽrum tólum the soldiers came with deadly tools, Homl. Th. ii. 260, 7.

cwealm-bǽrnes, -ness, e; f. Destruction, ruin, deadliness, mortality; pernicies, mortalitas. v. cwelm-bǽrnys.

cwealm-bealu; gen. -bealuwes; n. [bealo, bealu bale, evil] Deadly evil; cædis malum :-- Ðæt hit móste cwealmbealu cýðan that it must make known the deadly evil, Beo. Th. 3884; B. 1940.

cwealm-cuma, an; m. [cuma, q. v. a comer, guest] A deadly guest; advena cædem parans :-- Nolde eorla hleó ðone cwealmcuman cwicne forlǽtan the refuge of the earls would not leave the deadly guest living, Beo. Th. 1588; B. 792.

cwealm-dreór, es; m. [dreór blood] Slaughter-gore; sanguis cæde profusus, Cd. 47; Th. 60, 22; Gen. 985.

cwealmnes, cwylmnes, -ness, -nyss, e; f. Torment, pain, anguish; cruciatus :-- Ða wǽron missenlícum cwealmnyssum þréste qui diversis cruciatibus torti, Bd. 1, 7; S. 479, 13. Fram swá myclum cwylmnessum a tamque diutinis cruciatibus, 4, 9; S. 577, 10.

cwealm-stede, es; m. [stede a place] A death-place; mortis-locus :-- To cwealmstede ad palæstram, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 148, 46.

cwealm-stów, e; f. [stów a place] A place of execution; patibuli vel supplicii locus :-- He to ðære cwealmstówe lǽded wæs he was led to the place of execution, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478, note 38.

cwealm-þreá; mdecl; m. f. n. [cwealm, þreá a vexing, terror] Deadly terror; letaiis terror :-- Mid cwealmþreá with deadly terror, Cd. 116; Th. 151, 12; Gen. 2507.

cwearn a mill-stone, Mk. Skt. Rush. 9, 42. v. cwyrn, cweorn-stán.

cweart-ern, cwert-ern, es; n. A guard-house, prison; custodia, carcer :-- Ðæs cwearternes hirde híg betǽhte Iosepe custos carceris tradidit eos Ioseph, Gen. 40, 4. Ic wæs on cwearterne eram in carcere, Mt. Bos. 25, 36, 39: Lk. Bos. 3, 20: Jn. Bos. 3, 24: Ælfc. Gr. 9, 18; Som. 9, 59. [Prompt. qwert, whert incolumis, sanus, sospes.]

cweartern-líc; adj. Of or belonging to a prison; carceralis :-- Þurh cwearternlíce cyp per carceralem stipitem, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 150, 38.

CWECCAN; part. cweccende; ic cwecce, ðú cwecest, cwecst, he cweceþ, cwecþ. pl. cweccaþ; p. cwehte, cweahte, pl. cwehton, cweahton; pp. cweaht To vibrate, move; torquēre, quatĕre, vibrāre, movēre :-- Cweccende torquens, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 147, 49. He cwecþ his sweord gladium snum vibrabit, Ps. Th. 7, 12. Þegn Hróþgáres, þrymmum cwehte Hrothgar's thane, violently quaked, Beo. Th. 476; B. 235. Iohannes cwehte his heáfod John shook his head, Ælfc. T. 36, 9. Hí cwehton [MS. cwehtun] heora heáfod moverunt caput, Ps. Lamb. 21, 8. Ða wegférendan cwehton heora heáfod the passers-by shook their heads, Mt. Bos. 27, 39: Mk. Bos. 15, 29. [Laym. quecchen to shake, move: Icel. kwika to move, stir.] DER. a-cweccan.

cweccung, e; f. A moving, wagging; commotio :-- Ðú gesettest us on cweccunge heáfdes on folcum posuisti nos in commotionem capitis in populis, Ps. Lamb. 43, 15.

cwede a saying, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cwide.

cweden spoken, said, called, Exon. 15b; Th. 34, 24; Cri. 547: Chr. 455; Erl. 13, 23: Bd. 5, 19; S. 636, 45; pp. of cweðan.

cwehte, pl. cwehton shook, moved, quoted, Beo. Th. 476; B. 235: Ælfc. T. 36, 9: Ps. Lamb. 21, 8: Mt. Bos. 27, 39: Mk. Bos. 15, 29; p. of cweccan.

CWELAN, ic cwele, ðú cwilst, he cwelþ, cwilþ, cwylþ, pl. cwelaþ; p. cwæl, pl. cwælon; pp. cwolen To die; mori :-- Cwele ic I die, Exon. 125a; Th. 482, 2; Rä. 66, 1. Swá swá fixas cwelaþ gyf hí of wætere beóþ, swá eác cwelþ [cwylþ MSS. R. L.] ǽlc eorþlíc líchama gyf he byþ ðære lyfte bedǽled as fishes die if they are out of water, so also every earthly body dies if it be deprived of the air, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 17, 9-11; Lchdm. iii. 272, 25, and note 36. [Laym. quelen to die: O. Sax. quelan to die from a violent death or as a martyr: Dut. quelen languore tabescere: O. H. Ger. quelan cruciari, pati, mori.] DER. a-cwelan, óþ-: cwild, -bǽre, -bǽrlíce, -tíd: cwalu: cwellan, a-: cwellere: a-cwelledness: cwealm, -bǽre, -bǽrness, -bealu, -cuma, -dreór, -ness, -stede, -stów, -þreá: cwelman, cwylman, ge-: cwylming.

cweldeht; adj. [cweld = cwyld destruction, -eht = -iht adj. termination, q. v.] Mortified; corruptionis plenus :-- Wið wyrmǽtum líce and cweldehtum for a worm-eaten and mortified body, L. M. 1, 54; Lchdm. ii. 126, 4.

CWELLAN, ic cwelle, ðú cwelest, cwelst, he cweleþ, cwelþ, pl. cwellaþ; p. cwealde, pl. cwealdon; pp. cwelled, cweled, cweald; v. a. To kill, slay = QUELL? necare, trucidare, occidere, mactare :-- Ða cwelleras ne woldan hine cwellan the executioners would not till him, Bd. 5, 19; S. 638, 30: Cd. 140; Th. 176, 2; Gen. 2905: Hy. 7, 105; Hy. Grn. ii. p. 289, 105. Oft ic cwelle compwæpnum often I till with battle-weapons, Exon. 105b; Th. 401, 9; Rä. 21, 9. Ðú ramm cwelst thou shalt kill the ram, Ex. 29, 16. We cwellaþ we kill, Ex. 8, 26. Cwealde had killed, Andr. Kmbl. 3247; An. 1626. Hí stearcferþe cwellan þohtun the stern of mind resolved to slay her, Exon. 75a; Th. 280. 31; Jul. 637. Ðú Grendel cwealdest thou didst slay Grendel, Beo. Th. 2673; B. 1334. Árleás cyning cwealde cristne men the impious king slew christian men, Exon. 65 b; Th. 243, 3; Jul. 5. [Prompt. qwellyn̄ suffocare: Wyc. quellere a killer: Piers P. quellan to kill: Chauc. R. Glouc. quelle: Laym. quelle-n: ERROR Orm. cwellenn: O. Sax. quellian: Dut. kwellen to vex: Kil. quellen molestare: Ger. quälen to vex: M. H. Ger. queln, quellen, kellen to press, vex: O. H. Ger. queljan necare: Dan. qwäle to quell, torture: Swed. qwälja to torment: Icel. kwelja to torment.] DER. a-cwellan.

cwellend, es; m. [cwellende, part. of cwellan to kill] A killer, slayer; interfector :-- Cwellend sector, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 150, 27.

cwellere, es; m. A killer, man-slayer, executioner, QUELLER, tormentor; lanio, interfector, spiculator? carnifex :-- Se cwellere the executioner, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478, 15, 35. Ða cwelleras the executioners; carnifices, 5, 19; S. 638, 29. Herodes sende ǽnne cwellere, and bebeád dæt man his heáfod on ánum disce brohte Herod sent an executioner, and commanded that they should bring his [John. Baptist's] head on a dish, Mk. Bos. 6, 27. Hyldere, oððe cwellere, oððe flǽsctawere [MS. flǽctawere] lanio, vel lanista, vel carnifex, vel macellarius, Ælfc. Gl. 113; Som. 79, 122; Wrt. Voc. 60, 27.

cwelm destruction, death, Cd. 208; Th. 257, 36; Dan. 668. v. cwealm.

cwelman, cwylman, cwilman; part. -ende; p. de; pp. ed [cwealm, cwelm death, destruction, torment] To torture, torment, destroy, kill; trucidare, cruciare :-- Cwelmende fýr destroying fires, Exon. 22a; Th. 59, 28; Cri. 959. He wæs ðæt folc cwilmende he tortured the people, Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 36, 25. He eorþ-cyningas yrmde and cwelmde he oppressed and slew the kings of the earth, Bt. Met. Fox 9, 94; Met. 9, 47. Mæssepreóstas wǽron cwylmde sacerdotes trucidabantur, Bd. 1, 15; S. 484, 1: 4, 13; S. 582, note 29. Hí hálge cwelmdon they slew the holy, Exon. 66a; Th. 243, 24; Jul. 15. Ðæt hí cwylmen rihte heortan ut trucident rectos corde, Ps. Spl. 36, 15. Ðú hungre scealt cwylmed weorþan thou shalt be put to death with hunger, Elen. Kmbl. 1373; El. 688. [0. Sax. quelmian to kill.] DER. ge-cwelman, -cwylman.

cwelm-bǽrnys, -nyss, e; f. [cwealm, cwelm death, destruction] Destruction, ruin, deadliness, mortality; pernicies, mortalitas :-- Cwelm-bǽrnyss pernicies, Ælfc. Gr. 12; Som. 15, 52. Þurh myrran is gehíwod cwelmbǽrnys úres flǽsces by myrrh is typified the mortality of our flesh, Homl. Th. i. 118, 3.

cwelþ dies, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 17, 10; 3rd pres. sing. of cwelan.

cwéman; part. cwémende; p. de; pp. ed; v. a. dat. To give pleasure, please, delight, propitiate, satisfy; placere, satisfacere :-- Sum sceal on heápe hæleðum cwéman one shall in company give pleasure to men, Exon. 88a; Th. 331, 33; Vy. 77. Ic mínum Criste cwéman þence leófran láce I purpose to please my Saviour with a dearer gift, 37a; Th. 120, 26; Gú. 277: Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 36, 27: Cd. 220; Th. 283, 16; Sat. 305. Se ðe ne þenceþ Meotode cwéman he who thinketh not to propitiate the Creator, 217; Th. 276, 5; Sat. 184: Exon. 69a; Th. 257, 2S; Jul. 252: Ps. Th. 91, 3: 94, 1. God tostencþ bán heora ða ðe mannum cwémendra Deus dissipavit ossa eorum qui hominibus placent, Ps. Spl. 52, 7. Ic cwéme UNCERTAIN Drihtne on ríce lýfigendra placebo Domino in regions vivorum, 114, 9; Ps. Th. 53, 6. Esne his hláforde cwémeþ a servant gives pleasure to his master, 122, 2. Martiras Meotode cwémaþ martyrs give delight to the Creator, Cd. 228; Th. 305, 31; Sae. 655: Exon. 39a; Th. 130, 5; Gú. 433: Ps. Th. 71, 10. Nǽnig man scile orþances útabredan wǽpnes ecgge, ðeáh ðe him se wlíte UNCERTAIN cwéme no man should draw forth the weapon's edge without a cause, although its beauty please him, Salm. Kmbl. 332; Sal. 165. Ðæt we cwéman Criste that we please Christ, Cd. 226; Th. 302, 8; Sat. 596. Ðam ic georne cwémde whom I have earnestly propitiated, Exon. 48b; Th. 167, 11; Gú. 1058. Him lofsangum cwémdon [MS. cwemdan] cantaverunt laudes ejus, Ps. Th. 105, 11. [Laym. queme, cweme, iquemen, icweme to please: Orm. cwemenn: Ger. bequemen to accommodate.] DER. ge-cwéman.

cwéme; adj. [cwéman to please] Pleasant, pleasing, grateful, acceptable, fit; gratus, acceptus, congruus. DER. ge-cwéme.

cwéming, e; f. A pleasing, satisfying; placentia, satisfactio, Greg. Dial. 4, 28.

cwémnys, -nyss, e; f. A satisfaction, an appeasing, a mitigation; satisfactio :-- Cwémnys uncysta satisfactio vitiorum, Bd. 1, 27; S. 495, 32.

CWÉN; gen. dat. cwéne; acc. cwén, cwénn, cwéne; pl. nom. acc. cwéne, cwéna; gen. cwéna; dat. cwénum; f: cwéne, cwýne; gen. dat. acc. cwénan, cwýnan; pl. nom. acc. cwénan; gen. cwénena; dat. cwénum; f. I. a woman; femina :-- Seó clǽneste cwén ofer eorþan the purest woman upon earth, Exon. 12a; Th. 17, 27; Cri. 276. Þurh ða æðelan cwénn through the noble woman, 25b; Th. 73, 34; Cri. 1199. Cwéna sélost the best of women, Menol. Fox 334; Men. 168. Ealdra cwéna spell old women's talk; anilis fabula, Ælfc. Gl. 100; Som. 77, 20; Wrt. Voc. 55, 24. Ic wæs feaxhár cwéne I was a hoary-headed woman, Exon. 126b; Th. 487, 13; Rä. 73, 1. On cwénena bróce, of cwénena bróce to the women's brook, from the women's brook, Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 426; A. D. 949; Kmbl. iii. 429, 34. II. a wife; uxor :-- Abrahames cwén Abraham's wife, Cd. 103; Th. 136, 17; Gen. 2259. Hæleða cwénum to the wives of the warriors, 169; Th. 210, 7; Exod. 511. Gif preóst cwénan forlǽte, and óðre nime, anaþema sit if a priest forsake his wife, and take another, let him be excommunicated, L. N. P. L. 35; Th. ii. 296, 1. Gif man mid esnes cwýnan geligeþ, be cwicum ceorle, ii gebéte if a man lie with an 'esne's' wife, her husband, still living, let him make twofold amends, L. Ethb. 85; Th. i. 24, 9. III. a king's or emperor's wife, a QUEEN, empress; regina, imperatrix, augusta :-- Cwén regina, Ælfc. Gl. 68; Som. 69, 128; Wrt. Voc. 42, 8: 72, 56: Mt. Bos. 12, 42: Lk. Bos. 11, 31: Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 23: 3, 11; Bos. 73, 37: Chr. 672; Erl. 35, 37: 722; Erl. 45, 26: Beo. Th. 1851; B. 923: Elen. Kmbl. 494; El. 247. Ðæs [MS. ðes] cáseres cwén imperatrix vel augusta, Wrt. Voc. 72, 58. Oft on ánre tíde acenþ seó cwén and seó wyln the queen and the slave often bring forth at one time, Homl. Th. i. 110, 27: Elen. Kmbl. 832; El. 416: 1113; El. 558: Beo. Th. 2311; B. 1153. Seó ylce cwén Sarméramis the same queen Sameramis, Ors. 1, 2; Bos. 27, 6. Ðær wearþ Marsepia, sió cwén, ofslagen Marpesia, the queen, was slain there, 1, 10; Bos. 33, 22, 24: Elen. Kmbl. 756; El. 378: Bt. Met. Fox 26, 178; Met. 26, 89. Ðeós cwén this queen, Elen. Kmbl. 1064; El. 533: 1099; El. 551. He wæs on ðære cwéne gewealdum he was in the queen's power, 1217; El. 610: 2269; El. 1136. Ðone hie ðære cwéne agéfon they gave him up to the queen, 1171; El. 587: 2257; El. 1130. Aðelwulf cyng Carles dóhtor hæfde to cwéne king Æthelwulf had the daughter of Charles for his queen, Chr. 885; Erl. 85, 3: 1017; Erl. 161, 10: 1048; Erl. 180, 21. Mid ða æðelan cwén with the noble queen, Elen. Kmbl. 550; El. 275: Beo. Th. 1334; B. 665: Exon. 86a; Th. 324, 29; Wíd. 102. Ofslóh ge ðone cyning, ge ða cwéne slew both the ting and the queen, Ors. 3, 11; Bos. 74, 4: Homl. Th. i. 438, 21: Exon. 90a; Th. 338, 22; Gn. Ex. 82. Cyningas and cwéne kings and queens, 113a; Th. 433, 15; Rä. 50, 8. Hiora twá wǽron heora cwéna, Marsepia and Lampida wǽron hátene two of them, called Marpesia and Lampelo, were their queens, Ors. 1, 10; Bos. 33, 14, 35. Se wæs Melcolmes sunu cynges and Margarite ðære cwénan he was the son of king Malcolm and queen Margaret, Chr. 1097; Erl. 234, 37. [Prompt. quene regina; quen, womann of lytylle price: Wyc. queene: Piers P. queyne, queene: R. Brun. R. Glouc. quene: Laym. quen-e, f; Orm. cwen: Scot. queyn, quean a young woman: Plat, quene: O. Sax. cwán, cwéna, f. uxor; Dut. kween, f. a married woman: Kil. quene uxor, mulier: Ger. königin, f: M. H. Ger. kone, kon, f. uxor: O. H. Ger. quena, chena, chone, f. mulier, conjux, uxor: Goth. qens, f. mulier, uxor: Dan. qwinde, kone mulier, uxor: Swed. qwinna, f. mulier, uxor; kåna, f. a low woman: Icel. kona, kuna, kwán, kwǽn a woman, wife, queen: Grk. GREEK femina, genitrix: Slav. shena: Sansk. gnā, jani. f. a woman, wife, mother.] DER. dryht-cwén, folc-, gúþ-, sige-, þeód-.

Cwéna land the land or country of the Quaines, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 21, 10. v. Cwénas, UNCERTAIN Cwén-land.

Cwénas; gen. a; pl. m. The Quaines; Cayani. The inhabitants of Cwén-land, q. v :-- Is to-emnes ðæm lande súþeweardum, on óðre healfe ðæs móres, Sweóland, óþ ðæt land norþeweard; and to-emnes ðæm lande norþeweardum, Cwéna land. Ða Cwénas hergiaþ hwílum on ða Norþmen ofer ðone mór; hwílum ða Norþmen on hý; and ðǽr sint swíðe micle meras fersce geond ða móras; and beraþ ða Cwēnas hyra scypu ofer land on ða meras, and ðanon hergiaþ on ða Norþmen. Hý habbaþ swýðe lytle scypa, and swýðe leóhte over against the land [Finland] southward, on the other side of the waste, is Sweden, northward up to the land; and over against the land northward is the land of the Quaines. The Quaines sometimes make war on the Northmen over the waste; sometimes the Northmen on them; and there are very large fresh lakes beyond the wastes; and the Quaines carry their boats over land into the lakes, and thence make war on the Northmen. They have very little boats, and very light, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 21, 8-15.

cwencan; p. cwencte; pp. cwenced, cwenct To extinguish, QUENCH; extinguere. DER. acwencan.

cwéne, cwýne, an; f. A woman, wife, queen, common woman, harlot; femina, uxor, regina, meretrix :-- Ic wæs feaxhár cwéne I was a hoary-headed woman, Exon. 126b; Th. 487, 13; Rä. 73, 1. Cwénan forlǽtan to forsake a wife, L. N. P. L. 35; Th. ii. 296, 1. Mid esnes cwýnan with an 'esne's' wife, L. Ethb. 85; Th. i. 24, 9. Margarite ðære cwénan of queen Margaret, Chr. 1097; Erl. 234, 37. Wið áne cwénan fylbe adreógaþ cum una meretrice spurcitiem exercent, Lupi Serm. 1, 11; Hick. Thes. ii. 102, 26. v. cwén.

cwén-fugol, es; m. A female or hen bird; avis feminea, Som. Ben. Lye.

Cwén-land, es; n. Cwén-land lies between the White Sea [Cwén Sǽ] and Norway, north of the Gulf of Bothnia. The country east and west of the Gulf of Bothnia, from Norway to the Cwén or White Sea, including Finmark on the north. Malte-Brun says that the inhabitants of Cwén-land were a Finnish race. They were called Quaines, and by Latin writers Cayani. Gerchau maintains, in his history of Finland, 1810, that the Laplanders only were called Finns, and that they were driven from the country by the Quaines. 'They settled in Lapland, and on the shores of the White Sea, which derived from them the name of Quen Sea or Quen-vik.'. . . Adamus Bremensis happened to be present at a conversation, in which king Swenon spoke of Quen-land or Quena-land, the country of the Quaines, but as the stranger's knowledge of Danish was very imperfect, he supposed the king had said Quinna-land, the country of women or Amazons; hence the absurd origin of his Terra Feminarum, mistaking the name of the country, for quinna a woman. Malte-Brun's Universal Geog. Edin. 1827, vol. vi. p. 495. -- Dr. Latham's Germania of Tacitus, 174, 179 :-- Sweón habbaþ be súþan him ðone sǽs earm Osti; and be eástan him Sermende; and be norþan him ofer ða wéstennu is Cwén-land the Swedes have, to the south of them, the Esthonian arm of the sea; and to the east of them the Sermende; and to the north of them, over the wastes, is Cwën-land, UNCERTAIN Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 19, 21-23: 21, 10.

cwén-lic; adj. OUEENLY, feminine; muliebris :-- Ne biþ swylc cwénlíc þeáw such is not a feminine custom, Beo. Th. 3885; B. 1940.

cwénn a woman, Exon. 25b; Th. 73, 34; Cri. 1199; acc. s. of cwén.

Cwén-sǽ; gen. -sǽs; m. The White Sea; hyperboreus oceanus :-- Fram ðære eá Danais, west óþ Rín ða eá . . . and eft súþ óþ Donua ða eá. . . and norþ óþ ðone gársecg, ðe man Cwénsǽ hǽt: binnan ðǽm syndon manega þeóda; ac hit man hǽt eall, Germania from the river Don, westward to the river Rhine. . . and again south to the river Danube . . . and north to the ocean, which is called the White Sea: within these are many nations; but they call it all, Germania, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 18, 21-28. v. Cwénas, Cwén-land.

cweoc qwick, alive, Symb. Athan. Lye. v. cwic.

cweodo a cud, quid, L. M. 2, 14; Lchdm. ii. 192, 6. v. cwudu.

cweorn, e; f: cweorne, an; f. A mill, hand-mill, quern, Mt. Kmbl. Hat. 24, 41: Ex. 11, 5. v. cwyrn.

cweorn-bill, es; n. [bil a bill, falchion] A stone chisel for dressing querns; lapidaria, Cot. 125.

cweorn-stán a mill-stone, Mk. Bos. 9, 42: Lk. Bos. 17, 2. v. cwyrn-stán.

cweorn-teéþ; pl. m. Molar teeth, grinders; molares, Wrt. Voc. 282, 75.

cwert-ern, es; n. A prison :-- Ðe-læs ðú sý on cwertern send ne forte in carcerem mittaris, Mt. Bos. 5, 25: Lk. Bos. 12, 58. v. cweart-ern.

cweþ says, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Som. 18, 45, = cweðeþ; 3rd pres. sing. of cweðan.

cweþ ðú say thou, cweðe he let him say, cweðaþ, cweðe ge say ye, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 33, 39: Mt. Bos. 3, 9: Gen. 50, 19; impert. of cweðan.

