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An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

by Bosworth and Toller

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I

I THE Runic character Runic-Is for this vowel was named ís :-- Ís byþ oferceald ungemetum slidor; glisnaþ glæshluttur gimmum gelícust, Runic pm. Kmbl. p. 341. The short i generally corresponds to Gothic i. e. g. in, Goth, in. biddan, Goth. bidjan; the long i, which is sometimes written ii, e. g. riiknæ on the Ruthwell Cross, to Gothic ei, e.g. isern, Goth. eisarn, bidan, Gothic beidan. In early West Saxon MSS., however, i, í are found arising from other sources. Thus the mutation of the breaking ea is written i, e. g. ildu, irmþu from eald, earm; and the mutations of eó, eá are written í, e. g. onlíhtan, híran. In such cases, however, instead of i the diphthong ie is very often found; and not only in such, but also in those where the root-vowel is i or í, e. g. ongietan, wietan [= wítan]; even in the place of ý, e. g. ieðegende. In the later MSS. instead of i or ie, y is found very commonly; indeed even in the earlier MSS. y has in some instances already made its way into the place of i, thus ryht is the form regularly used in Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care. In the case of niht in the earliest times, in that of miht and its compounds in later, i takes the place of original a. Initial i before a, o, u is found where most generally ge is used; for examples see below.

; adv. Yea :-- Æt ðú tódæg? Iá ic dyde manducasti hodie? Etiam feci, Ælfc. Gr. 31; Som. 40, 17. Eart ðú Esau mín sunu? And hé cwæþ : Iá leóf ic hit eom tu es filius meus Esau? Respondit : Ego sum, Gen. 27, 23. Se kyng befealh georne hire bréðer óþ ðæt hé cwæþ já wið the king pressed her brother eagerly until he said yes in reply, Chr. 1067; Erl. 204, 23. v. geá.

iáces súre, Wrt. Voc. 286, 21. v. geác.

iacinð, es; m. Jacinth :-- Iacinðe [iacinte, Cot. MS.] ex hyacintho, Past. 14, 4; Swt. 87, 3.

Ianuarius; m. January :-- Forma mónaþ folc mycel Ianuarius héton the Romans called the first month January, Menol. Fox 19; Men. l0.

IC; pron. of 1st pers. s. I :-- Ic Æðelstán cyningc cýðe I, king Athelstan, proclaim, L. Ath. 1; prm; Th. i. 194, 2. Ic hyt eom it is I; ego sum, Mt. Kmbl. 14, 27. Ic sylf hit eom ipse ego sum, Lk. Skt. 24, 39. Ic eom Gabriel ic ðe stande beforan gode ego sum gabrihel qui adsto ante deum, 1, 19. For Wulfgáres sáwle ðe ic hit selle for Wulfgars's soul [I] who give it, Chart. Th. 496, 24. [Laym. O. and N. ic, ich, ihc : Orm. icc, I : Chauc. ich, I : Goth. O. Frs. O. Sax. ik : Icel. ek : Dan. jeg : Swed. jag : O. H. Ger. ih : Ger. ich : Lat. ego : Gk. έγώ.] For other forms in the declension of the pronoun of the first person, see the several words.

ícan, iécan, ícean, ýcan; p. íhte, ícte To EKE, increase, add to, augment :-- Ðú ýcest ðine yrmþo thou dost increase thy misery, Andr. Kmbl. 2381; An. 1192. Hwæt is ðis manna ðe íceþ ealdne níð what man is this that adds to ancient hate? Elen. Kmbl. 1806; El. 905. Ýceþ, Exon. 89 a; Th. 335, 9; Gn. Ex. 31. Sunne and móna iécaþ eorþwelan sun and moon increase the wealth of earth, 16 b; Th. 38, 23; Cri. 611. Ýcaþ, 119 a; Th. 457, 32; Hy 4, 93. Ðá íhte he eft his synna auxit peccatum, Ex, 9, 34. Ðǽr eác ýcte tó also he added thereto, Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 15. Iécte, Cd. 55; Th. 68, 25; Gen. 1122; 108; Th. 143, 9; Gen. 2376. Ícte, 59; Th. 72, 22; Gen. 1190. Siððan wócan ða ícton mǽgburh Caines afterwards were born those who increased the kindred of Cain, 52; Th. 65, 13; Gen. 1065. In eallum hí ðissum íhtan synne in omnibus his peccaverunt adhuc, Ps. Th. 77, 31. Ac ða hwíle ðe hé giernþ ðæt hé his welan iéce hé ágiémeleásaþ ðæt hé forbúge his synna profecto enim, qui augere opes ambit, vitare peccatum negligit, Past. 44, 9; Swt. 331, 16. Hwylc eówer mæg þencende ícan áne elne tó his anlícnesse quis vestrum cogitando potest adjicere ad staturam suam cubitum unum? Lk. Skt. 12, 25. Ðú gehéte ðæt ðú hyra frumcyn ícan wolde thou didst promise that thou wouldest increase their race, Cd. 190; Th. 236, 8; Dan. 318. Hí sculon ǽlce dæg eácan [Cott. MS. ýcan] ðæt mon ǽlce dæg wanaþ, Bt. 26, 2; Fox 94, 1. Ýcan, Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 11; Jud. 183: Exon. l08 a; Th. 413, 3; Rä. 31, 9. Ýcean augmentare, Bd. 2, 4; S. 505, 16. Ýced increased, Exon. 53 b; Th. 187, 25; Az. 36. [Laym. æchen, eche: Orm. ekenn: R. Glouc. Chauc. eche: O. Sax. ókian : O. H. Ger. auhhón augere, adjicere.] v. eác, écan, eácan.

ice. v. yce.

ícend, es; m. One who increases or augments :-- Ðon hé cymþ of ðam worde augeo ic geíce and hé getácnaþ geeácnunge ðon macaþ hé hic auctor ðes ícend and hæc auctrix ðeós ícestre when it comes from the word augeo I increase, and indicates augmentation, then it makes hic auctor this augmenter, and hæc auctrix this augmentress, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 21; Som. 10, 42-4.

ícestre, an; f. v. preceding word.

icge gold, Beo. Th. 2219; B. 1107. The translation of this phrase is difficult. Thorpe has 'moreover,' Kemble 'heaped up;' Heyne suggests comparison with Sskr. ic dominare, imperare, and gives 'Schatzgold, reiches gold;' Grein's note is as follows : ' Sollte vielleicht zu icg das Altn. yggr [terror] zu halten sein, da das Gold Altn. auch ógnar ljómi [splendor terroris] heisst? oder sollte sich etwa der Begriff Sühngold herausbringen lassen?' Grundtvig suggests the reading éce-gold, i.e. gold given in addition on the occasion of a solemn reconciliation.

Iclingas; pl. The name of a Mercian family to which St. Guthlac belonged :-- Hé was ðæs yldestan and ðæs æðelstan cynnes ðe Iclingas wǽron genemnede he [Guthlac's father] was of that chiefest and noblest race that were called Iclings, Guthl. 1; Gdwin. 8, 4. [Icelingtun (Ickleton in Cambridgeshire?) occurs Cod. Dipl. Kmbl, iv. 300, 24; and there is Icklingham in Suffolk.]

í-dæges; adv. On the same day :-- Se ðe sleá his ágenne þeówne esne and hé ne sý ídæges deád he who smites his own slave, and he die not on the same day, L. Alf. 17; Th. i. 48, 13. Hí ne móston metes þicgan gif hí igdæges tó mynstre gecyrran mihton they were not allowed to partake of food if they could return to the monastery on the same day, Homl. Th. ii. 166, 32. Swá hraþe swá hé him tó com ýdæges swá gewát hé of ðisum andwerdum lífe as soon as he came to him, on the same day, he departed from this present life, 176, 3. [Cf. í-síðes.]

ÍDEL; adj. I. empty :-- Tó hwan mæg ðis eorþlíce hús gif hit ýdel stent? Hit ne biþ ná hús búton hit beó mid híréde áfylled what purpose can this earthly house serve, if it stand empty? It is not a house unless it be filled with a household, Homl. Th. ii. 502, 12. Is nú forðí gehwilcum men tó hogienne ðæt hé ýdel ne cume his Drihtne tógeánes on ðam gemǽnelícum ǽriste now is it therefore for every man to take care that he come not empty-handed to meet his Lord at the general resurrection, 558, 18. Ðonne se geohsa of ðære ídlan wambe cymþ when the hiccup comes from the empty stomach, L. M. 1, 18; Lchdm. ii. 60, 28. Ídelne hine forléton dimiserunt eum inanem, Lk. Skt. 20, 10, 11. Sáwle ídle animam inanem, Ps. Th. 106, 8. Hé forlét ða rícan ídele, Homl. Th. i. 204, 6. II. not possessing, destitute, void, devoid [with gen.] :-- Londrihtes mót monna ǽghwilc ídel hweorfan every man must wander destitute of land-right, Beo. Th. 5768; B. 2888. Se deófol on sumum uncystum gebringþ ðone ðe hé gemét ídelne ǽlces gódes weorces the devil brings into some vices him whom he finds devoid of every good work, L. E. I, 3; Th. ii. 404, 13. Ða ðe ídle beóþ swelcra giefa those who are devoid of such gifts, Past. 9; Swt. 59. 17. III. vain, useless, idle, to no purpose :-- Seó eorþe wæs ýdel and æmtig terra erat inanis et vacua, Gen. 1, 2. Ídel sangere temelici, Ælfc. Gl. 61; Som. 68, 57; Wrt. Voc. 39, 40. Eall eówer geswinc biþ ídel consumetur incassum labor vester, Lev. 26, 20. Ýdel biþ se lǽcedom ðe ne mæg ðone untruman gehǽlan, swá biþ eác ýdel seó lár ðe ne gehǽlþ ðære sáwle leahtras vain is the medicine that cannot heal the sick; so also is the doctrine vain that does not heal the sins of the soul, Homl. Th. i. 60, 11. Wese wíc heora wéste and ídel fiat habitatio eorum deserta, Ps. Th. 68, 26. Unnyt oððe ýdel supervacuus, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 48, 46. Oft biþ swíðe íðel and unnyt ðara yfelena manna hreówsung plerumque mali inutiliter compunguntur, Past. 54, 4; Swt. 431, 1. Ðes wída grund stód ídel and unnyt, Cd. 5; Th. 7, 14; Gen. 106 : Beo. Th. 830; B. 413 : 293; B. 145. Man byþ merwe gesceaft mihtum ídel homo vanitati similis factum est, Ps. Th. 143. 5. Ídel gelp him on ne rícsode vanæ gloriæ contemptorem, Bd. 3, 17; S. 545, 9. Ídel gylp vanitas, Ps. Th. 51, 6. Ídel searu, 138, 17. Ídel gielp inanis gloria, Past. 62, 1; Swt. 457, 20. Ídel wuldor vainglory, Exon. 33 a; Th. 107, 12; Gú. 57. Hé nǽfre nóht leásunga ne ídeles leóþes wyrcean ne mihte nihil unquam frivoli et supervacui poematis facere potuit, Bd. 4, 14; S. 596, 42. Ða bodan ðæs ídlan fætes the messengers of the useless vessel, Past. 47, 3; Swt. 361, 16. Hig ðá æfter ridon ídelum færelde they rode after, but their journey was to no purpose, Jos. 2, 7. Guman geþancas ídle synt cogitationes hominum vanæ sunt, Ps. Th, 93, 11. Ðǽr ðæt heáfod biþ unhál eall ða limu bióþ ídelu languente capite membra incassum vigent, Past. 18, 2; Swt. 129, 8. Ýdele spellunga fabulæ, Ælfc. Gr. 50, 29; Som. 52, 2. Ne hí dǽr ǽnig unnit ne geþafian ne ídele spǽce ne ídele dǽde, L. Edg. C. 26; Th. ii. 250, 6: Hy. 7, 108; Hy. Grn. ii. 289, 108. Ídel word idle words, Exon. 37 a; Th. 120, 30; Gú. 279. On ídel in vain; nequiquam, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 55. On ídel gé swincaþ and eówre fýnd his brúcaþ frustra seretis sementem, quæ ab hostibus devorabitur, Lev. 26, 16. Ne nemne gé drihtnes naman on ídel, Deut. 5, 11. Ne sint hig eów on ídel beboden non incassum præcepta sunt vobis, 32, 47. On ídel hí mé wurðiaþ in vanum me colunt, Mk. Skt. 7, 7 : Ps. Th. 62, 8. IV. idle, unemployed :-- Hé geseah óðre on strǽte ídele standan vidit alios stantes in foro otiosos, Mt. Kmbl 20, 3. Hwí stande gé hér eallne dæg ídele, 6 : Exon 92 a; Th. 345, 6; Gn. Ex. 184. [Orm. Piers P. Chauc. on ídel in vain : O. Sax. ídal: O. Frs. ídel : O. H. Ger. ítal vanus, inanis : Ger. eitel.] v. mán-ídel.

ídel, es; n. Idleness, vanity, futility, frivolity :-- Ðæt ýdel fét unþeáwas idleness nourishes bad habits, Prov. Kmbl. 1. Ǽlc ýdel fét unhǽlo, 61. Wé lǽraþ ðæt preóstas ðǽr ne geþafian ne ídele spǽce ne ídele dǽde ne ǽnig ídel we enjoin that priests do not permit there [in the church] idle talk or action or any frivolity, L. Edg. C. 26; Th. ii. 250, 27. Gif ðú gesihst manega gét ýdel getácnaþ if thou seest many goats it betokens frivolity, Lchdm. iii. 214, 1. Nys eác mid ídele tó forlǽtenne ðæt wundor ðæt þurh wítedómes cræft hé wiste nor is the miracle, that he knew things by prophetic power, to be lightly dismissed, Guthl. 17; Gdwin. 70, 2 [cf. 76, 10]. Ða ídlo vanitates, Rtl. 162. 32. v. preceding word.

ídel-georn; adj. Fond of idleness, lazy, inert :-- Ne beó ðú tó slǽpor ne tó ídelgeorn forðan ðe slép and ðæt ýdel fét unþeáwas and unhǽlo ðæs líchoman be not too fond of sleep or idleness, for sleep and idleness nourish bad habits and bad health in the body, Prov. Kmbl. 1. Eálá gé eargan and ídelgeornan ah ! ye sluggish and lazy ones; inertes, Bt. 40, 4; Fox 238, 30.

ídel-gild, es; n. False worship, idolatry :-- Hig mé tirigdon mid hira ídelgildum ipsi me provocaverunt in eo qui non erat deus et irritaverunt in vanitatibus suis, Deut. 32, 21. v. ídelness.

ídelgild-offrung, e; f. An offering to an idol :-- Ídelgildoffrung idolothytum, Ælfc. Gl. 18; Som. 58, 109; Wrt. Voc. 22, 25.

ídel-hende; adj. Empty-handed, empty :-- Ne cum ðú tó mínum húse ídelhende nec apparebis in conspectu meo vacuus; none shall appear before me empty, Ex. 34, 20. Gif hé cume ídelhende tó si vacuus appropinquat, Past. 49, 2; Swt. 379, 21. Hé biþ ealra his ǽhta ídelhende he shall be destitute of all his possessions, Blickl. Homl. 49, 26. Nó ídelhende bona of ðam goldsele gongan wolde, Beo. Th. 4169; B. 2081. Ne lǽt ðú hine gán ídelhende fram ðé nequaquam vacuum abire patieris, Deut. 15, 13. Forleórton hine ídelhende dimiserunt eum inanem, Lk. Skt. Lind. 20, 10, 11. Ðonne gé út faraþ ne fare gé ídelhende cum egrediemini, non exibitis vacui, Ex. 3, 21. [Cf. Ayenb. idel-honded.]

ídel-ness, e; f. Idleness, vanity, frivolity, uselessness, futility, emptiness, falseness :-- Seó ýdelnes is ðære sáwle feónd idleness is an enemy of the soul, L. E. I. 3; Th. ii. 404, 11. Ǽlces libbendes mannes mægen and anwald is ídelnes universa vanitas omnis homo vivens, Ps. Th. 38, 6. Ðonne hí mid fulle gesceáde ongietaþ ðæt ðæt wæs leás and ídelnes ðæt hí ǽr heóldon cum certo judicio deprehenderint falsa se vacue tenuisse, Past. 58, 1; Swt. 441, 19. Sebastianus cwæþ ðis is swutol gedwyld and leás ýdelnyss, Homl. Skt. 5, 274. Sanctus Paulus cwæþ ðæt sió gítsung wǽre hearga and ídelnesse geféra avaritia quæ est idolorum servitus, Past. 21, 3; Swt. 157, 6. On ídelnesse gé fæstniaþ eówer mód on him incassum cor figitis, 51, 2; Swt. 395, 29. Ne mínne noman ne cíg ðú on ídelnesse, L. Alf. 2; Th, i. 44. 7. Hierusalem winþ for rihtwísnysse and Babilonia winþ ongeán for unnhtwísnysse seó óðer for sóðfæstnysse óðer for ýdelnysse Jerusalem fights for righteousness, and Babylon fights in opposition for unrighteousness : the one for truth, the other for falsehood, Homl. Th. ii. 66, 31. Ða gímeleásan men ðe heora líf ádrugon on ealre ídelnisse the careless men who passed their lives quite idly, Ælfc. T. Grn. 1, 13. Nys eác mid ídelnysse tó forelǽtenne ðæt wundor ðe ðes hálga wer foresǽde nor is the wonder which this holy man foretold to be lightly dismissed, Guthl. 19; Gdwin. 77, 10 [cf. 70, 2]. Ne ðú manna bearn tó ídelnesse geworhtest non vane constituisti filios hominum, Ps. Th. 88. 40 : Bd. 4, 3; S. 567, 27. Forhwan gé mid ídelnesse ealle áríseþ ǽrðon leóht cume in vanum est vobis ante lucem surgere, Ps. Th. 126, 3. Hwí lufige gé ídelnessa and sécaþ leásuncga quid diligitis vanitatem, et quæritis mendacium? 4, 3. Hé forlét ða ídelnesse deófolgylda relictis idolorum superstitionibus, Bd. 2, 15; S. 518, 26. Ðis synt ða ídelnyssa ðisse worlde hæ sunt vanitates hujus mundi, L. Ecg. P. 1, 8; Th. ii. 174, 32. On ídelnyssum heora with their vanities, Cant. Moys. ad fil. 21. [O. Frs. tó ýdelnisse in vain : O. H. Ger. ídalnissa desolatio.]

ídel-sprǽce; adj. Talking idly, vainly :-- Ða felaídelsprǽcan multiloquio vacantes, Past. 23; Swt. 175, 25.

ides, e; f. A woman [it is a word little used except in poetry, and it is supposed by Grimm to have been applied, in the earliest times, like the Greek νύμφη, to superhuman beings, occupying a position between goddesses and mere women, v. D. M. 372] :-- Ides virgo, Kent. Gl. 1196. Freólecu mæg ides ǽw scmód [Eve], Cd. 42; Th. 55, 18; Gen. 896. Freólecu mæg ides eaforan fédde [Cain's wife], 50; Th. 64, 22; Gen.1054. Wlitebeorht ides [Sarah], 82; Th. 103, 34; Gen. 1728. Monig bláchleór ides [the women of Sodom and Gomorrah], 92; Th. 118, 24; Gen. 1970. Freólecu mæg ides egyptisc [Hagar], 101; Th. 134, 19; Gen. 2227. Ides ælfscínu [Judith]. Judth. 9; Thw. 21, 11; Jud. 14. Ides Helminga beághroden cwén [Wealtheow, Hrothgar's queen], Beo. Th. 1245; B. 620. Ides Scyldinga, 2341; B. 1168. Idese onlícnes a woman's form, 2706; B. 1351. Him brýda twá idesa eaforan féddon [Lamech's wives], Cd. 52; Th. 65, 34; Gen. 1076. Weras and idesa, Exon. 50 b; Th. 176, 7; Gú. 1205. Eorlas and hira idesa mid, Andr. Kmbl. 3275; An. 1640. A weak form occurs in Hpt. Gl. 456, 76 :-- Tó, on ydesan in juvenculam. [O. Sax. idis : O. H. Ger. itis matrona; itis-líh matronalis, Grff. i. 159. Grimm D. M. 373 takes the Icel. dis to be the same word, and compares the phrase from the Edda dis skjöldunga with the similar phrase given above from Beowulf.]

idig [?]; adj. Busy, active :-- Tóþas idge busy teeth [referring to the eating of the forbidden fruit by Adam and Eve], Exon. 61 b; Th. 226, 18; Ph. 407. [Cf. Icel. iðja activity: iðinn assiduous, diligent; iðja to be active, busy. The passage is somewhat uncertain, as the MS. has to þas, and Thorpe prints as if there were a gap between þas and idge.]

ídisc, ýddisc, es; pl. e; m. n [?]. Property, household,stuff :-- Ýddisc supellex, Ælfc. G1. 27; Som. 80, 98; Wrt. Voc. 25, 38. Ýddisce supplex, Wrt. Voc. 83, 28. Ne forlǽte gé nán þing of eówrum ýddisce nec dimittatis quidquam de supellectili vestra, Gen. 45, 20. Ágif ðises ceorles ýddysce [cf. ǽhta l. 18, þing, l. 23] give up this fellow's property, Homl. Th. ii. 180, 27. DER. in-ídisc. v. eád, édisc.