CWEÐAN, to cweðanne; part. cweðende; ic cweðe, ðú cweðest, cweðst, cwæðst, cwiðst, cwyðst, cwíst, cwýst, he cweðeþ; cweþ, cwiþ, cwyþ, pl. cweðaþ; p. ic, he cwæþ, ðú cwǽde, pl. cwǽdon; impert. cweþ, cweðe, pl. cweðaþ, cweðe; subj. cweðe, pl. cweðen; p. cwǽde, pl. cwǽden; pp. cweden To say, speak, call, proclaim; dicere, loqui, vocare, indicere. I. v. trans :-- Ic ðé wolde lofsang cweðan laudem dixi tibi, Ps. Th. 118, 164: Rood Kmbl. 230; Kr. 116. For ðam worde ðe se Wealdend cwyþ for the word which the iord shall speak, Rood Kmbl. 220; Kr. 111. Gehýraþ hwæt se unrihtwísa déma cwyþ audite quid judex iniquitatis dicit, Lk. Bos. 18, 6. Him ða word hí cweðaþ they say the words to him, Exon. 13b; Th. 25, 15; Cri. 401. Ne cwæþ ic wiht I spake not aught, 125a; Th. 482, 1; Rä. 66, 1: Bt. Met. Fox 10, 69; Met. 10, 35. Drihten cwæþ word to Noe the Lord spake words to Noah, Cd. 74; Th. 91, 11; Gen. 1510: Beo. Th. 5318; B. 2662: Andr. Kmbl. 658; An. 329. Arríus se gedwola cwæþ gemót ongeán ðone bisceop Arius the heretic proclaimed a synod against the bishop, Homl. Th. i. 290, 12. Alýs míne sáwle of ðám welerum ðe wom cweðen deliver my soul from the lips which may speak evil, Ps. Th. 119, 2. Hí geornlíce smeádon hwæt he cwǽde they earnestly considered what he said, Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 37. On ðære stówe ðe is cweden Ægeles þrep at the place which is called Aylesthorpe, Chr. 455; Erl. 13, 23: Exon. 11a; Th. 13, 32; Cri. 211. II. v. intrans :-- Hwæt mágon we cweðan ongén úrne hláford what can we say to our lord? Gen. 44, 16: Cd. 229; Th. 310, 24; Sae. 732. Hú hie cweðan woldon how they would speak, 201; Th. 249, 17; Dan. 531: Exon. 28a; Th. 84, 22; Cri. 1377. Ðæt is wundor to cweðanne quod mirum dictu est, Bd. 3, 6; S. 528, 10. Ðus cweðende, he forþférde hæc dicens, expiravit, Lk. Bos. 23, 46: Homl. Th. i. 380, 2, 21: Ps. Th. 104, 10. Ic cweðe to ðysum, and ic cweðe to óðrum dico huic et alii, Mt. Bos. 8, 9: Ælfc. Gr. pref; Som. 1, 39: 5; Som. 3, 27: 15; Som. 17, 36: 18; Som. 21, 26, 27, 29, 59, 61, 63. Ic cweðe aio, inquio, 33; Som. 37, 31, 37. Ðú cweðst ais, 33; Som. 37, 31: Ps. Lamb. 87, 11. Gif ðú cwæðst if thou sayest, Ælfc. Gr. 2; Som. 3, 7. Ðú cwiðst inquis, 33; Som. 37, 38. Ðú cwyðst thou sayest, 2; Som. 3, 8: 5; Som. 3, 27, 32, 33, 36: 15; Som. 17, 36; 18; Som. 21, 62. Ðú cwíst ðæt ic ðé andwyrdan scyle thou sayest that I must answer thee, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 12, 16: Num. 11, 22, 23: 23, 12: Ps. Th. 87, 12. Ðú cwýst ðæt ic me gebiddan sceole to dumbum stánum thow sayest that I must pray to dumb stones, Homl. Th; i. 424, 9: Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 3, 29: Ps. Th. 88, 16. Man cweðeþ dicet homo, Ps. Th. 57, 10. He cweþ he says, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 3, 50: 15; Som. 18, 45. He cweþ ait, 33; Som. 37, 31. Ðonne cwiþ se engel then the angel shall speak, Exon. 32b; Th. 102, 7; Cri. 1669: Beo. Th. 4088; B. 2041: Swá hwylc swá cwyþ to ðisum munte quicumque dixerit huic monti, Mk. Bos. 11, 23: Mt. Bos. 7, 21: Jn. Bos. 4, 10: 16, 18. He cwyþ inquit, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 38. We cweðaþ we say, Ælfc. Gr. 18; Som. 21, 67. Ge cweðaþ ye say, Deut. 28. 67. Sume men cweðaþ on Englisc ðæt hit sié feaxede steorra some men say in English that it [a comet] is a long-haired star, Chr. 891; Erl. 88, 18. Híg cweðaþ they say, Deut. 31, 17: Exon. 12a; Th. 18, 14; Cri. 283: Cd. 63; Th. 75, 13; Gen. 1239. Hí cweðaþ aiunt, inquiunt, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 32, 38. Ic cwæþ dixi, Deut. 32, 26: Ps. Lamb. 29. 7: 39, 8: Jn. Bos. 11, 42. Ðú cwǽde, ðæt ðú me woldest wel dón tu locutus es, quod benefaceres mihi, Gen. 32, 12: Andr. Kmbl. 2822; An. 1413: Ps. Th. 89, 3. Ðú cwǽde inquisti, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 39. He cwæþ sylf to me ipse dixit mihi, Gen. 20, 5: Ex. 1, 15: Lev. 6, 19, 24: Num. 10, 36: Deut. 1, 34: Jos. 3, 6: Jud. 4, 18: Mt. Bos. 8, 4: Mk. Bos. 2, 5: Lk. Bos. 2, 48: Jn. Bos. 5, 8: Fins. Th. 48; Fin. 24. Híg cwǽdon him betwýnan mutuo loquebantur, Gen. 37, 19: Num. 16, 3: Cd. 191; Th. 238, 28; Dan. 361: Beo. Th. 6342; B. 3181; Elen. Kmbl. 1138; El. 571. Hí cwǽdon aiebant, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 33. Ðus cweþ thus say, Ex. 19, 3. Cweþ ðú ai, inque, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 33, 39. Cweðe he inquiat, 33; Som. 37, 39. Ne cweðaþ betwux eów say not among yourselves, Mt. Bos. 3, 9. Cweðe ge say ye, Gen. 50, 19. Ðý-læs ðú cweðe lest thou shouldest say, Cd. 98; Th. 129, 18; Gen. 2145: Ælfc. Gr. 7; Som. 6, 16: 21; Som. 23, 28, 38. Gif se þeówa cweðe ðæt he nelle fram ðé faran if the servant should say that he will not go from thee, Deut. 15, 16. Ðý-læs cweðen [MS. cweðan] óðre þeóda lest other nations should say, Ps. Th. 78, 10. Gif ic cwǽde if I said, 72, 12. Hú wunda cwǽden to hæleðum how the wounds spake to men, Exon. 114b; Th. 441, 13; Rä. 60, 17. Ðæt is wel cweden that is well spoken, 15b; Th. 34, 24; Cri. 547. [Piers P. quod quoth: Chauc. quethe: Orm. cwaþþ said: Laym. queð, i-queð, quaeð, quað quoth; iqueðen, pp. said: O. Sax. queðan, quethan: O. Frs. quetha, queda, quan: M. H. Ger. quiden, kiden: O. H. Ger. quedan: Goth. qiþan: Dan. qwaede: Swed. kwaeda: Icel. kweða: Lat. in-quit quoth: Sansk. root kath to converse with any one.] DER. a-cweðan to say, tell, æfter-, be-, bi-, for-, fóre-, ge-, hearm-, on-, onbe-, onge-, to-, wið-.

cweðs ðú lá = cwýst ðú'lá O! sayest thou? numquid? Ps. Lamb. 7, 12. v. cwýst ðú, cweðan.

cweðst sayest, speakest, Ps. Lamb. 87, 11; 2nd pres. sing. of cweðan.

CWIC, cwyc, cwuc, cuc; def. se cwica, seó, ðæt cwice; adj. Alive, QUICK; vivus, vivax :-- Enoch cwic gewát mid cyning engla Enoch departed alive with the king of angels, Cd. 60; Th. 73, 25; Gen. 1210: Exon. 16b; Th. 37, 8; Cri. 590: Ps. Th. 118, 57. Cwyc alive, 104, 8. Ne biþ se cwuca nyttra ðe se deáda, gif him his yfel ne hreówþ the quick [living] is not better than the dead, if he repent not of his evil, Bt. 36, 6; Fox 182, 20. Se iunga wæs cwices módes the youth was of a quick mind; erat adolescens animi vivacis, Bd. 5, 19; S. 637, 37. He nó ðǽr áht cwices lǽfan wolde he would leave naught alive there, Beo. Th. 4618; B. 2314. Ǽlc wuht cwices [cwuces Cot.] biþ innanweard hnescost everything alive is inwardly softest, Bt. 34, 10; Fox 150, 5. Ne ofsleá ic ǽlc þing cuces non percutiam omnem animam viventem, Gen. 8, 21: Wrt. Voc. 85, 51. On cwicum ceápe in live stock, L. Ath. i. prm; Th. i. 194, 6: Homl. Blick. 39, 18. Æt cwicum [cwicon MS.] menn for a living man, L. Eth. iii. 1, 2; Th. i. 292, 10, 13. Be cwicum ceorle the husband being alive, L. Ethb. 85; Th. i. 24, 9. On cucum [MS. cucan] ceápe in live stock, Cod. Dipl. 1201; A. D. 956; Kmbl. v. 378, 20. Seó sealf ðone wyrm ðǽron deádne gedéþ, oððe cwicne ofdrífþ the salve will make the worm therein dead, or drive it away alive, L. M. 3, 39; Lchdm. ii. 332, 26. Hie ǽnigne cwicne ne métton they found not any alive, Andr. Kmbl. 2166; An. 1084: Elen. Kmbl. 1378; El. 691. Abraham leófa, ne sleah ðín ágen bearn, ac ðú cwicne abregd cniht of áde, eaforan ðínne beloved Abraham, slay not thine own child, but take thou the boy, thy son, alive from the pile, Cd. 141; Th. 176, 19; Gen. 2914: Beo. Th. 1589; B. 792: Exon. 90b; Th. 340, 21; Gn. Ex. 114: Ps. Th. 118, 154. Ic hyne eft cwycne ageaf I gave him back again alive, Nicod. 26; Thw. 14, 28, 38. Tiberius forneáh nǽnne ðæra senátussa ne lét cucne Tiberius left hardly any of the senators alive, Ors. 6, 2; Bos. 116, 41: L. C. S. 25; Th. i. 390, 21. Cwice, acc. f. alive, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 148, 51. Gif hió cwic bearn gebyreþ if she bare a live child, L. Ethb. 78; Th. i. 22, 4. Sníþ ðæt cwice líc cut the body alive, L. M. 1, 35; Lchdm. ii. 84, 29. Cwicre stæfne with the living voice; viva voce, Bd. 4, 18; S. 586, 39. Cwice quick, alive, pl. nom. m. Ps. Th. 105, 5: Andr. Kmbl. 258; An. 129. Híg in to helle cuce síðodon descenderunt vivi in infernum, Num. 16, 33: Chr. 794; Erl. 59, 23. Ðe ealle cwice wihta bílibbaþ by which all creatures alive are supported, Ors. 2, 1; Bos. 38, 8. Se Ælmihtiga líf gesceóp cynna gehwylcum ðara ðe cwice hwyrfaþ the Almighty created life for each of the kinds that go to and fro alive, Beo. Th. 197; B. 98. Cwyce secgeaþ his wundorweorc his wondrous works alive shall speak, Ps. Th. 104, 1. Ða cwican nó genihtsumedon ðæt hí ða deádan bebyrigdan those alive were not enough to bury the dead, Bd. 1, 14; S. 482, 31. Cwicera manna of men alive, Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 41; Jud. 235: Runic pm. 6; Kmbl. 340, 17; Hick. Thes. i. 135. Ðǽr biþ cwicra gewin there shall be strife of the quick, Exon. 22b; Th. 62, 8; Cri. 998: 51a; Th. 177, 7; Gú 1223: Salm. Kmbl. 792; Sal. 395. Ðú bist déma cwucra ge deádra thow art the judge of quick and dead, Hy. 8, 39; Hy. Grn. ii. 291, 39. He is God cwucera gehwelces he is the God of each of those alive, Bt. Met. Fox 29, 160; Met. 29, 80. Blis astíhþ cwicera cynna cyninge the joy of quick kinds ascends to the king, Menol. Fox 183; Men. 93: Andr. Kmbl 1823; An. 914: Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 12; Jud. 324. Cwicra wihta of beings alive, Exon. 107b; Th. 411, 5; Rä. 29, 8. His is mycel sǽ, ðǽr is unrim cwycra his is the great sea, where is a countless number of things alive, Ps. Th. 103, 24. Ic wille mid flóde acwellan cynna gehwilc cucra wuhta with a flood I will destroy every kind of creatures alive, Cd. 65; Th. 78, 23; Gen. 1297. Be cwicum mannum the men being alive, L. Eth. ix. 4; Th. i. 340, 18: L. C. E. 3; Th. i. 360, 9. Cwycum and deádum to quick and dead, Hy. 7, 117; Hy. Grn. ii. 289, 117. Wylle on glédum cwicum boil on live coals, L. M. 2, 28; Lchdm. ii. 224, 20. On cwicum wǽdum in living garments, Salm. Kmbl. 280; Sal. 139. To démenne ǽgðer ge ðám cucum ge ðám deádum to judge both the quick and the dead, Homl. Th. ii. 596, 20: 598, 6: Num. 16, 48. Seó wiht bindeþ cwice the creature will bind the quick, Exon. 109b; Th. 420, 8; Rä. 39, 7. Ðe ðǽr cwice méteþ fýr who shall find there fires alive, 22a; Th. 59, 27; Cri. 959. Déman ða cucan and deádan judicare vivos et mortuos, Ps. Lamb. fol. 199a. 25: 202a, 27. [Wyc. quyk: Piers P. R. Brun. quik: Chauc. quik, quick: R. Glouc. quyc: Laym. cwic, cwik, quic, quike: Orm. cwicc, cwike: Plat. quik, qwikk: O. Sax. quik, quic: Frs. quick: O. Frs. quik: Dut. kwik: Kil. quick: Ger. keck gay, brisk; quecksilber mercury: M. H. Ger. quëc, këc: O. H. Ger. quek, quik, chuech: Goth. qius, gen. qiwis vivus: Dan. quik: Swed. kwick: Icel. kwikr, kykr: Lat. vivus alive; victum, supine of vivere to live: Grk. βίος life: Sansk. jiva vivus.] DER. healf-cwic, sám-.

cwic-ǽht, cwyc-ǽht, e; f. [ǽht cattle] Live stock, cattle; pecus :-- Gebéte on cwicǽhtum [cwyc- MS. B.] let amends be made in live stock, L. Alf. pol. 18; Th. i. 72, 12.

cwic-beám, es; m. The QUICKBEAM, a sort of poplar? forte populus tremula? cariscus, juniperus :-- Genim cwicbeám take quickbeam, L. M. 1, 23; Lchdm. ii. 66, 1. Cwicbeám cariscus, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 64, 119; Wrt. Voc. 32, 53.

cwicbeám-rind, e; f. Bark of quickbeam :-- Wyl on wætere cwicbeámrinde boil bark of quickbeam in water, L. M. 1, 32; Lchdm. ii. 78, 12: 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 5.

cwice, an; f. Quick-growing grass, couch-grass, quitch-grass; gramen :-- Cwice gramen, Ælfc. Gl. 42; Som. 64, 24; Wrt. Voc. 31, 34. Genym ðysse wyrte leáf, ðe man gramen, and óðrum naman cwice nemneþ take leaves of this herb, which is named gramen, and by another name quitch, Herb. 79; Lchdm. i. 182, 8: Lchdm. iii. 12, 28: 16, 8. Genim cwican take quitch, L. M. 2, 51; Lchdm. ii. 268, 10. [Plat. qwäk, queek, quek, quik viticum repens: Dut. kweek-gras, n. dog's grass: Ger. quecke, f. any grass with creeping roots: Dan. qwik-græs couch-grass: Swed. qwick-hwete, n. dog's grass growing among wheat.]

cwicen, cwucen, cucen, cucon, cucun; adj. [cwic alive, -en adj. termination] Alive, quick; vivus :-- Hwá cwicenne me on ðysum ealdre fréfrade who comforted me quick [living] in this life, Ps. Th. 118, 82. We ne mágon hátan deádne mon for cwucene we cannot call a dead man quick [living], Bt. 36, 6; Fox 182, 20. Ðone cyning hí brohton cucenne to losue regem viventem obtulerunt Iosue, Jos. 8, 23: Homl. Th. i. 294, 15. Gewylde man hine swá cucenne [cucunne MS. D: cwicne G.] swá deádne let them seize him whether alive or dead, L. Edg. ii. 7; Th. i. 268, 18. Ðæt he Wulfnóþ cuconne oððe deádne begytan sceolde that he should take Wulfnoth alive or dead, Chr. 1009; Erl. 142, 3. Genim cucune hrefn take a live crab, L. M. 3, 2; Lchdm. ii. 306, 20, 21.

cwic-feoh; gen. -feós; n. Living property, cattle; vivum munus, pecus, Som. Ben. Lye.

cwic-fýr, es; n. Living fire, fire of brimstone, sulphur; ignis vivus, sulphur :-- Gifeóll ðæt fýr and cwicfýr of heofne pluit ignem et sulphur de cælo, Lk. Skt. Rush. 17, 29.

Cwichelmes hlǽw, Cwicchelmes hlǽw, Cwicelmes hlǽw, es; m. [hlǽw a heap, barrow, small hill: Flor. Cuiccelmeslawe: Hunt. Chichelmeslaue: Hovd. Cwichelmelow: Cwichelm's hill; Cwichelmi agger] CUCKHAMSLEY hill or Cuchinslow, Berkshire, a large barrow on a wide plain overlooking White Horse Vale; Cwichelmi agger in agro Berchensi :-- Wendon to Wealingæforda, and ðæt eall forswǽlldon; and wǽron him ðá áne niht æt Ceóles ége, and wendon him ðá andlang Æsces dúne to Cwichelmes [Cwicelmes, Th. 256, 28, col. 1: Cwicchelmes, 257, 27, col. 1] hlǽwe, and ðǽr onbídedon beótra gylpa, forðan oft man cwæþ, gif hí Cwichelmes [Cwicelmes, col. 1] hlǽwe gesóhton, ðæt hí nǽfre to sǽ gangan [gangen MS.] ne sceoldan they went to Wallingford, and burned it all down; and were then one night at Cholsey, and then went along Ashdown to Cuckhamsley hill, and there tarried out of threatening vaunt, because it had often been said, if they came to Cuckhamsley hill, that they would never go to the sea Chr. 1006; Th. 256, 25-32, col. 2. Æt Cwicelmes hlǽwe at Cuckhamsley hill, Th. Diplm. A. D. 995; 288, 24. On Cwicelmes hlǽw to Cuckhamsley hill, 291, 28.

cwic-hrérende; part. [hréran to move] Quick-moving? -- Wilt ðú biddan ðé gesecge sídra gesceafta cræftas cwichrérende wilt thou desire that he tell thee the quick-moving powers of wide-spread creatures? Exon. 92b; Th. 346, 28; Sch. 5.

cwician, cwycian, cucian; p. ode, ade; pp. od, ad [cwic alive, quick]. I. v. intrans. To come to life, QUICKEN; vīvĕre et spīrāre :-- Wǽron ða leoma cwiciende the limbs were quickening, Greg. Dial. 4, 36. Smire mid ða sáran limu, hie cwiciaþ sóna smear the sore limbs therewith, they will soon quicken, L. M. 3, 47; Lchdm. ii. 338, 25. Se synfulla mid godcundre onbryrdnysse cucaþ the sinful quickens with divine stimulation, Homl. Th. i. 494, 15. II. v. trans. To make alive, OUICKEN; vivificare :-- Me ðín spræc cwycade eloquium tuum vivificavit me. Ps. Th. 118, 50. Ðú us cwica quicken thou us, 79, 17. [Prompt. qwycchyn̄ movēre: Wyc. quikene, quykne, quycken to revive: Piers P. quykne to bring to life: Chauc. quiken to become or make alive: Plat. queken, v. n. and a. to grow, cultivate: O. Sax. -quikón, -quiccón: Dut. kweeken to foster, manure, cultivate: Kil. quicken, quecken nutrire, alere, educare: Ger. er-quicken to refresh: M. H. Ger. quicken, kücken to make alive: O. H. Ger. quikjan vivificare: Dan. qwæge: Swed. qwicka: Icel. kweykja, kweykwa.] DER. a-cwician, ed-, ge-, ge-ed-.

cwic-lifian, -lifigan; p. -lifode; pp. -lifod To live; vivere :-- Cwic-lifigende living, Salm. Kmbl. 840; Sal. 419. Ðǽr sceal fæsl wesan cwic-lifigendra cynna gehwilces there shall be food for each of living kinds, Cd. 65; Th. 79, 14; Gen. 1311.

cwic-seolfor; gen. -seolfres; dat. -seolfre; n. QUICKSILVER; vivum argentum :-- Wið magan wærce; rudan sǽd and cwicseolfor for pain of stomach; seed of rue and quicksilver, L. M. 3, 69; Lchdm. ii. 356, 19. Cwicseolfor argentum vivum, Cot. 16.

cwic-súsl, cwyc-súsl, es; n; e; f. [súsl sulphur, brimstone, torment, punishment] Living punishment, hell-torment; sempervivum tormentum, infernum, barathrum = GREEK :-- Cwicsúsl vel helelíc deópnes barathrum, vorago profunda, Ælfc. Gl. 54; Som. 66, 96; Wrt. Voc. 36, 20. Satanas ðæs cwicsúsles ealdor ðære helle Satan the chief of the living torment of hell, Nicod. 26; Thw. 14, 12. On ðam cwicsúsle in hell-torment, 25; Thw. 13, 30: Exon. 16a; Th. 35, 21; Cri. 561: 97a; Th. 362, 18: Wal. 38. Of ðysse cwycsúsle from this hell-torment, Nicod. 30; Thw. 17, 28. Faraþ ða unrihtwísan into écere cwicsúsle, mid deófle and his awyrigedum englum the unrighteous will go into everlasting torment, with the devil and his accursed angels, Homl. Th. ii. 108, 31.

cwic-treów, es; n. The asp or aspen-tree; populus tremula, Lin :-- Cwictreów cresis? tremulus, Ælfc. Gl. 47; Som. 65, 26. v. cwic-beám.

cwicu, cwico, cucu = cue; nom. acc. m. f. n; pl. nom. acc. m. f. n. cwicu, cwico, cucu; adj. Alive, quick; vivus :-- Cwicu alive, nom. m. Ps. Th. 118, 93. Cwico wæs ic I was living, Exon. 125a; Th. 482, 1; Rä. 66, 1: Beo. Th. 6178; B. 3093. Cucu vivas, Wrt. Voc. 85, 56. Samson miccle má on his deáþe acwealde, ðonne he ǽr cucu dyde Samson multo plures interfecit moriens, quam ante vivus occiderat, Jud. 16, 30: Boutr. Scrd. 18, 11: Homl. Th. i. 52, 20: ii. 212, 33: Cod. Dipl. 897; Kmbl. iv. 233, 5, 13. Ne sécþ seó cucu [turtle] nǽfre hire óðerne gemacan the quick [living turtle-dove] never seeks to itself another mate, Homl. Th. i. 142, 14. Heó sóna cucu arás she instantly arose alive, ii. 26, 32. Gif hit cucu [cwicu MS. G.] feoh wǽre if it were live cattle, L. Alf. 28; Th. i. 52, 1. Ǽlc þing ðe cucu byþ everything which is alive; animal, Wrt. Voc. 78, 50. Ic hæfde ferþ cwicu I had a soul alive, Exon. 126b; Th. 487, 21; Rä. 73, 5. Ic hæfde feorh cwico I had a soul alive, 103b; Th. 392, 11; Rä. 11, 6: 104a; Th. 394, 14; Rä. 14, 3. Teón ða wæteru forþ swimmende cynn cucu on lífe producant aquæ reptile animæ viventis, Gen. 1, 20: Ex. 22, 4. Hí cwico nǽron they were not alive, Exon. 24b; Th. 69, 36; Cri. 1131. Cwicu quick [living], pl. nom. n. Ps. Th. 108, 24. Cwicu quick [living], pl. acc. m. 87, 18. He clifu cyrreþ on cwicu wæteres wellan he turnelh the rocks to quick [living] springs of water, 113, 8. v. cwic.

cwicu-líce; adv. In a living manner, vigorously; vivide :-- Me on weg ðínne lǽde cwiculíce in via tua vivifica me, Ps. Th. 118, 37.

cwid-bóc, e; f. The Book of Proverbs; proverbiorum liber :-- Be ðæm is awriten on Salomonnes cwidbócum about which it is written in the Proverbs of Solomon, Past. 36, 8; Cot. MS.

cwiddung, cwyddung, e; f. A saying, tale, report, speech; dictum, sermunculus :-- Manegra manna cwyddung is it is a saying of many men, Bd. de nat. rernm; Wrt. popl. science 10, 28; Lchdm. iii. 256, 4. Æt fræmdra monna cwiddunge from the report of strangers, Bt. 18, 4; Fox 66, 25. Ná swilce he nyste manna cwyddunga be him not as though he knew not the sayings of men concerning him, Homl. Th. i. 366, 7.

cwide, cwyde, cwyðe, es; m. I. the expression of a thought, a sentence, period; sententia :-- We todǽlaþ ða bóc to cwydurn, and siððan ða cwydas to dǽlum, eft ða dǽlas to stæfgefégum, and siððan ða stæfgefégu to stafum; ðon beóþ ða stafas untodǽledlíce, forðonðe nán stæf ne biþ náht, gif he gǽþ on twá. Ǽlc stæf hæfþ þreó þing, nomen, figura, potestas, dæt is nama, and hiw, and miht we divide the book into sentences, and then the sentences into words [parts], again the words into syllables, and then the syllables into letters; now the letters are indivisible, because a letter is nothing if divided into two [if it go in two]. Every letter has three properties, nomen, figura, potestas, that is a name, and a form, and a sound [power], Ælfc. Gr. 2; Som. 2, 37-41. II. a saying, proverb, speech, discourse, sermon, will; dictum, dictio, sermo, homilia, testamentum :-- Eówer cwide stande may your saying stand, Jos. 2, 21. Singende ðone ealdan cwide singing the old adage, Bt. 14, 3; Fox 46, 29. Þurh ryhtlícne cwide [MS. cuide] and dóm through a righteous sentence and judgment, Past. 35, 5; Hat. MS. 46b, 4. On ǽgðer ðæra bóca sind feówertig cwyda, búton ðære fórespræce in each of these books there are forty discourses, without the preface, Homl. Th. ii. 2, 14: i. 28, 20. Ætfóran ǽlcum cwyde we setton ða swutelunge on Léden before each discourse we have set the argument in Latin, ii. 2, 17. Ðes [MS. ðis] is Byrhtríces níhsta cwide this is Byrhtric's last will, Th. Diplm. A. D. 950; 500, 24: A. D. 958; 509, 3: A. D. 998; 541, 25: A. D. 1002; 543, 33. Ðæt se cwyde standan móste that the will might stand, A. D. 950; 501, 11: A. D. 972; 519, 17: A. D. 997; 539, 22: A. D. 996-1006; 549, 11. Cwydas dón to make wills, Lchdm. iii. 210, 30. III. a legal enactment, decree; edictum, deretum :-- Swá UNCERTAIN hit ǽr Eádmundes cwide wæs as it was formerly the enactment of Edmund, L. Edg. H. 2; Th. i. 258, 9. Swá úre ealra cwide is as is the decree of us all, L. Eth. i. 4; Th. i. 284, 5: L. C. S. 33; Th. i. 396, 19. [Laym. cwide, quide-n a testament; pl. quides, cwides speeches, words; O. Sax. quidi, m. speech, saying: O. H. Ger. quidí, f. n. dictum, verbum: Goth. qiss, f. speech: Icel. qwiðr, m. a saying; word, speech.] DER. ǽr-cwide, big-, ed-, ge-, gegn- [geagn-, gén-], galdor-, gilp-, heard-, hearm-, hleóðor-, hosp-, lár-, leahtor-, mæðel-, meðel-, sár-, sib-, sóþ-, teón-, torn-, wiðer-, wom-, word-: cwidian.

cwide-gied, -giedd, es; n. [gid, gied a song, lay] A song, ballad; carmen :-- Fela cúþra cwidegiedda many [of] known songs, Exon. 77a. Th. 289, 28; Wand. 55.

cwide-leás speechless, intestate. v. cwyde-leás.

cwidian, cwiddigan, cwydian, cwyddian; p. ode; pp. od [cwide, cwyde a saying] To speak, say; dicere :-- Ongan hine hyspan and hearm cwiddigan [cwidian, Cot.] he began to revile and speak ill of him, Bt. 18, 4; Fox 66, 33.

cwid-rǽden an agreement; pactum. v. gecwid-rǽden.

cwidu what is chewed, a cud, QUID, L. M. 2, 3; Lchdm. ii. 182, 3: 2. 4; Lchdm. ii. 182, 17. v. cwudu.

cwiert-ern a prison, Mt. Kmbl. B. 25, 36, 39. v. cweart-ern.

cwiferlíce; adv. Anxiously; sollicitè, C. R. Ben. 64.

cwild a plague, pestilence, murrain, destruction, Wrt. Voc. 75, 54: Ælfc. Gr. 9, 27; Som. 11, 25: Chr. 897; Erl. 94, 31: Ps. Spl. C. 28, 9: 31, 8. v. cwyld.

cwild-bǽre; adj. Pestilence-bearing, deadly; pestiferus, Scint. 53: 63.

cwild-bǽrlíce; adv. Pestilentially, destructively; pestifere, Scint. 8.

cwilde flód, es; n. m. The destruction's flood, deluge; diluvium, Ps. Spl. C. 28, 9. v. cwyld.

cwild-tíd a dead time. v. cwyld, cwyl-tíd.

cwilman to torture, kill, Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 36, 25. v. cwelman.

cwilst, he cwilþ diest, dies; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of cwelan.

cwiman to come; venire, the supposed infin. of cwom, q. v.

cwínan; p. cwán, pl. cwinon; pp. cwinen To waste or dwindle away; tabescere. DER. a-cwínan.

cwincan, ic cwince, ðú cwincst, he cwincþ, pl. cwincaþ; p. cwanc, pl. cwuncon; pp. cwuncen To disappear, vanish, decrease; evanescere, diminuere, deficere, Leo A. Sax. Gl. 209. DER. a-cwincan.

cwínod wasted, Bt. 10; Fox 28, 29. v. cwápian.

cwis, cwiss, e; f. [cweðan to say, speak] A saying, speaking; locutio. DER. and-cwis, ge-: un-cwis.

cwíst sayest, speakest, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 12, 13: Ps. Th. 87, 12, = cweðst; 2nd pres. sing. of cweðan.

CWIÞ, es; m: cwiða, an; m. The womb; matrix, uterus :-- Beðe mid ðone cwiþ bathe the womb therewith, L. M. 3, 37; Lchdm. ii. 330, 2: 3. 38; Lchdm. ii. 330, 19. Cwiþ matrix, Ælfc. Gl. 76; Som. 71, 118. Wið ðæs cwiðan sáre for soreness of the womb, Herb. 165, 2; Lchdm. i. 294, 11. [O. H. Ger. quiti: Goth. qiþus, m: Swed. qwed: Icel. kwiðr.]

cwiþ saith, speaks, Exon. 14a; Th. 28, 28; Cri. 453: 30a; Th. 92, 35; Cri. 1519, = cweðeþ; 3rd pres. sing, of cweðan.

cwíðan, cwýðan; he cwíðeþ; p. de; pp. ed To speak or moan in grief, mourn, lament; lamentāre, plangĕre :-- Wópe cwíðan with weeping to lament, Cd. 48; Th. 61, 13; Gen. 996. Ic sceolde ána míne ceare cwiðan I must alone mourn my care, Exon. 76b; Th. 287, 4; Wand. 9. We cwíðdon [MS. cwiðdun] lamentavimus, Mt. Bos. 11, 17. Fǽmnan ne synd cwýðede [cwyðde MS.] virgines non sunt lamentatæ, Ps. Spl. C. 77, 69. Adames cyn cwíðeþ Adam's race lamenteth, Exon. 22a; Th. 59, 34; Cri. 962. Hý in cearum cwíðaþ they mourn in sorrows, Exon. 35b; Th. 115, 23; Gú. 194. Ðonne biþ þearfendum cwíðende cearo then shall be wailing care to the miserable, 26b; Th. 79, 5; Cri. 1286. [O. Sax. quíðean: Swed. quida: Icel. kwíða UNCERTAIN to feel anxiety about.]

cwíðend-líe; adj. Proper, peculiar, natural; genuīnus, Cot. 96, Som. Ben. Lye.

cwíð-nes, -ness, e; f. A wailing, lamentation; lamentum, Greg. Dial. 3. 15, 37.

cwiðst sayest, speakest, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 38, = cweðst; 2nd pres. sing. of cweðan.

cwoellan to kill; necare, interficere :-- Sóhton hine Iudéas to cwoellanne quærebant eum Judæi interficere, Jn. Lind. War. 5, 18. v. cwellan.

cwolen died; pp. of cwelan.

cwolstan to swallow. DER. for-cwolstan, q. v.

cwom, pl. cwómon came; venit, venerunt; have the same meanings as the contracted forms com, pl. cómon, p. of cuman, q. v. The p. indic. cwom, pl. cwómon, -an, -un; p. subj. cwóme :-- Ðá hleóðor cwom when the sound came, Cd. 181; Th. 226, 29; Dan. 178. Ðá ðú ǽrest cwóme when thou first camest, Exon. 39a; Th. 129, 25; Gú. 426. Hwonne bearn Godes cwóme when the child of God should have come, 10a; Th. 10, 6; Cri. 148. To Hierasalem cwómon they came to Jerusalem, Elen. Kmbl. 547; El. 274. Cwóman englas angels came, Exon. 15b; Th. 34, 21; Cri. 545. Wuldres áras cwómun messengers of glory came, 15a; Th. 31, 11; Cri. 494. Cwom, pl. cwómon, seent UNCERTAIN to be from cwiman, which I have not found in A. Sax. It is in Goth. qiman [pronounced kwiman = cwiman]; p. qam, pl. qemum; pp. qumans to come; venire. Goth. Ni mag qiman [kwiman = cwiman]. A. Sax. Ic ne mæg cuman I cannot come, Lk. Bos. 14, 20. v. cwiman, cuman.

cwuc; def. se cwuca alive, quick, Bt. 36, 6; Fox 182, 20. v. cwic.

cwucen alive, quick. Bt. 36, 6; Fox 182, 20. v. cwicen.

cwuda a cud, quid, L. M. 2, 2; Lchdm. ii. 178, 26: 2, 52; Lchdm. ii. 270, 28. v. cwudu.

CWUDU, cwuda, cweodo, cwidu, cudu; gen. ues, wes; n. What is chewed, a cud, quid; manducatum, rumen :-- Ðe heora cudu ne ceówaþ: ða clǽnan nýtenu ðe heora cudu ceówaþ which chew not their cud: the clean beasts which chew their cud, M. H. 138b. ¶ Hwít cwudu white cud, mastich; an odoriferous gum from the mastich-tree, which was called by Lin. pistacia lentiscas. This gum was used for chewing in the East; mastiche = GREEK :-- Hwit cwudu mastich, L. M. 1, 23; Lchdm. ii. 66, 3. Gedó gódne dǽl ðǽron hwítes cweodowes put a good deal of mastich therein, 2, 14; Lchdm. ii. 192, 6. Ofersceade mid hwítes cwidues duste sprinkle over with dust of mastich, 2, 3; Lchdm. ii. 182, 3. Of hwítum cwidue and wíne with mastich and wine, 2, 4; Lchdm. ii. 182, 17. Hwít cwudu gecnuwa swíðe smale pound mastich very small, 1, 13; Lchdm. ii. 56, 5: 1, 8; Lchdm. ii. 54, 3: 1, 47; Lchdm. ii. 118, 29: 3, 2; Lchdm. ii. 308, 24. Genim ele and gedó hwít cwuda on ðone ele take oil and put mastich into the oil, 2, 2; Lchdm. ii. 178, 26: 2. 52; Lchdm. ii. 270, 28. Nim hwít cudu take mastich, Lchdm. iii. 72, 15: 124, 25: 134, 10. [Prompt. cudde: Wyc. code, quede, quide, kude: Orm. cude.]

cwuncon; pp. cwuncen disappeared, vanished; p. pl. and pp. of cwincan.

cwyc alive, quick :-- Cwyc alive, Ps. Th. 104, 8: Nicod. 26; Thw. 14, 28, 38. v. cwic.

cwyc-ǽht live stock :-- On cwycǽhturn in live stock, L. Alf. pol. 18; Th. 1, 72, 12, note 28. v. cwic-ǽht.

cwycian to make alive, quicken, Ps. Th. 118, 50. v. cwician II.

cwyc-súsl hell-torment, Nicod. 30; Thw. 17, 28. v. cwic-súsl.

cwyddian; p. ode; pp. od To speak, say; dicere :-- Ðæt me oferhydige ǽfre ne mótan hearm cwyddian that the proud may never speak evil of me, Ps. Th. 118, 122. Crist hí befran hú men cwyddodon be him Christ asked them how men spake concerning him, Homl. Th. ii. 388, 31. v. cwidian.

cwyddung a saying, Homl. Th. i. 366, 7. v. cwiddung.

cwyde, I. a sentence; sententia, Ælfc. Gr. 2; Som. 2, 38. II. a discourse, sermon :-- Smeágaþ ðysne cwyde consider this sermon, Homl. Th. i. 28, 20: ii. 2, 14: 2, 17. v. cwide.

cwydele, an; f. An inflamed swelling; pustula, varix :-- Cwydele pustula, Ælfc. Gl. 9; Som. 57, 10; Wrt. Voc. 19, 19. Cwydele vel hwylca varix, 76; Som. 71, 129; Wrt. Voc. 45, 32.

cwyde-leás; adj. Speechless, intestate; mutus, intestatus :-- He læg cwydeleás, bútan andgite he lay speechless, without sense, Homl. Th. i. 86, 26. Gif hwá cwydeleás of ðyssum lífe gewíte if any one depart this life intestate, L. C. S. 71; Th. i. 412, 27.

cwydian; p. ode; pp. od To speak, say; dicere :-- Menn cwydodon men said, Chr. 1085; Erl. 217, 38. v. cwidian.

cwydol; adj. [cweðan to say, speak] Speaking, saying; dicens, loquens. DER. wyrig-cwydol, q. v.

cwyd-rǽden an agreement; pactum. v. gecwid-rǽden.

cwyld, cwild, es; m. n: cwyld, cwild, e; f. [cweald, pp. of cwellan to kill] A plague, pestilence, murrain, destruction; pestis, pestilcntia, clades :-- Boreas ealne ðone cwyld m. aflígþ Boreas [the north wind] drives every plague away, Bd. de nat. rerurn; Wrt. popl. science 18, 9; Lchdm. iii. 276, 7. Cwilde f. flód the flood of destruction, deluge; diluvium, Ps. Spl. C. 28, 9: 31, 8. Auster mistlíce cwyld n. blǽwþ geond ðas eorþan auster [the south wind] blows various plagues through this earth, Bd. de nat. rerum; Wrt. popl. science 17, 26; Lchdm. iii. 274, 17. Cwild [cwyld MSS. C. D.], m. f. or n. clades, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 27; Som. 11, 25. Cwild, m. f. or n. pestis, Wrt. Voc. 75, 54. Mid ceápes cwylde m. f. or n. with a murrain of cattle, Chr. 897; Th. 174. 22, col. 2; 175, 20. Se ðe on þrymsetle cwyldes m. or n. ná sæt qui in cathedra pestilentiæ non sedit, Ps. Spl. C. 1, 1: Mone B. 2711. Cwyld-tíd or cwyl-tíd evening time; conticinium :-- Cwyl-tíd vel gebed-giht conticinium, Ælfc. Gl. 16; Som. 58, 63; Wrt. Voc. 21, 50. v. cwyld-seten. DER. mon-cwyld.

cwyld-bǽre; adj. Pestilence-bearing, deadly. v. cwild-bǽre.

cwyld-bǽrlíce; adv. Pestilentially. v. cwild-bǽrlíce.

cwyld-full; adj. Destructive, pernicious; perniciosus :-- Cwyldfulle wæferséne perniciosum spectaculum, Mone B. 1259.

cwyld-róf; adj. Devoted to slaughter; necandi strenuus :-- Deór cwyldróf = wulfas the beasts devoted to slaughter = wolves, Cd. 151; Th. 188, 10, 11 = 7; Exod. 166 = 164.

cwyld-seten, cwyl-seten, e; f. [cwyld, cwyl = cweald, pp. of cwellan to kill: Icel. kweld, n. evening: as if the night quelled or killed daylight] A setting in of the evening, the first part of the night; conticinium :-- Cwylseten conticinium, Mone B. 3747. Cwylsetene conticinio, 3748. Cwyldsetene galli cantu, 4677.

cwylla, an; m. A well, spring; fons :-- Riht súþ be eástan ðam cwyllan óþ ða wýde strǽte right south by east of the spring as far as the wide road, Cod. Dipl. 409; A. D. 946; Kmbl. ii. 265, 32. [Ger. quelle, f. a spring, source, fountain.]

cwylm destruction, slaughter, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 152, 12. v. cwealm.

cwylman; p. ede; pp. ed To kill, torment, Ps. Spl. 36, 15: Elen. Kmbl. 1373; El. 688. v. cwelman.

cwylm-bǽre; adj. Death-bearing, pernicious; mortifĕrus :-- Cómon ða cempan mid cwylmbǽrum tólum the soldiers came with deadly tools, Homl. Th. ii. 260, 7. v. cwealm-bǽre.

cwylmd = cwylmed killed, Bd. 1, 15; S. 484, 1; pp. of cwylman.

cwylmende, cwilmende; part. Tormenting; crucians, Ors. 1, 12; Bos. 36, 25. v. cwelman.

cwylmian; part. cwylmigende; p. ode; pp. od [cwealm pain, torment] To suffer, suffer torment or pain; cruciāri :-- Heó sceal écelíce cwylmian it [the soul] shall suffer eternally, Homl. Th. ii. 232, 29. Ða mánfullan beóþ ǽfre cwylmigende on helle súsle the sinful shall ever be suffering pain in hell torment, 608, 11. We cwylmiaþ we suffer torment, 416, 5. Gehwylce mánfulle geféran on ðám écum tintregum cwylmiaþ all wicked associates shall suffer in everlasting torments, i. 526, 27.

cwylming, e; f. [cwylmian to suffer] Torture, trouble, suffering, a cross; cruciātus, crux :-- Cwylminge [MS. cwylmingce] cruciātu, Mone B. 3178. Se ðe ne nimþ hys cwylminge, and fyligþ me, nys he me wyrðe qui non accipit crucem suam, et sequĭtur me, non est me dignus, Mt. Bos. 10, 38: Lk. Bos. 9, 23.

cwylmnes torment, Bd. 4, 9; S. 577, 10. v. cwealmnes.

cwylþ dies, Bd. de nat. rerum; Lchdm. iii. 272, note 36; 3rd pres. sing. of cwelan.

cwyl-tíd dead time, Ælfc. Gl. 16; Som. 58, 63; Wrt. Voc. 21, 50. v. cwyld.

cwýne a wife, L. Ethb. 85; Th. i. 24, 9. v. cwén, cwéne.

CWYRN, cweorn, e; f: cweorne, an; f. A mill, hand-mill, QUERN; mola :-- Twá beóþ æt cwyrne grindende: án byþ genumen, and óðer byþ lǽfed duæ molentes in mola; una assumētur, et una relinquētur, Mt. Bos. 24, 41. Ðæt híg grundon on cwyrne popŭlus illud frangēbat mola, Num. 11, 8. Æt ðære cweornan ad molam, Ex. 11, 5. [Prompt. querne mola manualis: Wyc. Chauc. querne: Plat. queern, qwern a handmill: O. Sax. querna, f: O. Frs. quern: Dut. Kil. querne: M. H. Ger. kürne, kürn, kurn, f; O. H. Ger. quirn, f: Goth. qairnus, m. or f: Dan. qwærn, m. f: Swed. qwarn, f: Icel. kwern, kwórn, f.] DER. esul-cwyrn, hand-.

cwyrn-bill a stone chisel for dressing querns. v. cweorn-bill.

cwyrn-burne, an; f. A mill-stream; molāris torrens, Som. Ben. Lye.

cwyrn-stán, cweorn-stán, es; m. A mill-stone; molaris lapis, mola :-- Cwyrnstán mola, Wrt. Voc. 83, 8. Ðæt him wǽre getiged án ormǽte cwyrnstán to his swuran, and he swá wurde on deóppre sǽ besenced that an immense mill-stone was tied to his neck, and he was so sunk in the deep sea, Homl. Th. i. 514, 17: Mt. Bos. 18, 6. Án cweornstán lapis molaris, Lk. Bos. 17, 2: Mk. Bos. 9, 42.

CWYSAN; p. de; pp. ed To crush, QUASH, shake, bruise, dash against; quassare, terere, allidere :-- Se ðe forgnídeþ oððe cwysþ lytlungas ðíne to stáne qui allidet parvulos tuos ad petram, Ps. Lamb. 136, 9. Ðú genyðeredest oððe ðú cwysdest me allisisti me, 101, 11. [Prompt. quaschyn̄ quassāre: R. Brun. quassed, p. quashed: Plat. quesen, quetsen to crush: O. Sax. quetsan to push, squeeze: Frs. quetsen vulnerare: O. Frs. quetsene a bruise: Dut. kwetsen to bruise, wound, injure: Kil. quetsen quassare, lædere; Ger. quetschen to squeeze: M. H. Ger. quetzen to squeeze: Goth. qistyan to destroy: Dan. qwæste to squeeze: Swed. qwäsa to squash, bruise, wound: Icel. kwista to destroy, cut down: Fr. casser to break: Lat. quassare, quatere to batter, break in pieces.] DER. for-cwysan, to-.

cwýst sayest, speakest, Homl. Th. i. 424, 9, = cweðst; 2nd pres. sing. of cweðan.

cwýst ðú, cwýst ðú lá, cwýst tú lá sayest thou? used in questions, as interrog. adv. numquid? -- Cwýst ðú eom ic hyt? Mt. Bos. 26, 22 whether it am I? Wyc. note rr; numquid ego sum? Vulg: Ps. Spl. 29, 12: 7, 12. v. cweðan.

cwyð, e; f. [= cwide, cwyde] A word, saying; verbum, dictum :-- Him ða cwyðe frecne scódon these words overwhelmed him with woe, Cd. 78; Th. 96, 18; Gen. 1596. v. cwide.

cwyþ saith, speaks, Jn. Bos. 16, 18: Rood Kmbl. 220; Kr. 111, = cweðeþ; 3rd pres. sing. of cweðan.

cwýðan to lament, Ps. Spl. C. 77, 69. v. cwíðan.

cwyðe a saying, S. Greg. Hom. 23, 104, Lye. v. cwide.

cwyðele an inflamed swelling. v. cwydele.

cwyðst sayest, speakest, Ælfc. Gr. 18; Som. 21, 62, = cweðst; 2nd pres. sing. of cweðan.

cows, Gen. 33, 13; acc. pl. of cú.

CYCENE, cicene, an; f. A kitchen; coquīna, culīna :-- Cycene coquina, Wrt. Voc. 82, 49: culīna, Mone B. 3731. Ðæt seó cycene [MS. kycene] eal forburne that the kitchen was all burning, Homl. Th. ii. 166, 5, 11. Wurpon hí ða anlícnysse inn to heora cycenan [MS. kycenan] they cast the image into their kitchen, ii. 166, 3. Gif ceorl hæfde cirican and cycenan [MS. kycenan] if a free man had a church and a kitchen, L. R. 2; Th. i. 190, 15. [Piers P. kytchen: Chauc. kichen: Plat. köke, käke: Dut. keuken, f: Kil. kokene, keuckene: Ger. küche, f: M. H. Ger. küche, kuchen, kuche, kuchen, f: O. H. Ger. kuchina, f: Dan. kjökken, n: Swed. kök, n: Icel. kock-hús: Fr. cuisine, f: Prov. cozina: Span. cocina, f: It. cucina, f: Lat. coquīna, f: Wel. cegin, f: Corn. cegin, keghin, f: Ir. cucann: Armor, kegin: Lith. kukne: Russ. kuchnja.]

cýdde said, told, Chr. 1066; Th. 336, 21, = cýðde; p. of cýðan.

cýdung a chiding, Ps. Spl. T. 103, 8. v. cíding.

CÝF, e; f: cýfe, an; f. A vessel, vat, cask, bushel; dolium, modius :-- Cýf dolium, Ælfc. Gl. 25; Som. 60, 48; Wrt. Voc. 24, 48. Stód ðǽr án æmtig cýf an empty cask stood there, Homl. Th. ii. 178, 34. Cýfe dolium, Wrt. Voc. 83, 25. Se hét afyllan áne cýfe mid ele he commanded a vat to be filled with oil, Homl. Th. i. 58, 25. Under cýfe sub modio, Mt. Bos. 5, 15. [Prompt. kowpe crater: Plat. kope dolium: O. Sax. cópa, f. dolium: Dut. kuip, f. a tub; Kil. keuwe, kuype cupa, dolium: Ger. kufe, f. a vessel: M. H. Ger. kuofe, f. cupa: O. H. Ger. kuofa, f. dolium, tunna: Dan. kippe, kyper, m. f. a dyer's tub: Swed. kyp, m. a dyer's tub; kupa, f. a case, box: Icel. kúpa, f. a bowl, basin, box: Fr. cuve, f; Span. cuba, f. cask for wine or oil: M. Lat. cuppa, f: Lat. cupa, f. a tun: Grk. GREEK a tub, cask: Sansk. kūpa a cistern; kumbha vessel for water.]

CYFES, cyfys, cifes, ciefes, e; f: cyfese, an; f. A concubine, handmaid; concubina, pellex, ancilla :-- Cyfes pellex, Wrt. Voc. 86, 73. Of cifise ex pellĭce, Mone B. 4553. Se ðe hæbbe riht wíf, and eác cifese [MS. A. ceafese; B. cefese] ne dó him nán preóst nán ðara gerihta, ðe man cristenum men dón sceal he who has a right wife, and also a concubine, let no priest do for him any of those rites, which ought to be done for a christian man, L. C. S. 55; Th. i. 406, 16, and note 26. Cyfys [= cyfes] oððe bepǽcystre [MSS. C. D. bepæcestre] pellex, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 32, 1. Constantius gesealde his suna ðæt ríce, Constantinuse, ðone he hæfde be Elenan his ciefese Constantius gave the empire to Constantine, his son, whom he had by Helena his concubine [wife, v. notes to Ors. Bos. p. 28, col. 2], Ors. 6, 30; Bos. 126, 41. Gif he cyfesan hæbbe, and náne riht ǽwe, he áh ðæs to dónne swá him geþincþ; wíte he ðeáh ðæt he beó on ánre gehealden, beó hit cyfes, beó hit ǽwe si concubinam habeat, et nullam legitimam uxorem, erit ei proinde quod ipsi videbitur faciendum; sciat tamen ut cum una ei manendum sit, sit concubina, sit uxor, L. Ecg. P. ii. 9; Th. ii. 186, 2-5: L. M. I. P. 17; Th. ii. 270, 6, 9: Boutr. Scrd. 22, 22. Be ðínre cyfese super ancilla tua, Gen. 21, 12. [Laym. chevese, chivese a concubine: Plat. keves: Dut. kevis, f. a concubine: Kil. kevisse, kiese pellaca, concubina: Ger. kebse, f. concubina, pellex: M. H. Ger. kebes, kebese, kebse, f. concubina: O. H. Ger. kebis, kebisa, f. pellex, concubina: Icel. Vigf. kefsir, m. concubitor, concubinus: O. Nrs. Rask Hald. képsi, kéffir servus molestus, oblocutor.]

cyfes-boren; def. se cyfes-borena; part. Born in concubinage, base-born; e concubina genĭtus :-- His cyfesborena bróðor siððan ríxode, se ðe wende to Scottum his base-born brother afterwards reigned, who had gone to the Scots, Homl. Th. ii. 148, 17.

cyfes-hád, es; m. Whoredom, adultery, concubinage; pellicātus, Cot. 186.

cyfys pellex, Ælfc. Gr. 28, 5; Som. 32, 1. v. cyfes.

cýgan, cýgean to call, call upon, invoke, Bd. 4, 23; S. 594, 39: Cd. 141; Th. 176, 9; Gen. 2909: Ps. Spl. 78, 6. v. cígan.

cýging, e; f. A calling, naming; appellatio, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cýgan.

cýgling, es; m. A relation; cognātus :-- Cýgling his cognātus ejus, Jn. Rush. War. 18, 26. v. cýðling.

cyld, es; n. Cold, coldness; frigus :-- For cylde præ frigŏre, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 29. v. ceald frīgus.

cyld, es; n. A child, Bt. 36, 5; Fox 180, 6: Mt. Jun. 2, 13, in the title. v. cild.

cyld-faru, e; f. A carrying of children; parvulōrum subvectio :-- Ðæt híg nymon wǽnas UNCERTAIN to hira cyldfare ut tollant plaustra ad subvectiōnem parvulōrum, Gen. 45, 19.

CÝLE, cíle, céle, es; m. A cold, coldness, CHILL; frīgus :-- Ne mæg fýres feng ne forstes cýle somod eardian the grasp of fire and chill of frost cannot dwell together, Salm. Kmbl. 708; Sal. 353. Befóran ansíne cýles ante faciem frigŏris, Ps. Spl. 147, 6. Nabbaþ we to hyhte nymþe cýle and fýr we have nought in hope, save chill and fire, Cd. 220; Th. 285, 10; Sat. 335. Hý wyrcaþ ðone cýle hine on they bring the cold upon him, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 23, 6, 8. [Prompt. cole algor: Piers P. Laym. Orm. chele chill, cold: Plat. köle, f. pain: Ger. kühle, f: M. H. Ger. küele, f: O. H. Ger. kuolí, f: Dan. köle, m. f. coolness of the air: Swed. kyla, f. a chill: Icel. kylr, m. a gust of cold air: Lat. gelu.] DER. fǽr-cýle.

cýle-gicel, es; m. An icicle; frigŏris stiria :-- Land wǽron freórig cealdum cýlegicelum the lands were frozen with cold icicles, Andr. Kmbl. 2521; An. 1262: Exon. 56b; Th. 201, 20; Ph. 59. v. gicel.

CYLEN, cyln, e; f. A KILN, an oven; fornacŭla, siccatōrium :-- Cylene fornacŭlæ, Cot. 86. Cyln vel ast siccatōrium, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 78, 132; Wrt. Voc. 58, 44. [Prompt. kylne: Icel. kylna, f: Wel. kylyn, m.]

cylenisc; adj. Like a kiln; fornāceus, Som. Ben. Lye.

cyleþenie, an; f. The herb celandine; chelidonium majus :-- Cyleþenie, Herb. 75; Lchdm. i. 176, 15, 18. v. celeþonie.

cylew, cylu; adj. Spotted, speckled; guttātus :-- Cylew guttātus, Cot. 99. Cylu guttātus, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 92; Wrt. Voc. 46, 49.

cýle-wyrt, e; f. Sour-sorrel; oxylapăthum, Cot. 216.

cylin, cyline heorþ a. kiln; fornacŭla. v. cylen.