ídlian; p. ode To become vain or idle, come to nought, to make vain or empty :-- Him hyge brosnaþ ídlaþ þeódscype their mind corrupts, discipline comes to nought, Exon. 81 a; Th. 304, 13; Fä, 69. Ídlodon on ídelnyssum heora irritaverunt in vanitatibus suis, Cant. Moys. ad. fil. 21. Wæs ídlod cassaretur, Hpt. Gl. 515. Ídelude exinanita, Ps. Spl. T. 74, 8. [Cf. O. H. Ger. ki-ítallant adnullabunt : Ger. ver-eiteln.] DER. á-, ge-ídlian.

ídol, es;. n. An idol :-- Hǽðenscype biþ ðæt man ídola [idol, MS. 13; deófolgyld, MS. G.] weorðige it is heathendom, to worship idols, L. C. S. 5; Th. i. 378, 18. Ídola wurðing worship of idols, L. N. P. L. 48; Th. ii. 298, 1.

gen. dat. of eá, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 8, 10, 11, 14.

ie, ié. For words beginning with these combinations look under i, í, and see the preliminary remarks under the letter I.

IFIG, ifegn, es; n. Ivy :-- Ifig eder,Wrt. Voc. 286, 2. Ifegn eder, ii. 106, 78. Yfig. Ðeós wyrt ðe man hederam crysocantes and óðrum naman ifig nemneþ is gecweden crysocantes forðý ðe heó byrþ corn golde gelíce Ivy. This plant, which is named hedera crysocantes, and by another name ivy, is called crysocantes, because it bears berries like gold, Herb. 121; Lchdm. i. 234, 1-4. Nim ðæt ifig ðe on stáne weaxe take the ivy, which grows on stone, L. M. 3, 30; Lchdm. ii. 326, 3. Ifies seáw juice of ivy, 1, 3; Lchdm. ii. 40, 26. Weal se is mid ifige bewrigen a wall that is covered with ivy, Shrn. 139, 27. [O. and N. ivi : Prompt. Parv. ivy edera : O. H.Ger. ebah hedera, Grff. i. 91.] DER. eorþ-ifig.

ifig-crop, -cropp, es; m. A cluster of ivy berries :-- Ifigcrop corymbus, Wrt. Voc. 68, 2.

ifig-croppa, an; m. A cluster of ivy berries :-- Ifigcroppena fíf and xx five and twenty bunches of ivy berries, L. M. 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 214, 18.

ifig-leáf, es; n. An ivy leaf :-- Nim ifigleáf ðe on eorþan wixþ take leaves of ivy that grows on the ground, L. M. 3, 31; Lchdm. ii. 326, 11.

ifig-tearo; n : -tara, an; m. Ivy tar, gum that comes from ivy when it is cut :-- Nim sciptearo and ifigtearo, L. M. 1, 76; Lchdm. ii. 150, 12. Dó clǽne ifigtaran ðǽr on gif ðú hæbbe [cf. dó gódne sciptaran tó, 326, 14], 3, 26; Lchdm. ii. 322, 27.

ifiht; adj. Covered with ivy :-- On ðonæ ifihtan stoc to the ivy-covered post, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 176. 8. In ða ifihtan ác, 379. 29. On ðone ibihttan alr; of ðam ibihtan alre, v, 124, 27.

-ig a suffix connoting possession of an object denoted by the stem, used in the formation of adjectives, and represented in modern English by y. Early English and cognate forms may be seen in the following examples : Orm. modiʒ : Laym. modi : A. S. módig : Goth. módags : O. Sax. módag, módig : Icel. móðugr, móðigr : O. H. Ger. muotig, muotich, muodic : Ger. müthig: Orm. mahhtiʒ : Laym, mæhti : A.S. meahtig : Goth. mahteigs : O. Sax. mahtig : O. Frs. machtich : Icel. máttugr, máttigr : O. H. Ger. mahtig : Ger. mächtig : A. S. hálig : Icel. heilagr : Goth. handugs.

íg, e; f. An island :-- Wulf is on iége ic on óðerre fæst is ðæt églond fenne biworpen sindon wælreówe weras ðǽr on íge the wolf is on one island, I on another; closely is that island surrounded with fen, fierce men are there on the island, Exon. 100 b; Th. 380, 6-11; Rä.1, 4-6. The word occurs in names of places :-- Án ígland ðæt is Meresíg háten, Chr. 895; Erl. 93, 24. Hér hǽðne men on Sceápíge sǽtun, 855; Erl. 68, 23. Æt Æðelinga íge, [eigge, MS. A.], 878; Erl. 81, 5. Of Ceortesíge, 964; Erl. 124, 3. On Beardanigge, 716; Erl. 44, 14. [Icel. ey frequent in local names, e. g. Fær-eyjar the Faroe islands, Orkneyjar the Orkneys : Dan. öe : Swed. ö.]

íg-búend, es; m. A dweller in an island, an islander :-- Hí ígbúend óðre worde Baðan nemnaþ island-dwellers by another name call it Bath, Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 12. Ðis ǽrendgewrit Agustinus ofer sealtne sǽ súðan brohte iégbúendum this letter Augustine brought across the salt sea from the south to the islanders, Past. Pref; Swt. 9, 8. [Cf. Icel. ey-búi an islander.] v. ég-búend and next word.

íg-búende; part. Dwelling in an island :-- Swá hine cígaþ ígbúende Engle and Seaxe weras mid wífum so call it the island-dwellers, Angles and Saxons, men and women, Menol. Fox 367; Men. 185. v. preceding word.

ig-dæges. v.í-dæges.

-íge -eyed. v.-eáge.

ígeoþ, ígoþ, iggaþ, iggoþ, es; m. An eyot, ait, islet, small island :-- Ðá ásende hé hine on wræcsíþ tó ánum ígeoþe ðe is Paðmas gecíged then he sent him away into exile to an island that is called Patmos, Homl. Th. i. 58, 31. Binnan ánum ígoþe Pathmos geháten, Ælfc. T. Grn. 16, 23. Binnan iggoþe, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 61, 7. Hié flugon up be Colne on ánne iggaþ they fled up along the Colne on to an island, Chr. 894; Erl. 90, 28. Ðus feale synden ðere ýgetta ðe liggeþ intó Chertesége so many are the islets that belong to Chertsey, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. v. 17, 30.

igil, íl, es; m. A hedgehog, porcupine, an urchin :-- Se mára igil istrix [= ὕστριξ],Ælfc. Gl. 24; Som. 60, 29; Wrt.Voc.24, 30. Íl yricius vel equinacius, Wrt. Voc. 78, 21. Se læssa íl iricius; se mára íl istrix, ii. 49, 52, 53. Hé wæs ðara [strǽla] swá full swá igl bip byrsta he [St. Sebastian] was as full of arrows as a hedgehog is of bristles, Shrn. 55. 9. Se iil ǽrðæm hé gefangen weorðe mon mæg gesión ǽgðer ge his fét ge his heáfod ac sóna swá hiene mon geféhþ swá gewint hé tó ánum cliewene and tíhþ his fét swá hé inmest mæg and gehýt his heáfod ericius cum apprehenditur, ejus et caput cernitur, et pedes videntur; sed mox ut apprehensus fuerit, semetipsum in sphæram colligit, pedes introrsus subtrahit, caput abscondit, Past. 35, 3; Swt. 241, 9-12. Íl, Swt. 243. 6. Ðonne biþ ðæs íles heáfud gesewen caput enim ericii cernitur, 241, 16. Hé [Eádmund] all wæs biset mid heoræ scotungum swylce ýles burstæ swá swá Sebastianus wæs, Th. An. 122, 17. Íles byrsta, Homl. Skt. 5, 428. Stán is gener iglum [Blickl. Gl. ílum] petra est refugium erinaceis, Ps. Lamb. 103, 18. [A. R. ylespilles felles hedgehogs' skins : Trev. iles piles ericii : Icel. ígull a sea-urchin; ígul-köttr a hedgehog : O. H. Ger. igil erinacius : Ger. igel hedgehog, urchin.]

íg-land, es; n. An island :-- Brittene ígland is ehta hund míla lang and twá hund brád. And hér sind on ðis íglande fíf geþeóde the island of Britain is eight hundred miles long and two hundred broad. And at present there are five languages in this island, Chr. pref; Erl. 3, 1. Heora cyng him gesealde ðæt ígland ðe man Ii nemnaþ, 565; Erl. 18, 1. Sió wunode on ðam íglande, Bt. 38, 1; Fox 194, 21. Hié cómon on án ígland ðæt is úte on ðære sǽ ðæt is Meresig háten, Chr. 895; Erl. 93, 24 : Bt. 38, 1; Fox 184, 11. Ðæt íland ðe wé hátaþ Thyle, 29, 3; Fox 106, 23. [Laym. i-lond : Icel. ey-land.] v. eá-, ég-, eig-land.

ígoþ. v. ígeoþ.

-iht an adjective suffix having much the same meaning as -ig, or as the Latin -osus, e.g. stǽniht : O. H. Ger. steinaht : Ger. steinicht petrosus. Icel. has a suffix -óttr.

íht, e; f. Increase :-- Ic sóhte hwylc wǽre elnes oððe iéhte eorlscipes se Pater Noster I sought what in respect of power or increase of valour the Pater Noster might be, Salm. Kmbl. 22; Sal. 11. v. ícan.

Ii, Hii, Iona :-- Heora cyng him gesealde ðæt ígland ðe man Ii nemnaþ ... Nu sceal beón ǽfre on Ii abbod and ná biscop and ðan sculon beón underþeódde ealle Scotta biscopas forðan ðe Columban was abbod ná biscop their king gave him [Columba] the island that is called Iona ... Now there must always be in Iona an abbot and not a bishop, and to him all the bishops of the Scots must be subject, for Columba was abbot, not bishop, Chr. 565; Erl. 18, 1-8. Wæs hé sended of ðam eálande and of ðam mynstre ðe Hii is nemned de insula quæ vocatur Hii, Bd. 3, 3; S. 526, 11.

iil, íl.. v. igil.

ilca; pron. [occurs in the weak declension only]. The same :-- Hé sylf oððe se ylca ipse; heó sylf oððe seó ylce ipsa; hí sylfe oððe ða ylcan ipsi, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Som. 18, 53-4. Ðú byst se ilca se dú ǽr wǽre tu idem ipse es, Ps. Th. 101, 24. Se ilca hét ácwellan ða rícostan witan the same man [Nero] ordered the greatest senators to be killed, Bt. Met. Fox 9, 47; Met. 9, 24. Hæfþ se ilca god eorþan and wætere mearce gesette the same God hath appointed a limit to earth and water, 11, 127; Met. I1, 64. Ðis is se ilca ealwalda god ðone on fyrndagum fæderas cúðon, Andr. Kmbl. 1501; An. 752. Seó ylce bóc idem libellus, Bd. 4, 10; S. 578, 16. Hé weorþan sceolde eft ðæt ilce ðæt hé ǽrðon wæs it should become again the same, that it was before, Exon. 61 a; Th. 224, 21; Ph. 379. Hié cwǽdon ðæt tæt ilce hiera geférum geboden wǽre they said that the same offer had been made to their comrades, Chr. 755; Erl. 50, 22. On ðisse ylcan tíde hac ipsa hora, Ex. 9, 18. On ðære ylcan tíde eadem hora; Wick. in the same hour, Lk. Skt. 24, 33. Hí smeágaþ unriht and on ðam ilcan forweorþaþ scrutati sunt iniquitatem; defecerunt scrutantes scrutinio, Ps. Th. 63, 5. Gelíce ðisse ilcan ðe wé ymb sprecaþ like the very one we are talking about, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 5; Met. 26, 3. Ðisne ilcan þreát this same band, Exon. 16 a; Th. 36, 2; Cri. 570. Ðyssum ylcum tídum his temporibus, Bd. 5, 7; S. 621, 14. Swá ðám ilcum byþ ðe nellaþ ðínre ǽ bebod healdan so shall it be with those, who will not keep thy law, Ps. Th. I18, 36. [Ilk is used as late as the time of Chaucer, and remains yet in the phrase 'of that ilk,' but its place was gradually occupied by same (the Icelandic sami) which occurs once in the Ormulum.]

ilce; adv. In the same way :-- Hú ne eom ic monn suá ilce suá ðú am I not a man the same as you are? Past. 17, 6; Swt. 115, 12. Eft swá ilce again in the same way, Bt. 16, 1; Fox 50, 10. [Cf. swilce.]

ild, e; f. I. an age, period of time; ævum, sæculum :-- Yld ævum, Ælfc. Gl. 94; Som. 75, 118; Wrt. Voc. 52, 68. Hér wæs seó forme yld ðissere worulde and seó óðer yld wæs óþ Abrahames tíman ... Seó þridde yld wæs ðá wuniende óþ David at this time was the first age of this world, and the second age was till Abraham's time ... The third age was lasting then till David, Ælfc. T. Grn. 4, 5, 34. Hé com on ðære syxtan ylde, Blickl. Homl. 71, 26. Se eahtoþa dæg getácnode ða eahtoþan ylde ðyssere worulde, Homl. Th. i. 98, 8. Be ðám syx yldum, Bd. 5, 24; S. 648, 15. II. age, time of life, years; ætas :-- Eadig is heora yld seó ðe ðá gyt ne mihte Crist andettan and móste for Criste þrowian blessed is their [the children of Bethlehem] age, which as yet could not confess Christ, and might suffer for Christ, Homl. Th. i. 84, 3. Ealle wé cumaþ tó ánre ylde on ðam gemǽnelícum ǽriste ðeáh ðe wé nú on myslícere ylde of ðyssere worulde gewíton we shall all come at one age at the general resurrection, though now we depart from this world at different ages, 23-5. Deóplícor mid ús ðú smeágast ðonne yld úre anfón mǽge profundius nobiscum disputas quam ætas nostra capere possit, Th. An. 33, 11. Hé wæs ðá sixhund geára on ylde he was six hundred years of age, Gen. 7, 6. Ðá was ágán his ielde xxiii wintra he was then twenty-three years of age, Chr. prm; Erl. 4, 19. Hé leng ne leofaþ ðonn on midre ilde he will not live beyond middle age, Lchdm. iii. 162, 21. Ǽrðæmðe hé self wǽre fulfremedre ielde nisi perfecta ætate, Past. 49, 5; Swt. 335, 19. Hundehtatig ylda octoginta anni, Ps. Th. 89, 11. III. mature or old age, eld; senectus, vetustas :-- Yld senectus, Ælfc. Gr. 9; Som. 12, 28. Seó nóntíd biþ úre yld forðan ðe on nóntíde ásíhþ seó sunne and ðæs ealdigendan mannes mægen biþ wanigende the ninth hour is our old age, for at the ninth hour the sun sinks, and the force of the man that grows old is diminishing, Homl. Th. ii. 76, 20. Geswenced yld wearied age, Dóm. L. 16, 255. Ðonne mé ylde tíd on gesíge in tempore senectutis, Ps. Th. 70, 8. On hyre ylde ácende sunu peperit filium in senectute sua, Gen. 21, 2. Cild ðæt ðe heó Abrahame on his ylde ácende filium quem peperit ei [Abraham] jam seni, 7 : Beo. Th. 43; B. 22. Sume beóþ gelǽdde on cildháde tó rihtum lífe, sume on cnihtháde, sume on geþungenum wæstme, sume on ylde, sume on forwerodre ealdnysse, Homl. Th. ii. 76, 26. Ðǽr is geógoþ búton ylde there is youth without age, Blickl. Homl.65, 17: Exon. 32 a; Th. 101, 6; Cri. 1654. Gód sceal wyð yfele geógoþ sceal wið ylde sacan, Menol. Fox 562; Gn. C. 50. Nǽron eówre gescí mid ylde fornumene nec calceamenta pedum vestrorum vetustate consumpta sunt, Deut. 29, 5. Gesceádlíce tósceádan ylde and geóguþe to distinguish discreetly between age and youth, L. de Cf. 4; Th, ii. 262, 5. IV. age, old people, chief people [v. eald] :-- Seó yld hí gebæd and seó iúguþ wrát age prayed and youth wrote, Homl. Th. ii. 506, 21. Ðǽr wærþ Eást-Engla folces seó yld ofslagen there the principal men of the East Angles were slain, Chr, 1004; Erl. 139, 33. [Goth. alds, alþs an age, generation : O. Sax. O. L. Ger. eldi [old] age; antiquitas, senectus : O.Frs. elde: Icel, elli old age : O. H. Ger. alti, elti ætas, ævum, senium, senectus, vetustas.] v. eld, æfter-yld; ildu.

ilda. v. ildu.

ildan; p. de To delay, tarry, defer, put off, postpone, procrastinate, delay the notice of anything, connive at, dissimulate :-- Tó hwon yldestú middangeard tó onlýhtenne why dost thou delay to enlighten the world? Blickl. Homl. 7, 33. Tó hwon yldest ðú ðæt ðú raðost dó ðæt man ðás menn wítnige and cwelle why dost thou delay at once to cause these men to be punished and killed, 183, 1. Seó hálige cyrice sum þing þurh sceáwunge yldeþ and swá ábireþ and ældeþ ðæt oft ðæt wiðerwearde yfel áberende and yldende beweraþ sancta ecclesia quædam per considerationem dissimulat, atque ita portat et dissimulat, ut sæpe malum quod adversatur portando et dissimulando compescat, Bd. 1, 27; S. 491, 29-32. Ðá se brýdguma ylde moram faciente sponso, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 5, Hé ilde [Cott. MS. ielde] and þafode ða scylda dissimulavit culpas, Past. 21, 1; Swt. 151, 22. Hé ða gewilnunge náht lange ne ylde he did not long delay that desire, Th. Ap. 1, 17. Ne ylde hé hit ðá leng nec exinde distulit, Bd. 2, 12; S. 512, 34. Hé ylde ðá gyt distulit, Ps. Th. 77, 23. Ne yld ðæt ðú mé árie ne tardaveris, 39, 21. Ðeáh ðe ic hit læng ylde though I should longer delay to notice the matter, Chr. 1100; Erl. 236, 11. Ne ðæt se aglǽca yldan þohte nor did the wretch mean to delay that, Beo. Th. 1483; B. 739 : 4471; 2239. Yldan dissimulare, Wrt. Voc. ii. 27, 37. Yldende tó andettenne differentes cotfiteri, Bd. 5, 12; S. 630, 5. Ðonne se láreów ieldende sécþ ðone tíman ðe hé his hiéremenn sidelíce on þreátigean mǽge cum tempus subditis ad correptionem quæritur, Past. 21, 2; Swt. 153. 5. [O. H. Ger. altian differre; altón dissimulare; altinón differre, dissimulare, elongare.] v. ældan, ildcian, ildian; for-ildan.

ildcian; p. ode To delay :-- Se dysega ungeþyldega all his ingeþonc hé geypt ac se wísa hit ieldcaþ and bítt tíman totum spiritum suum profert stultus, sapiens autem differt et reservat in posterum, Past. 33. 4; Swt, 220, 10. v. elcian, eldcung.

ilde; pl. m. Men [a poetical term] :-- Hátaþ ylde eorþbúende fison men, earth-dwellers, call it Pison, Cd. 12; Th. 14, 19; Gen. 221. Yldo ofer eorþan, 163; Th. 205, 15; Exod. 436. Nædran ða aspide ylde nemnaþ, Ps. Th. 57, 4. Ylda ǽghwilc every man, Cd. 24; Th. 31, 4; Gen. 480. Ylda gehwilc, Ps. Th. 77, 4. Earmlíc ylda cwealm miserable slaughter of men, Andr. Kmbl. 363; An. 182 : 3108; An. 1557. Ylda Waldend God, Beo. Th. 3327; B. 1661. Ilda cyn the race of men, Elen. Kmbl. 1040; El. 521, Ylda bearn the children of men, Cd. 113; Th. 149, 6; Gen. 2470: 177; Th. 222, 17; Dan. 106. Sceal mid yldum wesan ismahel háten shall be called among men Ishmael, 104; Th. 138, 3; Gen. 2286: Beo. Th. 154; B. 77. Ðæt wæs yldum cúþ, 1415; B. 705 : Ps. Th. 144, 9. Niht becwom óðer tó yldum, Beo. Th. 4240; B. 2117 : Menol. Fox 174; Men. 88 : Elen. Kmbl. 1581; El. 792. [O. Sax. eldí; pl. men; eldeó barn children of men : Icel. öld; aldir; pl. [in poetry] men; alda börn children of men.]

ildend, es; m. One who delays :-- Næs ðá nǽnig yldend [ylding?] tó ðam ðæt syððan hí on ðæt hús cómon hí ðá sóna ðone hálgan wer gebundon there was no one, after they had got into the house, who delayed at once to bind the holy man, Guthl. 5; Gdwin. 36, 5. See note, where the other reading ylding is given.

ildend-líc; adj. Tardy, dilatory :-- Eldendlíce morosa, Wrt.Voc. ii. 54, 58.