CYLL, e; f: cylle, cille, an; f: cylle, es; m. A leather bottle, flagon, vessel; uter, ascopēra = GREEK :-- Gesomnigende swá swá on cylle wætera sǽs congregans sicut in utrem aquas maris, Ps. Spl. C. 32, 7. Ðas cylle istum utrem, Greg. Dial. 3, 37. Swá ðú on hríme setest hlance cylle sicut uter in pruina, Ps. Th. 118, 83. Flaxe oððe cylle asscopa [= ascopēra], Ælfc. Gl. 5; Som. 56, 27; Wrt. Voc. 17, 32. Æmtige cillan vacuum utrem: ða cillan istum utrem, Greg. Dial. 3, 37. Gefylde he ðære cyrcan cyllan implevit lampades ecclesiæ, 1, 5. He gegaderode eall sǽwætru tosomne, swylce hí wǽron on ánum cylle congregans sicut in utrem aquas maris, Ps. Th. 32, 6. Seó cwén [Tomyris] hét ðæt heáfod bewyrpan on ánne cylle se wæs afylled mannes blódes the queen [Tomyris] ordered the head to be thrown into a vessel which was filled with man's blood, Ors. 2, 4; Bos. 45, 34. Se ðe fæstne hider cylle [MS. kylle] brohte. . . gif hwelc þyrelne cylle [kylle MS.] brohte to ðys burnan who has brought hither a water-tight bottle . . . if any has brought to this spring a leaky bottle, Past. 65; Hat. MS. [Icel. kyllir, m. a bag or pouch.] DER. stór-cylle, -cille.

cyln a kiln :-- Cyln vel ast siccatorium, Ælfc. Gl. 109; Som. 78, 132; Wrt. Voc. 58, 44. v. cylen, ast.

cylu spotted, Ælfc. Gl. 80; Som. 72, 92; Wrt. Voc. 46, 49. v. cylew.

cym come, Exon. 13a; Th. 23, 22; Cri. 372; impert. of cuman.

cymast most beautiful, Ps. Th. 86, 2; superl. of cyme, adj.

cyme, cime, es; m. [cuman to come] A coming, an approach, advent; adventus :-- Me is ðín cyme on myclum þonce gratus mihi est multum adventus tuus, Bd. 4, 9; S. 577, 21: Exon. 21a; Th. 56, 8; Cri. 897: 21a; Th. 57, 10; Cri. 916: 44b; Th. 152, 2; Gú. 802: 56b; Th. 201, 9; Ph. 53: 69b; Th. 258, 3; Jul. 259. Wearþ Húna cyme cúþ ceasterwarum the approach of the Huns was known to the citizens, Elen. Kmbl. 82; El. 41. He ongeat ðone intingan heora cymes he understood the cause of their coming, Bd. 2, 2; S. 504, 1. He wítgode hú his ealdormenn sceoldon fægnian his cymes of his wræcsíðe he prophesied how his chief men should rejoice at his coming from his banishment, Ps. Th. arg. 23. Syxtygum wintra ǽr Cristes cyme UNCERTAIN sixty [of] years [winters] before the coming of Christ, Bd. 1, 2; S. 475, 4: Exon. 23a; Th. 64, 1; Cri. 1031: 100a; Th. 376, 30; Seel. 162: 57b; Th. 205, 4; Ph. 107: 59b; Th. 214, 27; Ph. 245: 68a; Th. 252, 11; Jul. 161: Elen. Kmbl. 2454; El. 1228. Morgensteorra bodaþ ðære sunnan cyme the morning star announces the sun's approach, Bt. 39, 13; Fox 234, 4. Hyht wæs geniwad þurh ðæs beornes cyme hope was renewed through the chief's coming, Exon. 15b; Th. 33, 24; Cri. 530: 47a; Th. 160, 17; Gú. 945: 56b; Th. 200, 28; Ph. 47: 63a; Th. 231, 16; Ph. 490: Cd. 151; Th. 189, 4; Exod. 179: Elen. Kmbl. 2170; El. 1086. Þurh mínne cime through my coming, Cd. 29; Th. 39, 1; Gen. 618. Gefégon beornas burhweardes cyme the men rejoiced at the coming of the prince, Andr. Kmbl. 1320; Ah. 660: Menol. Fox 62; Men. 31. Ic ne wát hwonan his cymas [MS. cyme] sindon I know not whence his comings are, Exon. 50b; Th. 175, 18; Gú. 1196: Beo. Th. 520; B. 257. DER. be-cyme, eft-, forþ-, from-, geán-, hér-, hider-, hleóðor-, ofer-, ongeán-, seld-, þrym-, to-, up-, ymb-, ym-.

cyme; adj. Becoming, convenient, suitable, lovely, beautiful, splendid; commŏdus, conveniens, aptus, splendĭdus :-- Cumaþ nú and geseóþ, hú cyme weorc Drihten worhte come now and see what lovely works the Lord has wrought, Ps. Th. 65, 4. Ðe on Chananéa cymu worhte wundur qui fecit mirabilia in terra Chanaan, 105, 18. Gif ic míne gewǽda on wítehrægl cyme cyrde if I turned my beautiful garments into sackcloth, Ps. Th. 68, 11. Ðæt ðú sí cymast ceastra Drihtnes that thou may be the most beautiful of the cities of the Lord, Ps. Th. 86, 2. DER. un-cyme.

cymed, es; n. The plant wall-germander; forte chamædrys = GREEK, teucrium chamædrys, Lin :-- Genim cymed take germander, L. M. 1, 16; Lchdm. ii. 58, 20: 1, 15; Lchdm. ii. 58, 16. Nim cymed take germander, 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 20.

cymen, es; m. n. The herb cummin; cŭmīnum = GREEK, cŭmīnum, cyminum, Lin :-- Ge tiógoðiaþ eówre mintan and eówerne dile and eówerne cymen [MS. kymen] ye tithe your mint and your dill and your cummin, Past. 57; Hat. MS. Dó ðæt cymen on.eced UNCERTAIN put the cummin into vinegar, L. M. 2, 44; Lchdm. ii. 256, 6. Cymen cymīnum, Ælfc. Gl. 44; Som. 64, 64; Wrt. Voc. 32, 1: Herb. 155, 1; Lchdm. i. 280, 23: L. M. 2, 39; Lchdm. ii. 246, 23: iii. 6, 16: 24, 9. Cymenes of cummin, Herb. 152, 1; Lchdm. i. 276, 21: L. M. 2, 2; Lchdm. ii. 180, 20: 2, 15; Lchdm. ii. 192, 15: 2, 30; Lchdm. ii. 228, 26: 2, 44; Lchdm. ii. 256, 6. Wyrc sealfe of cymene make a salve with cummin, 2, 22; Lchdm. ii. 206, 20. Genim cymen take cummin, Herb. 94, 2; Lchdm. i. 204, 16: 376, 5: L. M. 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 36, 11: 1, 17; Lchdm. ii. 60, 15: 1, 48; Lchdm. ii. 120, 24: 2, 6; Lchdm. ii. 184, 15: 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 214, 17: iii. 28, 11: 72, 14. Cymenes sǽd. seed of cummin, L. M. 3, 12; Lchdm. ii. 314, 21. Cymenes dust dust of cummin, 3, 23; Lchdm. ii. 322, 3.

cymen come, Exon. 8b; Th. 5, 8; Cri. 66; pp. of cuman.

Cymén, es; m. Cymen, son of Ælle, who was the first Bretwalda [v. Bret-walda, brýten-walda]; Cymēnus :-- For example, v. Cyménes óra.

Cyménes óra, an; m. Cymen's shore, near Wittering, Sussex; Cymēni lītus, qui ibi naves ad terrain appulit. Nunc nomen amisit, sed fuisse prope Wittering, in agro Sussexiensi, Charta Donatiònis UNCERTAIN quam Cedwalla Rex Ecclesiæ Selsiensi fecit, planissĭme convincit, Camd. Camden and, after him, Gibson say, in the preceding Latin, this place was near Wittering on the coast of Sussex. They rely on a Charter which Kemble [Cod. Dipl. 992] has marked as spurious, but which was no doubt constructed with a regard for probability. In this Charter [Cod. Dipl. 992; A. D. 683; Kmbl. v. 33, 22] the name occurs as Cumenes­hora, a form which countenances Ingram's guess that Shoreham is the place; quasi Cymeneshoreham, v. Chr. Erl. 281, A. D. 477 :-- Hér, A. D. 477, com [MS. cuom] Ælle on Bretonlond, and his iii suna, Cymen, and Wlencing, and Cissa, mid iii scipum, on ða stówe ðe is nemned Cyménes óra, and ðæ-acute;r ofslógon monige Wealas, and sume on fleáme bedrifon on ðone wudu ðe is genemned Andredes leáge in this year, A. D. 477, Ælle came to Britain, and his three sons, Cymen, and Wlencing, and Cissa, with three ships, at the place which is named Cymen's shore, and there slew many Welsh, and drove some in flight into the wood which is named Andredsley, Chr. 477; Erl. 12, 28-32.

cym-líc; adj. Comely, convenient, lovely, beautiful, splendid; aptus, commodus, splendidus :-- Hierusalem, ðú wǽre swá swá cymlíc ceaster getimbred Jerusalem, thou wert built as a beautiful city, Ps. Th. 121, 3: Exon. 108b; Th. 415, 24; Rä. 34, 2.

cym-líce; comp. -lícor; adv. Conveniently, fitly, beautifully, splendidly; commode, apte, splendide :-- Andetaþ Drihtne, and his écne naman cégaþ cymlíce confitemini Domino et invocate nomen ejus, Ps. Th. 104, 1:. 98, 7. Cymlícor ceól gehládenne a more fitly laden ship, Andr. Kmbl. 721; An. 361: Beo. Th. 75; B. 38.

cym-lícor more aptly or fitly, Andr. Kmbl. 721; An. 361: Beo. Th. 75; B. 38; comp. of cym-líce.

cymst, cymest comest, Cd. 203; Th. 252, 28; Dan. 585: Beo. Th. 2769; 8. 1382; 2nd pres. sing. of cuman.

cymþ, cymeþ comes, Cd. 17; Th. 20, 26; Gen. 315: Beo. Th. 4123; B. 2058; 3rd sing. pres. of cuman.

cyn the chin; mentum. v. cin.

CYN, cynn, es; n. I. every being of one kind, a kindred, kind, race, nation, people, tribe, family, lineage, generation, progeny, KIN; genus, gens, natio, populus, stirps, tribus, familia, natales, origo, generatio, proles, progenies :-- Ðæt hie ne móton ǽgnian mid yrmþum Israhéla cyn that they may not hold in misery the race of Israel, Cd. 156; Th. 194, 24; Exod. 265: 170; Th. 213, 21; Exod. 555. Monna cynn hominum genus, Exon. 20b; Th. 55, 23; Cri. 888: 98b; Th. 370, 1; Seel. 50: Cd. 212; Th. 261, 33; Dan. 735. Eorþan cynn terræ tribus, Ps. Th. 71, 18. Eal engla cynn all the race of angels, Exon. 75a; Th. 281, 10; Jul. 644. Eall gimma cynn all kinds of gems, Andr. Kmbl. 3037; An. 1521. Fór cynn æfter cynne tribe went after tribe, Cd. 161; Th. 200, 3; Exod. 351. Ðis cynn ne byþ útadryfen hoc genus non ejicitur, Mt. Bos. 17, 21. Ðæt wíf wæs hǽðen, Sirofenisces cynnes erat mulier gentīlis, Syrophœnissa UNCERTAIN genere, Mk. Bos. 7, 26. Lá næddrena cyn progenies viperarum, Mt. Bos. 3, 7. Of cynne on cynn from generation to generation; a progenie in, progeniem, Ps. Th. 84, 5: 88, 1. Adames cyn the race of Adam, Cd. 222; Th. 289, 35; Sat. 408: Exon. 22a; Th. 59, 33; Cri. 961. Ymb fisca cynn de piscium genere, Exon. 96b; Th. 360, 6; Wal. 1. DER. cyn-recen, cynn-recceniss, -ren, -ryn: ælf-cyn, -cynn, átor-, cyne-, deór-, earfoþ-, engel-, eormen-, eorþ-, fæderen-, feorh-, fífel-, fisc-, fleóh-, from-, frum-, fugel-, fugol-, gim-, gum-, hǽðen-, helle-, heoloþ- [= hæleþ-], hwǽte-, lǽce-, man-, médren-, óm-, orf-, sigor-, treó-, wǽpned-, wer-, wyrm-, wyrt-. II. in grammar, -- Gender; genus :-- Syndon twá cynn, -- masculinum, ðæt is werlíc, and femininum, wíflíc. Werlíc cynn biþ ðes wer hic vir: there are two genders, -- masculine, that is manlike, and feminine, womanlike. Masculine gender is ðes wer this man, Ælfc. Gr. 6; Som. 5, 27, 28. Ǽlc nýten biþ oððe he, oððe heó every animal is either he, or she, 6; Som. 5, 34. Neutrum is náðor cynd, ne werlíces, ne wíflíces neuter is neither kind, neither of male nor of female, 6; Som. 5, 32. Ðis gebýraþ oftost to náðrum cynne, swá swá is ðis word hoc verbum: this oftest belongeth to the neuter gender, as is ðis word this word, 6; Som. 5. 35. Twílíces cynnes ðæt Is ILLEGIBLE dubii generis, 6; Som. 5, 46. Sume naman synd óðres cynnes on ánfealdum getele, and óðres cynnes on mænigfealdum getele some nouns are of one gender in the singular number, and of another gender in the plural number, 13; Som. 16, 25. The m. f. n. occur in the following sentence, indicated by the articles se, seó, ðæt :-- Seó sáwel ys má ðonne se líchama, and se líchama má ðonne ðæt reáf anima plus est guam esca, et corpus plus quam vestimentum, Lk. Bos. 12, 23. III. a sex; sexus :-- Hwæðeres cynnes bearn heó cennan sceal of which sex she shall bear a child, Lchdm. iii. 144, 6. [Wyc. kyn family, generation: Chauc. kin: Piers P. kynne: R. Glouc. R. Brun. kyn: Laym. cun, kun race, progeny, kind: Orm. kin: O. Sax. kunni, cunni, n. race: Dut. kunne, f. gender: Kil. konne, kunne genus, species, sexus: O. Frs. ken, kin, kon, n. genus: M. H. Ger. künne, n. family: O. H. Ger. kunni, n. genus, gens: Dan. kjön, n. genus: Swed. kön, n. sex; kynne, n. disposition: Icel. kyn, n. a kind, kin: Lat. genus, gens; Grk. GREEK : Sansk. janus gens.]

cyn, cynn; adj. Akin, suitable, fit, proper; congruus, condignus :-- Ðæt is cyn that is proper or reasonable, Bt. 33, 1; Fox 122, 4. Swá hit cynn [cyn Cot.] was as was suitable or fit, 35, 4; Fox 162, 24. Swylce hit kyn [cyn MS. B; cynn H.] sié as it may be right, L. In. 42; Th. i. 128, 11. Hit ys cyn it is proper, Ps. Th. 29, 11: 9, 34: 138, 20.

cyncg a king, L. E. G. pref; Th. i. 166, 3. v. cyning.

CYND, es; n. I. nature, KIND; natura :-- Gif hió hire cynd healdan wile if she desire to retain her nature, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 160, note 21, MS. Cot. II. a sort, gender; natura, genus :-- Neutrum is náðor cynd, ne werlíces, ne wíflíces neuter is neither sort [gender], neither of male nor of female, Ælfc. Gr. 6, 3; Som. 5, 32. [Prompt. keende, kyynde genus; Wyc. kynde nature: Piers P. kynde nature, race, kind: Laym. i-cunde nature, kind, race: Orm. kinde nature, kind, race: O. Sax. kind, n. a child: Dut. kind, n. a child: Ger. kind, n. a child: M. H. Ger. kint, gen. kindes, n. a child: O. H. Ger. kind, kint, n. proles: Icel. kind, f. species, race, kind: Lat. gent-em, acc. of gens.] DER. ge-cynd.

cynde; adj. Natural, innate, inborn; naturalis, innatus, ingenitus :-- Cniht weóx and þág swá him cynde wǽron the boy waxed and thrived as to him was natural, Cd. 132; Th. 167, 26; Gen. 2771. DER. ge-cynde, un-, unge-.

cynde-líc; adj. Natural, KINDLY; naturalis, ingenitus :-- Sídra gesceafta cræftas cyndelíce the kindly powers of wide-spread creatures, Exon. 92b; Th. 346, 27; Sch. 5. DER. ge-cyndelíc, unge-.

cyne-, used in compounds, signifying kingly, royal, special; regius, præ-. v. cyne-bænd, -bearn, -boren, -bót, -botl, -cyn, -dóm, etc.

cýne; adj. Bold, brave; audax :-- Cyninga cýnost bravest of kings, Ps. C. 50, 3; Ps. Grn. ii. p. 276, 3. DER. searo-cýne. v. céne.

cýne, an; f. A chink, fissure; rima :-- Ðæs leóhtes scíma þurh ða cýnan ðære dura ineóde the glare of the light came through the chinks of the door, Bd. 4, 7; S. 575, 19.

cyne-bænd, es; m. [bend, bænd a band, chaplet, crown] A royal crown, a diadem; regia corona, diadema = GREEK, Som. Ben. Lye.

cyne-bearn, es; n. A kingly child, royal offspring; regius puer, regia proles :-- Ne mihton oncnáwan ðæt cynebearn they might not acknowledge the royal child, Andr. Kmbl. 1131; An. 566. Wuldres cynebearn the royal child of glory, Menol. Fox 316; Men. 159: Cd. 82; Th. 102, 23; Gen. 1704.

cyne-boren; part. Of royal birth; regia stirpe natus, M. H. 12a.

cyne-bót, e; f. [bót boot, compensation] A king's compensation or recompense; regis compensatio :-- Gebíraþ seó cynebót ðám leódum the king's compensation belongs to the people, L. Wg. 1; Th. i. 186, 4: L. M. L; Th. i. 190, 8.

cyne-botl, es; n. [botl a dwelling] A kingly dwelling, a palace; palatium, Wrt. Voc. 86, 27.

cyne-cyn, -cynn, es; n. [cyne regius, regalis; cyn, cynn, gens, stirps, familia] A royal race, royal lineage, royal offspring or family; gens regia, proles regia, stirps vel familia regia :-- Of Francena cynecynne de gente Francorum regia, Bd. 1, 25; S. 486, note 32: 2, 14; S. 518, 3. He wæs hiora cynecynnes he was of their royal race, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 83; Met. 26, 42. He wæs cynecynnes he was of royal lineage, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 14: Bd. 3, 18; S. 546, 39, col. 1: L. Wg. 1; Th. i. 186, 18.

cyne-dóm, es; m. [dóm power, dominion] A; royal dominion or power, kingdom, realm; imperium, regnum, sceptrum, potestas :-- Cynedóm sceptrum, Ælfc. Gl. 69; Som. 69, 127; Wrt. Voc. 42, 7. We willaþ ðæt án cynedóm fæste stande ǽfre on þeóde we will that one kingship standfast for ever in the nation, L. N. P. L. 67; Th. ii. 302, 8. Hanna wæs mid ungemete ðæs cynedómes gyrnende Hanno had an immoderate longing for the kingdom, Ors. 4, 5; Bos. 81, 43: L. Wg. 1; Th. i. 186, 4: Ps. C. 50, 149; Ps. Grn. ii. 280, 149, Rúmes cynedómes augustæ potestatis, Mone B. 3931. For ðam cynedóme for the kingdom, L. M. L; Th. i. 190, 6. Claudius Orcadas eáland to Rómwara cynedóme geþeódde Claudius Orcadas insulas Romano adjecit imperio, Bd. 1, 3; S. 475, 7: Chr. 47; Erl. 6, 26. He ðone cynedóm ciósan wolde he would choose the kingdom, Beo. Th. 4741; B. 2376: L. Eth. ix. 42; Th. i. 350, 3. Ðætte ryhte cynedómas þurh úre folc gefæstnode wǽron that just royal governments might be settled throughout our people, L. In. pref; Th. i. 102, 9.

cyneg a king, Jos. 10, 5: Homl. Th. ii. 540, 17. v. cyning.

cyne-geard a royal wand, sceptre, Ælfc. Gl. 68; Som. 69, 127; Wrt. Voc. 42, 7. v. cyne-gyrd.

cyne-gerd a sceptre, Ælfc. Gl. 6; Som. 56, 47; Wrt. Voc. 18, 2. v. cyne-gyrd.

cyne-gerela, an; m. [gerela a robe] A kingly robe; regius vestitus :-- Gif mon wolde him awindan of ðǽs cynegerelan [MS. -gerelum] if any one would strip off from him these kingly robes, Bt. Met. Fox 25, 45; Met. 25, 23.

cyne-gewǽdu; pl. n. [gewǽde a garment, robe] Royal robes; regiæ vestes :-- He onféng cynegewǽdum he took the royal robes, Bd. 1, 6; S. 476, 19.

cyne-gild, -gyld, es; n. [gild compensation] A king's compensation; regis compensatio :-- To bóte on cynegilde [-gylde MS. H.] as offering for the king's compensation, L. M. L. Th. i. 190, 7.

Cynegils, es; m. Cynegils, sixth king of the West Saxons; Cynegilsus :-- Cynegilses, gen. Chr. Erl. 2, 20: Chr. 688; Erl. 42, 10. Hér, A. D. 611, Cynegils féng to ríce on Wesseaxum, and heóld xxxi wintra here, Cynegils succeeded to the kingdom of the West Saxons, and held it thirty-one years, 611; Erl. 20, 33. Hér, A. D. 635, Cynegils [MS. Kynegils] wæs gefullod fram Byríne ðam biscope on Dorcaceastre, and Oswold Norþhymbra cining his onféng here, Cynegils was baptized by Birīnus the bishop of Dorchester, and Oswold, king of Northumbria, was his sponsor, 635; Erl. 25, 33. Cynegils onféng ǽrest fulwihte Wesseaxna cyninga Cynegils was the first of the West Saxon kings who received baptism, Erl. 2, 16.

cyne-gód; adj. Excellent, noble; præstans, nobilis :-- Him cynegódum to him excellent, Cd. 78; Th. 96, 5; Gen. 1590. Him ðá cynegóde on Carran æðelinga bearn eard genámon then the noble children of men took them a dwelling in Harran, 83; Th. 104, 16; Gen. 1736: 182; Th. 228, 2; Dan. 196: 195; Th. 243, 8; Dan. 433: Exon. 85b; Th. 321, 34; Wíd. 56.

cyne-gold, es; n. Royal gold, a crown; diadema = GREEK, corona :-- Þeódnes cynegold sóþfæstra gehwone glengeþ the Lord's crown shall adorn each of the just, Exon. 64b; Th. 238, 17; Ph. 605.

cyne-gyrd, -geard, -gerd, e; f. [gyrd a rod, wand] A royal wand, sceptre; sceptrum :-- Cynegyrd sceptrum, Wrt. Voc. 72, 55. Cynegeard sceptrum, Ælfc. Gl. 68; Som. 69, 127; Wrt. Voc. 42, 7. Cynegerd sceptrum, 6; Som. 56, 47; Wrt. Voc. 18, 2. Hí to ðæs caseres cynegyrde gebugon they submitted to the emperor's sceptre, Homl. Th. ii. 502, 16.

cyne-hád, es; m. [hád form, condition] A royal personage or condition, dignity, kinghood; regia persona vel dignitas :-- Ðæt se cynehád [MS. cynehade] ðæs hálgan weres éce gemynd hæfde ut regia viri sancti persona memoriam haberet æternam, Bd. 3, 11; S. 535, 30, note. Ic Ælfréd, gifendum Criste, mid cynehádes mǽrnesse, geweorþaþ hæbbe cúþlíce ongiten I Alfred, adorned, by the grace of Christ, with the dignity of a king have well perceived, Greg. Dial. MS. Hat. fol. 1, 1.

cyne-hám, es; m. [hám a house, dwelling, home] A royal residence; regia villa :-- On ðam cyneháme ðe is gecýged Bearwe at the royal residence which is called Barrow, Cod. Dipl. 90; A. D. 716-743; Kmbl. i. 109, 15. On his ágenum cynehámum in his own royal residences, 598; A. D. 978; Kmbl. iii. 138, 7.

cyne-helm, -healm, es; m. [helm a crown] A crown, diadem; corona, diadema :-- Cynehelm corona, diadema, Ælfc. Gl. 51; Som. 66, 14; Wrt. Voc. 35, 5: Morie B. 2166. Cynehealm diadema, Wrt. Voc. 74, 56. Wundon cynehelm of þornum, and asetton ofer hys heáfod plectentes coronam de spinis posuerunt super caput ejus, Mt. Bos. 27, 29: Jn. Bos. 19, 2, 5. Cynehelme corona, Mone B. 3019. For cynehelme for a royal diadem, Homl. Blick. 23, 34.

cyne-hláford, es; m. [hláford a lord] A royal lord, sovereign lord, king; regius vel supremus dominus, rex :-- Be his cynehláfordes geþafunge with the permission of his royal lord, Cod. Dipl. 593; A. D. 965-975; Kmbl. iii. 127, 8. Æt his leófan cynehláforde Eádgáre cyninge from his dear sovereign lord king Edgar, 583; A. D. 963-975; Kmbl. iii. 111, 26: 598; A. D. 978; Kmbl. iii. 138, 22: Chr. 1016; Erl. 158, 5, 17, 29. Ðæt we ealle ánum cynehláforde holdlíce hýran that we all faithfully obey one sovereign lord, L. Eth. vi. 1; Th. i. 314, 10. Utan ǽnne cynehláford holdlíce healdan let us faithfully support one sovereign lord, v. 35; Th. i. 312, 21: ix. 44; Th. i. 350, 12.

cynelec; adj. Royal; regalis :-- In ðæm cynelecan túne in the royal town, Bd. 3, 17; S. 543, 21, col. 2. v. cyne-líc.

cyne-líc, cynellíc, cynelec; adj. Kingly, royal, regal, belonging to the state, public; regius, regalis, publicus :-- Eádward cyng man bebyrigde bútan ǽlcum cynelícum wurþscipe king Edward was buried without any kingly honour, Chr. 979; Erl. 129, 3. Ðæt is cynelíc þing that is a royal thing, Exon. 124b; Th. 478, 26; Ruin. 48. Wæs ðæs ylcan mynstres abbudisse on ða tíd seó cynellíce fǽmne Ælflǽd præerat quidem tunc eidem monasterio regia virgo Ælbflæd, Bd. 4, 26; S. 603, 3. Ðæt se cynelíca hád ðæs hálgan weres éce gemynd hæfde ut regia viri sancti persona memoriam haberet æternam, 3, 11, S. 535, 30. In ðæm cynelecan túne in the royal town, Bd. 3, 17; S. 543, 21, col. 2. Cynelícre publica, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 145, 30. Cynelíco getimbro and ánlípie publica ædificia et privata, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 45. Chaldéas cynelícan getimbro mid fýre fornámon [MS. fornaman] the Chaldeans destroyed the royal buildings with fire, 1, 15; S. 483, 42. He onféng cynelícum gewǽdum and com on Breotone he took the royal robes and came into Britain, 1, 6; S. 476, 19, note. Wið ða cynelícan ádle ðe man auriginem nemneþ ad morbum regium, hoc est, auriginem [= auruginem], Herb. 87, 1; Lchdm. i. 190, 14. Cynelíc reáf trabea, Ælfc. Gl. 63; Som. 68, 122; Wrt. Voc. 40, 30. Cynelíc [MS. kyne-] botl palatium, 81; Som. 73, 9; Wrt. Voc. 47, 16.

cyne-líce; adv. Royally; regie :-- Ðú miltse on us gecýþ cynelíce shew mercy royally on us, Exon. 10a; Th. 10, 24; Cri. 157.

cynelíc-nys, -nyss, e; f. Royally, as shewn in the deportment, a kingly likeness; regia dignitas :-- For his cynelícnysse ge módes ge onsýnes for his kingliness both of his mind and appearance, Bd. 3, 14; S. 540, 9.

cynellíc kingly, royal, Bd. 4, 26; S. 603, 3. v. cyne-líc.

Cyne-mǽres ford, es; m. [Flor. Kimeresford: cyne royal; mǽre a mere; ford a ford] KEMPSFORD, Gloucestershire :-- Rád Æðelmund alderman ofer æt Cynemǽresforda alderman Æthelmund rode over at Kempsford, Chr. 800; Erl. 60, 6.

cyne-ríce, -rýce, es; n. A royal region or possession, a kingdom, realm; regnum :-- Secg monig wyscte ðæt ðæs cyneríces ofercumen wǽre many a warrior wished that there was an end of that kingdom, Exon. 100b; Th. 378, 34; Deór. 26. Féng his bearn to cyneríce his child succeeded to the kingdom, Chr. 975; Erl. 126, 5; Edg. 31: 1066; Erl. 201, 1: 1076; Erl. 215, 2. On ðý cyneríce be súþan Temese in the kingdom south of the Thames, 871; Erl. 76, 9. On cynerýce in the realm, Exon. 53b; Th. 187, 23; Az. 35. He ge-eóde ealle ða cynerícu ðe on Crécum wǽron he over-ran all the kingdoms which were in Greece, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 58, 39. Cyneríca mǽst greatest of kingdoms, Exon. 85a; Th. 321, 1; Wíd. 39. Ðæt he ealdordóm ágan sceolde ofer cynerícu that he should possess eldership over the kingdoms, Cd. 158; Th. 198, 5; Exod. 318: Bt. Met. Fox 26, 12; Met. 26, 6.

cyne-róf; adj. [róf famous] Royally famous, noble; nobilis :-- Wolde ic ánes to ðé, cyneróf hæleþ cræftes neósan I would inquire of thee of one art, noble hero, Andr. Kmbl. 967; An. 484: 1169; An. 585. Cirdon cynerófe the noble ones turned, Judth. 12; Thw. 26, 6; Jud. 312: 11; Thw. 24, 21; Jud. 200.

cyne-scipe, es; m. Kingship, royalty, honour; regia dignitas :-- Hæbbe ic mínes cynescipes gerihta I may have my rights of royally, L. Edg. S. 2; Th. i. 272, 27. Me to fullum cynescipe to my perfect royalty, 2; Th. i. 272, 25. Him sylfum to cynescipe in honour of himself, L. Edg. i. prm; Th. i. 262, 4: L. C. E. prm; Th. i. 358, 6.

cyne-setl, es; n. [selt a seat] A royal seat, throne; imperii sedes, solium :-- Constantinopolis is nú ðæt heáhste cynesetl ealles eástríces Constantinople is now the chief royal seat of all the eastern empire, Ors. 3, 7; Bos. 61, 11. Ðe sit on his cynesetle qui sedet in solio ejus, Ex. 11, 5.

cyne-stól, es; m. [cyne royal, seól a seat, stool] A royal throne or dwelling, chief city, capital; thronus, urbs regia, arx, metropolis :-- On his cynestóle on his kingly throne, Exon. 25b; Th. 75, 6; Cri. 1217: Elen. Kmbl. 659; El. 330. Of cynestólum from royal seats, Exon. 96a; Th. 358, 22; Pa. 49. Constantinopolis is Créca cynestól Constantinople is the royal dwelling-place of the Greeks, Bt. 1; Fox 2, 22: Ors. 3, 9; Bos. 65, 45. Cynestóle Creácas wióldon the Greeks possessed the metropolis, Bt. Met. Fox 1, 95; Met. 1, 48: Menol. Fox 208; Men. 105. We becórnon to ðam cynestóle, ðǽr getimbred wæs tempel Dryhtnes we came to the royal city, where the temple of the Lord was built, Andr. Kmbl. 1332; An. 666. Ðǽr heó ǽfre forþ wunian móten cestre and cynestól where they may evermore possess cities and a kingly throne, Cd. 220; Th. 283, 1; Sat. 298: Chr. 975; Erl. 125, 31. Sancta Hierusalem, cynestóla cyst holy Jerusalem, choicest of royal cities, Exon. 8b; Th. 4, 11; Cri. 51.

cyne-strǽt, e; f. A royal street or road; regia via, publicum, Cot. 153.

Cynete, an; f. I. the river KENNET which rises in Wiltshire; fluvii nomen qui originem suam habet in agro Wiltoniensi :-- Ǽrest on Cynetan, ðæt up andlang strémes . . . ðæt eft innan Cynetan strém first to the Kennet, then up along the stream. . . then again to the river Kennet, Cod. Dipl. 792; A. D. 1050; Kmbl. iv. 122, 21, 26: Cod. Dipl. Apndx. 378; A. D. 939; Kmbl. iii. 413, 22, 30: Cod. Dipl. 1120; A. D. 939; Kmbl. v. 238, 17, 25, 35: 1152; A. D. 944; Kmbl. v. 300, 16, 18: 1199; A. D. 956; Kmbl. v. 376, 6, 16: 1282; A. D. 984; Kmbl. vi. 118, 1, 6. II. KENNET, a village on the river Kennet in Wiltshire; villæ nomen in agro Wiltoniensi :-- Wæs fyrd gesomnod æt Cynetan a force was assembled at Kennet, Chr. 1006; Erl. 140, 23.

cyne-þrym; gen. -þrymmes; m. [þrym a multitude, majesty, glory] A kingly host, royal majesty or glory; regia multitudo, regis majestas :-- Mid cyneþrymme with a kingly host, Cd. 209; Th. 260, 8; Dan. 706 : Exon. 120 b; Th. 462, 12; Hö. 51. He cwom on cyneþrymme he came in royal majesty, Ps. Th. 95, 12. Ryhtfremmende cyneþrym cýðaþ the righteous doers shall proclaim the royal majesty, Exon. 65 a; Th. 240, 5; Ph. 634 : Andr. Kmbl. 2645; An. 1324. Ðú me gecýðdest cyneþrymma wyn thou declaredst to me joy of kingly glories, Exon. 120 b; Th. 463, 23; Hö. 74.

cyne-wíse, an; f. [wíse an affair] The state, republic, commonwealth; respublica :-- Se náht freomlíces ongan on ðære cynewísan he began nothing profitable in the state, Bd. 1, 3; S. 475, 21. Rehte ða cynewísan rempublicam rexit, 1, 5; S. 476, 8.

cyne-wiððe, an; f. A royal wreath, diadem; redimiculum :-- Cyne-wiððan redimicula, Mone B. 6270 : Cot. 185.

cyne-word, es; n. [word a speech] A proper speech or word; proprium verbum :-- Mon cýðe cynewordum, hú se cuma hátte let a man make known in fitting words, how the guest is called, Exon. 112 b; Th. 430, 29; Rä. 44, 16.

Cynewulf, es; m. An Anglo-Saxon poet, who has preserved his name in Runes, in his poem on Elene's Recovery of the Cross. Mr. Kemble will best describe his own discovery. - In the Vercelli MS. is contained a long poem on the finding of the Cross by the Empress Helena [= Elene]. After the close of the poem, and apparently intended as a tail-piece to the whole book, comes a poetical passage, in which the author principally refers to himself, and after a reference to his own increasing age and the change from the strength and joyousness of youth, he breaks out, in the 15th Canto, into a moralizing strain, in which he concludes his work. The following thirty lines, containing Runes, form a portion of this Canto:

Á wæs sæc óþ-ðæt,Ever was contest till then,
cnyssed cearwelmumwith waves of sorrow tossed
Runic-Cen [cén] drúsende,C [the torch] sinking,
ðeáh he, in medoheallethough he, in meadhall
máþmas, þegetreasures, handled
æplede gold,appled gold,
Runic-Yr [yr] gnornode,Y [sorrow] he mourned,
Runic-Nyd [nýd] geféra,N [need] his consort,
nearu sorge dreáh,narrow sorrow he suffered,
enge rúne,a close rune,
ðær him Runic-Eh [éh] fórewhere E [the horse] before him
mílpaðas mæt,measured the mile paths,
módig þrægdeproudly hastened
wírum gewlenced.with wires adorned.
Runic-Wynn [wén] is geswíþrad,W [hope] is overpowered,
gomen æfter gearum,my joy in my old age,
geógoþ is gecyrredyouth is turned back
ald onmedla.my old pride.
Runic-Ur [úr] wæs geáraU I was of old
geógoþhádes glǽm,a gleam of youth,
nú synt geárdagasnow are the days of my life
æfter fyrstmearceafter the appointed space
forþgewitene,departed,
lífwynne geliden,the joy of life flowed away,
swá Runic-Lagu [lagu] toglídeþ,as L [lake or water] glideth,
flódas gefýsde.the floods that hasten.
Runic-Feoh [feoh] ǽghwam biþF [wealth] will be for every man
lǽne under lyfte,failing under the heaven,
landes frætwethe ornament of the land
gewítaþ under wolcnum.will depart under the welkin.
Elen. Kmbl. 2512-2541; El. 1257-1272.
The extreme rudeness and abruptness of these lines, and the apparent uselessness of the Runes, led me to suspect that there was more in them than merely met the eye. This I found to be the case; for, on taking the Runes out of the context, using them as single letters and uniting them in one word, they supplied me with the name CYNEWULF, undoubtedly no other than the author of the poems. I cannot here bestow space upon a long argument to shew who this Cynewulf was. I believe him to have been the Abbot of Peterborough of that name, who flourished in the beginning of the eleventh century, who was accounted in his own day a celebrated poet, both in Latin and Anglo-Saxon, whose works have long been lost, but whose childish ingenuity has now enabled us with some probability to assign to him the authorship of the Vercelli and Exeter Codices, Archæologia, vol. xxviii. 1840, by Kemble, pp. 327-372. The Reverend Jn. Earle, M. A. etc. Rector of Swanswick, with some pertinent remarks, supposes Cynewulf to be the same person as Cyneweard. v. Chr. Erl. Introduction, pp. xx-xxii.

cyng a king, Chr. 664; Erl. 34, 20 : 894; Erl. 91, 32 : L. Ath. iv. pref; Th. i. 220, 1. v. cyning.

cyngc a king, L. Edg. S. 1; Th. i. 270, 7. v. cyning.

Cynges tún, es; m. [cynges tún king's town] KINGSTON; regia villa :-- Aðelstán wæs to cynge æt Cynges túne gehálgod Athelstan was consecrated king at Kingston, Chr. 924; Th. 199, 8, col. 1: 979; Th. 234, 10, col. 2. Æt Cyninges tún at Kingston, Chr. 979; Th. 235, 9, col. 1. v. Cinges tún, Cyninges tún.

cyning, cyng, es; m. [cyn people, -ing originating from, son of]. I. a king, ruler, emperor; rex, imperator. He is the representation of the people, and springs from them, as a son does from his parents. The Anglo-Saxon king was elected from the people; he was, therefore, the king of the people. He was the chosen representative of the people, their embodiment, the child, not the father of the people. He was not the lord of the soil, but the leader of his people. He completed the order of freemen, and was the summit of his class. As the freeman [ceorl] was to the noble [æðele], so was the noble to the king. The Anglo-Saxon king was the king of a tribe or of a people, but never of the land. We read of kings of the West Saxons or of the Mercians, but not of Wessex or of Mercia. The king was, in truth, essentially one with the people, by them and their power he reigned; but his land was like theirs, private property. It was not the feudal system, and was never admitted that the king was owner of all the land in a country :-- Se cyning mildelíce onféng the king received [him] gladly, Ors. 1, 8; Bos. 30, 44. Se Iudéa cyning the king of the Jews; ό βασιλεύs τŵν 'Ioυδαίων, Mt. Bos. 2, 2. Saul wæs gecoren ǽrest to cyninge on Israhéla þeóde Saul was first chosen king of the people of Israel, Ælfc. T. 13, 3. Eart ðú wítodlíce cyning ergo rex es tu? oύκoûν βασιλεύs εί σύ; Jn. Bos. 18, 37. Cyninges botl a king's dwelling, palace, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 18. Cyninga [MS. cininga] bóoc the book of kings, Ælfc. T. Grn. 6, 38 : 8, 3. Cyninga [MS. kyninga] byrgen a burying-place of kings; mausoleum, bustum, Ælfc. Gl. 85; Som. 74, 3; Wrt. Voc. 49, 27. Maximian, árleás cyning Maximian, the wicked emperor, Exon. 65 b; Th. 243, 1; Jul. 4. 2. a spiritual King, God, Christ; Deus, Christus :-- Heofona Cyning the King of heaven, Andr. Kmbl. 3008; An. 1507 : 3017; An. 1511 : Cd. 137; Th. 172, 18; Gen. 2846. Crist is ealra cyninga Cyning Christ is King of all kings, Homl. Th. ii. 588, 9 : Exon. 9 b; Th. 9, 17; Cri. 136 : 11 a; Th. 14, 6; Cri. 215 : Andr. Kmbl. 1955; An. 980. 3. the devil; diabŏlus, satănas :-- Hellwarena cyning the king of hell's inhabitants, Exon. 70 a; Th. 261, 28; Jul. 322. Se ofermóda cyning, Satan the haughty king, Satan, Cd. 18; Th. 22, 9; Gen. 338. II. Anglo-Saxon kings were at first elected from a family or class, by Witena gemót the assembly of the wise. 2. fidelity was sworn to them by the people, in the following words :-- Ðus man sceal swerigean hyld-áþas. 'On ðone Drihten, ðe ðes háligdóm is fóre hálig, ic wille beón N. hold and getríwe, and eal lufian ðæt he lufaþ, and eal ascúnian ðæt he ascúnaþ, æfter Godes rihte and æfter woroldgerysnum, and nǽfre, willes ne gewealdes, wordes ne weorces, ówiht dón ðæs him láþre biþ; wið ðam ðe he me healde swá ic earnian wille, and eall ðæt læste ðæt uncer fórmǽl wæs, ðá ic to him gebeáh and his willan geceás thus shall a man swear oaths of fidelity [or homage]. By the Lord, before whom this relic is holy, I will be to N. faithful and true, and love all that he loves, and shun all that he shuns, according to God's law, and according to the world's principles, and never, by will nor by force, by word nor by deed, do aught of what is loathful to him; on condition that he keep me as I am willing to deserve, and all that fulfil that our agreement was, when I submitted to him and chose his will,' L. O. 1; Th. i. 178, 2-9. If this was taken in A. D. 924, it was not long before the power of the king was limited, for we have the following oath administered to Æðelréd, when he was consecrated king at Kingston in A. D. 978, as is stated in the Chronicle, - On ðys geáre wæs Æðelréd to cininge gehálgod æt Cinges túne in this year Æthelred was consecrated king at Kingston, Chr. 978. [MS. 979]; Th. 234, 9, col. 1. 3. the king took a corresponding oath to his people. The words of the king's oath are, - Ðis gewrit is gewriten, stæf be stæfe, be ðam gewrite ðe Dúnstán arcebisceop sealde úrum hláforde æt Cinges túne á on dæg ðá hine man hálgode to cinge, and forbeád him ǽlc wedd to syllanne bútan ðysan wedde, ðe he up on Cristes weofod léde, swá se bisceop him dihte. 'On ðære hálgan Þrýnnesse naman, Ic þreó þing beháte cristenum folce, and me underþeóddum :-- Án ǽrest, ðæt ic Godes cyrice and eall cristen folc mínra gewealda sóðe sibbe healde. Oðer is, ðæt ic reáflác and ealle unrihte þing eallum hádum forbeóde. Þridde, ðæt ic beháte and bebeóde on eallum dómum riht and mildheortnisse, ðæt us eallum ǽrfæst and mildheort God þurh ðæt his écean miltse forgife, se lifaþ and ríxaþ' this writing is copied, letter for letter, from the writing which archbishop Dunstan delivered to our lord at Kingston on the very day when he was consecrated king, and he forbade him to give any other pledge but this pledge which he laid upon Christ's altar, as the bishop instructed him. 'In the name of the Holy Trinity, three things do I promise to this christian people, my subjects. First, that I will hold God's church and all the christian people of my realm in true peace. Second, that I will forbid rapine and all injustice to men of all conditions. Third, that I promise and enjoin justice and mercy in all judgments, whereby the just and merciful God may give us all his eternal favour, who liveth and reigneth,' Relq. Ant. W. ii. 194. 4. from the freedom with which the educated spoke of the Doom's Day Survey of William the Conquerer, indicating their love of freedom, we have no reason to suppose this oath was the first oath taken by kings in our limited monarchy. The spirit of the monks may be seen in the following extract from the Chronicle :-- Willelm, Engla landes cyng, ðe ðá wæs sittende on Normandige, forðig he áhte ǽgðer ge Engla land ge Normandige . . . sende ðá ofer eall Engla land into ǽlcere scíre his men . . . Swá swýðe nearwelíce he hit lett út aspyrian, ðæt næs án ǽlpig híde, ne án gyrde landes, ne, furðon, hit is sceame to tellanne, ac hit ne þuhte him nán sceame to dónne, án oxa [MS. oxe], ne án cú, ne án swín næs belyfon, ðæt næs gesæt on his gewrite, and ealle ða gewrita wǽron gebroht to him syððan William, king of England, who was then resident in Normandy, for he owned both England and Normandy . . . then sent his men over all England into each shire . . . So very narrowly did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a rood of land, nay, moreover, it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it, not an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was left, that was not set down in his writ, and all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him, Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 2-4 . . . 24, 25 . . . 33-38. 5. the Anglo-Saxon king had royal power to pardon transgressors :-- Gif hwá in cyninges healle gefeohte, oððe his wǽpn gebrede, and hine mon gefó; sié ðæt on cyninges dóme, swá deáþ, swá líf, swá he him forgifan wille if any one fight in the king's hall, or draw his weapon, and he be taken; be it in the king's power, either death or life, or pardon, L. Alf. pol. 7; Th. i. 66, 8, 9. Sié on cyninges dóme hwæðer he líf áge ðe náge be it in the king's power whether he shall or shall not have life, L. In. 6; Th. i. 106, 3, 4. Búton him cyning [MS. kyning] árian wille unless the king will be merciful to him, 36; Th. i. 124, 19. Ðæt he wǽre his feores scyldig, búton he cyng gesóhte, and he him his feorh forgifan wolde; eall swá hit ǽr æt Greátan leá and æt Exan ceastre and æt Þunres felda gecweden wæs that he should be liable in his life, unless he should flee to the king, and he should give him his life; all as it was before ordained at Greatley and at Exeter and at Thundersfield, L. Ath. v. § 1, 4; Th. i. 230, 6-9 : L. Edm. S. 6; Th. i. 250, 11 : L. Edg. ii. 7; Th. i. 268, 24, 25 : L. Eth. iii. 16; Th. i. 298, 14 : vii. 9; Th. i. 330, 24. 6. of all forfeits the king had one half - to healfum :-- Fó se cyng to healfum, - to healfum ða men ðe on ðære ráde beón let the king take possession of half, of [the other] half the men, who may be in the riding [shall take possession], L. Ath. i. 20; Th. i. 210, 6, 7. 7. treasure-trove, or treasure or money found, of which the owner was unknown, belonged to the king. It is designated in Anglo-Saxon charters by the words - ealle hordas búfan eorþan, and binnan eorþan all hoards above the earth, and within the earth. As we learn from Beowulf, in early and heathen times, much treasure was buried in the mound raised over the ashes of the dead, besides what was burned with the body :-- Hí on beorg dydon bégas [MS. beg] and siglu, forléton eorla gestreón eorþan healdan, gold on greóte, ðǽr hit nú gén lífaþ yldum swá unnyt swá hit ǽr wæs they placed rings and jewels in the mound, they left the treasure of earls to the earth to hold, gold in the dust, where it now yet remains as useless to men as it was before, Beo. Th. 6307-6318; B. 3164-3169. The legend of Guthlac [about A. D. 700, v. Crúland] supplies a very early instance of the search for gold and silver in the mounds :-- Wæs ðǽr on ðam eálande sum hláw mycel ofer eorþan geworht, ðone ylcan men iú geára for feós wilnunga gedulfon and brǽcon : ðá wæs ðǽr on óðre sídan ðæs hláwes gedolfen swylce mycel wæterseáþ wǽre there was on the island a great mound raised upon the earth, which some, men of yore had dug and broken up in hopes of treasure : then there was dug up on the other side of the mound as it were a great water-pit, Guthl. 4; Gdwin. 26, 4-8. 8. Pastus or Convivium = Cyninges feorm. The king visited different districts personally or by deputy to see that justice was done to all his subjects. In these periodical journeys the king received support and entertainment wherever he went. Hence perhaps the privileges of our judges. In A. D. 814 Cénwulf released the bishop of Worcester from a pastus of twelve men, whom he was bound to find. This was so great an expense that the exemption was worth an estate of thirteen hides, v. Cod. Dipl. 203; A.D. 814; Kmbl. i. 256. 9. Vigilia = heáfodweard head ward, or a proper watch set over the king, which he claimed when he came into any district. The sǽweard or coast guard was also a regal right, performed by the tenants of those land owners whose estates lay contiguous to the sea. 10. the mint or coinage of money. The king exercised a superintendence over the circulating medium. Æðelrǽd not only enacted that there should be no moneyers besides the king's, but that their number should be diminished :-- Nán man ne áge nǽnne mynetere búton cyng let no man have a moneyer except the king, L. Eth. iii. 8; Th. i. 296, 15. Ut monetarii pauciores sint quam antea fuerint, iv. 9; Th. i. 303, 2. 11. the grant of a market, with power to levy tolls, was also a royalty, Cod. Dipl. 1075; A. D. 873-899; Kmbl. v. 142 : 1084; A. D. 904; Kmbl. v. 157. v. The Rights of Anglo-Saxon Kings, explained more fully in Kemble's Saxons in England, 2 vols. 8vo. 1849. Bk. ii. chap. 2; vol. ii. pp. 29-103. [Prompt. kynge : Wyc. kyng : Piers P. Chauc. king : R. Glouc. kyng : Laym. Orm. king : Plat. könig : O. Sax. kuning, cunig, m : Frs. kening : O. Frs. kining, kinig, kening, keneng, koning : Dut. koning, m : Kil. koningh, m : Ger. könig, m : M. H. Ger. künic, künec, künc, m : O. H. Ger. kuning, m : Dan. konning, konge, m : Swed. konung, kong, kung, m : Icel. konungr, kóngr, m : Lett. kungs dominus.] DER. æðel-cyning, Angel-, beorn-, brýten-, eorþ-, éðel-, folc-, gást-, geár-, gúþ-, hǽðen-, heáh-, heofon-, leód-, mægen-, ródor-, sǽ-, segn-, self-, sige-, sóþ-, swegl-, þeóð-, þrym-, þryþ-, woruld-, wuldor-. and reigneth,' Relq. Ant. W. ii. 194. 4. from the freedom with which the educated spoke of the Doom's Day Survey of William the Conquerer, indicating their love of freedom, we have no reason to suppose this oath was the first oath taken by kings in our limited monarchy. The spirit of the monks may be seen in the following extract from the Chronicle :-- Willelm, Engla landes cyng, ðe ðá wæs sittende on Normandige, forðig he áhte ǽgðer ge Engla land ge Normandige . . . sende ðá ofer eall Engla land into ǽlcere scíre his men . . . Swá swýde nearwe-líce he hit lett út aspyrian, ðæt næs án ǽlpig híde, ne án gyrde landes, UNCERTAIN ne, furðon, hit is sceame to tellanne, ac hit ne þuhte him nán sceame to dónne, án oxa [MS. oxe], ne án cú, ne án swín næs belyfon, ðæt næs gesæt on his gewrite, and ealle ða gewrita wǽron gebroht to him syððan William, king of England, who was then resident in Normandy, for he owned both England and Normandy . . . then sent his men over all England into each shire . . . So very narrowly did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a rood of land, nay, moreover, it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it, not an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was left, that was not set down in his writ, and all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him, Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 2-4. . . 24, 25 . . . 33-38. 5. the Anglo-Saxon king had royal power to pardon transgressors :-- Gif hwá in cyninges healle gefeohte, oððe his wǽpn gebrede, and hine mon gefó; sié ðæt on cyninges dóme, swá deáþ, swá líf, swá he him forgifan wille if any one fight in the king's hall, or draw his weapon, and he be taken; be it in the king's power, either death or life, or pardon, L. Alf. pol. 7; Th. i. 66, 8, 9. Sié on cyninges dóme hwæðer he líf áge ðe náge be it in the king's power whether he shall or shall not have life, L. In. 6; Th. i. 106, 3, 4. Búton him cyning [MS. kyning] árian wille unless the king will be merciful to him, 36; Th. i. 124, 19. Ðæt he wǽre his feores scyldig, búton he cyng gesóhte, and he him his feorh forgifan wolde; eall swá hit ǽr æt Greátan leá and æt Exan ceastre and æt þunres felda gecweden wæs that he should be liable in his life, unless he should flee to the king, and he should give him his life; all as it was before ordained at Greatley and at Exeter and at Thundersfield, L. Ath. v. § 1, 4; Th. i. 230, 6-9: L. Edm. S. 6; Th. i. 250, 11: L. Edg. ii. 7; Th. i. 268, 24, 25: L. Eth. iii. 16; Th. i. 298, 14: vii. 9; Th. i. 330, 24. 6. of all forfeits the king had one half -- to healfum :-- Fó se cyng to healfum, -- to healfum ða men ðe on ðære ráde beón let the king take possession of half, of [the other] half the men, who may be in the riding [shall take possession], L. Ath. i. 20; Th. i. 210, 6, 7. 7. treasure-trove, or treasure or money found, of which the owner was unknown, belonged to the king. It is designated in Anglo-Saxon charters by the words -- ealle hordas búfan eorþan, and binnan eorþan all hoards above the earth, and within the earth. As we learn from Beowulf, in early and heathen times, much treasure was buried in the mound raised over the ashes of the dead, besides what was burned with the body :-- Hí on beorg dydon bégas [MS. beg] and siglu, forléton eorla gestreón eorþan healdan, gold on greóte, ðǽr hit nú gén lífaþ yldum UNCERTAIN swá unnyt swá hit ǽr wæs they placed rings and jewels in the mound, they left the treasure of earls to the earth to hold, gold in the dust, where it now yet remains as useless to men as it was before, Beo. Th. 6307-6318; B. 3164-3169. The legend of Guthlac [about A. D. 700, v. Crúland] supplies a very early instance of the search for gold and silver in the mounds :-- Wæs ðǽr on ðam eálande sum hláw mycel ofer eorþan geworht, ðone ylcan men iú geára for feós wilnunga gedulfon and brǽcon: ðá wæs ðǽr on óðre sídan ðæs hláwes gedolfen swylce mycel wæterseáþ wǽre there was on the island a great mound raised upon the earth, which some men of yore had dug and broken up in hopes of treasure: then there was dug up on the other side of the mound as it were a great water-pit, Guthl. 4; Gdwin. 26, 4-8. 8. Pastus or Convivium = Cyninges feorm. The king visited different districts personally or by deputy to see that justice was done to all his subjects. In these periodical journeys the king received support and entertainment wherever he went. Hence perhaps the privileges of our judges. In A. D. 814 Cénwulf released the bishop of Worcester fróm UNCERTAIN a pastus of twelve men, whom he was bound to find. This was so great an expense that the exemption was worth an estate of thirteen hides, v. Cod. Dipl. 203; A. D. 814; Kmbl. i. 256. 9. Vigilia = heáfodweard head ward, or a proper watch set over the king, which he claimed when he came into any district. The sǽweard or coast guard was also a regal right, performed by the tenants of those land owners whose estates lay contiguous to the sea. 10. the mint or coinage of money. The king exercised a superintendence over the circulating medium. Æðelrǽd not only enacted that there should be no moneyers besides the king's, but that their number should be diminished :-- Nán man ne áge nǽnne mynetere búton cyng let no man have a moneyer except the king, L. Eth. iii. 8; Th. i. 296, 15. Ut monetarii pauciores sint quam antea fuerint, iv. 9; Th. i. 303, 2. ll. the grant of a market, with power to levy tolls, was also a royalty, Cod. Dipl. 1075; A. D. 873-899; Kmbl. v. 142: 1084; A. D. 904; Kmbl. v. 157. v. The Rights of Anglo-Saxon Kings, explained more fully in Kemble's Saxons in England, 2 vols. 8vo. 1849. Bk. ii. chap. 2; vol. ii. pp. 29-103. [Prompt. kynge: Wyc. kyng: Piers P. Chauc. king: R. Glouc. kyng: Laym. Orm. king: Plat. köni'g: O. Sax. kuning, cunig, m: Frs. kening: O. Frs. kining, kinig, kening, keneng, koning: Dut. koning, m: Kil. koningh, m: Ger. könig, m: M. H. Ger. künic, künec, künc, m: O. H. Ger. kuning, m; Dan. kouning, konge, m: Swed. konung, kong, kung, m: Icel. konungr, kóngr, m: Lett. kungs dominus.] DER. æðel-cyning, Angel-, beorn-, brýten-, eorþ-, éðel-, folc-, gást-, geár-, gúþ-, hǽðen-, heáh-, heofon-, leód-, mægen-, ródor-, sǽ-, segn-, self-, sige-, sóþ-, swegl-, þeód-, þrym-, þryþ-, woruld-, wuldor-.