ildest; superl. of eald. I. eldest, oldest :-- Úre ieldesta mǽg parens primus [Adam], Past. 43, 5; Swt. 313, 15. Hé sóhte fram ðam yldestan óþ ðone gingestan quos scrutatus, incipiens a majore usque ad minimum. Gen. 44, 12. Ða yldestan senes, Ps. Th. 104, 18. Ða yldestan chus and cham hátene wǽron the eldest were named Cush and Ham, Cd. 79; Th. 97, 22; Gen. 1616. II. As the oldest might be supposed best fitted to fill the highest positions the word gets the meaning principal, chief, greatest :-- Se yldesta cardinarius, i. primarius, Ælfc. Gl. 48; Som. 65. 66; Wrt. Voc, 14, 1. Yldest byrla magister calicum. 113 : Som. 79, 130; Wrt. Voc. 60, 34. Hé wæs ieldesð [summus] ofer ða hálgan cirican, Past. 17, 6; Swt. 115, 16. Hwylc hyra yldest wǽre quis eorum major esset, Lk. Skt. 9, 46, 33, 24. Ieldesta bisceop pontifex maximus, Ors. 5, 4; Swt. 224, 2. Tyrus hét him tó clypian ðone ðe on ðam scype yldost wǽre Tyrus bade call to him the principal man on the ship, St. And. 28, 6. Hé clipode him tó his yldestan geréfan dixit ad servum seniorem. Gen. 24, 2. Aaron and ða yldestan men tam Aaron quam principes synagogæ, Ex. 34. 31. Ða ieldestan men ðe tó Bedanforda hiérdon, Chr. 918; Erl. 104, 23. Ða yldestan witan gehádode and leáwede Angelcynnes, 1012; Erl. 146, 7 : 978; Erl. 127, 9. Ða yldestan þægenas, 1015; Erl. 151, 19. Ealle ða yldestan menn on West-Seaxon all the principal men of Wessex, 1036; Erl. 165, 1. Ða ðe ieldeste wǽron equites, Ors. 6, 4; Swt. 260, 24. Ða yldstan setl on gesamnungum the highest seats in the synagogues; primas cathedras in synagogis, Lk. Skt. 20, 46. Ic hit rehte ðam yldostan Egiptan witun I told it to the chief wise men of Egypt, Gen. 41, 24. [Laym. ældeste : Ayenb. eldeste : Icel. ellztr : O. H. Ger. altist, altost primus, primogenitus; thie altoston thes folkes seniores. For the use similar to that given under II. of a word denoting in the first instance age, cf. Goth. þai sinistans (lit. eldest) manageins by which Ulfilas translates οί πρεσβύτεροι τοû λαοû; and the passage in Ammianus Marcellinus 'sacerdos omnium maximus apud Burgundios vocatur sinistus.'] v. ildra.

ildian; p. ode To delay, defer, put off :-- Nis forðí nánum synfullum tó yldigenne ágenre gecyrrednysse ðýlæs ðe hé mid sleacnysse forleóse ða tíd Godes fyrstes it is not, therefore, for any sinner to delay his own conversion, lest by remissness he lose the time of God's respite, Homl. Th. i. 350, 54. v. ildan.

ilding, e; f. Delay, putting off, deferring, prolonging, delaying to notice anything, connivance :-- Ylding tricatio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 88, 19. Ne wæs ðá ylding tó ðon ðæt hí heápmǽlum cóman non mora ergo confluentibus catervis, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 31. Ne wæs dá ylding ðæt monige gelýfdon quid mora? crediderunt nonnulli, 1, 26; S. 487, 39: 3. 9; S. 533, 38. Ðá hit mycel ylding wæs cum mora multa fieret, Mk. Skt. 6, 35. Hwæt is ðæt líf elles ðysses middangeardes búton lytelu ylding ðæs deáþes what else is the life of this world but a little deferring of death? Blickl. Homl. 59, 27. Hit biþ ðeáþes ylding swíðor ðonne lífes it is rather the deferring of death, than the prolonging of life, 32. Beó ðú on tíd gearu ne mæg ðæs ǽrendes ylding wyrðan be thou at the time ready, the errand may not brook delay, Andr. Kmbl. 430; An. 215. Ðá bæd hé hine yldinge and fyrstes petens inducias, Bd. 4, 1; S. 564, 7. Bútan ǽnigre yldinge sine ulla dilatione, 1, 27; S. 493, 30. Búton yldinge, Homl. Th. i. 84. 34. Búton ǽlcere yldinge, Blickl. Homl. 87, 4. Be ðære ildinge [MS. Cott. ieldinge] suíðe wel Drihten þreáde Iudéas qua dissimulatione bene Iudæam Dominus corripit, Past. 21, 1; Swt. 151, 19. Ðæt ic yldinge onfó tó lifianne ut inducias vivendi accipiam, Bd. 3, 13; S. 538, 34. Ieldinga morarum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 54, 57. v. ildan, eldung.

ildo. v. ildu.

ildra; m. ildre; f. n. comp. of eald. I. elder, older, grand [in grand father, cf. eald-fæder, -móder] :-- Ældra senior, Wrt. Voc. ii.120, 48. Seó yldre hátte Lia and seó gingre Rachel nomen majoris Lia, minor vero appellabatur Rachel, Gen. 29, 16. Hys yldra sunu wæs on æcere erat filius ejus senior in agro, Lk. Skt. 15, 25. Mín yldra mǽg my elder brother, Beo. Th. 940; B. 468. Yldra bróðor, 2653; B. 1324. Óþ ðæt hé yldra wearþ until he got older, 4746; B. 2378. Ic eom micle yldra I am much older, Exon. 111 a; Th. 424, 20; Rä. 41, 42. Ældra fæder avus, Wrt.Voc. ii, 101, 22. Yldra fæder avita, 78, 3. Geornful tó witanne ðætte ǽr wæs ǽr dú ácenned wére oððe furðum ðín yldra fæder geboren wére desirous to know what was before you were begotten, or even before your grandfather was born, Shrn. 198, 29: Elen. Kmbl. 872; El. 436. For míne sáwle and for mínes fæder and for mínes ieldran fæder for my soul, and for my father's, and for my grandfather's, Chart. Th. 496, 21 : 497, 15. Þurh heora yldran módor láre hí gelýfdon gode through their grandmother's teaching they believed on God, Shrn. 53, 10, 16, 21. Ða gingran árisaþ wið ðám yldrum the younger shall arise against the elder, Blickl. Homl. 171, 23. Swelce snytro swylce manegum óðrum ieldran gewittum oftogen is such wisdom as is withheld from many older minds, Bt. 8; Fox 24, 28. II, greater, superior [v. yldest II.] :-- Hwæðer ys yldra ðe se ðe þénaþ ðe se ðe sitt quis major est qui recumbit an qui ministrat? Lk. Skt. 22, 27. Gewurþe hé swá swá gingra seðe yldra ys betwux eów qui major est in vobis fiat sicut junior, 26. Ða ðe synt yldran habbaþ anweald on him qui majores sunt, potestatem exercent in eos, Mt. Kmbl. 20, 25. [Orm. elldre : Laym. ældre, eldere : O. Sax. aldiro (as a noun) : Icel. ellri : O. H. Ger. altero.] v. next word.

ildra, an [but the singular rarely occurs]; m. A parent, ancestor, father, forefather, predecessor, elder :-- Ðá mé yldra mín ágeaf andsware fæder reordode then my father answered me and spake [cf. 872; El. 436 : 891; El. 447 : 906; El. 454], Elen. Kmbl. 921; El. 462. Hí forgeten hæfdon ðara wundra heora yldran on lócadan obliti sunt mirabilium quæ ostendit coram patribus eorum, Ps. Th. 77, 13. Úre ieldran ða ðe ðás stówa ǽr hióldon hié lufodon wísdóm our forefathers who formerly held these places, loved wisdom, Past. Pref.; Swt. 5, 14 : Exon. 47 a; Th. 160, 20; Gú. 946. Úre yldran swultan and swíðe oft ús from wendan our parents have died and very often gone from us, Blickl. Homl. 195, 26. Wǽron his yldran fæder and módor hǽðne his parents, father and mother, were heathens, 211, 19 : 213, 2. Úre yldrena lage traditionem seniorum, Mt. Kmbl. 15, 2. Twegen gebróðru ðe hæfdon behwyrfed eall heora yldrena gestreón on deórwyrþum gymstánum two brothers who had converted all their parents' wealth into precious stones; Homl. Th. i. 60, 23. Bebirge mé mid mínum yldrum condas me in sepulchro majorum meorum, Gen. 47. 30. Eafora æfter yldrum the son after the parents, Cd. 56; Th. 69, 1; Gen. 1129. Suna ic lǽrde ðæt hié hýrdon heora yldrum I taught sons to obey their parents, Blickl. Homl. 185, 20. Nolde hé him geceósan welige yldran he [Christ]. would not choose wealthy parents for himself, 23, 25. [Laym. aldren, ældere, eldre forefathers : R.Glouc. eldren : Piers P. Chauc. eldres : O. Sax. aldiro a forefather; pl. parents; eldiron, pl. parents : O. Frs. alder, elder, aldera, ieldera father, parent : O. H. Ger. altiron, eldiron parentes : Ger. ältern, eltern parents.] v. eldran.

ildu; indecl. f. I. an age; ævum :-- Nis ðæt tó geortrýwianne ðæt on úre yldo ðæt beón mihte ðæt forþgongendre yldo oft geworden getreówe spell secgaþ nec diffidendum est nostra etiam ætate fieri potuisse, quod ævo præcedente aliquoties factum fideles historiæ narrant, Bd. 4, 19; S. 587. 32 : 3, 27; S. 558, 31. II. age, time of life; ætas :-- Óþ nigon and fíftig wintra mínre yldo usque ad annum ætatis meæ quinquagesimum nonum, 5, 24; S. 647, 32. On ðære ǽrestan yldo his lífes in prima ætate, 5, 13; S. 633. 32. Mid ðí ðe heó bicom tó giftelícre yldo when she arrived at a marriageable age, Th. Ap. 1, 10. Ða ðe nabbaþ náwþer ne ildo ne wísdóm quos vet imperfectio vel ætas prohibet, Past, 49. 3; Swt. 383, 21. III. age, old age; senectus :-- Seó yldo and se ende ðæs heora lífes their old age and the end of their life, Blickl. Homl. 163. 5. Heora ylda gelíffæsted wæs, 18. Him æfter ðý yldo ne derede after that age should not harm him, Cd. 23; Th. 30, 24; Gen. 471. Nis ðǽr on ðam londe yldu ne yrmþu there is not in that land old age nor misery, Exon. 56 b; Th. 201, 6; Ph. 52. On geóguþe ... on yldo, 88 a; Th. 330, 32; Vy. 60. Geógoþ búton yldo, Blickl. Homl. 103, 35. Heó hire on ylda ðá wǽre she was in her old age, 163, 10. Nú gyt syndan manige manna swylce ðe hiom yldo gebídan ǽr tó genihte adhuc multiplicabuntur in senecta uberi, Ps. Th. 91, 13. Ða yldu wendan tó lífe to turn old age to life, Exon. 58 b; Th. 210, 23; Ph. 190. Míne yldo beóþ ǽghwǽr genihtsum senectus mea in misericordia uberi, Ps. Th. 91, 9. [Orm. A. R. R. Glouc. Ayenb. Piers P. Chauc. Wick. elde age, old age, eld : Icel. öld an age. v. ild for other related words.] v. æfter-, ǽr-, frum-yldo; ældo, eldo, ild.

ile, es; m. I. the sole of the foot :-- Ile [? cf. 283. 75 hela calx, occurring in a very similar list] calx, Wrt. Voc. 65, 47. Ilas, wearras calces, ii. 127. 45. From his hnolle ufewerdan óþ his ilas neoþewerde from the crown of his head to the soles of his feet, Homl. Th. ii. 452, 27. Mid ísenum pílum heora ilas gefæstnode fastened the soles of their feet with iron nails, Homl. Skt. 5, 388. II. hard skin [such as comes on the sole of the foot?], callosity :-- Ile callus, Ælfc. Gl. 78; Som. 72, 51; Wrt. Voc. 46, 11. Weorras vel ill callus, ii.103, 16. Him weóxon ylas on olfendes gelícnysse on his cneówum callosities grew on his knees, just as on a camel's, Homl. Th. ii. 298, 26. [To þe yle of hire helen, Marh. 10, 19 : O. Frs. ili, ile, il hard skin : Icel. il; gen. iliar; f. the sole of the foot.]

ilf, e; f. An elf :-- Ðanon untydras ealle onwócon eotenas and ylfe thence sprang all monstrous things, giants and elves, Beo. Th. 224; B. 112. Gif hit wǽre ésa gescot oððe hit wǽre ylfa gescot oððe hit wǽre hægtessan gescot if it were Æsir's shot, or elves' shot, or witches' shot, Lchdm. iii. 54, 10. [Cf. Scot. elf-shot; elf-arrow, Halliw. Dict; Grmm. D. M. 429 : Prompt. Parv. elfe lamia, 138, see note : M. H. Ger. elbe; f. see Grmm. D. M. 411.] v- ælf, -elfen.

ilfette, an: ilfetu, e; f. A swan :-- Aelbitu olor, cicnus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 115, 47 : tantalus, 98, 30. Ilfatu alvor, 6, 55. Ilfetu olor, 63, 40. Ylfete cignus, Ælfc. Gl, 36; Som. 62, 105; Wrt. Voc. 29, 3. Elfetu, Wrt. Voc. 62, 5. Ylfette olor vel cingnus, 77, 25. Ylfete song the song of the swan, Exon. 81 b; Th. 307, 6; Seef. 19. Sume fugelas beóþ langsweorede swá swá ylfettan some birds are long-necked, such as swans, Hexam. 8; Norm. 14, 17. [Icel. álpt, álft 'the common Icel. word for swan; svan is only poët :' O. H. Ger. albiz, alpiz, elpiz olor, Grff. i. 243.]

ilfig; adj. Affected by elves [?], mad, frantic :-- Fanaticus, i. minister templi, futura præcinens, vel ylfig, Wrt. Voc. ii. 147, 40. Ylfie vel mónaþseóce comitiales, i. e. garritores,132, 26. Comitiales, lunaticos wanseóce i. garritores, ylfie, Hpt. Gl. 519. 44.

illeracu, e; f. A surfeit; crapula, Wrt. Voc. ii. 21, 62. v. ge-illerocaþ.

ilnetu ciciris [? v. DuCange 'cicurris domesticus sus'],Wrt. Voc. ii. 16, 15.

im-byrdling. v. in-byrdling.

impe [?], an; f. An imp, scion, graft, shoot :-- Ðæt is sió hálige gesomnung Godes folces ðæt eardaþ on æppeltúnum ðonne hie wel begáþ hira plantan and hiera impan óþ hié fulweaxne beóþ ecclesia quippe in hortis habitat, quæ ad viriditatem intimam exculta plantaria virtutum servat, Past. 49, 2; Swt. 381, 17. [Gunge impen me bigurt mid þornes, A. R. 378. 24 : Yzet mid guode ympen. Þe ilke ympen byeþ þe virtues, Ayenb. 94, 34 : I was the coventes gardyner, for to graffe ympes, Piers P. 5, 137 : Prompt. Parv. impe or graffe surculus : cf. O. H. Ger. impitunga insertio; ga-impitón inserere, Grff. i. 262: and see Skeat's Etym. Dict. imp.]

IN; prep. cum dat. inst. acc. 'In is not found in Alfred's Metres, in the Runic poem, or in Byrhtnoþ; it occurs twice in the metrical Psalms, three times in Cædmon's Genesis; elsewhere in the poetry in and on freely interchange; but in prevails in the North, on in the South. The distinctive on has a vertical element [up or down], which easily runs to against or near,' March, p. 163. I. with dat. inst. In, on :-- Wé sceolan on ðisse sceortan tíde geearnian éce ræste ðonne mótan wé in ðære engellícan blisse gefeón mid úrum Drihtne we must in this short time earn eternal rest, then may we in angelic bliss rejoice with our Lord, Blickl. Homl. 83, 2. On sumre stówe hé wæs ðæt man mid his handa neálíce gerǽcean mihte in sumre eáðelíce mid heáfde gebrínan in one place the roof was so that it could hardly be reached with the hand, in another it could easily be touched with the head, 207, 22. Hé wæs on Pannania ðære mǽgde ǽrest on woruld cumen, in Arrea ðæm túne. Wæs hé hweðre in Italia áféded, in Ticinan ðære byrig, 211, 16-18. Ðara monna ðe in ðam here weorþuste wǽron of the men that were most distinguished in the army, Chr. 878; Erl. 80, 21. In woruldháde in sæculari habitu, Bd. 4. 23; S. 592, 42 : 4. 7 : S. 574, 34. In regollíces lífes láre swýðe geornful regularis vitæ institutioni multum intenta, 4. 23; S. 593, 33. Eall ða hé in gehérnesse geleornian mihte cuncta quæ audiendo discere poterat, 4. 24; S. 598, 5. Hafaþ in hondum heofon and eorþan, Exon. 42 a; Th. 140, 32; Gú. 619. Wé sculon á gemunan in móde ðone sigora waldend we must ever keep in mind the disposer of victories, 84 b; Th. 318, 15; Mód. 83. Lifgan fracoþ in folcum to live vile among nations, 10 b; Th. 12, 33; Cri. 195. Ðú ðe in dryhtnes noman cwóme thou who didst come in the name of the Lord, 13 b; Th. 26, 5; Cri. 413, In hwítum hræglum gewerede clad in white raiment, 14 a; Th. 28, 15; Cri. 447 : Cd. 154; Th. 191, 10; Exod. 212. Wuniaþ in wynnum they dwell in delights, 224; Th. 296, 26; Sat. 508. Þafaþ in geþylde allows in patience, Exon.79 a; Th. 297, 20; Crä. 71. Ic on unrihtum eác ðan in synnum geeácnod wæs I was conceived in iniquity and in sin, Ps. C. 50, 60; Ps. Grn. ii. 278, 60: Bd. 2, 12; S. 574, 9. In campe in battle, Beo. Th. 5003; B. 2505. In Caines cynne ðone cwealm gewræc éce Drihten the eternal Lord avenged that death among the race of Cain, 214; B. 107. Ne móste Efe ðá gyt wlítan in wuldre Eve might not as yet look on glory, Cd. 222; Th. 290, 2; Sat. 409. Ne hafu ic in heáfde hwíte loccas I have not white hairs on my head, Exon. 111 b; Th. 427, 28; Rä. 41, 98. Ábídan sceolan in sinnihte they shall abide in eternal night, 31 b; Th. 99, 29; Cri. 1632. In grimmum sǽlum in rough seasons, 89 b; Th. 336, 20; Gn. Ex. 52. In lífdagum in lifetime, Cd. 163; Th. 204, 22; Exod.423. In geárdagum in days of yore, Beo. Th. 2; B. 1. [Cf. On fyrndagum, Andr. Kmbl. 2; An. 1.] On stówe seó is gecíged in Hripum, Bd. 5, 19; S. 638, 38. In ðýs ginnan grunde in this wide world, Judth. 9; Thw. 21, 1; Jud. 2. II. with acc, into, in, to :-- Ǽr ðon ðe hé in heofenas ástige before he ascended into heaven, Blickl. Homl. 125, 16. Genáman his líc and in ða stówe ásetton ðe Vaticanus hátte they took his body and put it into the place called the Vatican, 191. 33. Ðá eode hé in ða cetan then he went into the cell, 219, 14. Gúþlác sette hyht in heofenas, Exon. 39 a; Th. 128, 18; Gú. 406. Heó hine in ðæt mynster onféng ... Hé eall in ðæt swéteste leóþ gehwyrfde susceptum in monasterium ... Ipse cuncta in carmen dulcissimum convertebat, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598. 3-7. Ðá gewát heó in East-Engla mǽgþe secessit ad provinciam Orientalium Anglorum, 4, 23; S. 593. 8 : Exon. 96 b; Th. 361, 7; Wal. 16. Ne inlǽd úsih in [West Sax. on] costunge ne inducas nos in temtationem, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 13 : Hy. 6, 28; Hy. Grn. ii. 286, 28. Beraþ forþ scíre helmas in sceaþena gemong bear forth your bright helms into the press bf the foes, Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 17; Jud. 193. Héton æðeling lǽdan in wráðra geweald, Andr. Kmbl. 2547; An. 1275. Ðá wæs eft geseted in aldordóm babilone weard the king of Babylon was restored to sovereignty, Cd. 208; Th. 256, 16; Dan. 641. Ðá hié ðá in ðone heofon lócodan æfter him as they looked after him unto heaven, Blickl. Homl. 121, 21. Se ágend upárǽrde reáde streámas in randgebeorh the Lord hath raised up the waters of the Red Sea as a protection, Cd. 156; Th. 196, 24; Exod. 296. Gelǽred in ða gerýno Cristes geleáfan, Bd. 2, 15; S. 518, 28. In ða tíd bád ðone écan sige ipso tempore coronam exspectabat æternam, Bd. 4. 23; S. 593. 14 : 2, 3; S. 504, 20. In áne tíd in one hour, Andr. Kmbl. 2183; An. 1093. Ðín dóm wunaþ in ǽlce tíd thy glory lasteth to all time, Exon. 13 b; Th. 25, 26; Cri. 406. In ealle tíd, Exon. 83 a; Th. 313, 15; Seef. 124 : 95 b; Th. 356, 25; Pa, 17. In woruld weorulda in sæcula sæculorum, Elen. Kmbl. 901; El. 452. III. In sometimes follows its case :-- Ðǽr se eádga mót eardes neótan, wyllestreáma wuduholtum in, wunian in wonge, Exon. 61 a; Th. 223, 20; Ph. 362. Blǽd wíde sprang Scyldes eaferan Scedelandum in, Beo. Th. 38; B. 19. [Goth. O. Frs. O. H. Ger. Ger. in : Icel. í : Lat. in : Grk. έν.]

in [adv. and noun]. v. inn.

in-, inn-. In the case of some of the verbs where in is given as a prefix perhaps it should be separated; the passages may then be taken as illustrating the adverb inn.

in-áberan; p. -bær To bring in :-- Be ðam hunde ðe his hand eft innábær of the dog that brought his hand in again, Homl. Th. ii. 520, 14.

in-ádl, e; f. An internal disease :-- Sára inádle, L. M. 2, 1; Lchdm, ii. 174, 28. Wið eallum inádlum, 2, 41; Lchdm. ii. 252, 6.

in-ǽlan; p. de To kindle :-- Eów wæs ád inǽled for you a pile was kindled, Exon. 42 a; Th. 142, 6; Gú. 640. v. on-ǽlan.

in-ásendan; p. de To send in :-- Hí inásendan ðæt bed summiserunt grabatum, Mk. Skt. 2, 4.

in-áwritting, e; f. An inscription :-- Innáwritting inscribtio, Lk. Skt. Lind. 20, 24.

in-bærniss, e; f. Incense, frankincense :-- Inbærnis tus. Wrt.Voc. 289, 54. Inbernisse incensum, Ps. Surt. 140, 2. v. an-, on-bærniss; and cf. in-récels.

in-belǽdan; p. de To lead in, introduce :-- Ðú inbelǽdst hig introduces eos, Cantic. Moys, 17.

in-belgan; p. -bealg; pp. -bolgen To exasperate :-- Ða inbolgeno aspirando, Rtl. 15, 40. v. á-belgan.

in-belúcan; p. -leác To shut :-- Ðá ða duru inbeleác æfter him then he shut the door after them, Blickl. Homl. 217, 26.

in-bend; m. f. An internal bond :-- Wæs se báncofa ádle onǽled inbendum fæst his body was inflamed with disease, fast with the fetters within, Exon. 46 b; Th. 159, 18; Gú. 928.

in-beódan; p. -beád; pp. -boden To announce, declare, proclaim :-- Inboden fæsten indicto jejunio, Mt. Kmbl. p. 9. 5. v. on-beódan.

in-beornan; p. -bearn To burn, be on fire :-- Inbiorne wé inardescamus, Rtl. 95. 27.

in-beran; p. -bær To bring in, Beo. Th. 4310; B. 2152.

in-berdling. v. in-byrdling.

in-berþ. v. in-byrd.

in-bestingan; p. -stang To pierce, penetrate, make a thrust which enters but does not go quite through :-- Gif hé þurhstinþ .vi. scill. gebéte. Gif man inbestinþ .vi. scill. gebéte, L. Ethb. 64; Th. i. 18, 12.

in-bewindan; p. -wand To wrap up, enwrap :-- Innbewand involvit, Lk. Skt. Lind. 23, 53. Innbewunden involutum, 2, 12.

in-bewreón; pp. -wrigen To cover up :-- Heora andwlitan inbewrigenum with their faces covered up, Cd. 77; Th. 95, 28; Gen. 1585.

in-bindan; p. -band To unbind :-- Án sceal inbindan forstes fetre one shall unbind the fetters of frost, Exon. 90 a; Th. 338, 8; Gn. Ex. 75. v. an-, on-bindan.

in-birding. v. in-byrding.

in-birigan; p. de To taste :-- Inberigde gustavit, Jn. Skt. Rush. 2, 9. v. on-birian.

in-bláwan; p. -bleów To inspire, breathe upon :-- Inbleów on hine insuflavit, Jn. Skt. Rush. 20, 22. Ðec inbláwende te inspirante, Rtl. 103, 32.

in-borh; gen. -borges; m. A security required in cases where property had been stolen, bail :-- Gif hwá þífþe betogen sý ... ðonne niman ða ðe hit tógebyreþ on his ǽhtan inborh if any one be accused of theft . .. then let those to whom it appertains take security from his property, L. Ed. 6; Th. i.162, 20. Ðonne sette mon inborh let security be given [the property in dispute is þeófstolen, v. l. 12], L. O. D. 8; Th. i. 356, 10. [Cf. L. H. 1; Th. i. 589, 19, de suo aliquid pro inborgo retineatur. Heore godfaderes scullen beo inborʒes for hem, O. E. Homl. i. 73, 32. Inboreges, ii. 17, 20.]

in-brengan; p. -brohte To bring in or to, present :-- Hú micele hefigra biþ se wénenda deáþ ðonne se inbrohta how much more grievous is death when it is expected than when it is presented to us, Shrn. 42, 31. v. next word.

in-bringan to bring in, present :-- Ðá hí ne mihton hine inbringan cum non possent offerre eum illi, Mk. Skt. 2, 4.

in-bryne, es; m. A fire, burning :-- Inbryrno incendia, Rtl. 64, 12.

in-bryrdan; p. de To stimulate, instigate, incite, animate, inspire :-- Inbryrdendre Godes gefe God's grace instigating me, Chart. Th. 129, 25. Breóstum inbryrded animated in spirit, Exon.73 b; Th. 274, 18; Jul. 535. Breóstum inbryrded tó ðam betran hám, 42 a; Th. 141, 12; Gú. 626. Ðá wæs, þurh ðæt hálige treó, imbryrded breóstsefa, Elen. Kmbl. 1680; El. 842. Inbryrded breóstsefa, 2089; El. 1046. v. on-bryrdan.

in-bryrdniss, e; f. Inspiration, animation, compunction, feeling :-- Mid ða mǽstan swétnesse and inbryrdnisse [inbrydnisse, MS.] maxima suavitate et compunctione, Bd. 4, 24; S. 596, 34 : 3, 19; S. 549, 21. Tó inbryrdnesse [inbyrdnesse, MS.] and tó gemynde ðære æfterfyligendra ad instruetionem memoriamque sequentium, 17; S. 585, 16, note. v. on-bryrdniss.

in-búan to inhabit :-- Seðe inbýeþ in ðæm qui inhabitat in ipso, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 23, 21.

in-búend, es; m. An inhabitant, native :-- Inbúend colonus, incola, inquilinus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 134, 25.

in-burh; gen. -burge; f. A hall, vestibule :-- Inburh atrium, Wrt. Voc. 84, 35.

inburh-fæst; adj. Stationed in a hall; atriensis; scil. atrii janitor, seneschallus, lictor, Lye.

in-byrde; adj. Born in a master's house :-- Dunne wæs inbyrde tó Hǽðfelda Dunne belonged by birth to Hatfield, Chart. Th. 650, 28. Wífús and Dunne and Seoloce syndan inbyrde tó Hǽðfelda, 649. 33. Ða inberðan menn tó Eblesburnan, 152, 8. See next two words, and Kemble's Saxons in England, i. 203 sqq. [Cf. Icel. inn-borinn native : O. H. Ger. in-burto oriundus; in-burtig indigena : O. L. Ger. in-burdig indigena.]

in-byrding, es; m. A slave born in a master's house :-- Inbirding vernaculus, Ælfc. Gl. 8; Som. 56, 103; Wrt. Voc. 18, 52. v. next word.

in-byrdling, es; m. A slave born in a master's house :-- Inberdling vel fóstorling verna vel vernaculus, Ælfc. Gl. 86; Som. 74, 34; Wrt. Voc. 50, 17. Inbyrdlingc vernaculus, Wrt. Voc. 72, 82. Sicul inberdli[n]c, sicilisc inhyrdlincg ( = -byrdling) siculus indigena, Hpt. Gl. 499. Mín inbyrdling biþ mín yrfenuma vernaculus meus heres meus erit, Gen. 15, 3. Ǽlc werhádes man on eówrum mǽgðum and inbyrdlingum and geboht þeówa omne masculinum in generationibus vestris, tam vernaculus quam emptitius, 17, 12. Ealle werhádes men his inhírédes ǽgðer ge imbyrdlingas ge gebohte þeówan omnes viri domus illius, tam vernaculi quam emptitii, 27.

inc; dat : inc, incit; ac : incer; gen. of dual of pronoun of 2nd person :-- Inc ágényrnþ sum man occurrit vobis homo, Mk. Skt. 14, 13. Nys mé inc tó syllanne non est meum dare vobis, Mt. Kmbl. 20, 23. Hwí gewearþ inc swá ðæt gyt dorston fandian Godes why have ye [Ananias and Sapphira] agreed to tempt God? Homl. Th. i. 316, 33. Bǽm inc to you both, Exon.13 a; Th. 22, 26; Cri. 357. Inc bám twám, Cd. 27; Th. 35, 30; Gen. 562. Neótaþ inc ðæs óðres ealles wariaþ inc wið ðone wæstm ne wyrþ inc wilna gǽd, 13; Th. 15, 18-21; Gen. 235-6. Incit, 130; Th. 165, 16; Gen. 2732 : 139; Th. 174, 19; Gen. 2880. Incer twega of you two, Exon. 123 b; Th. 475, 14; Bo. 47. Yncer ǽgðer ofslyhþ óderne and hundas licciaþ eówre blód and fugelas fretaþ incer flǽsc and yncer wíf beóþ on ánum dæge wudewan, Shrn. 148, 1-4. Gehwæðer incer either of you two, Beo. Th. 1173; B. 584. [Laym. 1st MS. inc selven; 2nd MS. ʒou seolve : Marh. inc baðen : Orm. ʒunnc baþe; gunkerr baþre.] v. git, incer.

inca, an; m. Doubt, question, cause of complaint, offence, ill-will or fear :-- Inca apporia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 10, 8 : occasio, R. Ben. 38, Lye. Ðá ongan hé mé ácsian hwæðere ic wiste hwæðer ic on riht bútan incan gefullad wǽre cæpit me interrogare, an me esse baptizatum absque scrupulo nossem, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 45. Ðá frægn hé hwæðer hí ealle smylte mód and bútan eallum incan blíðe tó him hæfdon. Ðá andswaredon hí ealle ðæt hí nǽnigne incan tó him wiston then he asked them, whether they all were peaceably and kindly disposed to him without any cause of complaint. Then they all answered that they knew no cause of complaint against him; interrogavit, si omnes placidum erga se animum, et sine querela controversiæ ac rancoris haberent. Respondebant omnes, se mentem ad illum ab omni ira remotam habere, 4, 24; S. 598, 39-41. Ðú mé scealt edwítt mín of áwyrpan ðæt mé tó incan áhwǽr gangeþ thou shalt cast from me my reproach, which everywhere goes as a cause of fear to me; amputa opprobrium meum, quod suspicatus sum, Ps. Th. 118, 39. Ðeáh ðe ic nó [MS. on] ingcan wiste hú ic míne heortan heólde mid sóðe though I did not know any cause of complaint, as to the manner in which I had kept my heart truly; ergo sine causa justificavi cor meum, 72, 11. Ne ic culpan in ðé incan ǽnigne ǽfre onfunde womma geworhtra I found not fault in thee, nor cause of complaint for sins committed, Exon. 10 b; Th. 11, 29; Cri. 178. Incan scrupulum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 85, 7. Incan causas, 130, 13.

-incel a diminutive suffix, e. g. ráp-incel, scip-incel, hús-incel.

in-cempa, an; m. A member of a household capable of bearing arms :-- Incempa, gescota commanipularius, collega, miles, Wrt. Voc. ii. 132,48. v. in-hirdman, in-híréd, in-cniht.

incer; adj. pron. 2nd person dual. Of or belonging to you two :-- Ic nú ðis þing wríte tó ðé gemǽnelíce and tó mínre méder and mínum geswustrum forðon incer lufu sceal beón somod gemǽne nunc tibi et matri mee sororibusque meis de singulis regni mei commodis scribebam, que tibi et illis communia esse arbitror, Nar. 3, 6-9. Sý inc æftyr incrun [MS. A. eowrum] geleáfan secundum fidem vestram fiat vobis, Mt. Kmbl. 9, 29. Ðý læs gyt láð gode incrum [Adam and Eve] waldende weorðan þyrfen, Cd. 27; Th. 36, 25; Gen. 577. Tó incre andsware, Th. 35, 19; Gen. 557. Biddaþ incerne [Moses and Aaron] god, Ex. 10, 17. Dǽlan somwist incre [Hagar and Sarah], Cd. 104; Th. 137, 27; Gen. 2280. Fyllaþ eorþan incre [Adam and Eve] cynne, 10; Th. 13, 4; Gen. 197. [Laym. 1st MS. incker moder inc hateþ; 2nd MS. ʒoure moder ʒou hoteþ: Gen. a. Ex. gunker : Goth. iggkwar.] v. git, inc.

incge, in the phrase incge láfe [a sword], Beo. Th. 5747; 13. 2577, appears to be a proper name. Ing occurs in stanza 22 of the Runic poem, and Ing-winas is a name of the Danes in Beowulf.

in-cígan; p. de To invoke :-- Ic incégo invoco, Rtl. 119, 5.

in-cígung, e; f. Invocation :-- Innceigungum invocationibus, Rtl. 121, 26. Innceiginge invocationem, 122, 22. Inceigence, 172, 8.

incit. v. inc.

in-cleofa, an; m. An inner chamber, closet, bed-chamber, den, cave :-- Incleofa cellarium, Wrt. Voc. ii. 130, 56 : camera, 127, 79. Incleofe spelunca, Ps. Spl. T. 9, 10. Forþ of hire inclifan out of her closet, Chart. Th. 230,17. On incleofum [bedcliofum, MS. T.] eówrum in cubilibus vestris, Ps. Spl. 4, 5. On incleofum [bedcliofum, MS. T.] his in cubili suo, 35, 4. On incleofum [bedclyfum, MS. T.] heora in cubilibus suis, 149, 5 : Blickl. Gl. Ácende eorþe heora froggan on inclyfum heora cyninga edidit terra eorum ranas in penetralibus regum ipsorum, Ps. Lamb. 104, 30. Hwelpas leóna on incleofum heora hí gesomniaþ catuli leonum in cubilibus suis collocabuntur, Ps. Spl. 103, 23.

in-cnapa, an; m. A domestic servant, Lye. v. next word.

in-cniht, es; m. A servant in a house, household or domestic servant :-- Incniht cliens vel clientulus, Wrt. Voc. 72, 80. Incniht parasitus, cliens, domesticus, Hpt. Gl. 427, 483, 514. Se hláford gegaderode micele menigu his incnihta the master gathered together a great many of his household servants, Homl. Th. i. 502, 13. [O. L. Ger. in-kneht apparitor : O. H. Ger. in-kneht vernaculus, servus vel domigena, verna, inquilinus, apparitor.]

in-cofa, an; m. An inner chamber, [metaph.] the breast, heart :-- On his incofan ɫ on his clyfan in cubili suo, Ps. Lamb. 35, 5. On díglum ɫ on incofan ɫ on eówrum clyfum in cubilibus vestris, 4, 5. Eal ðæt hé hæfde on his incofan all that he had in his breast, Bt. Met. Fox 22, 35; Met. 22, 18. v. breóst-cofa.

in-coðu, e; and an; f. An internal disease :-- Wið incoðe, L. M. 2, 55; Lchdm. i. 276, 6. Fela incoða hé gehǽlde untrumra sáwla mislícra manna many diseases of sick souls of diverse men he healed, Homl. Th. ii. 560, 33. Incoða infirmitates; incoðe fibras [= febris ?], Hpt. Gl. 453. Incoðan melancholias, 478. [Cf. in-ádl.]

in-cuman; p. -com To come in, enter :-- Ðonne gé incumaþ on ðæt lond ðe ic eów sille cum ingressi fueritis terram; quam ego dabo vobis, Lev. 23, 10. On swá hwilcum húse swá gé incumaþ whatever house you enter, Homl. Th. ii. 534, 8. Gá hé út mid swilcum reáfe swilce hé incom cum quali veste intraverit, cum tali exeat, Ex. 21, 3. Ðá hié tósamne incóman when they entered together, Blickl. Homl. 173. 5. Ðǽr nǽfre nǽnig dǽl regnes incuman ne mæg never can any rain enter there, 125, 33. Incuma introire, Mk. Skt. Lind. 1, 45.

in-cund; adj. Internal, inward, intimate :-- Ða óðre werod brúcaþ ðære incundan embwlátunge his godcundnysse swá ðæt hí náteshwón fram his andweardnysse ásende ne gewítaþ the other hosts enjoy the closest contemplation of his divinity, so that on no account do they depart on any mission from his presence, Homl. Th. i. 348, 7. Ðære þeóde sáwla þurh ða ýttran wundra beóþ getogene tó ðære incundan gife the souls of that people are drawn by those outward miracles to the inward grace, ii. 132, 3. Ðonne hé ða úterran þing dón sculon, ðæt hié ne síen ðæm incundum ingeþance áfirrede . . . hié lǽtaþ ácólian ða incundan lufan ne, dum cura ab eis exterior agitur, ab interna intentione mergantur . . . ab intimo amore frigescunt, Past. 18, 7; Swt. 138, 5-9. Wið ǽghwylcum incundum earfoþnyssum for all internal difficulties, Herb. 90, 11; Lchdm. i. 196, 21. Tó incundum ad intima, Kent. Gl. 999. v. innan-, inne-cund.

in-cúð; adj. Strange, not friendly, grievous :-- Hé wolde eác swylce þurh ðone regul oncnáwan ða wíslícan gefadunge ðe snotorlíce geset is be incúðra þinga endebyrdnesse he wished also to know by means of the Rule [of Benedict] the wise arrangement, that is prudently appointed concerning the disposition of strange matters, Lchdm. iii. 440, 26. Hé hálegra cyricena land incúðum reáferum tódǽlde he [Edwy] distributed the lands of holy churches to strangers and robbers, 436, 1. v. next word.

in-cúðlíce; adv. Grievously, sorely :-- Ðá begann se ealda incúðlíce siccetan and mid wópe wearþ ofergoten then the old man began to sigh grievously and became suffused with tears, Ælfc. T. Grn. 18, 1.

in-dǽlan; p. de To impart, infuse :-- Ðæt léht scínende indǽl heartum úsum illud lumen splendidum infunde cordibus nostris, Rtl. 2, 13. Indǽlde infudit, 47, 1.

Indea, India India. :-- Ðæt sint India gemǽro in his finibus India est, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 10, 15. Hé fór on Indie Indiam petit, 3, 9; Swt. 132, 4. Ðá wilnode ic Indeum innwearde tó geseónne interiorem indiam perspicere cupiens, Nar. 5, 17. On Indea to India; Chr. 883; Erl. 83, 17.

Indéas; pl. Indians :-- Ðæm strengstan Indéa cyninge fortissimo Indorum rege, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 132, 17. Tó Indéum, Apstls. Kmbl. 85; Ap. 43 : Bt. 29, 3; Fox 106, 22. Óþ Indéas, Bt. Met. Fox 16, 35; Met. 16, 18.

in-dípan; p. te To dip in, immerse :-- Ðætte indépe útaweard fingeres in wætre ut intinguat extremum digiti in aquam, Lk. Skt. Lind. 16, 24. [Cf. Goth. daupjan.]

Indisc; adj. Indian :-- Ðone gársecg mon hǽt Indisc e qua oceanus Indicus vocari incipit, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 10, 8. On indisc sprecende indice loquentes. Nar. 25, 16. Indisce mýs mures indici, 16, 5. Indiscum wordum indico sermone, 29, 8.

in-drencan; p. te To soak, saturate, inebriate :-- Hí ðá sylfe betweónum indrencton mid ðám cerenum ðære gódspellícan swétnysse they mutually saturated each other with the wines of evangelic sweetness, Guthl. 17; Gdwin. 72, 7. [Cf. Ger. ein-tränken to soak, impregnate.] v. indrincan.

in-drífan; p. -dráf To impel, send forth, utter :-- Hé in wítum word indráf in torments he spoke impetuously, Cd. 214; Th. 269, 29; Sat. 80.

in-drincan; p. -dranc To imbibe, drink :-- Indranc inhibit, Mt. Kmbl. p. 1, 7. Indrungno [Rush. indruncne] inebriati, Jn. Skt. Lind. 2, 10.

in-dryhten; adj. Noble, courtly, befitting one who belongs to a king's body-guard [cf. Icel. inn-drótt a king's body-guard] :-- Ðæt bþ in eorle indryhten þeáw ðæt hé his ferþlocan fæste binde it is a noble habit in a man, to bind fast his mind's casket, Exon. 76 b; Th. 287, 11; Wand. 12. Ic eom indryhten and eorlum cúð I am noble and known to men, 130 b; Th. 500, 3; Rä. 89, 1. Ic wát indryhtne giest, 112 a; Th. 430, 1; Rä. 44. 1. Does indryhten wicg ippus ( = ? ἵππos), Wrt. Voc. ii. 48, 37 belong here ?

in-dryhto; f. Nobleness, honour, glory :-- Blǽð is gehnǽged eorþan indryhto ealdaþ and searaþ glory is laid low, earth's honour grows old and withers, Exon. 82 b; Th. 311, 8; Seef. 89. Gehwone wyrta wynsumra ðe wuldercyning ofer eorþan gescóp tó indryhtum ælda cynne every pleasant plant that the king of glory created on earth as honours for the race of men, 58 b; Th. 211, 15; Ph. 198.