cyning-bald; adj. Kingly or nobly bold; nobiliter audax :-- Férdon forþ cyningbalde men the nobly bold men went forth, Beo. Th. 3273; B. 1634.

cyning-cynn, es; n. [cynn a sort, race, v. cynn] A royal race; regium genus :-- Of ðæs strýnde monigra mǽgþa cyningcynn fruman lǽdde the royal race of many tribes drew its beginning from his stock, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 30. Eanfriþ wæs ðære mǽgþe cyningcynnes Eanfrith was of the royal race of that province, 3, 1; S. 523, 14. Penda wæs se fromesta esne of Mercna cyningcynne Penda was the boldest man of the royal race of the Mercians, 2, 20; S. 521, 9. v. cyne-cyn.

cyning-dóm, es; m. [-dom dominion, power] Kingly power, a KINGDOM; regimen, regnum :-- Cyningdom habban to have kingly power, Cd. 173; Th. 216, 7; Dan. 3. Metod ðec aceorfeþ of cyningdóme the lord will cut thee off from thy kingdom, 202; Th. 251, 24; Dan. 568. Caldéas cyningdóm áhton the Chaldeans held the kingdom, 209; Th. 258, 24; Dan. 680. v. cyne-dóm.

Cyninges tún Kingston, Chr. 979; Th. 235, 9, col. 1. v. Cynges tún.

cyninges wyrt, e; f. The herb marjoram; sampsuchum = GREEK, origanum majorana, Lin :-- Cyninges wyrt sampsuchum, Mone A. 529.

cyning-feorm, cyninges feorm, e; f. [feorm food, support] Royal purveyance, tribute for the royal household; regis firma :-- Ic heó gefreóge écelíce ðæs gafoles, ðe hió nú get to cyninges handa ageofan sceolan of ðam dǽle ðe ðǽr ungefreód to láfe wæs ðære, cyningfeorme, ge on hlutrum alaþ, ge on beóre, ge on hunige, ge hryðrum, ge on swýnum, ge on sceápum I free them for ever from the impost which they have still to pay into the king's hand, from that portion, which was there left unfreed of the royal purveyance, whether in pure ale, or in beer, or in honey, or in oxen, or in swine, or in sheep, Cod. Dipl. 313; A. D. 883; Kmbl. ii. 111, 4-9. Ðe cyninges feorm to belimpe to which the royal purveyance belongs, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 60, 24.

cyning-gereord, -gereorde, es; n. [gereord food, a repast, feast] A royal feast; regis convivium :-- Cyning-gereorde fercula, Cot. 93.

cyning-gierela, an; m. A royal crown, diadem; regalis tænia [= GREEK ] diadema = GREEK, Som. Ben. Lye.

cyning-ríce a kingdom, Som. Ben. Lye. v. cyne-ríce.

cyn-líc; adj. [cyn suitable, fit] Becoming, fitting; dĕcōrus :-- Suilce iów cynlíc þynce as to you may seem fitting, Th. Diplm. A. D. 804-829; 461, 36. Swá him rihtlíc and cynlíc þince as to them may seem just and becoming, Th. Diplm. A. D. 905; 493, 12.

cyn-líce; adv. Becomingly, fitly; congruenter :-- Hí cynlíce to ðé cleopiaþ they fitly call upon thee, Ps. Th. 64, 14: 118, 57, 82, 145, 147: 126, 2.

cynn, es; n. A sort, kind; genus, Ps. Th. 144, 13. v. cyn.

cynn suitable, fit, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 162, 24: L. In. 42; Th. i. 128, 11. MS. H. v. cyn.

cynnan to declare, clear, prove; advocāre, purgāre, manifestāre :-- Gif he cynne ðæt he hit bohte if he declare that he bought it, L. Edg. S. 11; Th. i. 276, 12, note 7. v. cennan II.

cynnestre, an; f. [cennan to bring forth, -estre a female termination, q. v.] One who brings forth, a mother; genitrix, mater :-- Ðæt cild oncneów Marian stemne, cynnestran the child knew the voice of Mary, the mother, Homl. Th. i. 352, 27.

cynning-stán, es; m. [cennan II. to try, prove; stán a stone] A trying-stone; tessera :-- Cynning-stán on tæfle a little wooden tower on the side of a gaming-board, hollow and having steps inside, through which the dice were thrown upon the board; pyrgus [= GREEK ], turricula, Ælfc. Gl. 61; Som. 68, 65; Wrt. Voc. 39, 48.

cynn-recceniss, e; f. [reccenys a narration, history] A reckoning of relationship, a genealogy; genealogia, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 1, title.

cyn-recen; gen. -recenne; f. A pedigree, genealogy, parentage; generatio, genealogia, parentela, Som. Ben.

cyn-ren, -ryn, es; n. [cyn a kindred, race, nation, family, generation; ren, ryn a course] A family course, family, generation, kind, nation, posterity; generatio, genus, natio, progenies, propago :-- He forlét his ríce and his cynren he left his country and his family, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 27. Cynren generatio, Wrt. Voc. 72, 49. Ðis ys Thares cynryn this is the generation of Terah, Gen. 11, 27. On cynrynum cynrena [MS. kynrynum kynrena] in generationes generationum, Ps. Lamb. 71, 5. On ðam fiftan dæge úre Drihten gesceóp ða mycelan hwalas on heora cynrynum on the fifth day our Lord created the great whales with their kinds, Hexam. 8; Norm. 14, 8. Fisc sceal on wætere cynren cennan [MS. cynran cennen] a fish shall propagate, his kind in the water, Menol. Fox 515; Gn. C. 28. Cynrenu genera, Scint. 53. Ic andette ðé on cynrenum [cynrenon MS.], Drihten confitebor tibi in nationibus, Domine, Ps. Spl. 17, 51. Lá ge nædrena cynryn progenies viperarum, Mt. Bos. 12, 34. Cynren propago, Ælfc. Gl. 91; Som. 75, 17; Wrt. Voc. 51, 62.

Cynríc, es; m. Cynric, the second king of the West Saxons, son of Cerdic, q. v; Cynrīcus :-- Hér, A. D. ccccxcv, cóman twegen ealdormen on Brytene, Cerdic and Cynríc his sunu, mid v scipum on ðone stede ðe is gecweden Cerdices óra, and ðý ilcan dæge hie gefuhtan wið Wealum here, A. D. 495, come two aldormen to Britain, Cerdic and Cynric his son, with five ships, at the place which is called Cerdic's shore [on the south of Dorsetshire, v. Cerdices óra], and on the same day they fought against the Welsh, Chr. 495; Th. 24, 26-33. Hér Cerdic forþférde, and Cynríc his sunu rícsode forþ xxvi wintra in this year [A. D. 534] Cerdic died, and Cynric his son reigned for twenty-six years, 534; Erl. 14. 32.

cyn-ryn, es; n. A family course, generation; generatio, progenies, Gen. 11, 27: Ps. Lamb. 71, 5: Hexam. 8; Norm. 14, 8: Mt. Bos. 12, 34. v. cyn-ren.

CYP; gen. cyppes; m. A CHIP, beam, log, trunk of a tree; festuca, trabs, stipes :-- Cyppes stipĭtis, Gloss. Prudent. Recd. 148, 80. Cyp stipitem, 150, 39. [Prompt. chyppe assula: Chauc. chippes, pl: R. Brun. chip: Kil. kippen cudere: Icel. kippa to pull, snatch; kippr, m. a pull, shock, spasm.]

cýp, e; f. A measure, bushel; modius, dolium :-- Under cýpe sub modio, Mt. Kmbl. Hat. 5, 15. Cýpe dolium, Mone B. 3630. v. cýf.

cýpa, cépa, an; m. [ceáp II]. I. a factor, merchant, trader; negotiator, mercator :-- Ðá ðǽr fóron Madianisce cýpan then there passed Midianitish merchants, Gen. 37, 28. Cýpa mercator, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 140, 38. Ðás hálgan cýpan, Petrus and Andreas, mid heora nettum and scipe him dæt éce líf geceápodon these holy traders, Peter and Andrew, with their nets and ship bought for themselves everlasting life, Homl. Th. i. 580, 19. Drihten adrǽfde ðillíce cýpan of ðam hálgan temple the Lord drove such chapmen from the holy temple, 406, 24. II. what a merchant has his goods in, -- A basket; cofínus = GREEK :-- Man nam ða gebrotu ðe ðár belifon, twelf cýpan fulle sublatum est quod superfuit illis, fragmentorum cophĭni [ GREEK ] duodecim, Lk. Bos. 9, 17. [Scot. couper, coper one who buys and sells: O. Frs. kapere, m. a purchaser; Dut. kooper, m: Ger. käufer, m: M. H. Ger. koufer, m; O. H. Ger. koufári, m: Dan. kjöber: Swed. köpare, m: Lat. caupo a merchant: Grk. GREEK one who sells provisions: Lith. kupczus mercator.] DER. mynet-cýpa.

cýpan, cípan; iccýpe, ðú cýpest, cýpst, he cýpeþ, cýpþ, pl. cýpaþ; p. cýpte, ðú cýptest, pl. cýpton, cíptun To sell; vendere :-- Ic wylle cýpan volo vendere, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 19. Ic cýpe míne þingc ego vendo meas res, 26, 33. Hwǽr cýpst ðú fixas ðine ubi vendis pisces tuos? 23, 21. Ðú sældest vel cýptest folc ðín vendidisti populum tuum, Ps. Spl. T. 43, 14. Sǽde ðám ðe ða culfran cýpton dixit his qui columbas vendebant, Jn. Bos. 2, 16. Gáþ to ðám cýpendum and bycgaþ eów ele ite ad vendentes et emite vobis oleum, Mt. Bos. 25, 9: Gen. 47, 20. [Prompt. chepyn' licitari: Chauc. chepe to buy, market: Piers P. chepen to buy: Scot. coup to buy and sell: Plat. kopen, köpen to buy: O. Sax. kópón to bargain: Frs. keapjen: O. Frs. kapia to buy: Dut. koopen to buy: Ger. kaufen: M. H. Ger. koufen: O. H. Ger. koufén, koufón mercari: Goth. kaupon to bargain: Dan. kjöbe to buy: Swed. köpa to buy; Icel. kaupa, p. keypti to bargain.] DER. be-cýpan, ge-. v. ceápian.

cýpe-cniht, es; m. A bought servant, slave; venalis puer, servus :-- Ðá geseah he cýpecnihtas he then saw slaves, Homl. Th. ii. 120, 18.

cýpe-man, -mann, es; m. A merchant, Bd. 2, 1; S. 501, 4. v. ceáp-man.

cypera, an; m. A KIPPER, salmon in the state of spawning; salmo ova gignens :-- Ðonne eów fón lysteþ leax oððe cyperan when you desire to catch a salmon or a kipper, Bt. Met. Fox 19, 23; Met. 19, 12.

cyperen; adj. Coppery, belonging to copper; æreus :-- Seóþ on cyperenum citele seethe it in a copper kettle, L. M. 1, 15; Lchdm. ii. 56, 19. Dó on cyperen fæt put it into a copper vessel, 1, 2; Lchdm. ii. 36, 1. Gemultan ealle ða anlícnessa togædere, ðe ðǽr binnan wǽrah, ge gyldene, ge sylfrene, ge ǽrene, ge cyperene all the statues, which were in it, of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of copper, were melted together, Ors. 5, 2; Bos. 101, 22. Forðonðe he forgnáþ gatu cyperene quia contrivit portas æreas, Ps. Spl. 106, 16. Cyperen hwer a copper ewer or vessel; cucuma, Ælfc. Gl. 26; Som. 60, 83; Wrt. Voc. 25, 23.

cýpe-þing; pl. n. Saleable things, merchandise; merces, Cot. 133. v. cépe-þing.

cýping, cýpingc, cíping, e; f. [ceáping, ceáp a price, q. v. II]. I. a bargaining, setting a price, marketing, chapping, traffic; negotiatio, nundina :-- Ðæt nán cýping ne sý Sunnan dagum that no marketing be on Sundays, L. Ath. i. 24; Th. i. 212, 15: v. 10; Th. i. 240, 9. Ða ealdorbiscopas geþafedon ðæt ðǽr cýping binnan gehæfd wǽre the high-priests allowed chapping to be held therein, Homl. Th. i. 406, 6. Cýpingc negotiatio, Ælfc. Gl. 81; Som. 73, 18; Wrt. Voc. 47, 25. Sunnan dæges cýpinge we forbeódaþ æghwár we forbid Sunday's traffic everywhere, L. N. P. L. 55; Th. ii. 298, 21. Cýpingce, L. C. E. 15; Th. i. 368, 15. Ne fortruwige he hiene æt ðære cípinge let them not be too confident of their bargain, Past. 44, 6; Hat. MS. 62b, 9. Cýpinga nundinæ, Ælfc. Gr. 13; Som. 16, 21. Ðæt hí Sunnan dæges cýpinga georne geswícan that they strictly abstain from Sunday marketings, L. Eth. vi. 44; Th. i. 326, 21: vi. 22; Th. i. 320, 12: v. 13; Th. i. 308, 11: ix. 17; Th. i. 344, 7. II. a market-place, market; forum :-- Ðæs túnes cýping and seó innung ðara portgerihta gange into ðære hálgan stówe let the market of the town and the revenue of the port dues go to the holy place, Cod. Dipl. 598; A. D. 978; Kmbl. iii. 138, 10. To-middes ðære cýpinge in the midst of the market, M. H. 117a. Andlang strǽte út on ða cýpinge, swá up anlang cýpinge along the road out to the market-place, so up along the market-place, Cod. Dipl. 720; A. D. 1012; Kmbl. iii. 359, 12, 13.

cýp-man; gen. -mannes; m. A chapman, merchant; mercator :-- Ða cýpmen binnon ðam temple getácnodon unrihtwíse láreówas on Godes gelaðunge the chapmen within the temple betokened unrighteous teachers in God's church, Homl. Th. i. 410, 35: ii. 120, 15. Drihten adrǽfde of ðam temple ða cýpmen the Lord drove the chapmen from the temple, i. 406, 1. Sume synt cýpmenn alii sunt mercatores, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 7. Be cýpmanna fóre of the journeying of chapmen, L. In. 25; Th. i. 118, 11, note 27, B. G. v. ceáp-man.

Cyppan-ham, -hamm Chippenham, Wilts :-- Hér hine bestæl se here to Cyppanhamme here the army stole itself away to Chippenham, Chr. 878; Th. 146, 21, col. 2, 3; 880; Th. 148, 39, col. 3. v. Cippan-ham.

cypresse, an; f. The cypress; cupressus [= GREEK ], cupressus sempervirens, Lin :-- Of cypressan from the cypress, Lchdm. iii. 118, 21.

cypsed; pp. Bound, fettered; compeditus. DER. ge-cypsed. v. cyspan.

cýp-strǽt, e; f. [cýp = ceáp II, strǽt a street] A street or place for merchandise, cheap street; vicus mercatorius :-- Andlang cýpstrǽte along cheap street, Cod. Dipl. 1291; A. D. 996; Kmbl. vi. 135, 17.

cyrc, e; f. A church; ecclesia :-- Cristes cyrc Christ's church, Chr. 1066; Erl. 202, 1. In ðære cyrce in the church, 1070; Erl. 209, 40. Ða cyrce the church, 1070; Erl. 209, 36. v. cyrce, cyrice,

cyrc-bræce, es; m. Church-breach, a breaking into a church; in ecclesiarn irruptio :-- Ða heáfodleahtras sind, mansliht, cyrcbræce, etc. the chief sins are, murder, church-breach, etc. Homl. Th. ii. 592, 4. v. ciric-bryce.

cyrce; gen. cyrcan, cyrcean; f. A church; ecclesia :-- Seó cyrce mid hire portice mihte fíf bund manna eáðelíce befón on hire rýmette the church with her porch could easily contain in its space five hundred men, Homl. Th. i. 508, 13: ii. 584, 3: 592, 22, Cyrcan duru a church's door, i. 64, 31. Grist is se grundweall ðære gástlícan cyrcan Christ is the foundation of the spiritual church, ii. 588, 22. Ne sceal cyrcean timber to ænigum óðrum weorce, húton to óðre cyrcean ligna ecclesiæ non debent ad aliud opus poni, nisi ad aliam ecclesiam, L. Ecg. P. A. 16; Th. ii. 234, 16, 17. v. cyrice.

cyrce weard a warden ofthe church, sacristan, Chr. 1070; Erl. 207, 33. v. cyric-weard, cyrc-weard.

cyrc-hálgung hallowing or consecrating a church, Homl. Th. ii. 582, 27. v. cyric-hálgung.

cyrc-líc ecclesiastical, Chr. 716; Th. 70, 35, col. 3: L. Ælf. C. 33; Th. ii. 356, 13: Homl. Th. i. 600, 8. v. cyric-líc.

cyrc-þénung church-service, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 145, 81. v. ciric-þénung.

cyrc-þingere, es; m. A priest; sacerdos :-- Sacerd vel cyrcþingere sacerdos, Ælfc. Gl. 68; Som. 70, 14; Wrt. Voc. 42, 23. v. þingere II, cyric-þingere.

cyrc-weard, cyric-, -werd, es; m. A churchwarden, sacristan; ecclesiæ custos, sacri scriniarius :-- Cyrcweardes þénung a churchwarden's duty, Greg. Dial. 1, 5. Æðelstán cyric-weard [MS. -wyrd] féng to ðam abbodríce æt Abban dúne Æthelstan, warden ofthe church, succeeded to the abbacy at Abingdon, Chr. 1044; Th. 300, 26. Cyrcweard sacri scriniarius, Ælfc. Gl. 114; Som. 80, 23; Wrt. Voc. 61, 4. Cyrcwerd ædituus, R. Conc. 1. Se bisceop befran ðone cyrcweard hwǽr ðæs hálgan wǽpnu wǽron the bishop asked the sacristan where the weapons of the saint were, Homl. Th. i. 452, 2. Ðá wæs án cyrce weard Yware wæs geháten there was a sacristan called Yware, Chr. 1070; Erl. 207, 33.

cyrde, pl. cyrdon turned, returned, Lk. Bos. 14, 21: Jn. Bos. 6, 66; p. of cyrran.

cyre, es; m. [ceósan to choose] Choice, free choice, free will; electio, hærĕsis = GREEK, optio, arbitrium :-- Cyre [MS. kyre] hæresis, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 84; Wrt. Voc. 16, 55. Cyre optio, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 146, 52. God forgeaf him ágenne eyre, forðanðe ðæt is rihtwísnys ðæt gehwylcum sý his ágen cyre geþafod God gave them their own free will, for it is righteousness that to every one be allowed his own free will, Homl. Th. i. 112, 4, 5, 8, 11, 22: 12, 14: 110, 35: 292, 32: ii. 490, 16. Ic wylle ðæt hý sýn heora freólses wyrðe and hyra cyres I will that they be worthy of their freedom and their free will, Cod. Dipl. 314; A. D. 880-885; Kmbl. ii. 116, 30. Hwí wæs se man betǽht to his ágenum cyre why was the man [Adam] committed to his own free will? Boutr. Scrd. 17, 25. Mid cyre arbitrio, Mone B. 1344: 2616. [Laym. cure, m. choice: Plat. köre election: Dut. keur, f. choice; Kil. keur, kore optio, electio, arbitrium: Ger. kür, kur, chur, f. election: M. H. Ger. kúr, kúre, f. examination, election: O. H. Ger. churi, f. deliberatio, electio: Dan. kaar, n. choice: Swed. kor electio: Icel. kjörr, keyr, n. choice, decision]

cyre-áþ, es; m. [cyre a choice, áþ an oath] The select oath, the oath sworn by the accused, together with a certain number of consacramentals selected by him out of a fixed number of persons named to him by the judge; juramentum electum, quod quis præstabat cum aliquot coujura-toribus ab ipso selectis e quibusdam a judice nominatis [Schmd. 566] :-- Nemne him man x men and begite ðara twegen and sylle ðone áþ . . . and stande ðæs cyre-áþ ofer xx peninga let there be named ten men to him and let him get two of them and give the oath . . . and let his select oath stand for over twenty pence, L. Ath. i. 9; Th. i. 204, 15. v. un­gecoren áþ.

cyre-bald bold in decision; arbltrii strenuus. v. cire-bald.

cyre-líf, es; n. A choice of life, where on decease of a lord, the cultivators choose a lord for themselves; optio vitæ, ubi, mortuo domino, villani sibi dominum eligunt :-- Ic bidde, on Codes naman, and on his háligra, ðæt mínra maga nán ne yrfewearda ne geswence nán nǽnig cyrelíf ðara ðe ic foregeald, and me West-Seaxena wítan to rihte gerehton, ðæt ic hí mót lǽtan swá freó swá þeówe, swáðer ic wille; ac ic, for Godes lufan and for mínre sáwle þearfe, wylle ðæt hý sýn heora freólses wyrðe and hyra cyres; and ic, on Godes lifiendes naman, beóde ðæt hý nán man ne brócie, ne mid feós manunge, ne mid nǽnigum þingum, ðæt hý ne mótan ceósan swylcne mann swylce hý wyllan I pray in the name of God, and his saints, that no one of my kinsmen nor heirs molest any choice of life of those for whom I have paid, and the witan of the West Saxons have rightly confirmed to me, that I might leave them either free or servile, as I will; but I, for love of God and for my soul's need, will that they be entitled to their freedom and their choice; and I, in the name of the living God, command that no man oppress them, either by exaction of money, or in any other way, so that they may not choose whatever lord they will, Cod. Dipl. 314; A. D. 880-885; Kmbl. ii. 116, 24-33.

cyren must, wine boiled down; dulcisapa :-- Awilled wín vel cyren dulcisapa, Cot. 62. v. a-willan, ceren.

Cyren-ceaster, Cyrn-ceaster Cirencester, Cicester, Gloucestershire :-- Æt Cyrenceastre at Cirencester, Chr. 1020; Th. 286, 12, col. 2: Ors. 5, 12; Bos. 110, 22. v. Ciren-ceaster.

cyrf, e; f? A cutting off, an instrument to cut with; abscissio, ferrum abscissionis :-- Cyrf abscissio, R. Ben. 28. Be ðisum cyrfe of this cutting, Homl. Th. ii. 406. 33. Cyrf ferrum abscissionis, C. R. Ben. 40. DER. æ-cyrf, of-.