Ine, es; m. Ine, king of the West Saxons from A. D. 688 to 726 :-- Hér Ine féng tó Wesseaxna ríce and heóld xxxvii wint., Chr. 688; Erl. 42, 4. Hér Ine férde tó Róme and ðǽr his feorh gesealde, 728 [726, MS E]; Erl. 44, 33. Ine wæs Cénréding. pref; Ert. 4, 10. The laws of Ine are given in Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, vol. i. pp. 102-150.

in-éddisc. v. in-ídisc.

in-elfe. v. in-ylfe.

in-erfe. v. in-irfe.

in-fær, es; n. An entrance, ingress :-- Ðá gesette God æt ðam infære engla hyrdrǽdene then God set a guard of angels at the entrance, Gen. 3, 24. Mid ðam innfære mid ðam ðe hé inn áfaren wæs by the entrance at which he had entered, Homl; Th. i. 178, 2. Hé hæfþ gerýmed rihtwísum mannum infær tó his ríce he hath opened to righteous men an entrance to his kingdom, 28, 13. Geopenige úre sárnys ús infær sóðre gecyrrednysse let our affliction open to us an entrance to true conversion, ii. 124, 7. Of inferum ex aditis, i. ex ingressibus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 144, 49. v. in-faru.

in-færeld, es; n. An entrance :-- Úre gást forhtode tó eówrum infærelde elanguit cor nostrum ad introitum vestrum, Jos. 2, 11. Infæreld introitus : infærelda vestibula, introitus, Hpt. Gl. 498.

infangeneþeóf 'the right to judge one's own thief when taken within the jurisdiction, and the privilege consequent upon that jurisdiction, viz. the receiving of the mulct, or money-payment for the crime,' Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. i. xlv. The word, which does not occur in the earlier laws, is thus defined in those of Edward the Confessor :-- De infangeneþef. Justicia cognoscentis latronis sua est de homine suo, si captus fuerit super terram suam, L. Ed. C. 22; Th. i. 452, 4. In the preceding chapter, 'descripcio libertatum diversarum,' it is said the lords 'haberent eos [their men who had committed crime] ad rectum in curia sua, si haberent sacham et socham, tol et theam, et infangene thef.' Other passages in which the word is found are L. Wil. I. 2; Th. i. 467, 27, Si quis eorum, qui habent soche et sache et tol et them et infangene theof, implacitetur in comitatu; and L. H. xx. c; Th. i. 528, 9, Archiepiscopi, episcopi, comites, et alie potestates in terris proprie potestatis sue sacam et socnam habent tol et theam et infongentheaf. The word also occurs in the following charters of Edward the Confessor :-- Concedo eis in omnibus terris suis prænominatis, consuetudines hic Anglice scriptas, scilicet, infangene þeóf, etc. Chart. Th. 359, 3. A similar enumeration occurs in 384, 25 and in 411, 32. In 369, 13 the word occurs in an Anglo-Saxon charter. See also Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iv. 227, 9, where is the form 'mid infangenum þeófe.'

in-faran; p. -fór To go into, enter :-- Ic infare on húse ðinum introibo in domum tuam, Ps. Spl. 5, 8. Innfæreþ ingredietur, Jn. Skt. Lind. 10, 9. Infór se cingc on ða sǽ ingressus est pharao in mare, Cantic. Moys. 19. Ðis synd Israhéla naman ðe infóron on Egipta land hæc sunt nomina filiorum Israel, qui ingressi sunt in Ægyptum, Gen. 46, 8. Infaraþ tó his cafertúnum introite in atria ejus, Ps. Lamb. 95, 8. Ne mæg hé infaran on godes ríce non potent introire in regnum dei, Jn. Skt. 3, 5. Ðæt hé ælmessan underféncge æt ðám infarendum that he might receive alms from those entering, Homl. Skt. 10, 27.

in-faru, e; f. Invasion, march into a country, inroad :-- Se cyng bæd hine faran intó Cent ... ac se eorl nolde ná geþwǽrian ðære infare the king bade him [Godwin] march into Kent . . . but the earl would not assent to the invasion, Chr. 1048; Erl. 178, 11.

in-feccan to fetch in :-- Ðá héht hé ðone drý infeccan beforan hine he ordered the sorcerer to be fetched into his presence, Blickl. Homl. 175, 1.

in-féran; p. de To enter :-- Infoerden ingrediuntur, Mk. Skt. Lind. 1, 21. Gé in giwinne hiora infoerdun vos in laborem eorum introistis, Jn. Skt. Rush. 4, 38.

in-fiht, -feoht, es; n. An attack made upon a person by one inhabiting the same dwelling; it was a breach of the peace for which a fine had to be paid to the head of the house if he were competent to exercise jurisdiction :-- Infiht [infitht, MS.] vel insocna est quod ab ipsis qui in domo sunt contubernales agitur; hoc eciam wita emendabitur patrifamilias, si questionem habent querentem vel quesitam, L. H. 80, 12; Th. i. 587, 25.

in-findan; p. -fand To find, discover :-- Soecaþ gé and gé infindes quærite et invenietis, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 7, 7. Infund restende invenit vacantem, 12, 44. Ic ne infand in him intinga ego non invenio in eo causam, Jn. Skt. Rush. 19, 6. Infunden wæs inventa est, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 1, 18. v. on-findan.

in-flǽscness, e; f. Incarnation, Lye.

in-fléde; adj. Full of water [of a stream] :-- Tigris eá infléde Tigris, stream of abundant flood. Cd. 12; Th. 15, 12; Gen. 232. Lǽt nú streámas weallan, eá infléde, Andr. Kmbl. 3006; An. 1506. v. fléde.

in-fóster, es; n. Rearing, breeding :-- Hit mín ágen ǽht is and mín infóster it is my own property and my rearing, L. O. 3; Th. i. 180, 7.

in-fród; adj. Very old or very wise :-- Hé him helpe ne mæg eald and infród ǽnige gefremman old and stricken in years he can afford him no help, Beo. Th. 4889; B. 2449. Him wæs wén ealdum infródum, 3752; B. 1874.

-ing a suffix of feminine nouns denoting action.

-ing. I. a patronymic suffix :-- Sume naman syndon patronymica, ðæt synd fæderlíce naman, æfter Gréciscum þeáwe, ac seó Lédensprǽc næfþ ða naman; hí sind swá ðeáh on Engliscre sprǽce, Penda, and of ðam Pending, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 52-4. Ælfréd Æþelwulfing Alfred the son of Ethelwulf, Chr. 871; Erl. 76, 3. The use of this suffix is well shown by the genealogies in the Chronicle, e.g. pref; Erl. pp. 2, 4 : 855; Erl. 68, 69, with which may be compared similar lists in Icelandic where -son is used. See also Lk. Skt. Lind. 3, 23-38 where the suffix is used with the foreign names, e. g. Seth Adaming Seth son of Adam. In a rather extended sense the suffix is found in the names of families or peoples, who are regarded as descendants of a common ancestor, and traces of this use remain in many place-names in England. 'The Wælsings, in Old Norse Völsungar, reappear at Walsingham in Norfolk, Wolsingham in Northumberland, and Woolsingham in Durham. The Billings at Billing, Billingham, Billinghoe, etc. Such local names are for the most part irregular compositions, of which the former part is the patronymic -ing, declined in the genitive plural. The second portion is a mere definition of the locality, as -geat, -hyrst, -hám, -wíc, -tún, -stede, and the like. In a few cases the patronymic stands alone in the nominative plural, as Tótingas, Tooting, Surrey; Wócingas, Woking, Surrey; Meallingas, Malling, Kent.... In dealing, however, with these names, some amount of caution is necessary : it is by no means enough that a name should end in -ing, to convert it into a genuine patronymic. On the contrary it is a power of that termination to denote the genitive or possessive, which is also the generative case: and in some local names we do find it so used : thus Æðelwulfing lond [Cod. Dipl. No. 179, a. 801] is exactly equivalent to Æðelwulfes lond, the estate of a duke Æðelwulf, not of a family called Æðelwulfings. So again, ðæt Folcwining lond [Cod. Dipl. No. 195, a. 811], ðæt Wynhearding lond [Cod. Dipl. No. 195, a. 811], imply the land of Folcwine, of Wynheard, not of marks or families called Folcwinings, and Wynheardings. [Cf. Cásering ɫ caseres gafel didrachma, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 17, 24.] Woolbedington, Wool Lavington, Barlavington, are respectively Wulfbæding tún, Wulfláfing tún, Beórláfing tún, the tún or dwelling of Wulfláf, Wulfbæd, and Beórláf. Between such words and genuine patronymics the line must be carefully drawn, a task which requires both skill and experience; the best security is, where we find the patronymic in the genitive plural.... Changes for the sake of euphony must also be guarded against, as sources of error : thus Abingdon in Berks would impel us strongly to assume a family of Abingas; the Saxon name Æbban dún convinces us that it was named front an Æbba [m.] or Æbbe [f.]. Dunnington is not Duning tún, but Dunnan tún.' Kemble's Saxons in England, i. 59, nn; see also the text in the following pages, and Taylor's Names and Places, pp. 82-3, 89. As was seen above in Adaming, the native suffix could be applied in the case of individuals to foreign names : it was so also in the case of peoples. Thus in the Rushworth Gloss, Mt. 8, 28, 'in lond geransinga' translates in regionem Gerasenorum; in 10, 15 'eorðe sodominga and gomorringa' is the rendering of terra Sodomorum et Gomorræorum, and above in v. 5 of the same chapter we have 'cæstra samaringa' for civitates samaritanorum. These may be compared with the forms in the Chronicle, West Kentingas, 999; Erl. 134, 28; Eást Centingas, 1009; Erl. 142, 19; Centingas, l0ll; Erl. 144, 27. II. The suffix is also found in nouns formed from adjectives with a force which may be seen in the following examples :-- æðeling a prince : earming a wretch.

ing the name of the nasal guttural Runic-Ing ng, in the Runic alphabet. In the Gothic the name seems to have been iggws, see Zacher, Das Gothische Alphabet, p. 3. In the Runic poem 22; Kmbl. 343, 27 it is taken as the name of a prince of the East Danes :-- Ing wæs ǽrest mid Eást Denum gesewen secgum; óþ hé siððan eft ofer wǽg gewát. Ðus heardingas ðone hæle nemdon. This name [cf. Gothic form] may be the same as that found in a genealogy in the Chronicle a. 547 :-- Esa wæs Inguing Ingui Angenwitting, Erl. 16, 11. As a proper name or as part of a proper name Ingi occurs in Icelandic, e.g. Ingi-björg, Ing-veldr, Ingi-mundr, Ingólfr : 'many more compounds are found in the Swedish-Runic stones as this name was national among the ancient Swedes; cf. also Yngvi and Ynglingar.' Cl. and Vig. Ingi. For the Rune see Zacher, pp. 30, 56-7 : Taylor's Greeks and Goths, pp. 31, 82 : and for the name Grmm. D. M. pp. 320-1.

ing, e; f. A meadow, an ing [in dialects of north and east, see E. D. S. Reprinted Glossaries, Nos. 2, 15, 16, 17]. The word occurs in local names, e. g. Ing-ham, Ing-thorpe, Ink-set, Ink-pen; see Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. vi. 306. [Icel. eng; f. a meadow; engi; n. meadowland, a meadow : Dan. eng : Swed. äng.]

in-gán; p. -eode To go in, enter :-- On swá hwylce burh swá gé ingáþ ... Ðonne gé ingán on ðæt hús in quamcumque civitatem intraveritis . . . Intrantes in domum, Mt. Kmbl. 10, 11, 12. Ðá hé ineode ingresso, Gen. 48, 3. Hé on ðæs gesíðes hús ineode, Bd. 5, 4; S. 617, 16. Hú mæg man ingán on stranges hús quomodo potest quisquam intrare in domum fortis, Mt. Kmbl. 12, 29 : Lk. Skt. 8, 51. Hé nolde ingán nolebat introire, 15, 28.

in-gang, es; m. Entrance, entry, ingress, entrance-fee :-- Þurh ðé sceal beón se ingang eft geopenod through thee [the Virgin Mary] shall the entrance [to heaven] be again opened, Blickl. Homl. 9, 8. Hundteóntiga swína ingang right of entry into a pasture for a hundred swine, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 283, 12. Ingong and útgong ingress and egress, Chart. Th. 578, 26. Ðæt beó gelǽst binnan twám dagum be ðæs inganges wíte let that be done within two days, under penalty of forfeiting the entrance-fee, 606, 10, 20. Gebéte hé be his ingange, 25. Gylde his ingang, 35. Be útgonge Israhéla folces of Ægypta lande and be ingonge ðs gehátlondes de egressu Israel ex Ægypto et in gressu in terram repromissionis, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 11. Him óðres lífes ingang gegearwode vitæ alterius ingressui paravit, S. 599, 2. Ingang ðín and útgang ðín thy going out and thy coming in, Ps. Spl. 120, 8. Inngang, Ps. Th. 117, 19. [O. E. Homl. A. R. in-ʒong : Laym. in-ʒeong : Piers P. in-gong, -gang entrance : O. Frs. in-gong, -gung : Icel. inn-ganga, -gangr entrance, entering : O. H. Ger. in-gang introitus, aditus, vestibulum, janua : Ger. ein-gang.]

in-gangan; p. -géng To enter, go in :-- Ic ingange ingredior, Ælfc. Gr. 29; Som. 33, 47. Ic on unscyldignyssa mínre ic ingange ego in innocentia mea ingressus sum, Ps. Spl. 25, 1. Ingangeþ cyningc wuldres introibit Rex gloriæ, 23, 7. Óþ ðæt ic ingange on háligra godes donec intrem sanctuarium Dei, 72, 17. Gé nú þyder ingongaþ do ye now enter in, Blickl. Homl. 207, 2. Cyricean duru ingangan ecclesiæ januam ingredi, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 19. Wæs ingangende on ðare hálgan Marian hús entered the house of the Holy Mary, Blickl. Homl. 147, 1. Ingongende, 4. Ðæt deófol genam mid hint óðre seofon deóflo and ingangende on ðæt carcern, 243, 5. Ðonne is óðer ingangendum ðam mónþe ðe wé agustus hátaþ se ǽresta mónan dæg the second day is at the beginning of the month that we call August, the first Monday, Lchdm. iii. 76, 16. Ðæt ða ingangendan leóht geseón ut intrantes videant lumen, Lk. Skt. 8, 16.

in-geat [?] cubiculum, Lye.

in-gebed, es; n. Hearty, earnest prayer :-- Gange mín ingebed [or gebed in?] on ðín gleáwe gesihþ intret oratio mea in conspectu tuo, Ps. Th. 87, 2, [From the Latin intret the in might be expected to belong to the verb; if so it should occupy some other place.]

in-gebyrigan; p. de To taste :-- Ingeberigde gustavit, Jn. Skt. Lind. 2, 9.

in-gedón to put in :-- Hé on ðæt gemynegade mynster ingedón wæs monasterio supra memorato inditus, Bd. 5, 12; S. 631, 9.

in-gefeoht, es; n. Intestine or civil war :-- Ðætte Bryttas sume tíd gestildon fram útgefeohte and hie sylfe þræston on ingefeohtum ut Brittones quiescentibus ad tempus exteris, civilibus sese bellis contriverint, Bd. 1, 22; S. 485, 12. [Cf. in-gewinn.]

in-gefolc, es; n. A native race, Cd. 149; Th. 186, 22; Exod. 142. [Cf. in-geþeóde.]

in-gehrif, es; n. The womb :-- Of ingerife ex utero, Ps. Spl. T. 21, 8. v. hrif.

in-gehygd, -hýd, e; f : es; n. Thought, mind, intent, sense, knowledge, understanding, conscience, intention, purpose :-- Hwæt fremaþ ðé ðæt ðín cyst stande ful mid gódum and ðín ingehýd beó æmtig ǽlces gódes what doth it profit thee that thy chest stand full of good things, and thy mind be empty of every good thing? Homl. Th. ii. 410, 11. Ðæs mannes wísdóm is árfæstnys and sóð ingehýd ðæt heó yfel forbúge the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding, Homl. Skt. 1, 237. Ǽfæstre ingehýde religiosæ intentionis, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 10. Treów ingehýdes gódes and yfeles lignum scientiæ boni et mali, Gen. 2, 9. Gé ætbrudun ðæs ingehýdes cǽge tulistis clavem scientiæ, Lk. Skt. 11, 52. Cherubin is gecweden gefyllednys ingehýdes oððe gewittes, Homl. Th. i. 344, 3. Úre wuldor is seó gecýðnys úres ingehýdes our glory is the testimony of our conscience, ii. 564, 32. Mid ealle inngehygde heortan mínre in toto corde meo, Ps. Th. 118, 145. Ðá onwende heó hine fram ðare yfelan ingehygde his módes revocavit eum illa ab intentione, Bd. 2, 12; S. 574. 37. Wæs se ylca munuc mid hluttre ingehýde ðæs upplícan edleánes erat idem monachus pura intentione supernæ retributionis, 4, 3; S. 567, 18. Ðá andwyrde eugenia and cwæþ mid ðisum ingehýde ðæt ða gewylnunga ðissere andweardan worulde synt swíðe swicole then answered Eugenia and spoke to this effect, that the desires of this present world are very deceitful, Homl. Skt. 2, 163. Mid ingehygde conscientia, Ps. Stev. ii. 203, 11. Se Hálga Gǽst him forgeaf ingehýd ealra gereorda the Holy Ghost gave them knowledge of all languages, Homl. Th. i. 318, 13. Sumum men hé forgifþ wísdom sumum gód ingehýd to one man he gives wisdom, to another good knowledge [cf. 1 Cor. xii. 8], 322, 26. Wæter getácnaþ on ðyssere stówe mennisc ingehýd, ii. 280, 2. Ða [the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit] sind wisdóm and andgit, rǽd and strengþ, ingehýd and ǽrfæstnys; Godes ege is se seofoða, 292, 23. Hé heóld his þeáwas swá swá heálíc biscop and his munelíce ingehýd swá þeáh betwux mannum he behaved as an exalted bishop, and yet to all intents and purposes was a monk among men, 506, 13. Hí hæfdon ðæt góde ingehýd on heora heortan ðæt hí woldon Gode ánum gecwéman and ná cépan dysegra manna herunge they had the good sense in their hearts, to wish to please God only, and not to care for the praise of foolish men, 564, 29. Seó gelaðung geopenaþ Criste hire ingehýd and ða dígelan geþohtas on sóðre andetnysse the church opens her mind and secret thoughts to Christ in true confession, 586, 20. Ðus áfandaþ God his gecorenan, ná swilce hé nyte heora ingehýd, Boutr. Scrd. 23, 7. Ðæt gold getácnode úrne geleáfan and úre góde ingehíd ðe wé Gode offrian sceolon, Gen. pref. Thw. 3, 33. On ðam is godcundnesse wén ðe manna ingehygd wát and can, Blickl. Homl. 179, 26. Ða eorþlícan sorga hie forléton and ða ingehýd heora heortan ful fæstlíce on ðone heofonlican hyht gestaþelodon they dismissed earthly cares, and fixed full firmly the intents of their heart on the heavenly hope, 135. 29. Ingehýd conscientias, Hymn. Surt. 127, 8. Ic ingehygd eal geondwlíte I survey all his mind, Exon. 71 b; Th. 266, 16; Jul. 399. Sió swíðe gedrǽfþ sefan ingehygd monna gehwelces sorely does it trouble the thought of every man's mind, Bt. Met. Fox 25, 84; Met. 25, 42. God ingehýda drihten is Deus scientiarum dominus est, Cantic. An. 3. [Cf. in-geþanc.]

in-gehygdness, e; f. Intention, purpose :-- Ic ontýne on sealmlofe ingehygdnessa ɫ foresetnysse aperiam in psalterio propositionem, Ps. Lamb. 48, 5.

in-gelǽdan; p. de To lead or bring in, introduce :-- Ingelédde ofer hie Drihten weter séwe the Lord brought upon them the water of the sea, Cantic. Moys. 23; Thw. notæ, p. 30. Óþ ðæt ic ðé ingelǽde on mínes Fæder hús until I bring thee into my father's house, Blickl. Homl. 191, 19. Ingelǽded introducta, Bd. 4, 9; S. 576, 37.

in-gelaðian; p. ode To invite :-- Se ðe ðé ingelaðode is qui te vocavit, Lk. Skt. 14, 9, 10. Ðá sǽde hé sum bigspel be ðám ingelaðudan dicebat ad invitatos parabolam, 7.

in-gemynd, es; n : e; f. Memory, mind, remembrance :-- Ic ðæs wuldres treówes oft hæfde ingemynd oft had I remembrance of the tree of glory, Elen. Kmbl. 2504; El. 1253. Húlíc is se organ ingemyndum tó begonganne ðam ðe his gást wile ásceádan of scyldum of what nature is the Pater Noster for use by the mind, in the case of him who will separate his spirit from guilt, Salm. Kmbl. 108; Sal. 53. v. in-gehygd.

in-gemynde; adj. Recollected, remembered, in mind, in memory :-- Ðá wæs ðam folce on ferhþsefan ingemynde swá him á scyle wundor ða ðe worhte weoroda dryhten then did the people remember in mind, as is ever their duty, the miracles which the Lord of Hosts wrought, Elen. Kmbl. 1788; El. 896.

in-genga, an; m. An aggressor, invader :-- Seoððan Grendel wearþ ingenga mín since Grendel became my aggressor, Beo. Th. 3557; B. 1776.

in-geótan; p. -geát To pour in :-- Hí on ǽlce healfe inguton they poured in on every side, Guthl, 5; Gdwin. 34, 18.

in-geóting, e; f. A pouring in, purification :-- Yngeóting lustramentum, Hpt. Gl. 483.

in-gerec, es; n. A tumult :-- Hé ðá eác on ðam ingerece óðerne cyninges þeng mid ðý mánfullan wǽpne ácwealde in ipso tumultu etiam alium de militibus sica nefanda peremit, Bd. 2, 9; S. 511, 26. v. ungerec, gerec.

in-gerif. v. in-gehrif.

in-gesteald, es; n. Household goods :-- Tó scypum feredon eal ingesteald swylce hie æt Finnes hám findan meahton sigla searogimma, Beo. Th. 2314; B. 1155.

in-geswell, es; n. An internal swelling; empus [= έμπυos], Ælfc. Gl. 10; Som. 57, 30; Wrt.Voc. 19, 36.

in-geþanc, es; m. n. Thought, thinking, cogitation, intent, mind, heart, conscience :-- Seaxes ord and seó swíðre hond eorles ingeþonc and ord somod the knife's point and the right hand, the mind of man and the point combined, Exon. 123 a; Th. 472. 8; Rä. 61, 13. Ðæt ingeþonc ǽlces monnes ðone líchoman lít [lǽt?] ðider hit wile the mind of every man bends [leads?] the body whither it will, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 235; Met. 26, 118. Gif hé his ingeþances anweald næfþ if he has not power over his mind, Bt. 29, 3; Fox 106, 26. Eft sint tó manigenne ða geþyldegan ðætte ðæt hie mid hiera wordum and dǽdum forgiefaþ ðæt hie ðæt eác on hiera ingeþonce forgifen ðý læs hé mid ðý níðe yfles ingeþonces tóweorpe ða mægenu ðæs gódan weorces ðe hé Gode útan anwealglíce forgeaf contra admonendi sunt patientes, ne in eo, quod exterius portant, interius doleant : ne tantæ virtutis sacrificium, quod integrum foras immolant, intus malitiæ peste corrumpant, Past. 33, 5; Swt. 220, 19. Mid eádmóde ingeþonce ðú mé cíddesð me humili intentione reprehendis, prm; Swt. 22, 10. Suelcum ingeþonce geríst cujus intentioni bene congruens, 10, 1; Swt. 61, 9. Se Déma se ðe ðæt inngeþonc eall wát hé eác ðæm inngeþonce démþ intus quippe est qui judicat, intus, quod judicatur, 4, 2; Swt. 39, 11. Geleornigen eác ða bearn ðæt hí suá hiéren hira ieldrum suá suá hie selfe wieten on hira inngeþonce beforan ðæs diéglan Déman eágum ðæt hí hit for Gode dón illi discant, quomodo ante occulti arbitri oculos sua interiora componant, 28, 1; Swt. 191, 2. Of úrum ágnum ingeþonce a nobismet ipsis, 49, 4: Swt. 385, 9, Mid ealles módes geornfullan ingeþance higie with diligent thought of the whole mind strive, Bt. 22, 2; Fox 78, 18. Agustinus worhte twá béc be his eágnum ingeþance Augustine composed two books about his own mind, Shrn. 164, 16. Ðú ongitst ðín ágen ingeþanc ðæt hit biþ micele beorhtre ðonne seó sunne, Bt. 35, 1; Fox 154, 28. God besceáwaþ ǽlces mannes inngeþanc Deus intuetur cujuslibet hominis cogitationem, L. Ecg. P. i. 2; Th. ii. 172, 13. Hyra ingeþanc hig forleósaþ on hyra wege they lose their conscience on their way, L. E. I. 35; Th. ii. 432,22. Nú ic wilnige ðæt ðeós sprǽc stigge on ðæt ingeþonc ðæs leorneres ut ad lectoris sui animum gradiatur, Past. prm; Swt. 23, 16. Se dysega ungeþyldega all his ingeþonc hé geypt totum spiritum suum profert stultus, 33, 4; Swt. 220, 10. Drync se onwende gewit wera ingeþanc a drink that perverted the wit, the mind of men, Andr. Kmbl. 70; An. 35. Næfdon hí máre monnum gelíces ðonne ingeþonc; hæfde ánra gehwylc his ágen mód, Bt. Met. Fox 26, 188; Met. 26, 94. Hie forgytaþ ðæt hie hwéne ǽr ymb-hygdigum éarum and ingeþancum gehýrdon reccean they forget what they a little before with anxious ears and minds have heard related, Blickl. Homl. 55, 27. Ðá azarias ingeþancum hleóðrade then did Azariah sing full thoughtfully, Cd. 188; Th. 233, 24; Dan. 280. Ingeþoncum beofiaþ they tremble at heart, Exon. 22 b; Th. 63, 4; Cri. 1014. Hiorte geclánsod and geeádméded ingeþancum, Ps. C. 50, 128; Ps. Grn. ii. 279, 128. Óþ ðæt hé ongeat ðæs módes ingeþancas until he understood the mind's thoughts, Bt. 7, 1; Fox 16, 5. Hie behealdaþ ealle ða ingeþoncas hiora módes tota illud mentis intentione custodiunt, Past. 21, 5; Swt. 161, 14. Unclǽne ingeþoncas impure thoughts, Exon. 27 a; Th. 80, 34; Cri. 1316. Uton word and weorc rihtlíce fadian and úre inngeþanc clǽnsian georne let us order our words and works aright, and purify our thoughts diligently, Swt. A. S. Rdr. 111, 218. Gesamnige swá hé swíðost mǽge ealle tó ðæm ánum his ingeþonc let him collect, as far as possible, all his thoughts to that one object, Bt. Met. Fox 22, 24; Met. 22, 12.

in-geþeóde; pl. Peoples, nations :-- Dryhten is ofer ealle ingeþeóde [? MS. inca þeode.] se heáhsta excelsus super omnes gentes Dominus, Ps. Th. 112, 4: Cd. 163; Th. 205, 30; Exod. 443.

in-gewinn, es; n. An intestine struggle :-- Scortlíce is hæbbe nú gesǽd hiora ingewinn I have now shortly related their intestine struggles, Ors. 2, 6; Swt. 88, 29. [Cf. in-gefeoht.]

in-gewitness, e; f. Knowledge, knowing, consciousness, conscience :-- Besmitene syndon ge heora mód ge heora ingewitnys coinquinata sunt et mens eorum et conscientia, Bd. 1, 17; S. 494. 42. Ða wyrstan ingewitnesse mé ic geseó pessimam mihi scientiam præ oculis habeo, 5, 13; S. 632, 32.

Ingwine; pl. A name of the Danes, Beo. Th. 2092; B. 1044 : 2642; B. 1319. v. Grmm. D. M. 320-1; and see Ing.

in-heald interrasilis, Wrt. Voc, ii. 46, 24.

in-hebban to raise, remove, Exon. 12 a; Th. 20, 6; Cri. 313.

in-heord, e; f. A herd belonging to the lord and kept on his estate :-- Ǽhteswáne ðe inheorde healt gebyreþ ... servo porcario, qui dominicum gregem curie custodit, pertinet .... L. R. S. 7; Th. i. 436, 22.

in-here, es; m. A native army, the army of a country, home-force :-- Se here férde swá hé sylf wolde and se fyrdinge dyde ðære landleóde ǽlcne hearm ðet him náðor ne dohte ne innhere ne úthere the Danes went as they liked, and the English levy did every kind of harm to the people of the country, so that neither the native nor the foreign army did them any good, Chr. 1006; Erl. 140, 13.

in-hirdmann, es; m. A member of a retinue or body-guard :-- Þegnas ɫ innheardmenn milites, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 8, 9. v. hird.

in-híréd, es; m. Household, family, house :-- Tirus wæs on Cryst gelýfende ende hé sylf and eall hys ynhýréd Tyrus believed on Christ, he himself and all his household, St. And. 30, 15. Inhýredes clientelæ, Hpt. Gl. 523. Ealle werhádes men his inhírédes ǽgðer ge inbyrdlingas ge gebohte þeówan omnes viri domus illius, tam vernaculi quam emptitii, Gen. 17, 27. Ðá wearþ gefullod fæder and sunu mid heora innhýréde then was baptized the father and son with their household, Homl. Skt. 5, 308. v. in-híwan.

in-hírness, e; f. A belonging to any one :-- Ðe Æðelréd cyning geúðe God elmihtigum and his hálgan apostolan Petre and Paule on éce inhýrnesse which king Ethelred granted to Almighty God and to his holy apostles Peter and. Paul to belong to them for ever, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. vi. 136, 14.

in-híwan, -hígan; pl. Members of a household, of a convent, domestics :-- Gif gesíþcund mon þingaþ wið cyning for his inhíwum if a 'gesithcund' man make terms with the king for his household, L. In. 50; Th. i. 134, 3. Ǽlce gǽre áne dægfeorme inhiowum every year one day's provision for the members of the convent, Chart, Th. 509, 14. Gie aron inhígo godes estis domestici Dei, Rtl. 82, 33. [Cf. Al mi nestfalde cun beoð me meast feondes and mine inhinen alre meast hearmen, Jul. 33, 5.] v. híwan.

in-hoh; adj. Evidens, manifestus, Hpt. Gl. 523.

in-hold; adj. Thoroughly loyal, loyal from the heart :-- Abbodissum wé tǽcaþ ðæt hí inholde sín and ðæs hálgan regoles gebodum eallum móde þeówigen we teach abbesses to be heartily loyal, and to be subservient to the commands of the holy rule with all their mind, Lchdm. iii. 442, 28.

in-ídisc, es; m. n. [?] Household furniture :-- Inéddisc vel inorf entheca g. suppellex, Ælfc. Gl. 58; Som. 67, 90; Wrt. Voc. 38, 16.

in-ilve. v. in-ylfe.

in-irfe, es; n. Household stuff or goods :-- Se ðe micel inerfa [MS. Cott. innierfe] and mislíc ágan wile hé beþearf eác micles fultumes pluribus adminiculis opus est ad tuendam pretiosæ supellectilis varietatem, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 10. v. in-orf; and cf. O. Frs. in-bold, in-gód household furniture.

in-lád, e; f. A way in, bringing in, introduction, entrance-fee [? v. ingang] :-- Æhtu óra seulfres tó inláde eight oras of silver as entrance-fee, Jn. Skt. p. 188, 9. Mid inláde and útláde cum inductione et eductione, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iv. 209, 5. v. lád.

in-lǽdan; p. de To lead or bring in, introduce :-- Ne inlǽd úsih in costunge ne inducas nos in temtationem, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 13. Se ðe má manna inlǽde ðonne hé sceole he who introduces more men than he ought, Chart. Th. 606, 32. Mið ðý inlǽddon ðone cnæht aldro his cum inducerent puerum parentes ejus, Lk. Skt. Lind. 2, 27.

in-lænde, -lændisc. v. in-lende, -lendisc.

in-lagian; p. ode To restore an outlaw to the protection of the law :-- Ǽrest ðæt hé his ágenne wer gesylle ðam cyninge and Criste and mid ðam hine sylfne inlagige first, thnt he [a man who has committed manslaughter in a church] pay his own 'wer' to the king and to Christ, and therewith inlaw himself, L. Eth. ix. 2; Th. i. 340, 13. Inlagie, L. C. E. 2; Th. i. 360, 3. Cf. Si rex paciatur ut qui in ecclesia fecerit homicidium ad emendacionem veniat, primo episcopo et regi precium nativitatis sue reddat, et ita se inlegiat, L. H. 11, 1; Th. i. 520, 11. v. ge-inlagian.

in-land, es; n.' Demesne land, that part of a domain which the lord retained in his own hands, in contradistinction to út-land terra tenementalis, signifying land granted out for services; terra dominicalis, pars manerii dominica' :-- Wulfége ðæt inland and ælfége ðæt útland, Chart. Th. 502, 13. Sex æceras innlondes ǽgðer ge mǽdlondes ge eyrþlondes, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. ii. 95, 16. xxx hída .ix inlandes and xxi. hída gesettes landes ... is sum inland sum hit is tó gafole gesett thirty hides, nine of 'inland' and twenty-one hides of let land ... some is' inland,' some of it is let, iii. 450, 11-18. Ǽgðer ge of þegnes inlande ge of geneátlande, L. Edg. i. 1; Th. i. 262, 8. Ðat inlond ðe Leófríc hædde for his eádmódre hérsumnesse, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl iii. 256, 11. His hláfordes inland, L. R. S. 3; Th. i. 432, 27.

in-laðian; p. ode To invite :-- Ðá cwæþ hé tó ðam ðe hine inlaðode dicebat ei qui se invitaverat, Lk. Skt. 14, 12. Ic wæs cuma and gé mé inlaðodon hospes eram, et collegistis me, Mt. Kmbl. 25. 35.

in-lenda, an; m. A native :-- Inlenda indigena, Ælfc. Gl. 8; Som. 56, 102; Wrt. Voc. 18, 51 : ii. 49, 47. Inle[n]da accola, habitator, Hpt. Gl. 490, 52. Iniendan accolas, Hymn. Surt. 57, 10. v. next word.

in-lende; adj. Native, indigenous :-- Inlænde ic eam on eorþan incola ego sum in terra, Ps. Lamb. 118, 19. Ðǽr on fyrd hyra fǽrspell becwom óht inlende there to their host came tidings sudden and terrible, fear of the men of the land [the Israelites hearing of the pursuit by the Egyptians], Cd. 148; Th. 186, 9; Exod. 136. David mǽnde tó Drihtne be his feóndum ǽgðer ge inlendum ge útlendum David complained to the Lord about his enemies, both of his own land and of other lands, Ps. Th. 2, Arg. [Icel. inn-lendr native : cf. O. Frs. in-lendes : O. H. Ger. in-lenti patria, Grff. ii. 238.]

in-lendisc; adj. Native, indigenous :-- Inlendisc indigena vel incola, Wrt. Voc. 74, 63. Sí hé gemang eów swá inlendisc sit inter vos quasi indigena, Lev. 19, 34, Ðǽr útlendisc man inlendiscan derie where a foreigner injures a native, L. O. D. 6; Th. i. 354, 29. Se forsǽda bisceop angan tó befrínenne sume inlendisce ymbe ðæs íglondes gewunan the aforesaid bishop began to ask some of the natives about the customs of the island, Lchdm. iii. 432, 28. Hæbben for ðí ða ungelǽredan inlendisce ðæs hálgan regules cýððe þurh ágenes gereordes anwrigennesse the unlearned natives therefore may have knowledge of the holy Rule, through an explanation in their own language, 442, 8. [Icel. inn-lenzkr indigenous : Ger. in-ländisch.]

in-lendiscness, e; f. Incolatus, peregrinatio, Lye.

in-líc; adj. Inner, internal, inward :-- Inlíca intimus, Hymn. Surt. 66,13. Se inlíca déma internus arbiter, Bd. 3, 15; S. 541, 19. Mid ðone inlícan gewitan apud internum testem, 5, 6; S. 618, 32. Mid inlíce hete domestico odio, 5, 24; S. 646, 38. Fram ðám inlícum bendum ðara synna internis peccatorum vinculis, 4, 25; S. 600, 2. [O. Frs. in-lék, -lík : O. H. Ger. in-líh internus.]

in-líce; adv. Inwardly, internally, thoroughly, heartily :-- Hé hine bæd and hét ðæt hé inlíce ðam biscope freónd wǽre amicum episcopo fieri petiit et impetravit, Bd. 5, 19; S. 641, 8. Ðú miht openlíce ongiton ðæt ðæt is for inlíce gód þing ðæt ... you can plainly perceive that that is a very thoroughly good thing that .... Bt. 34, 12; Fox 152, 32. [Piers P. in-liche : O. H. Ger. in-lího medullitus.]

in-líchamung, e; f. Incarnation :-- Inlíchomung incarnatio, Rtl. 44, 40 : 66, 27.

in-líhtan; p. te To illumine, enlighten :-- Ðú tída gehwane inlíhtes thou dost enlighten every season, Exon. 9 b; Th.7, 29; Cri. 108. Inléhteþ ðec inluminabit te, Lk. Skt. Rush. 11, 36. Inlíhteþ inluminat, Jn. Skt. Lind. 1, 9. Hine inlýhte he enlightened him, Exon. 34 a; Th. 108, q; Gú.70. Ðæt ðú inleóhte that thou illumine, 9 b; Th. 8, 9; Cri, 115. Inlíhte inluminare, Lk. Skt. Lind. 1, 79. Inlíhted, Exon. 8 b; Th. 3, 29; Cri. 43. Inlýhted, 42 a; Th. 141, 14; Gú. 817. v. on-líhtan.

in-líhtend, es; m. One who enlightens :-- Inlíhtend inluminator, Rtl. 2, 11.

in-líhtian; p. ode To illumine, enlighten :-- Inléhtaþ ðec inluminabit te, Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 36. Inlíchtade inluminasset : inlíchtet inluminatus, Jn. Skt. p. 6, 1, 2.

in-liþewác; adj. Inflexible, intractable; intractabilis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 48, 72. v. un-liþewác.

in-líxan, -líxian to shine, grow light :-- Sunnadæg inlíxade [wæs in-líxende, Rush.] sabbatum inlucescebat, Lk. Skt. Lind. 23, 54.

in-merca inscribtio, Mk. Skt. Lind. 12, 16.

INN, es; n. A dwelling, house, chamber, lodging :-- Næs Beówulf ðǽr ac wæs óðer in ǽr geteohhod Beowulf was not there, but other lodging had before been assigned to him, Beo. Th. 2604; B. 1300. Ðá eode hé tó his inne ðǽr hé hine restan wolde intravit cubiculum, quo dormire disponebat, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 18 : Cd. 76; Th. 94, 25; Gen. 1567 : Judth. 10; Thw. 22, 21; Jud. 70. Hé com tó his inne venit in domum, Mt. Kmbl. 13, 36. Sóna swá hí út of ðam inne eodon directly they went out of the house, Guthl. 11; Gdwin. 54, 16. Ðá lǽdde heó hine on ða cyrcan . . . and on ðam ylcan inne hé oncneów hwæt ðǽr inne wæs then she led him into the church . . . and in the same house he recognized what was therein, 22; Gdwin. 96, 23-98. 5. Ðá hé tó his inne com hé hine ǽnne ðǽr inne beleác and hine sylfne ofslóh when he came to his house, he shut himself in alone, and slew himself, Ors. 4, 5; Bos. 81, 39 : Homl. Th. ii. 490, 10. Se steorra him ðæs cildes inn gebícnode the star pointed out to them [the Magi] the child's lodging, Homl. Th. i. 110, 16. Ðǽr Petrus inn hæfde where Peter lodged, 372, 34. [Laym. he hafde an in iʒarked toʒeines him : Orm. þær he wass at inne : A. R. in : Piers. P. where dowel was at inne : Icel. inni; n. abode, home.]

inn-. v. in-.

inn, in; adv. In, within :-- Ic wæs cuma and gé mé ne in ne gelaðodun I was a stranger, and ye did not invite me in, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 43. Waciaþ and gebiddaþ eów ðæt gé in ne gán on costunge vigilate et orate ut non intretis in temtationem, 26, 41. Gangaþ inn þurh ðæt nearwe geat intrate per angustam portam, 7, 13: Ps. Th. 117, 19. Ðæne se geat-weard lǽt in whom the porter lets in, Jn. Skt. 10, 3. Hé áwearp ða scyllingas in on ðæt templ he cast the money into the temple, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 5. Æt hám gebring and nǽfre in on ðone mon bring it home and never into the man's presence, L. M. 2, 65; Lchdm. ii. 292, 26. Ðæt land beág ðǽr súþryhte oððe seó sǽ in on ðæt land, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 18. Héht óðre dæge hie ealle þrý in beforan hine next day he ordered them all three in before him, Blickl. Homl. 175, 18. Ðǽr gedydon twá weofedu in they put two altars in there, 205, 15. Duru ðæt mannes heáfod ge ða sculdro mágan in a door so that a man's head and shoulders may get in, 127, 9. Ðá heó ðá in tó ðære hálgan Elizabethe eode when she went in to the holy Elizabeth, 165, 28. Ðá eode Simon in tó Nerone, 175, 10. Ðá eodan hí in tó swǽsendum, Bd. 3. 14; S. 540, 31. Hreóh wæter tó mínum feore inn flóweþ and gangeþ introierunt aquæ usque ad animam meam, Ps. Th. 68, 1. Ðá mé gerýmed wæs síð inn under eorþweall when a road was cleared for me in under the earthwall, Beo. Th. 6171; B. 3090. [Goth. inn : O. Sax. O. Frs. in : Icel. inn : O. H. Ger. in, Grff. i. 287 : Ger. ein.]

inna [?], an; m. The womb :-- In inna in utero, Lk. Skt. Lind. 1, 15, 31, 41 : 2, 21. Inna vulvam, 2, 23.