CYRFÆT, cyrfet, es; m? A gourd; cucurbita :-- Cyrfæt cucurbita, Ælfc. Gl. 43; Som. 64, 38; Wrt. Voc. 31, 48. Hwerhwettan oððe cyrfet gesihþ on swefnum untrumnysse getácnaþ to see in dreams a cucumber or a gourd betokens ailment, Somn. 43; Lchdm. iii. 200, 16. Wylde cyrfet wild gourd, colocynthis = GREEK, Ælfc. Gl. 39; Som. 63, 58; Wrt. Voc. 30, 12. Wild cyrfet vel hwit wíngeard bryonia = GREEK, 44; Som. 64, 81; Wrt. Voc. 32, 17. [Plat. körbs, körwitz, kürwes, m: Dut. kauwoerde, f. a gourd: Kil. kauwoorde, kouworde: Ger. kürbiss, m: M. H. Ger. kürbez, m: O. H. Ger. kurbiz, m: Fr. gourde, f: O. Fr. gougourde: Lat. cucurbita.]

cyrfel, es; m. [cyrf a cutting off] A little stake, a peg; paxillus :-- Cyrfel vel litel stigul [= sticel?] paxillus, Ælfc. Gl. 29; Som. 61, 46; Wrt. Voc. 26, 45.

cyrfille, an; f. Chervil; cærefolium :-- Nim cyrfillan take chervil, Lchdm. iii. 12, 13: 46, 25. v. cerfille.

cyrfst, he cyrfþ carvest, carves; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of ceorfan.

cyric a church. v. in the compounds cyric-ǽwe, -belle, -bóc, -bót, -bryce, -burh, -dór, -friþ, -fultum, -georn, -geriht, -griþ, etc.

cyric-ǽwe, ciric-ǽwe, es; n. An ecclesiastical marriage; ecclesiasticum matrimonium :-- Hí, þurh heálícne hád, ciricǽwe underféngan they, through holy orders, have entered into an ecclesiastical marriage, L. I. P. 23; Th. ii. 334, 14. v. cyric; ǽw, ǽwe.

cyric-belle a church-bell; ecclesiæ campana. v. ciric-belle.

cyric-bóc, e; f. A church-book; liber continens ritus et ceremonias ecclesiæ :-- To ǽghwælcre neóde man hæfþ on cyricbócum mæssan gesette masses for every necessity have been placed in church-books, Lupi Serm. 2, 3; Hick. Thes. ii. 107, 32.

cyric-bót, ciric-bót, e; f. Church-repair; ecclesiæ reparatio :-- To cyricbóte for church-repair, L. Eth. vi. 51; Th. i. 328, 6. To ciricbóte sceal eall folc fylstan mid rihte all people must lawfully give assistance to church-repair, L. C. S. 66; Th. i. 410, 12: L. Eth. ix. 6; Th. i. 342, 8.

cyric-bryce church-breach, a breaking into a church, L. Ath. i. 5; Th. i. 202, 6, MSS. B. L. v. ciric-bryce.

Cyric-burh; gen. -burge; dat. -byrig; f. [Hunt. Cereburih: Brom. Cyrebury: the church city] Chirbury, Shropshire; loci nomen in agro Salopiensi :-- Æðelflǽd ða burh getimbrede æt Cyricbyrig Æthelfled built the fortress at Chirbury, Chr. 913; Th. 186, 35, col. 2; 187, 35, col. 1.

cyric-dór a church-door; ecclesiæ porta. v. ciric-dor.

CYRICE, cirice, cyrce, circe; gen. an, ean; f: cyric, ciric, in the compound cyric-ǽwe, etc. q. v. cyrc, e; f. circ, in the compound circ-líc, etc. q. v. I. the CHURCH as a temporal and spiritual body; ecclesia = GREEK :-- Seó cyrice on Breotone hwæt hwugu fæc sibbe hæfde the church in Britain for some time had peace, Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 17. Seó Godes circe, seó circe ǽfyllendra the church of God, the church of the faithful, Exon. 18a; Th. 44, 8, 16; Cri. 699, 703. To ðære ánnesse ðære hálgan Cristes cyrican to the unity of Christ's holy church, Bd. 1, 26; S. 488, 13. Agustinus on Cent ðære frymþelícan cyrican líf and láre wæs onhýrigende Augustine in Kent imitated the life and lore of the early church, 1, 26; S. 487, 27. Gregorius féng to biscopháde ðære Rómániscan cyrican Gregory succeeded to the bishopric of the Roman church, 1, 23; S. 485, 23; 1, 4; S. 475, 29. Ongunnon hí ðæt apostolíce líf ðære frymþelícan cyricean onhýrigean they began to imitate the apostolic life of the early church, Bd. 1, 26; S. 487, 32. Fram ðam biscope ðære Rómániscan cyricean by the bishop of the Roman church, 1, 13; S. 481, 38. On Norþanhymbra þeóde and cyrican in the nation and church of the Northumbrians, 2, 20; S. 521, 19. On ðære hálgan Rómánisce cyricean in the holy Roman church, 1, 27; S. 489, 33, 38. Hǽlend Crist is se grundweall ðære gástlícan cyrcan Jesus Christ is the foundation of the spiritual church, Homl. Th. ii. 588, 22. Ealle Godes cyrcan sind getealde to ánre cyrcan, and seó is geháten gelaðung all God's churches are accounted as one church, and that is called a congregation, ii. 580, 22. On ciricean Grist Drihten God bletsige in ecclesiis benedicite Dominum Deum, Ps. Th. 67, 24. Hí hýndon and hergedon Godes cyrican they oppressed and harried God's church, Bd. 1, 6; S. 476, 21. Crist getimbrode ða gástlícan cyrcan, ná mid deádum stánum ac mid lybbendum sáwlum Christ built the spiritual [lit. ghostly] church, not with dead stones but with living souls, Homl. Th. ii. 580, 12. II. a church, the material structure; ecclesia :-- Ðǽr wæs cyrice geworht a church was built there, Bd. 1, 7; S. 479, 6: 1, 26; S. 487, 42. Wæs cirice gehálgod a church was consecrated, Andr. Kmbl. 3291; An. 1648. Ðæt seó cyrce afealle that the church may f all down, Homl. Th. i. 70, 27. Godes cyrce is úre gebédhús God's church is our prayer-house, ii. 584, 3. Circe ecclesia, Ælfc. Gl. 107; Som. 78, 82; Wrt. Voc. 57, 58. Awriten mid ðám bródrum ðære cyricean æt Lindesfarena written by the brethren of the church at Lindesfarne, Bd. pref; S. 472, 39. Nim úre cyrcan máðmas take our church's treasures, Homl. Th. i. 418, 14, 17. Nis ná alýfed ðæt ðæs mynstres hláford sylle ðære cyrcean land to óðre cyrcean non licet monasterii domino terram ecclesiæ alii assignare ecclesiæ, L. Ecg. P. A. 25; Th. ii. 236, 15, 16. Ceadwala cining wæs gebyrged innan Sc̃e Petres cyrican king Ceadwalla was buried in St. Peter's church [at Rome], Chr. 688; Erl. 43, 7. Hí on cyrican in Eoferwícceastre bebyrigde wǽron they were buried in the church at York, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 2. Æðelbyrht cyning on cyricean ðara eádigra apostola Petrus and Paulus bebyriged wæs king Æthelbert was buried in the church of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul, 2, 5; S. 506, 22. On eorþlícere cyrcan líþ stán ofer stáne in an earthly church stone lies over stone, Homl. Th. ii. 582, 17: i. 453, 2: 504, 8: 506, 11, 18. Se Cénwalh hét atimbrian ða cyrican on Wintan-ceastre Cenwalh commanded the church at Winchester to be built, Chr. 641; Erl. 27, 13. Eádwine cyning wæs gefullod fram Pauline ðam bisceope on Eoferwícceastre, ðý hálgestan Eásterdæge, on sancti Petres cyricean ðæs apostoles, ðá he ðǽr hræde geweorce of treówe cyricean getimbrede, syððan he gecristnad wæs . . . and sóna ðæs ðe he gefullad wæs, he ongan, mid ðæs bisceopes láre, máran cyrican and hýhran stǽnene timbrian, and wyrcean ymb ða cyrican útan ðe he ǽr worhte king Edwin was baptized by bishop Paulinus on the most holy Easter day, in the church of St. Peter the apostle at Fork, when he had there built a church of wood, with hasty work, after he was christened. . . and soon after he was baptized, he began, by the bishop's advice, to build a larger and higher church of stone, and to construct it about the church which he had formerly wrought, Bd. 2, 14; S. 517, 22-30: Chr. 626; Erl. 23, 40; 25, 2: Bd. 2, 3; S. 504, 23, 27: 2, 14; S. 518, 18: 2, 16; S. 519, 22. Hió cirican getimbrede, tempel Drihtnes, on Caluarie she built a church, a temple of the Lord, on Calvary, Elen. Kmbl. 2014; El. 1008. Se hét ciricean getimbran, Godes tempel he commanded a church to be built, a temple of God, Andr. Kmbl. 3265; An. 1635. Hí ðǽrofer cyrcan arǽrdon and weofod they raised a church and altar thereover, Homl. Th. i. 506, 15, 19, 25, 35. Ne wǽron cyrican getimbrede churches were not built, Bd. 2, 14; S. 518, 16. Ða menigfealdan cyrcan ateoriaþ the manifold churches will decay, Homl. Th. ii. 582, 6. Ða cyrcean, ðe beóþ fram ðám bisceopum gehálgode, sceolon mid hálig wætere beón geondstrédde ecclesiæ, ab episcopis illis consecratæ, aqua benedicta debent aspergi, L. Ecg. P. A. 5; Th. 232, 20. On éhtnysse Godes cyrcena in the persecution of God's churches, Bd. l, 6; S. 476, 22. On ðám lácum geleáfsumra ðe hí to Godes cyricum bringaþ of the gifts of the faithful which they bring to God's churches, 1, 27; S. 488, 39. On Cristes cyrican ða ðe on Brytene wǽron in Christ's churches which were in Britain, 1, 8; S. 479, 26. Constantínus hét ðæt man cyricean timbrede, and ðæt man belúce ǽlc deófulgyldhús Constantine ordered churches to be built, and every heathen temple to be closed, Ors. 6, 30; 605. 127, 36: Bd. 1, 8; S. 479, 22, 23. Maximian, árleás cyning, cwealde cristne men, circan fylde Maximian, the wicked emperor, slew Christian men, overthrew churches, Exon. 65b; Th. 243, 4; Jul. 5. On ðison geáre barn Cristes cyre in this year [A. D. 1066] Christchurch [Canterbury] was burnt, Chr. 1066; Erl. 202, 1. Cyrice weard, cyrce weard a warden of a church, 1043; Erl. 169, 33: 1070; Erl. 207, 33. In ðæare cyrce in the church, 1070; Erl. 209, 40. Ða cyrce the churches, 1070; Erl. 209, 36. III. a heathen temple; templum paganum :-- Gebletsode Romulus mid ðara sweora blóde ða cyrican Romulus consecrated the temples with the blood of their fathers-in-law, Ors. 2, 2; Bos. 41, 7. [Prompt. chyrche: Wyc. cherche: Piers P. kirk: Chauc. chirche: R. Glouc. chirches, pl: Laym. chirche, chireche, f; Scot. kirk: Plat. karke, kerke: O. Sax. kirika, f: Frs. tjercke: O. Frs. kerke, sthereke, sziurke, tsiurike, f: Dut. kerk, f: Kil. kercke: Ger. M. H. Ger. kirche, f: O. H. Ger. kiricha, f: Dan. kirke, m. f: Swed. kyrka, f: Icel. kirkja, f: Grk. GREEK [ GREEK ] the Lord's [house].] DER. cyric-ǽwe, -belle, -bóc, -bót, -bryce, -burh, -dór, -friþ, -fultum, -georn, -geriht, -griþ, -hád, -hálgung, -líc, -mangung, -mitta, -neód, -nyt, -pæþ, -ragu, -réna, -sang, -sangere, -sceat, -sócn, -stíg, -þén, -þénung, -þingere, -tíd, -tún, -wæcce, -wǽd, -wag, -waru, -weard.

cyric-friþ, ciric-friþ, es; m. n. Church-peace, right of sanctuary; ecclesiæ pax :-- Cyricfriþ church-peace, L. Ethb. 1; Th. i. 2, 6. Ciric-friþes [cyric- MS. H.] to bóte as compensation for the church-peace, L. Alf. pol. 2; Th. i. 62, 5.

cyric-fultum church-help, ecclesiastical support. v. ciric-fultum.

cyric-georn; adj. Diligent in attending church; ad ecclesiam libenter frequens, L. Ecg. C. prm; Th. ii. 132, 15.

cyric-geriht, es; n. A church-due; ecclesiæ debitum :-- Hí gyrnaþ heora sceatta on teoðungum, and on eallum cyricgerihtum they desire their monies for tithes, and for all church-dues, L. I. P. 19; Th. ii. 328, 1.

cyric-griþ, es; n. Church-peace; ecclesiæ pax :-- Stande ǽlc cyricgriþ swá swá hit betst stód let every church-peace stand as it has best stood, L. Edg. i. 5; Th. i. 264, 25, MS. A. v. ciric-griþ.

cyric-hád, es; m. [hád II. degree, order] A church-degree, order of the church; ecclesiæ ordo :-- For ðám seofon cyrichádum [-hádan MS.] ðe se mæssepreóst, þurh Godes gife, geþeáh ðæt he hæfde, he biþ þegenrihtes wyrðe for the seven orders of the church, which the mass-priest, through the grace of God, has acquired, he is worthy of thane-right, L. O. 12; Wilk. 64, 41.

cyric-hálgung, cyrc-hálgung, e; f. Church-hallowing, consecration of a church; encænia = GREEK, ecclesiæ consecratio :-- Ðys sceal to cyric-hálgungum this shall be for the consecration of a church, Rubc. Jn. Bos. 10, 22; Notes, p. 580. Æt ðære ealdan cyrchálgunge at the old church-hallowing, Homl. Th. ii. 582, 27.

cyric-líc, circ-líc, cyrc-líc; adj. Like a church, ecclesiastical; ecclesiasticus :-- Cyriclíc wer vir ecclesiasticus, Bd. 2, 20; S. 522, 21. Magister cyriclíces sanges magister ecclesiasticæ cantionis, 2, 20; S. 522, 27. Fram ǽlcere cyriclícre gesamnunge a quaque ecclesiastica congregatione, L. Ecg. P. A. 30; Th. ii. 236, 35. Hie heóldan ða cyriclícan sceare they observed the ecclesiastical tonsure, Chr. 716; Th. 70, 34, col. 2. Ðæt cyriclíce stǽr úres eálondes and þeóde ic wrát on fíf béc I [Bede] wrote the ecclesiastical history of our island and nation in five books, Bd. 5, 24; S. 648, 31. Cyriclíce preóstas ecclesiasíici presbyteri, L. Ecg. P. A. 5; Th. ii. 232, 17. Monad mid gelomlícre smeáwunge and leornunge cyriclícra gewrita admonitus ecclesiasticarum frequenti meditatione scripturarum, Bd. 5, 21; S. 642, 26: 5, 23; S. 645, 15. Mid óðrum cyriclícum bócum cum cæteris ecclesiasticis voluminibus, 5, 20; S. 642, 1.

cyric-mangung church-mongering, simony, L. Eth. vi. 15; Wilk. 121, 19. v. ciric-mangung.

cyric-mitta a church-measure. v. ciric-mitta.

cyric-neód, e; f. Church-need; ecclesiæ necessitas :-- Riht is ðæt man betǽce ǽnne dǽl preóstum, óðerne dǽl to cyricneóde, þriddan dǽl ðám þearfum it is right that one part [of the alms] be delivered to the priests, a second part for the need of the church, a third part for the poor, L. Edg. C. 55, note 4; Th. ii. 256, 30.

cyric-nyt, -nytt church-duty or service. v. circ-nyt.

cyric-pæþ, es; m. A church-path; ad ecclesiam semita :-- Of ðære díce on ðæne cyricpæþ from the ditch to the church-path, Cod. Dipl. 736; A. D. 1021-1023; Kmbl. iv. 19, 9.

cyric-ragu church-lichen or moss. v. ciric-ragu.

cyric-réna, an; m. [rán robbery] Church-robbery, sacrilege; sacrilegium :-- On cyricrénan in sacrileges, L. Eth. vi. 28; Th. i. 322, 20.

cyric-sang, -song, es; m. A church-song; ecclesiasticum carmen :-- He ða cyricsangas lǽrde, ðe hí ǽr ne cúðan quæ illi non noverant, carmina ecclesiastica doceret, Bd. 5, 20; S. 642, 8. He wæs on cyric-songe se gelǽredesta qui cantandi in eeclesia erat peritissimus, 2, 20; S. 522, 25.

cyric-sangere, es; m. A church-singer; ecclesiæ cantator :-- He sumne æðelne cyricsangere begeat, se wæs Mafa háten he got a famous church-singer, who was named Mava, Bd. 5, 20; S. 642, 5.

cyric-sceat, ciric-sceat, es; m. Church-scot, church-money, tax or rate; ecclesiæ census. Church-scot was at first a certain measure of corn paid to the church. In a charter of Bishop Werfrith, those to whom it was granted, agreed, -- Ðæt hí agefen élce gére þreó mittan hwǽtes to ciric-sceatte to Clife that they should give yearly to Cliff three measures of wheat as church-scot, Bd. S. 772, 8. Be cyric-sceattum. Cyric-sceattas sín agifene be Sc̃e Martines mæssan. Gif hwá ðæt ne gelǽste, sié he scyldig lx scill and be xii fealdum agife ðone ciric-sceat of church-scots. Let church-scots be given at Martinmas. If any one do not perform that, let him forfeit sixty shillings, and give the church-scot twelvefold, L. In. 4; Th. i. 104, 8-11. Ðæt neád-gafol úres Drihtnes; ðæt sýn, úre teoðunga and cyric-sceattas the necessary tribute of our Lord; that is, our tithes and church-scots, L. Edg. S. 1; Th. i. 270, 25. Cyric-sceat was also a general word, and included not only corn, but poultry or any other provision, that was paid in kind to the church. So in the Inquisition of the Rents of the Abbey of Glastonbnry, A. D. 1201 :-- In church-scet lx gallinas et semen frumenti ad tres acras, Chartul. de Glaston. MS. f. 38: L. In. 61; Th. i. 140, 12-14: L. Ath. i. prm; Th. i. 196, 7-10: L. Edm. E. 2; Th. i. 244, 15-18: L. Edg. i. 2; Th. i. 262, 10-17: L. Eth. vi. 18; Th. i. 320, 1-2: L. Eth. ix. 11; Wilk. 114, 19-22; Th. i. 342, 27-29.

cyric-sócn a church-privilege, Cod. Dipl. 870; Kmbl. iv. 220, 19. v. ciric-sócn.

cyric-stíg, e; f. [stíg a way, path] A church-path; ad ecclesiam callis :-- Of ðam hylle on cyricstíge, of cyricstíge on ða blacan þyrnan from the hill to the church-path, from the church-path to the black-thorn, Cod. Dipl. 1368; Kmbl. vi. 220, 19, 20.

cyric-þén a minister of the church, L. I. P. 25; Th. ii. 340, 13. v. ciric-þén.

cyric-þénung church-service, L. I. P. 23; Th. ii. 334, 30. v. ciric-þénung.

cyric-þingere a priest, v. cyrc-þingere.

cyric-tíd, e; f. Church-time, time of service in a church; in ecclesia ministerii tempus :-- His cyrictída on rihtlícne tíman his church-hours at the right time, L. I. P. 8; Th. ii. 314, 20.

cyric-tún a church-inclosure, church-yard. v. ciric-tún.

cyric-wæcce a church-watch or wake, L. Edg. C. 28; Wilk. 84, 30. v. ciric-wæcce.

cyric-wǽd, e; f. A church-garment; ecclesiæ vestimentum :-- To cyricwǽdum [MS. -wædan] for church-garments, L. Eth. vi. 51; Th. i. 328, 8.

cyric-wag a church-wall, L. Eth. vii. 13; Wilk. 111, 17. v. ciric-wag.

cyric-waru, e; f. A church-congregation; in ecclesia congregatio :-- On cyricware in a church-congregation, L. O. 13; Th. i. 184, 12.

cyric-weard, -wyrd a churchwarden, Chr. 1044; Th. 300, 26, col. 1. v. cyrc-weard.

cyrin a churn; sinum, Wrt. Voc. 290, 31. v. ceren.

Cyring-ceaster Cirencester :-- Æt Cyringceastre at Cirencester, Chr. 1020; Th. 286, 13, col. 1. v. Ciren-ceaster.

cyrlisc rustic, rural; rusticus, L. In. 18; Th. i. 114, 6, note 8, B. v. ceorlisc.

cyrlisonys, -nyss, e; f. CHURLISHNESS, clownishness, rudeness; rusticitas, Som. Ben. Lye.

cyrm a noise, shout, uproar, Andr. Kmbl. 2313; An. 1158; Scint. 55: Cot. 86. v. cirm.

cyrman to cry out, shout, Cd. 166; Th. 207, 3; Exod. 461. v. cirman.

cyrn a churn; sinum. v. ceren.

Cyrn-ceaster Cirencester :-- On Cyrnceastre in Cirencester, Chr. 1020; Th. 287, 12, col. 1. v. Ciren-ceaster.

cyrnel, cyrnl; gen. es; dat. cyrnele; pl. nom. acc. cyrnlu; gen. cyrnla; n. m? I. a KERNEL, grain; nucleus, granum :-- Men geseóþ oft ðæt of ánum lytlum cyrnele cymþ micel treów; ac we ne mágon geseón on ðam cyrnele náðor ne wyrtruman, ne rinde, ne bogas, ne leáf; ac God forþtíhþ of ðam cyrnele treów, and wæstmas, and leáf men often see that of one little kernel comes a great tree; but in the kernel we can see neither root, nor rind, nor boughs, nor leaves; but from the kernel God draws forth tree, and fruits, and leaves, Homl. Th. i. 236, 16-20. Cyrnel granum, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 65, 8; Wrt. Voc. 33, 7. Nim ðone cyrnel ðe byþ innan ðan persogge take the kernel which is within the peach, Lchdm. iii. 102, 6. Genim of pínhnyte xx geclǽnsodra cyrnela take twenty [of] cleansed kernels of the nuts of the stone pine, L. M. 2, 2; Lchdm. ii. 180, 19. Sele ða cyrnlu ðæs eorþifiges on hátum wætre drincan give him the grains of the ground ivy in hot water to drink, 2, 39; Lchdm. ii. 248, 26. II. a hard concretion in the flesh, an indurated gland or strumous swelling; toles, glandulæ duriores, quæ succrescunt in isto tumore, quem strumam dicimus :-- Wið cyrnlu for kernels [or swelled glands], Herb. 14, 2; Lchdm. i. 106, 13, 19: Herb. cont. 4, 3; Lchdm. i. 8; 4, 3: 14, 2; Lchdm. i. 12; 14, 2: Herb. 4, 3; Lchdm. i. 90, 8: Med. ex Quadr. 3, 7; Lchdm. i. 340, 14. Lege ofer ða cyrnlu lay it over the kernels or swelled glands, Herb. 14, 2; Lchdm. i. 106, 19. Wið cyrnla sáre for sore of kernels or swelled glands, Med. ex Quadr. 6, 3; Lchdm. i. 352, 1. Lege to ðám cyrnlum [MS. -lun] lay to the kernels or swelled glands, Herb. 75, 5; Lchdm. i. 178, 13. [Prompt. kyrnel: Plat. karn: Dut. kern, f: Kil. kerne: Ger. kern, m: M. H. Ger. kërne, kërn, m: O. H. Ger. kerno, m: Dan. kjerne, m. f; Swed. kärna. f: Icel. kjarni, m.] DER. æppel-cyrnel.

cyrps; adj. Curly; crispus, tortus :-- He is blæcfexede and cyrps he is black-haired and curly, Homl. Th. i. 456, 17. Cyrpsum loccum with curly locks, Mone B. 1236.

cyrpsian; p. ode; pp. od To crisp, curl; crispare, asperare :-- Cyrpsiendum [MS. cyrpisiendum] crispantibus, Mone B. 1239. Cyrpsaþ [MS. cypsaþ] asperat, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 144, 61.

cyrr, cerr, cirr, cierr, es; m. A turn, space of time, an occasion, affair; versio, vices, temporis spatium, negotium :-- Æt ðam feórþan cyrre [sǽle, q. v.] at the fourth turn or time, Herb. 100, 3; Lchdm. i. 214, 5, 6, 7, 8: Gen. 38, 18. Æt sumum cyrre at some turn or time, when; aliquando, Lk. Bos. 22, 32. Se biþ abísgod, on færelde mid óðrum cierrum who is busied, in a journey with other affairs, Past. 4, 1; Hat. 9b, 7. [Laym. chærre, cherre: Plat. keer, kere, f: Dut. keer, m: Ger. kehr, kehre, f: M. H. Ger. kére, f. kér, m: O. H. Ger. kéra, f. kér, m.] DER. ed-cyrr, frum-, ofer-, on-, sǽ-.

cyrran, ic cyrre, ðú cyrrest, he cyrreþ, pl. cyrraþ; p. cyrde, pl. cyrdon; pp. cyrred. I. to turn; vertere :-- He clifu cyrreþ on wæteres wellan he turneth rocks into wells of water, Ps. Th. 113, 8. Gif ic míne gewǽda on wíte-hrægl cyme cyrde et posui vestimentum meum cilicium, Ps. Th. 68, 11. Cyrred, pp. turned, Exon. 107b; Th. 410, 25; Rä. 29, 4. II. to be turned, to turn himself, to go, return; verti, se vertĕre, ire, revèrti UNCERTAIN :-- Ðú wille cyrran thow wilt be turned, Cd. 91; Th. 115, 13. Nú cyrrest now turnest thyself, Elen. Kmbl. 1329; El. 666. Hí cyrraþ they return, Ps. Th. 69, 3. Cyrdon returned, Cd. 195; Th. 243, 8; Dan. 433. [Laym. charren: Scot. cair, kair to drive backwards and forwards: Plat. keren: O. Sax. kéran: Frs. keeren: O. Frs. kera: Dut. keeren: Kil. keren, kerien verrere: Ger. kehren verrere, vertere; M. H. Ger. kéren: O. H. Ger. kerjan verrere, vertere: Dan. kjöre: Swed. köra to drive: Icel. keyra to whip, lash, drive.] DER. a-cyrran, -cerran, be-, for-, ge-, mis-, ofer-, on-, ongeán-, to-, under-, ymb-.

cyrrednes, -ness, e; f. A turning, conversion; versio, conversio. v. a-cyrrednes, ge-.

cyrse, an; f. Cress; nasturtium, Lacn. 89; Lchdm. iii. 58, 22. V. cærse.

cyrs-treów, es; n. A cherry-tree; cerăsus = GREEK, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 64, 123; Wrt. Voc. 32, 57. v. ciris-beám.

CYRTEL, kyrtel; gen. cyrtles; m. A KIRTLE, vest, garment, frock; coat; palla, tunica :-- Cyrtel vel oferbrǽdels palla, Ælfc. Gl. 4; Som. 55, 86; Wrt. Voc. 16, 56. Ic gean sancte Æðelþryþe ánes wullenan cyrtles [kyrtles MS.] I give to saint Æthelthryth one woollen kirtle, Cod. Dipl. 782; A. D. 1046; Kmbl. iv. 107, 7. Bicgaþ cyrtlas buy kirtles, Homl. Th. i. 64, 13. Ðam ðe wylle on dóme wið ðé flítan, and niman ðíne tunecan [cyrtel oððe hrægl, Mt. Kmbl. Lind.] lǽt him tó ðínne wǽfels ei qui vult tecum judicio contendere et tunicam tuam tollere, dimitte ei et pallium, Mt. Bos. 5, 40; to hym that wole stryue with thee in dome, and take awey thi coote, leeue thou to hym and thin ouer clothe, Wyc. Næbbe ge ne twá tunecan [cyrtlas, Mt. Kmbl. Lind.] nolite possidere neque duas tunicas, 10, 10; nyl ʒe welden nether two cootis, Wyc: Lfc. Lind. War. 3, 11. Berenne cyrtel [kyrtel MS.] a bear-skin vest, Ors. 1, 1; Bos. 20, 38. [Prompt. kyrtyl tunica: Piers P. kirtel: R. Brun. kirtelle: Chauc. kirtel: Laym. curtel: Orm. kirrtell: Plat. kiddel: Dut. kiel, m: Kil. kedel, kele: Ger. kittel, m: M. H. Ger. kitel, kittel, m: Dan. kjortel, m. f: Swed. kjortel, m: Icel. kyrtill, m.]

cyrten; adj. Beautiful, elegant; venustus :-- Hlísful and cyrten famous and beautiful, Homl. Th. ii. 220, 29. Ful cyrtenu ceorles dóhtor a churl's very beautiful daughter, Exon. 106b; Th. 407, 16; Rä. 26, 6.

cyrten-lǽcan; p. -lǽhte; pp. -lǽht To make lovely, to beautify; venustare :-- Ic cyrtenlǽce venusto, Ælfc. Gl. 99; Som. 76, 115; Wrt. Voc. 54, 57.

cyrten-líce; adv. Notably, solemnly, cunningly; notabiliter, solemniter, subtiliter, Scint. 38.

CÝSE, cése, es; m: cysa, an; m. A CHEESE; caseus :-- Cýse caseus, Wrt. Voc. 82, 26: 290, 32. Níwe gáte cýse new goat's cheese, Med. ex Quadr. 6, 5, 6, 7; Lchdm. i. 352, 5, 7, 9. Ferscne cýse on lege lay on fresh cheese, L. M. 1, 39; Lchdm. ii. 102, 14: 1, 53; Lchdm. ii. 126, 1: Lchdm. iii. 96, 22. Nim cýsan take cheese, 96, 21. Tyn césas [cýsas B. H.] ten cheeses, L. In. 70; Th. i. 146, 19. [Prompt. chese: Plat. kese: UNCERTAIN O. Sax. kísi, m: Dut. kaas, f: Kil. kaese, kese: Frs. tzys: O. Frs. kise, tzise, m: Ger. käse, m: M. H. Ger. kæse, m: O. H. Ger. kasi, m: Lat. caseus: Wel. caws, m; Corn. caus, cos, ces, m: Ir. cais: Gael. caise: Manx caashey, m: Armor. caouz.]

cýse-fæt, es; n. A cheese-vat; vas pro caseo asservando, calăthus = GREEK, Cot. 53.

cýse-hwæg, es; n. Cheese-whey; siringia :-- Ða rinda wyl on cýse-hwæge boil the rinds in cheese-whey, L. M. 3, 39; Lchdm, ii. 332, 9.

cysel gravel, sand; glarea. v. ceosel.

cysel-stán gravel, Ælfc. Gl. 11; Som. 57, 46; Wrt. Voc. 19, 48. v. ceosel-stán.

cýs-gerunn, es; n? [ge-runnen cougulatus] Rennet or runnet, a substance used to produce curd; lactis coagulum :-- Butergeþweor ǽlc and cýsgerunn losaþ eów butyrum omne et caseus pereunt vobis, Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 19.

cýs-lyb, -lybb, es; pl. nom. acc. -lybbu; n. [cýse cheese, lyb, lib a drug] Cheese-drug, rennet or runnet; casei coagulum :-- Haran cýslybb syle drincan ðam wífe give the woman a hare's runnet to drink, Med. ex Quadr. 4, 14; Lchdm. i. 346, 4. Ða meolc geren mid cýslybbe turn the milk with rennet, Lchdm. iii. 18, 11. Cýslybbu coagula, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 141, 25.

cyspan; p. ede; pp. ed [cosp a fetter] To bind, fetter; compedibus constringĕre :-- Sǽdon ðæt hió sceolde cyspan mænigne they said that she would bind many, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 154; Met. 26, 77.

cyssan; p. cyste; pp. cyssed; v. a. [cos a kiss] To KISS; osculari :-- Ic cysse ðé oscular te: ic eom fram ðé cyssed oscular a te, Ælfc. Gr. 19; Som. 22, 51, 52, Ic cysse, ðú cyst, he cyst osculor, oscularis, osculatur, 25; Som. 26, 58, 59. Swá hwæne swá ic cysse, se hyt is quemcumque osculatus fuero, ipse est, Mt. Bos. 26, 48. Hwílum mec on cófan cysseþ sometimes he kisses me in a chamber, Exon. 125a; Th. 480, 19; Rä. 64, 4. Mec weras cyssaþ men kiss me, 108a; Th. 412, 27; Rä. 31, 6: 104a; Th. 395, 6; Rä. 15, 3. Ic cyste osculatus sum, Ælfc. Gr. 25; Som. 26, 60. He hire cyste he kissed him, Homl. Th. ii. 422, 34: ii. 426, 12: Bd. 3, 6; S. 528, 23. He cyste hyne osculatus est eum, Mt. Bos. 26, 49: Gen. 48, 10. Ǽghwæder óðerne cyston hie they kissed each other, Andr. Kmbl. 2031; An. 1018. Ðæt he his mondryhten clyppe and cysse that he embrace and kiss his lord, Exon. 77a; Th. 289, 2; Wand. 42. [Prompt. kissin: Wyc. kisse: Piers P. kissen: R. Brun. kisse: Chauc. kisse: R. Glouc. cussede, p: Laym. cusseþ: O. Sax. kussian: O. Frs. kessa: Dut. kussen: Ger. M. H. Ger. küssen: O. H. Ger. kussjan, kussan: Goth. kukyan: Dan. kysse: Swed. kyssa: Icel. kyssa: Grk. GREEK, inf. aor. GREEK to kiss: Sansk. kus amplecti.] DER. ge-cyssan.

CYST, cist, cest, e; f. A CHEST, coffer, coffin, sheath, casket; capsa, capsella, cista, cistella, loculus :-- Hire cyste cistam suam, L. C. S. 77; Th. i. 418, 21. He ða cyste æt-hrán tetigit loculum, Lk. Bos. 7, 14. On cyste dyde condidit in capsella, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 9. Ðæt hí woldan his bán on niwe cyste gedón ut ossa illius in novo recondita loculo locarent, 4, 30; S. 608, 30: 3, 6; S. 528, 29. Cist cista, Wrt. Voc. 288, 31. Cest cistella, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 64; Wrt. Voc. 16, 37. [Chauc. cheste: Scot. kist, kyst: Dut. kist, kast: Kil. kiste: O. Frs. kiste: Ger. M. H. Ger. kiste, f: O. H. Ger. kista, f: Dan. kiste, m. f: Swed. Icel. kista, f: Lat. cista: Grk. GREEK a chest, box: Manx kishtey, m. a chest: Armor. kest, f. a basket.] DER. bóc-cest.

cyst, cist, e; f. [ceósan to choose]. I. choice, election; optio, electio :-- Ic ðé cyst abeád I have offered thee a choice, Cd. 91; Th. 115, 14; Gen. 1919. Ðonne beóþ gesomnad, on ða swíðran hond, ða clǽnan folc, Criste sylfum gecorene bi cystum then shall be assembled, on the right hand, the pure people, chosen by election by Christ himself, Exon. 25b; Th. 75, 19; Cri. 1224: Ps. Th. 64, 4. II. with gen. pl. What is chosen; æstimatio :-- Írena cyst what is chosen of swords, Beo. Th. 1350; B. 673: 1609; B. 802: 3398; B. 1697. Wǽpna cyst what is chosen of weapons, 3123; B. 1559. Symbla cyst what is chosen of feasts, 2469; B. 1232. Him gewát Abraham eástan eágum wlítan on landa [MS. lande] cyst Abraham departed from the east to look with his eyes on what is chosen of lands [Canaan], Cd. 86; Th. 107, 26; Gen. 1795. Wedera cyst what is chosen of weathers, 191; Th. 238, 6; Dan. 350. Sancta Hierusalem, cynestóla cyst holy Jerusalem, what is chosen of royal thrones, Exon. 8b; Th. 4, 11; Cri. 51. Folgoþa cyst what is chosen of services, 13b; Th. 24, 27; Cri. 391. Godwebba cyst, ðæs temples segl what is chosen of textures, the veil of the temple, 24b; Th. 70, 8; Cri. 1135. Eardríca cyst what is chosen of habitations [the garden of Eden], 45 a; Th. 153, 14; Gú. 825. Eardwíca cyst what is chosen of dwellings, 98a; Th. 366, 21; Reb. 15, Ic swefna cyst secgan UNCERTAIN wylle I will relate what is chosen of dreams, Rood Kmbl. 1; Kr. 1. Burga cyst, Róm what is chosen of cities, Rome, Bt. Met. Fox 1, 35; Met. 1, 18. III. excellence, virtue, munificence, goodness; præstantia, virtus, largitas, bonitas :-- Þiónde on eallum cystum and cræftum flourishing in all excellencies and virtues, Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 23: Exon. 79b; Th. 299, 22; Crä. 106. Hí héton heom seggan ðæs landes cysta they bade them be told of the excellencies of the land, Chr. 449; Erl. 12, 6. Fród fæder freóbearn lǽrde cystum eald a wise father, old in excellencies, taught his dear son, Exon. 80a; Th. 300, 7; Fä. 2. Wénaþ menn ðæt he hit dó for cystum [kystum MS.] men think that he does it for virtue, Past. 20, 1; Hat. MS. 29a, 27. Ðæt ðú ðíne cysta cýðe that than mayest shew thy virtues, Prov. Kmbl. 46. Cystum gód good in virtues, Chr. 1065; Erl. 199, 6; Edw. 23: Beo. Th. 1738; B. 867: 1850; B. 923. Seó gitsung gedéþ gitseras láðe, and ða cysta gedóþ ða leóftǽle covetousness makes misers loathsome, and munificence makes them estimable, Bt. 13; Fox 38, 16. Hú me cynegóde cystum dohten how the noble munificently treated me, Exon. 85b; Th. 322, 1; Wíd. 56. Þurh Godes micclan cyste through the great goodness of God, Homl. Th. ii. 468, 14. For his micclan ciste of his great goodness, Ælfc. T. 9, 1. [Laym. custe manner, quality: O. Sax. kust, f. choice: Frs. O. Frs. kest, f. choice: Ger. kurst = kur, f. election: M. H. Ger. kust, f. manner of choosing: O. H. Ger. kust, f. æstimatio, electio, virtus: Goth. ga-kusts, f. what has been tried, a trial; kustus, m. examination: Icel. kostr, m. trial, choice.] DER. gum-cyst, hilde-, un-.

cyst; adj. Desirable; desiderabilis :-- Ne hí for áwyht eorþan cyste ða sélestan geseón woldan pro nihilo habuerunt terram desiderabilem, Ps. Th. 105, 20.

cýst choosest, chooses; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of ceósan.

cyst-beám, es; m. [beám a tree] A chestnut-tree; castănea = GREEK :-- Cystel vel cystbeám castănea, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 65, 6; Wrt. Voc. 33, 5.

cystel, e; f? chestnut-tree, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 65, 6; Wrt. Voc. 33, 5. v. cyst-beám.

cyste-líce; adv. [cyst munificence] Munificently; largiter :-- Sý wuldor and lof ðam wélegan Drihtne, se ðe his gecorenan swá cystelíce wurþaþ be glory and praise to the bounteous Lord, who so munificently honours his chosen, Homl. Th. ii. 154, 2. Cystelíce largiter, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 42. Ic gife cystelíce largior, 31; Som. 35, 54. Cystelíce dǽlan to distribute bountifully, Homl. Th. ii. 228, 18.

cysten = cystan to get, procure, get the value of; acquirere, æquiparare facere :-- Se man ðe hafde án púnd he ne mihte cystan [MS. cysten] ænne peni at ánne market the man who had a pound could not get the value of a penny at a market, Chr. 1125; Erl. 253, 28: 1124; Erl. 252, 39.

cystig; adj. Munificent, benevolent, bountiful, liberal, generous, good; munificus, largus, probus, bonus :-- Cystig largus, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 41; Wrt. Voc. 76. 4. Ðæt he sié cystig that he be benevolent, Past. 20, 2; Cot. MS. Seó módor clǽngeorn biþ and cystig the mother is pure and bountiful, Exon. 128a; Th. 492, 25; Rä. 81, 21. Cystig largus vel dapsilis, Ælfc. Gl. 82; Som. 73, 34; Wrt. Voc. 47, 38: larga, Glos. Prudent. Recd. 145, 51. Bióþ ðǽm to ungemetlíce cystige they are immoderately generous to them, Past. 44, 6. DER. un-cystig.

cystignes, cystines, -ness, -nyss, e; f. Bountifulness, goodness, munificence; liberalitas, largitas, munificentia :-- Cystignesse, cystignysse liberalitatis, Mone B. 2511. Cystines liberalitas, 2494. We sceolon oferwinnan woruldlíce gytsunge mid cystignysse úres clǽnan módes we must overcome worldly covetousness by the bounty of our pure mind, Homl. Th. ii. 222, 20.

cyst-leás; adj. Fruitless, reprobate; reprŏbus :-- Him [God] ðá se cystleása [Cain] cwealmes wyrhta andswarode then the reprobate [man] Cain, the worker of murder, answered God, Cd. 48; Th. 61, 28; Gen. 1004.

cystlíc; adj. Munificent; munifĭcus, Som. Ben. Lye.

cystlíce; adv. Munificently; largiter, Ælfc. Gr. 38. v. cystelíce.

cýs-wuce, an; f. [cýse cheese, wuce a week] Cheese-week, the last week of eating cheese before Lent; septimana dominicæ quinquagesimæ. In the Greek church quinquagesima Sunday is the last day on which cheese may be eaten till Easter. The same rule prevailed in monasteries of the Benedictine order, which only were known in England before the Conquest. 'Abstinentiam ovorum et casei incipimus feria secunda post quinquagesimam:' -- Ðis sceal on Wódnes dæg, on ðære syxteóðan wucan ofer Pentecosten; and on Fríge dæg innan ðære cýs-wucan this [Gospel] must be on Wednesday, in the sixteenth week after Pentecost; and on Friday within the cheese-week, Rubc. Mt. Bos. 5, 43, Notes, p. 575.

CÝTA, an; m. A KITE, bittern; milvus, būteo, Ælfc. Gl. 37; Som. 63, 9; Wrt. Voc. 29, 32: Glos. Brux. Recd. 37, 3; Wrt. Voc. 63, 17. [Piers P. kytte: Chauc. kyte: Wel. cud, m.]

cyte, cote, an; f. A cot, cottage, bedchamber, cell; casa, cubiculurn, cella :-- Tær ðæt hors ðæt þæc of ðære cytan hrófe the horse tore the thatch off the roof of the cottage, Homl. Th. ii. 136, 17. Hí hine lǽddon út of ðære cytan they led him out of the cottage, Guthl. 5; Gdwin. 36, 8. Gecyrde he to sumes lyrdes ILLEGIBLE cytan he turned into a shepherd's cottage, Homl. Th. ii. 136, 14. In ðæm he hæfde cirican and cytan in hac habuit ecclesiam et cubiculum, Bd. 3, 17; S. 543, 24, col. 2. Cyte cella, Wrt. Voc. 85, 75. Wæs sum munuc on néhnesse his cytan eardiende in vicinia cellæ illii's habitabat quidam monachus, Bd. 5, 12; S. 630, 42. Leóht of heofenum gefylde ða cytan a light from heaven filled the cell, Homl. Th. ii. 546, 34.

CYTEL, citel, cetel, es; m. A kettle, brazen or copper pot, cauldron; cācăbus = GREEK, lĕbes = GREEK :-- Hwer vel cytel lebes: cytel cacăbus, Ælfc. Gl. 26; Som. 60, 84, 85; Wrt. Voc. 25, 24, 25. Cytel cacăbus, Wrt. Voc. 82, 57. On niwum cytele in a new kettle, L. M. 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 44, 2. On cyperenum citele in a copper kettle, 1, 15; Lchdm. ii. 56, 19. On micelne citel, on læssan citel in a large kettle, in a smaller kettle, 1, 38; Lchdm. ii. 98, 10, 12. Ceteles brúm kettle-soot, 1, 72; Lchdm. ii. 148, 10. Genim tyn-ámberne cetel take a kettle holding ten ambers, L. M. 1, 36; Lchdm. ii. 86, 13. [Prompt. ketyl, chetyle: Wyc. ketels, cheteles, pl: Plat. ketel: O. Sax. ketil, m: Dut. ketel, m . Frs. tjettel: O. Frs. ketel, szetel, tsetel, m : Ger. kessel, m: M. H. Ger. kezzel, m: O. H. Ger. kezil, m: Goth. katils, m: Dan. kjedel, kedel, m. f: Swed. kittel, m : Icel. ketill, m.]

cytel-hrúm kettle-soot, v. cetel-hrúm.

cytere, an; f. A harp; cithăra = GREEK :-- Arís saltére and cytere exsurge, psaltērium et cithăra, Ps. Spl. C. 56, 11.

CÝÞ, cýþþ, e; f. I. knowledge; notitia, cognitio, scientia :-- Cýþþe notitiæ, Mone B. 4214. Of mínre sylfre cýþþe from my own knowledge, Bd. 5, 24; S. 647, 18. Ðe náne cýþþe to Gode næfdon who have had no knowledge of God, Homl. Th. i. 396, 28. Ðære godcundan cýþþe divinæ cognitionis, Bd. 5, 22; S. 644, 13, 16. II. relation, relationship, KITH; familiaritas, munus :-- Gif he to ðam cyninge furðor cýþþe hæbbe if he have further relation to the king, L. C. S. 72; Th. i. 414, 17. III. a known land, native country, region, place; situs naturalis, natale solum, patria regio :-- Ðis is mín ágen cýþ this is my own country, Bt. Met. Fox 24, 98; Met. 24, 49. On heora ágenre cýþþe in their own country, Bt. 27, 4; Fox 100, 11. Eorlas on cýþþe men in the country, Andr. Kmbl. 1467; An. 735. Cniht of cýþþe a boy from his country, Cd. 134; Th. 169, 15; Gen. 2800. Ðú meaht to heora cýþþe becuman thou mayest come to their country, Bt. Met. Fox 12, 47; Met. 12, 24. Gif ðú gewítest cýþþe sécean if thou goest to seek thy country, Salm. Kmbl. 408; Sal. 204. Cýþ region, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 14. Ðǽr úre cýþþ wæs there was our place, Ps. Th. 121, 2: 119, 5. [Piers P. kith, kyth relationship: Laym. cuððe, f. country, race, kin: Orm. cuþe acquaintance: Plat. kunde, kunne knowledge: O. Frs. kethe, kede news: Dut. kunde, f. knowledge, kindred: Kil. konde notitia: Ger. kunde, f. knowledge, news: M. H. Ger. künde, kunde, f. knowledge, acquaintance, home: O. H. Ger. kundi, f. in un-kundi fraus: Goth. kunþi, n. knowledge: Dan. kynde, m. f: Swed. kund, m. a customer: Icel. kynni, n. acquaintance.] DER. eald-cýþ, -cýþþ, feor-, ge-, on-.

cýþ, es; m. I. a sprout, germ; germen :-- Genim wegbrǽdan þrý cýþas take three sprouts of plantain, Herb. 2, 14; Lchdm. i. 84, 14. II. seed; crementum :-- Cýþ crementum, Glos. Brux. Recd. 38, 7; Wrt. VOC. 64, 16. v. cíþ.

CÝÐAN; p. ic, he cýðde, cýdde, ðú cýðdest, cýddest; pp. cýðed. I. to make known, tell, relate, proclaim, announce; nuntiare, annuntiare, narrare, referre, effari, prædicare :-- Wordum cýðan to make known in words, Cd. 102; Th. 135, 14; Gen. 2242: Exon. 12a; Th. 19, 7; Cri. 297. Ongan Dryhtnes ǽ georne cýðan he began the Lord's law gladly to proclaim, Elen. Kmbl. 398; El. 199: 2510; El. 1256. Cýþ narra, Lk. Bos. 8, 39: Mt. Bos. 2, 8: Gen. 37, 14: Bd. 2, 9; S. 511, 32. Cýðdon Cristes gebyrd they announced Christ's birth, Exon. 8b; Th. 5, 5; Cri. 65: Ps. Th. 77, 7: 101, 16. Cýðe his neáhgebúrum let him tell to his neighbours, L. Edg. S. 7; Th. i. 274, 20. II. to declare, reveal, manifest, shew, perform, confess, confirm, testify, prove; notum facere, revelare, manifestare, ostendere, perhibere, confiteri, testari, probare :-- Ic him cýðde ðínne naman notum feci eis nomen tuum, Jn. Bos. 17, 26. Wísdóm sceoldon weras Ebréa wordum cýðan [MS. cyðdon] the Hebrew men must reveal wisdom by words, Cd. 176; Th. 221, 33; Dan. 97. Ellen cýðan to manifest valour, Beo. Th. 5384; B. 2695. Wundor cýðan to perform a miracle, Elen. Kmbl. 2222; El. 1112: Andr. Kmbl. 1142; An. 571. Ðe me cýþ befóran mannum qui confitebitur me coram hominibus, Mt. Bos. 10, 32: Jn. Bos. 1, 20. Cýdde, Bd. 4, 25; S. 600, 30. Ðú cýddest tu innotuisti, Ps. Spl. 143, 4. He cýþ testatur, Jn. Bos. 3, 32: 1, 15. Mid áþe cýðan to prove on oath, L. C. S. 15; Th. i. 384, 10. Eallra heora dóme wæs cýðed [MS. kyþed] omnium judicio probatum est, Bd. 5, 19; S. 640, 13. [Piers P. couthen: Chauc. kithe, kythe: Laym. cuðe, cuðen: Orm. kiþenn: O. Sax. kúðian, kundan: O. Frs. ketha, keda: Ger. M. H. Ger. künden: O. H. Ger. kundjan, kundan: Goth. kunþyan: Dan. kynde: Swed. kunna; Icel. kynna.] DER. a-cýðan, for-, ge-, of-, ofer-.

cýðere, es; m. I. a witness; testis :-- Oriarison on me cýðeras unrihtwíse insurrexerunt in me testes iniqui, Ps. Spl. 26, 18. Cýðras testes, 34, 13. Hwí gewilnige we gyt cýðera quid adhuc desideramus testes? Mk. Bos. 14, 63. II. a martyr, one who bears witness by his death; martyr = GREEK a witness :-- Stephănus is se forma cýðere Stephen is the early martyr, Homl. Th. ii. 34, 13. Þurh ðæs hálgan cýðeres þingunge through the pleading of the holy martyr, 28, 33. Eallum cýðerum to all martyrs, 34, 23.

-cýðig -known? notus? Only used in the compounds on-cýðig, un-, q. v. In German, however, kündig known, is used as a simple word, and as a compound.

cyð-lǽcan; p. -lǽhte; pp. -lǽht To become known; innotescere :-- Cýðlǽce innotescat, Mone B. 4286.

cýð-líc, cýðe-líc; adj. Manifest; manifestus. v. ge-cýðelíc.

cýþling a relation; cognātus, Jn. Lind. War. 18, 26. v. cúða.

cýð-nes, -nys, -ness, -nyss, e; f. A witness, testimony, testament; testimonium, testamentum :-- Sume sǽdon leáse cýðnesse agén hine quidam falsum testimonium ferebant adversus eum, Mk. Bos. 14, 57. Cýðnys, 14, 59: Jn. Bos. 3, 32, 33: Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 17. Cýðnys testamentum, Ps. Spl. 24, 15. DER. ge-cýðnes.

cýþþe; gen. dat. acc. of cýþ, Bt. 27, 3; Fox l00, 1, Cott. note 1.

cýððu, e; f. A native country, home; situs natalis :-- Fugel his cýððu séceþ the bird seeks its home, Exon. 59 b; Th. 217, 9; Ph. 277: Exon. 119 b; Th. 459, 9; Hy. 4, 114. v. cýþ.

cyt-wér, es; m. [wér a weir] A weir with a kiddle or a cut for a fish trap; kidellus, machina piscatoria in fluminibus ad salmones, aliosque pisces intercipiendos :-- On Sæuerne xxx cytwéras thirty 'cyt-wérs' on the Severn, Cod. Dipl, Apndx. 461; A.D. 956; Kmbl. iii, 450, 13, 15, 20, 21, 23.

cýwst, he cýwþ chewest, chews; 2nd and 3rd pers. pres. of ceówan.

cýwung, cíwung, e; f. A chewing; ruminatio, Ælfc. Gl. 99; Som. 76, 121; Wrt. Voc. 54, 62. v. ceówung, ceówan.