innan; adv. and prep. gen. dat. acc. In, into, within, from within. I. Gé synt innan fulle reáfláces intus estis pleni rapina, Mt. Kmbl. 23, 25. Hig synt innan fulle deádra bána intus plena sunt ossibus mortuorum, 23, 27. Heorot innan wæs freóndum áfylled, Beo. Th. 2039; B. 1017. Breóst innan weóll þeóstrum geþoncum his breast was agitated within by dark thoughts, 4652; B. 2331. Smire mid ða eágan innan smear the eyes therewith inside, L. M. 3, 2; Lchdm. ii. 308, 5. Innan of manna heortan yfele geþancas cumaþ abintus de corde hominum malæ cogitationes procedunt, Mk. Skt. 7, 21. Innan and útan, Cd. 66; Th. 80, 1; Gen. 1322 : Exon. 22 b; Th. 62, 21; Cri. 1005: 60 a; Th. 219, 2; Ph. 301. II. with gen :-- Is mé ænige gǽst innan hreðres anxiatus est in me spiritus meus, Ps. Th. 142, 4. Hie hiora onweald innanbordes [cf. Icel. innan-bords] gehióldon they maintained their power at home, Past. pref; Swt. 3, 7. Innabordes intus, Rtl. 2, 21. III. with dat :-- Ðá hé sæt innan húse discumbente eo in domo, Mt. Kmbl. 9, 10. Hé ádráf út ealle ða ðe ceápodun innan ðam temple ejiciebat omnes vendentes et ementes in templo, 21, 12. Gif hé ǽr on ðæs ofermódan engles wísan innan his geþance of Godes gesiehþe ne áfeólle nisi more superbientis angeli a conspectu conditoris prius intus aversione mentis caderet, Past. 47, 1; Swt. 359, 1. Hé wæs bebyrged innan ðære cyrican he was buried inside the church, Chr. 789; Erl. 57, 32. Ródetácn wearþ æteówed innan ðære dagenge a cross appeared at dawn, 806; Erl. 60, 24. IV. with acc :-- Feall innan ða sǽ jacta te in mare, Mt. Kmbl. 21, 21. Ne gá gé innan samaritana ceastre in civitates Samaritanorum ne intraveritis, 10, 5 : Andr. Kmbl. 2350; An. 1176. Innan ðás týd Gifemund forþférde and Brihtwald gehálgode Tobian on his steall at this time [or meanwhile] Gifemund died and Brihtwald consecrated Tobias in his place, Chr. 693; Erl. 43, 17. Hér fór se here innan Mierce in this year the Danes marched into Mercia, 868; Erl. 72, 21. V. in combination with in, on [cf. O. Sax. an innan], geond, be :-- Ðá hét ic feá strǽla sendan in ða burh innan paucas in civitatem dejici sagittas imperavi, Nar. 10, 22. In ðone ofn innan, Cd. 184; Th. 230, 24; Dan. 238: Exon. 58 b; Th. 211, 19; Ph. 200. On ðæt morþer innan, Cd. 18; Th. 22, 18; Gen. 342. Burgum in innan, Beo. Th. 3941; B. 1969. In innan intrinsecus, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 7, 15. Eardode ic in innan, Exon. 98 a; Th. 368, 31; Seel. 33. Ne wæs mé feorh ðá gén, ealdor in innan, 103 a; Th. 391, 10; Rä. 10, 3. Innan on ðisses holtes hleó, Cd. 39; Th. 52, 7; Gen. 840. On innan ðé in te, Ps. Th. 147, 2. Geond woruld innan, Exon. 14 b; Th. 29, 28; Cri. 469 : 95 b; Th. 355, 43; Pa. 4. Geond Bryten innan, 45 b; Th. 155, 5; Gú. 855. Be innan ðam carcerne, Bt. 1; Fox 4, 2. [Laym. inne : A. R. inne, ine : Ayenb. ine : Goth. innana; adv. and prep. with gen : O. Sax. innan adv. and prep. with dat. acc : O. Frs. inna, ina; id : Icel. innan; adv. and prep. with gen : O. H. Ger. innan, innana; adv. and prep. gen. dat. acc. Grff. i. 296 : Ger. innen.] v. innane.

innan-bordes. v. innan, II.

innan-burhware; pl. Those living within a town - Ða geférscipas innanburhwara and útanburhwara the fellowships of the in-townsmen and of the out-townsmen, Chart. Th. 510, 31.

innan-cund; adj. Inward, internal, not superficial, thorough, earnest, genuine,sincere :-- Ðonne deáh hit wið ǽghwylcre innancundre unhǽlo then it does for every internal complaint, Herb. 2, 22; Lchdm. i. 86, 18 : Lchdm. iii. 44, 27. Ic ðé mid ealre innancundre heortan séce in toto corde meo exquisivi te, Ps. Th. 118, 10, 2. v. in-, inne-cund.

innane; adv. Within :-- Hig beóþ innane reáfigende wulfas intrinsecus sunt lupi rapaces, Mt. Kmbl. 7,15. v. innan.

innan-onfeall. v. oufeall.

innan-weard; adj. Inward, internal, interior :-- Ǽlc wuht cwices biþ innanweard hnescost mollissimum quodque, sicuti medulla est, interiore semper sede reconditur, Bt. 34, 10; Fox 150, 6. Flet innanweard the interior of the hall, Beo. Th. 3957; B. 1976 : 1987; B. 991. Breóst innanweard the breast within, Andr. Kmbl. 1294; An. 647 : Exon. 71 b; Th. 266, 19; Jul. 400. Eal innanweard wæs wynsumra ðonne hit in worulde mǽge stefn áreccan all the interior of the dwelling was more delightful than any voice in the world can declare, 52 a;. Th. 181, 16; Gú. 1294. Mec ísern innanweardne bennade iron wounded me within, 130 a; Th. 499. 6; Rä. 88, 11. [Icel. innan-verðr.] v. inne-weard.

inne; adv. In, within, inside, in-doors :-- Ðonne ðǽr biþ man deád hé líþ inne unforbærned mid his freóndum ... and ealle ða hwíle ðe ðæt líc biþ inne ðǽr sceal beón gedrync and plega when there is a man dead, he lies unburnt in the house among his friends ... and all the while that the body lies inside, there has to be drinking and playing, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 20, 20-6 : Bd. 5, 4; S. 617, 7. Gif man inne feoh genimeþ se man iii gelde gebéte if a man take property within [i. e. in a house] let that man pay a threefold compensation, L. Ethb. 28; Th. i. 10, 1 [cf. Icel. brenna inni to be burnt to death in a house]. Hwæðer ðe úte ðe inne utrum intus an foris, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513. 39. Ne mæg ðé deófol sceþþan inne ne úte the devil cannot harm thee in-doors nor out, L. M. 3, 58; Lchdm. 342, 15. Síe se drenc ðǽr inne ðǽr se seóca man inne síe let the drink be in the same place that the sick man is in, 3, 64; Lchdm. ii. 352, 15. On ðám scyran ðe ordríc abbud hæfþ land inne in those shires that abbot Ordric has land in, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iv. 228, 5. Alle ða ðe ðǽr inne eardedon all who dwelt therein, Chr. 491; Erl. 14, 6. Hie sume inne wurdon some of them got inside [York], 867; Erl. 72, 14. Ðone here métton ðǽr on ðam geweorce and hine inne besetton they found the Danes there in the fort, and besieged them inside, 868; Erl. 73, 25. Ðǽr wǽron fíf wucan inne they were in there five weeks, 910; Erl. 100, 15. Seó án inne áwunode, Bd. 5, 12; S. 627, 16. Béte swá seó dómbóc sæcge gif hit sý hér inne. Gif hit sý eást inne gif hit sý norþ inne béte be ðam ðe ða friþgewritu sæcgan let him make 'bót' as the law says, if it be in this part of the country. If it be in the east or north let him make 'bót' according to what the treaties say, L. Ed. 8; Th. i. 164, 7. Inne on ðære þeóde, Bt. 18, 3; Fox 64, 31. On breóstum inne within their breasts, Bt. Met. Fox 25, 90; Met. 25, 45. Hér inne herein, Cd. 22; Th. 28, 16; Gen. 436. Hié ðǽr inne fulgon they got in, Chr. 755; Erl. 50, 27: Beo. Th. 2567; B. 1281. [Goth, inna : O. Sax. O. Frs. inne : Icel. inni in-doors : O. H. Ger. inna, inni, inne adv. and prep. intus, intra.] v. innor, innemest.

inne-cund; adj. Internal, inward :-- Is geornlíce tó behealdenne ðonne hie ða úterran þing dón sculon ðæt hie ne síen ðæm innecundan ingeþonce áfierrede ... hí ðonne lǽtaþ ácólian ða innecundan lufan est vigilanter intuendum, ne, dum cura ab eis exterior agitur, ab interna intentione mergantur ... ab intimo amore frigescunt, Past. 18, 7; Swt. 139, 5-8. v. in-, innan-cund.

inne-fare, an; f The intestines :-- Wið wambe cóðe and wið inneforan sáre for dysentery, L. M. 2, 30; Lchdm. ii. 228, 22. Sió filmen biþ þeccende ða wambe and ða innefaran the film covers the stomach and the inwards, 2, 36; Lchdm. ii. 242, 17.

innemest; adv. A superlative form from inne :-- Innemest intime, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 42, 13.

innemest; adj. Inmost :-- Ealle ða innemestan geþohtas all the inmost thoughts; omnia cogitationum interiora. Past. 21, 3; Swt. 155, 7.

innera, innra; adj. Inner, interior :-- Seó inre hrind liber, Ælfc. Gl. 59; Som. 68, 6; Wrt. Voc. 38, 57. Se innra man ðæt is seó sáwl interior homo, id est anima, L. Ecg. P. iv. 63; Th. ii. 224, 6. Se inra wind, Homl. Th. ii. 392, 32. Þurh ða twá pund wæs getácnod ǽgðer ge ðæt ýttre andgit ge ðæt inre by the two pounds was signified both the external and the internal sense, 554, 34. Se leó gewát on ðæt inre wésten the lion departed into the interior of the desert, Glostr. Frag. 110, 22. Eall mín inneran omnia interiora mea, Ps. Th. 102, 1. Ealle míne ða inneran, Blickl. Homl. 89, 2. Ðeáh hé mé ðara úterrena gewinna gefreóde ðeáh winnaþ wið mé ða inran unrihtlustas though he has freed me from outward struggles, yet the inner lusts strive with me, Ps. Th. 15, 7. On ðám inneran gódum ge on ðám úttran interioribus bonis et exterioribus, Bd. 4, 13; S. 582, 39. [O. Frs. inra; Icel. inri, iðri : O. H. Ger. innero, Grff. i. 297.]

inne-weard; adj. Inward, internal, interior; the word may generally be rendered by the phrase the inner part of [the noun with which it agrees]. In the neut. sing. and pl. it is used as a noun, intestines, viscera, the inward part :-- Inneweard þeoh femen, Ælfc. Gl. 75; Som. 71, 78; Wrt. Voc. 44, 60. Ðes windiga sele eall inneweard all the interior of this windy hall, Cd. 216; Th. 273, 15; Sat. 137. Hú héh and deóp hell inneweard seó, 228; Th. 309, 10; Sat. 707 : Beo. Th. 2000; B. 998. Tó inneweardum ðam wéstene ad interiora deserti, Ex. 3, 1. Ðá com of inneweardre ðære byrigenne swá mycel swétnysse stencg tantæ fragrantia suavitatis ab imis ebullivit, Bd. 3, 8; S. 532, 17. Of inneweardre heortan intimo ex corde, 2, 1; S. 501, 14 : 3, 27; S. 559. 4. Mid inneweardum móde with all my mind, Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 7, 24. Inneweard intestina, Ælfc. Gl. 74; Som. 71, 62; Wrt. Voc. 44, 44. Innoþes innewearde viscera, 75; Som. 71, 99; Wrt. Voc. 45. 7. Ðá gewand him út eall his innewearde all his intestines came out, Homl. Th. i. 290, 19. Etaþ ðæt heáfod and ða fét and ðæt innewearde, ii. 264, 6: 280, 7. Etaþ his heáfod and his fét and innewærde caput cum pedibus ejus et intestinis vorabitis, Ex. 12, 9. Innewerde, 29, 17. v. innan-, in-weard.

innian; p. ode To get within, put in, bring in, put up, lodge :-- Hé werodaþ syððan hé innaþ interius recepta dulcescant, Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 31. Ðá hí ðider cómon ðá woldon hí innian hí ðær heom sylfan gelícode when they came thither then they wanted to put themselves up, where it pleased themselves, Chr. 1048; Erl. 177. 35. [Me nuste wære hem inny people did not not know where to lodge them, R. Glouc. 336, 14. Þe kyng lette lede hem to a feir old court and innes hem þere, Jos. 174 Theseus ynned hem, everich at his degre, Chauc. Kn. T. 1334. O. Frs. innia to harbour, lodge : O. H. Ger. innón recipere, suscipere, adjungere, afferre, Grff. i. 298.] v. inne, ge-innian.

innihte; adv. Within certain limits :-- Innihte beborene municipales, Wrt. Voc. ii. 59, 16.

in-niwian; p. ode To renew :-- Inniwa innova, Rtl. 168, 23.

innon. v. innan.

innor; adv. cpve of inne :-- Innor interius, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 42, 13. [O. H. Ger. innor interius.]

INNOÞ, innaþ, es; m. f. [?] The inner part of the body, the inside, stomach, womb, bowels, the breast, heart :-- Innoþ alvus; wífes innoþ uterus, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 52, 30 : viscus, 9; Som. 12, 12, Wífmannes innoþ matrix, uterus, Ælfc. Gl. 74; Som. 71, 56; Wrt.Voc. 44. 39. Eádig is se innoþ ðe ðé bær beatus venter qui te portavit, Lk. Skt. 11, 27. His innoþ tófleów his bowels gushed out, Homl. Th. ii. 250, 26. Ðætte hira módes innaþ yfele and hefiglíce mid gefylled wæs quæ mentis intima deprimebat, Past. 54, 1; Swt. 419, 32. Sió his innaþ wan wætere gelíc intravit sicut aqua in interiora ejus, Ps. Th. 108, 18. Wið innoþes sár for sore of inwards, Herb. 11, 2; Lchdm. i. 102, 11. Wið innoþes fæstnysse for costiveness, 62; Lchdm. i. 164, 16. Wæstm ðe of his innaþe ágenum cwóme de fructu ventris tui, Ps. Th. 131, 12. Ða litlingas fuhton on hire innoþe collidebantur in utero ejus parvuli, Gen. 25, 22. Hé biþ swíðe líþe on ðam innoþe it is very mild in the stomach, Bt. 22, 1; Fox 76, 31. Ealle ðás yfelu of ðam innoþe cumaþ omnia hæc mala ab intus procedunt, Mk. Skt. 7, 23. Ðé ic andette mid múþe and mid mínre heortan and mid eallum innoþe ic ðé gewilnige with my mouth and with my heart I confess thee, and with all that is within me I desire thee, Homl. Skt. 7, 237. Hálig gást hreðer weardode æðelne innoþ, Elen. Kmbl. 2289; El. 1146. Mæg hé eft cuman on his módor innoþ numquid potest in ventrem matris suæ iterato introire? Jn. Skt. 3, 4. Inneþas viscera, Wrt. Voc. 283, 76. Eádige synt ða innoþas ðe ne cendun beati ventres qui non genuerunt, Lk. Skt. 23, 29. Wið innoþa wræc for pain of intestines, L. Med. ex Quadr. 2, 18; Lchdm. i. 338. 9. Wiþ tóbrocenum innoþum for ruptured bowels, L. M. 2, 33; Lchdm. ii. 236, 23. On innoþas his in interiora ejus, Ps. Spl. M. 108, 17. Ðæt sár hwyrfde on hire in-noþas converso ad interanea dolore, Bd. 4, 23; S. 595, 26. Innaþo viscera, Rtl. 13, 33. [O. E. Homl. inneþ : O. L. Ger. innethron viscera : O. H. Ger. innod uterus, viscera; innodili viscera.]

innoþ-tyderness, e; f. A weakness of the intestines :-- Wið eallum innoþtydernessum, L. M. 2, 64; Lchdm. ii. 288, 24.

innoþ-wund, e; f. A wound of the intestines :-- Wið innoþwundum, L. M. 2, 33; Lchdm. ii. 236, 18, 21.

innung, e; f. A putting or getting in, what is put or got in :-- Se heofon is betera and fægera ðonne eall his innung búton monnum ánum the heaven is better and fairer than all it includes, except men only, Bt. 32, 2; Fox 116, 10. Ðes túnes cýping and seó innung [the getting in, or revenue ?] ðara portgerihta gange intó ðere hálgan stówe villæ mercimonium censusque omnis civilis sanctæ æcclesiæ deserviat, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 138, 10.

in-orf, es; n. Household goods :-- Inéddisc vel inorf entheca, g. suppellex Ælfc. Gl. 58; Som. 67, 90; Wrt.Voc. 38, 16. Gif hit sý innorf if it be goods from a house [that are taken], Lchdm. iii. 286, 5. For hwilcum gylta férdest ðú ðus æfter mé and tówurpe eall mín inorf quam ob culpam meam sic exarsisti post me et scrutatus es omnem supellectilem meam ? Gen. 31, 36. v. in-irfe.

inra. v.innera.

in-rǽsan; p. de To rush upon :-- Inrǽsdon inruerunt, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 7, 25. Inrǽsan inrumpere, Wrt. Voc. ii. 44, 84.

in-récels, es; n. Incense :-- Inrécels, incensum, Lk. Skt. Rush. 1, 9.

in-sǽte; adj. Belonging to one who is 'settled in' the household of the lord, one who lives close to the lord's mansion [?] :-- Insǽte hús vel lytel hús casa vel casula, Ælfc. Gl. 108; Som. 78, 113; Wrt. Voc. 58, 28. v. -sǽta, -sǽte.

in-sceáwere, es; m. An inspector :-- Ofer-insceáweras super-inspectores, Rtl. 194. 25, 29.

in-sceáwung, e; f. Inspection, Mt. Kmbl, p. 4, 6.

in-segel, es; n. A seal, signet :-- Insegel sigillum vel bulla, Ælfc. Gl. 29; Som. 61, 31; Wrt. Voc. 26, 30. Insegl sigillum, Wrt. Voc. 83, 4. Geþenc nú gyf ðínes hláfordes ǽrendgewrit and his insegel tó ðé cymþ hwæðer ðú mǽge cweþan ðæt ðú hys willan ðǽr on gecnáwan ne mǽge consider now, if your lord's letter and his seal come to you, whether you can say that you cannot recognise his pleasure in them, Shrn. 176, 10. Insegle signaculo, Hpt. Gl. 504, 37. Ðá com Sparhafoc tó him mid ðæs cynges gewrite and insegle, Chr. 1048; Erl. 177, 20. Swá hwæðer swá heó beó fúl swá clǽne binnan ðam insegle whether it [the hand] be foul or clean within the seal, L. Æðelst iv. 7; Th. i. 226, 32. Ðá sende se cyning his insegel tó ðam gemóte, Chart. Th. 288, 22. [Þet inseil þe þe deofel ne mei nefre tobreocan, O. E. Homl. i. 127. 33. He haueð his merke on me iseilet wið his inseil, Marh 5, 16. Bisett wiþþ seffne inseʒʒless, Orm. O. Frs. in-sigel, -sigil a seal : Icel. inn-sigli a seal, a seal-ring; also the wax affixed to a deed : O. H. Ger. in-sigili sigillum, signaculum, lunula, annulus, moneta : Ger. in-siegel.] v. insigle.

in-seglian; p. ode To seal, place a seal upon :-- Hig innseglodon ðone stán signantes lapidem, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 66. Inseglige man ða hand let a seal be put upon the hand, L. Æðelst. iv. 7; Th. i. 226, 30. [Icel. innsigla to seal : O. H. Ger. in-siglian signare.] v. ge-inseglian.

in-seglung, e; f. A sealing, seal :-- Ic bidde ðé for godes lufan ðæt ðú mé unlýse ða insæglunge I pray thee for the love of God that thou unloose for me the seal, Homl. Skt. 3, 537. [Icel. inn-siglan sealing.]

in-sendan; p. de To send in :-- Insendes inmittit, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 9, 16. Insende engel dryhten inmittit angelum Dominus, Ps. Surt. 33, 8 : 39, 4.

in-setness, e; f. A rule, regulation, institute :-- Insetnissum institutis, Rtl. 34, 14. Insætnissum, 18, 21.

in-settan; p. te To appoint, institute :-- Insette instituit, Bd. 4, 23; S. 593, 38.

in-sigle, es; n. A seal, signet :-- Hé brohte insigle tó mé ... Ðá ágeaf ic ðæt insigle ðé he brought a signet to me ... Then I gave the signet to thee, Chart. Th. 173, 8, 11. Wyrðe arð onfóa bóc and untýne insigloe his dignus es accipere librum et aperire signaculum ejus, Rtl. 29, 19. v. in-segel.

in-siht, e : f. An account, narrative, argument :-- Onginneþ insiht æfter iohannem incipit argumentum secundum Johannem, Jn. Skt. p. 1, 1. [Goth. in-sahts narrative.]

in-sittende; part. Sitting within :-- Ealra wǽron fífe eorla and idesa insittendra, Exon. 112 b; Th. 432, 3; Rä. 47. 7.

in-smoh; gen. -smós [?]; m. A slough :-- Hé ágeaf ðone clǽnan gást and ðæs líchaman insmoh [exuvias] forlét monnum tó mundbyrde he gave up the clean spirit, and left the slough of the body as a protection for men, Shrn. 126, 2. v. smúgan; and cf. O. Frs. in-smuge a creeping in.

in-spinn, es; n. An instrument for spinning, a spindle :-- Inspinn netorium, Ælfc. Gl. 110; Som. 79, 46; Wrt. Voc. 59, 17. Inspin, Wrt. Voc. 66, 15. [Netorium fusus quo netur : fusum, fusile, Du Cange.]

in-stæppan; p. te To step, in, enter :-- Ic ne instæppe oððe ingá oððe ic ne fare non introibo, Ps. Lamb. 25, 4. Insteppaþ oððe ingáþ on gesihþe his introite in conspectu ejus, 99, 2. On unscyldignysse mínre instæppende ic eom in innocentia mea ingressus sum, 25, 11. Hí sume gesáwon englas instæppende some of them saw angels entering, Homl. Th. ii. 546, 23.

in-stæpe, es; m. Entrance :-- Hí gemétton ðæt éce líf on instæpe ðæs andweardan lífes they found the life eternal at the entrance of the present life, Homl. Th. i. 84, 7. [O. Frs. in-stap, in-steppi entrance.] v. next two words.

in-stæpe, -stepe; adv. At the outset, at once, directly, immediately :-- Instæpe confestim, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 21 : extemplo, 4, 25; S. 601, 30. Árás hé instæpe surrexit continuo, 5, 5; S. 618, 14. Hí instæpe fram mínre gesihþe gewiton statim disparuerunt, 5, 13; S. 633, 15. Ðonne wǽre mín blód instæpe ágoten then had my blood been at once shed, Shrn. 39. 17. Seó strǽl instepe wearþ eft gecyrred, Blickl. Homl. 199, 21. v. next word.

in-stæpes, -stepes; adv. At once, immediately :-- Se mon se ðe óðerne ácwelþ and instæpes hine sylfne ongyteþ ðæt hé mycel mán gedón hæbbe the man who kills another, and at once perceives himself to have done a great wrong, Blickl. Homl. 65, 5. Hé ðá sóna instæpes geseh he then immediately saw, 15, 27. Ðéh gé sóna instæpes ðǽre méde ne ne onfón, 41, 13. Instepes, 33, 19. Ðæt fæsten wæs ongunnen instepes ðæs ðe . . . the fast was begun directly after . . ., 35, 5. Hí flugon instæpes they fled forthwith, Elen. Kmbl. 254; El. 127.

in-standan; p. -stód To be near or present; instare :-- Éce instondaþ wuldur perennis instat gloria, Rtl. 165, 7. Instond[end]um instantibus, 69, 11.

in-standendlíc; adj. Present, of to-day :-- Hláf úre instondenlíce sel ús tó dæge give us to-day our daily bread, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 6, 11.

in-stede, -styde [or in stede; cf. Icel. í-stað on the spot, at once]; adv. On the spot, at once, immediately :-- Instyde continuo, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 48. Instyde statim, Mk. Skt. Rush. 1, 28 : 2, 12.

in-stice, es; m. An inward stitch, a pricking sensation within :-- Wið instice, L. M. 2, 54; Lchdm. ii. 274, 27.

in-stihtian; p. ode To arrange, regulate, dispose :-- Instihtade ɫ dihtade instigante, Lk. Skt. p. 2, 6. v. stihtian.

in-sting, es; m. Authority :-- Nán ðere biscope ne habbe nán insting on ðæt mynster let no bishop have any authority in that monastery, Chart. Th. 348, 12. v. on-sting.

in-swán, es, m. The herd who had charge of the lord's swine :-- Ǽlc gebúr sylle .vi. hláfas ðam inswáne ðonne hé his heorde tó mæstene drífe omnis geburus det vi. panes porcario curie quando gregem suum minabit in pastinagium, L. R. S. 4; Th. i. 434, 21.

in-swápen. v. swápan.

in-swógenness, e; f. A rushing in with a loud sound, violent entrance :-- Hé mid ðæs unclǽnan gástes inswógennisse þrycced wæs spiritus inmundi invasione premebatur, Bd. 2, 5; S.507, 4. v. swógan.

inðer; adv. Apart; seorsum, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 17, 1.

in-þicce; adj. Gross, thick :-- Inþicce is hearta folces ðisses incrassatum est cor populi hujus, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 13, 15.

in-þínen, e; f. A female domestic servant; incola, Germ. 401, 125.

in-timbrian; p. ede, ode To instruct :-- Hé hí intimbrade and gelǽrde he instructed and taught them, Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 34. Intimbrede, 4, 27; S. 603, 45. In cyriclícum þeódscipum and in mynsterlícum heálíce intimbred ecclesiasticis ac monasterialibus disciplinis summe instructus, Bd. 5, 8; S. 621, 35 : S. 622, 2. v. on-timbrian.

in-tinga, an; m. A cause, sake, plea, case, occasion, matter, affair, business :-- Intinga pragma, Ælfc. Gl. 12; Som. 57, 93; Wrt. Voc. 20, 34 : negotium, 81; Som. 73, 17; Wrt. Voc. 47, 24 : causa vel negotium, 90; Som. 74, 115; Wrt.Voc. 51, 28 : causa, Wrt. Voc. 83, 62. Ðysse þeóde wæs se ǽresta intinga tó onfónne Cristes geleáfan ðæt . . . huic genti occasio fuit percipiendæ fidei, quod . . .; Bd. 2, 9; S. 510, 18. His intinga wæs geondsóhte beforan Agaþone causa ejus ventilata est præsente Agathone, 5, 19; S. 639, 28. Se forma intinga mennisces forwyrdes wæs ðá ðá se deófol ásende óðerne deófol tó Evan the first cause of man's perdition was when the devil sent another devil to Eve, Homl. Th. i. 194, 30. Ðæt mín sáwul lybbe for ðínum intingan ut vivat anima mea ob gratiam tui, Gen. 12, 13. For hwilcum intingan quam ob causam, 19. Tó ðisum is genumen se grécisca y for intingan gréciscra namena to these [the vowels] is added the Greek y for the sake of Greek names, Ælfc. Gr. 2; Som. 2, 51. For his intingan hé hit déþ sui causa facit, 17; Som. 20, 50 : Homl. Th. i. 84, 2. Ic ongann be ðam intingan hwæthwega geornlícor smeágan I began to inquire somewhat more diligently about the matter, ii. 32, 23. Gif hió of cealdum intingan cymþ ðonne sceal mon mid hátum lǽcedómum lácnian if it [the disease] comes from a cold cause then it is to be cured with hot medicines, L. M. 1, 1; Lchdm. ii. 22, 5. Búton intingan sine causa, Ps. Spl. 3, 7. Bútan intingan hig mé wurðiaþ sine causa colunt me, Mt. Kmbl. 15, 9. Ðá hí ðá heora intingan him wépende sǽdon ðá wæs hé sóna mid mildheortnysse gefylled when with tears they had told him their business, he was at once filled with pity, Guthl. 12; Gdwin. 58, 25. Tósceáð intingan mínne discerne causam meam, Ps. Spl. 42, 1. Dém intingan ðínne judica causam tuam, 73, 23. Ne finde ic nánne intingan on ðysum men nihil invenio causæ in hoc homine, Lk. Skt. 23, 4, 14. Hé nolde syllan intingan ðám Iudéiscum ðæt hé hí forsáwe ðe Godes ǽ heóldon and ðæt hǽðene folc him tó getuge he would not give the Jews cause to complain, that he despised those who kept God's law, and drew to him the heathen people, Homl. Th. ii. 112, 5. Forðon misenlíce intingan gelimpeþ quia diversæ causæ impediunt, Bd. 4, 5; S. 573, 7.

in-tó; prep. Into. I. with dat :-- Ðú gǽst intó ðam arce . . . and twegen gemacan ðú lǽtst intó ðam arce ingredieris arcam . . . et bina induces in arcam. Gen. 6, 18, 19. Noe eode intó ðam arce ingressus est Noe in arcam, 7, 7. Ic gange intó ðære byrig in urbem vado. Ic gange intó ðínum huse introibo in domum tuam. Intó ðære ceastre rád se kyning in civitatem equitavit rex, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 48, 15-7. Ðá se hǽlend com intó ðæs ealdres healle cum venisset Iesus in domum principis, Mt. Kmbl. 9, 23. Sume urnon intó cyrcean and belucan ða duran intó heom some ran into the church and shut the doors upon them, Chr. 1082; Erl. 217, 13. II. with acc :-- Férde his hlísa intó ealle Syriam abiit opinio ejus in totam Syriam, Mt. Kmbl. 4, 24. Wið feó sealdon wíde intó leódscipas they sold them far and wide into various nations, Blickl. Homl. 79, 23. III. with inst :-- Ðá ongeáton hie ðæt se eádiga Michael him sylfa ðæt tácn ðæs siges gecýðde intó ðý swíðan slǽpe then they perceived that the blessed Michael had himself made known that token of victory in the deep sleep, 205, 4.

in-trahtnung, e; f. Explanation, interpretation :-- Sóþ intrahtnung vera interpretatio, Mt. Kmbl. p. 2, 6.

in-trifelung, e; f. Intritura, Cot. 109, Lye.

in-wǽte, an; f. An inward humour :-- Gif hit biþ cumen of yfelre inwǽtan if it is come of an evil inward humour, L. M. 2, 46; Lchdm. ii. 258, 27.

in-weard; adj. Inward, inner, internal :-- Gif gé hine mid inweardre heortan séceaþ si toto corde quæsieris, Deut. 4, 29. Biddaþ mid inweardre heortan ðysne Godes apostol, Homl. Th. i. 68, 8. Ðá wilnode ic indeum innewearde tó geseónne interiorem indiam perspicere cupiens, Nar. 5, 17. v. innan-, inne-weard.

in-weard; adv. Within :-- Ðætte inweard is quod intus est, Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 39. Ðá hig inweard fóron ðá gemytton hig twegen ealde weras when they went in, they met two old men, Nicod. 31; Thw. 18, 3. [Let þene lust gon inward, A. R. 272, 8. Inwardes, 92, 6.]

inweard-líc; adj. Inward, internal :-- Innweardlíc interius, Rtl. 4, 20. On heora inweardlícum stówum in their inward parts, L. Med. ex Quadr. 3, 1; Lchdm. i. 338, 19, MS. H.

inweard-líce; adv. Inwardly, thoroughly, heartily, earnestly :-- Heroðes innweardlíce gelearnade from him Herodes diligenter didicit ab eis, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 2, 7, 8. Innweardlíce cliopaþ hine invocate eum, Rtl. 10, 26. Is ðæt for inweardlíce riht racu that is a very thoroughly right explanation, Bt. 40, 1; Fox 236, 9. Se ðe æfter rihte mid gerece wille inweardlíce æfterspyrian swá deóplíce ðæt hit tódrífan ne mæg monna ǽnig quisquis profunda mente vestigat verum, cupitque nullis ille deviis falli, Bt. Met. Fox 22, 3; Met. 22, 2. Wearþ ðá him inweardlíce gelufod he was heartily loved by him, Homl. Th. i. 58, 18. Ða ðe tó geleáfan cyrden hé ða inweardlýcor lufade credentes arctiori dilectione amplecteretur, Bd. 1, 26; S. 488, 16.

in-weorud, es; n. A band of domestics or courtiers, a household :-- ÐDæt wæs innweorud Earmanríces, Exon. 86 b; Th. 325, 13; Víd. 111. [Cf. in-híréd.]

inwid, inwit. es; n. Fraud, guile, deceit, evil, wickedness :-- Inwid dolus, Ps. Spl. T. 14, 3. Ne beó nǽnig man hér on worldríce bregda tó full ne inwit tó leóf let no man in this world be too full of wiles, nor let guile be too dear to him, Blickl. Homl. 109, 29. Ne wæs ǽfre fácen ne inwid on his heortan nor was ever deceit nor guile in his heart, 223, 31. Gramlíc inwit nequitia, Ps. Th. 54, 15. Mán and inwit, 9. Forðan mé inwit næs on tungan quia non est dolus in lingua mea, 138, 2. Mán inwides dolus, 54, 10. For inwite propter dolos, 72, 14. Mið inwite [mit fácne, A. S.] dolo, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 26, 4. Gé on heortan hogedon inwit in corde iniquitates operamini, Ps. Th. 57, 2. Hió ðá inwit feala ýwdan on tungan locuti sunt adversum me lingua dolosa, 108, 2. His esnum inwit fremedan dolum facerent in servos ejus, 104, 21. Ða inwit and fácen hycgeaþ on heortan qui cogitaverunt malitias in corde, 139, 2. Hie sprecaþ fácen and inwit, Cd. 109; Th. 145, 31; Gen. 2414. Inwit syredon they plotted evil, Andr. Kmbl. 1220; An. 610. Hwǽr áhangen wæs waldend þurh inwit, Elen. Kmbl. 413; El. 207. [O. Sax. inwid : cf. Goth. inwindiþa injustice.]

inwid-. v. inwit-.

inwidda, inwit; adj. Guileful, deceitful, evil, wicked, malicious :-- Gelpan ne þorfte eald inwidda [inwitta, MSS. B. C. inwuda MS. D.], no cause to boast had he, old and crafty, Chr. 937; Erl. 114, 12; Æðelst. 46. Swá se inwidda ofer ealne dæg dryhtguman síne drencte mid wíne so the evil one [Holofernes] all through the day his men drenched with wine, Judth. 10; Thw. 21, 20; Jud. 28. Ealle weleras inwiddæn universa labia dolosa, Ps. Spl. T. 11, 3. Wordum inwitum with guileful words, Cd. 229; Th. 310, 22; Sat. 731. [Cf. Goth. inwinds unjust, perverse.]

in-wise, an; f. A condiment :-- Ðæt hit síe on ða onlícnesse geworht ðe senop biþ getemprod tó inwisan that it may be made like mustard when it is mixed for a condiment, L. M. 2, 6; Lchdm. ii. 184, 22.

inwit. v. inwid, inwidda.

inwit-feng, es; m. A wily or malicious grasp, Beo. Th. 2898; B. 1447.

inwit-flán, es; m. A treacherous shaft, Exon. 83 b; Th. 315, 27; Mód. 37.

inwit-full; adj. Deceitful, guileful, malicious, evil :-- Inwitfull dolosus, insidiosus, fraudulentus, callidus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 141, 66. Ne mæg ðǽr inwitfull ǽnig geféran womscyldig mon there may none guileful come, none guilty of sin, Cd. 45; Th. 58, 18; Gen. 498. From ðære inwitfullan yflan tungan a lingua dolosa, Ps. Th. 119, 3. Hé áfylleþ ða inwitfullan word of his tungan he causes deceitful words to fall away from his tongue [cf. Ps.Th. 14, 3, non egit dolum in lingua sua], Blickl. Homl. 55, 16. Ðá geseah sigora waldend hwæt wæs monna mánes and ðæt hí wǽron inwitfulle then saw the Lord of victories what the wickedness of men was, and that they were full of deceit, Cd. 64; Th. 77, 10; Gen. 1273. Synfulra and inwitfulra múþas os peccatoris et dolosi, Ps. Th. 108, 1.

inwit-gæst, es; m. A guileful, evil guest, Beo. Th. 5333; B. 2670.

inwit-gecynd, es; n. A malicious, evil nature, Salm. Kmbl. 660; Sal. 329.

inwit-gyren, e; f. A treacherous snare :-- Forhýddon mé oferhýdge inwitgyrene absconderunt superbi laqueos mihi, Ps. Th. 139, 5.

inwit-hlemm, es; m. A stroke treacherously or maliciously given, Rood Kmbl. 93; Kr. 47.

inwit-hróf, es; m. A deceitful, evil roof [the, fire-drake's den], Beo. Th. 6238; B. 3123.

inwit-net, es; n. A net of treachery or malice, Beo. Th. 4340; B. 2167.

inwit-níþ, es; m. Malicious, treacherous enmity, Beo. Th. 3720; B. 1858 : 3898; B. 1947 : Hy. 3, 46; Hy. Grn. ii. 282, 46. [O. Sax. inwid-níð.]

inwit-rún, e; f. Malicious, guileful counsel, Exon. 74 b; Th. 279, 7; Jul. 610.

inwit-scear, es; m. Slaughter effected by craft, Beo. Th. 4949; B. 2478. [Cf. gúþ-scear.]

inwit-searo; n. Malicious or treacherous artifice, Beo. Th. 2206; B. 1101.

inwit-sorh; gen. -sorge; f. Sorrow brought about by malice or guile, Beo. Th, 1666; B. 831 : 3477; B. 1736.

inwit-spell, es; n. A tale of evil, Cd. 94; Th. 122, 9; Gen. 2024.

inwit-stæf, es; m. Evil, wickedness, malice; nequitia, Ps. Th. 54, 15 : 140, 5.

inwit-þanc, es; m. Evil, malicious, deceitful thought or purpose, Andr. Kmbl. 1339; An. 670 : 1118; An. 559 : Elen. Kmbl. 616; El. 308 : Bt. Met. Fox 9,16; Met. 9, 8 : 27, 46; Met. 27, 23 : Beo. Th. 1502; B. 749.

inwit-wrásen, e; f. A chain of guile or malice, Andr. Kmbl. 126; An. 63 : 1892; An. 948.

in-wreón; p. -wráh; pl. -wrigon To uncover, reveal :-- Ðú mé inwrige wyrda gerýno thou hast revealed to me the mysteries of fate, Elen. Kmbl. 1621; El. 813. v. on-wreón.

in-writting, e; f. An inscription; inscriptio, Mt. Kmbl. p. 4. 5.

in-wund, e; f. An inward wound :-- Wið inwunde magan for an inward wound of the stomach, L. M. 2, 9; Lchdm. ii. 188, 11. [Cf. O. Frs. in-werdene internal injury.]

in-wuneness, e; f. Persistence, perseverance; instantia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 47, 41.

in-wunung, e; f. Habitation, dwelling, Lye.

in-ylfe, es; n. A gut, bowel :-- Inelfe intestinum, Wrt. Voc. 65. 55. Inilve; 284, 2. Inelve interamen, 286, 60. Ðý læs ðæt innelfe útsíge lest the matrix prolapse, L. M. 3. 37; Lchdm. ii. 328, 25. Gif men síe innelfe úte ... gedó ðæt innelfe on ðone man if a man's bowel protrude ... put the bowel into the man, 3. 73; Lchdm. ii. 358, 23-5. Inelfe viscera, Wrt. Voc. 65, 32. Inilve, 285, 58. Sume nimaþ hwelpes innylfe some take a whelp's intestines, L. Med. ex Quadr. 9, 5; Lchdm. i. 362, 7. [Icel. inn-yfli, -ylfi; n. pl. entrails, bowels : O. H. Ger. inn-uveli, -oveli viscera.]

Iob, es; m. Job :-- Sum wer wæs geseten on ðam lande ðe is geháten Hus, his nama wæs Iob, Homl. Th. ii. 446, 10. Iobes dóhtra, 458, 32. Tó mínum þeówan Iobe, 456, 30. Be ðan eádigan were Iob, 446. 4.

Iob, es; m. Jove, Jupiter :-- Job Saturnes sunu, Bt. 35. 4; Fox, 162, 5. Ercules Iobes sunu, 16,2; Fox 52, 34. Iobes templ, Nar. 37, 23. v. Iofes.

ioc. v. iuc, geoc.

Iofes, es; m. Jove :-- Ðanc hafa ðú, Iofes, Ors. 4, 1; Bos. 77, 37. Hyra héhstan godes hús Iofeses, 4, 2; Bos. 79, 11. v. Iob.

Iól Yule, Chart. Th. 423, 5. v. Geól.

iór, es; m. The name of the rune RUNE; also of a fish, perhaps the eel :-- RUNE byþ eáfixa [sum] and ðeáh á brúceþ fódres on faldan eel is a river-fish, and yet ever eats food on the ground, Runic pm. 28; Kmbl. 345. 4. See Zacher's Das Gothische Alphabet, p. 26; Taylor's Greeks and Goths, pp. 97-8.

Iotas, Iutan; pl. The Jutes :-- Ðá cómon ða men of þrím mégðum Germanie of Ald-Seaxum of Anglum of Iotum. Of Iotum cómon Cantwara and Wihtwara ðæt is seó mégð ðe nú eardaþ on Wiht and ðæt cyn on West Sexum ðe man nú git hǽt Iutna cyn then came the men from three tribes of Germany, from old Saxons, from Angles, from Jutes. From the Jutes came the people of Kent and Wight, that is, the tribe that now lives in Wight and the race among the West Saxons that is to the present time called the Jutes' race, Chr. 449; Erl. 13, 10-14. The Anglo-Saxon version of Bede, i. 15, has Geat for Iot, but in 4, 16 Iutorum provincia is rendered Eota land. See Grimm. Gesch. D. S. 511 sqq. [Icel. Iótas Jutes.]

iów, iówian, iówih. v. eów, eówian, eówic.

ir; adj. Angry :-- Yr on móde, Cd. 4; Th. 4, 33; Gen. 63. v. irre, ir-scipe.

Íra-land, es; n. Land of the Irish, Ireland :-- Gewitan him ðá Norþmenn Dyflen sécean eft Íraland [Yraland, hira land], Chr. 937; Th. 206, col. 2, 1. 15; Æðelst. 56. In Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 19, 15, 16 Íraland is doubtful. In the Anglo-Saxon, version of Bede's History Hibernia generally is rendered by Hibernia Scotta eáland. v. Ír-land.

Íras; pl. The Irish [v. Íra-land] :-- Férde twelf geár bodiende betwux Ýrum and Scottum and siððan ofer eal Angelcyn he went twelve years preaching among the Irish and Scotch, and afterwards over all England, Homl. Th. ii. 346, 35. But the people of Ireland are often spoken of as Scottas, e. g :-- Pyhtas cóman ǽrost on norþ Ybernian up and ðǽr bǽdon Scottas ðæt hí ðér móston wunian, Chr. Erl. 3, 9. Scotta sum dǽl gewát of Ybernian on Brittene, 18. Þrie Scottas cuómon tó Ælfréde of Hibernia, 891; Erl. 88, 5. So in Alfred's Orosius it is said Igbernia ðæt wé Scotland hátaþ, 1, 1; Swt. 24, 16. [Icel. Ìrar.]

íren, es; n. Iron, an iron weapon [cf. use of steel in modern English], a sword, blade :-- Ðæt swurd, drihtlic íren, Beo. Th. 1788; B. 892. Gif ðæt gegangeþ ðæt ádl oððe íren nimeþ ealdor ðínne if it come to pass, that disease or sword take off thy prince, 3700; B.1848. Mé sceal wǽpen niman, ord and íren, Byrht. Th. 139, 12. Áres and írenes æris et ferri, Bd. 1, I; S. 473, 23, note. Heardes írenes grindlas gratings of hard iron, Cd. 19; Th. 24, 25; Gen. 383. Ðeáh hé wǽre mid írne ymbfangen, 224; Th. 297, 15; Sat. 513. Héht his sweord niman, leóflíc íren, Beo. Th. 3622; B. 1809. His sweord, írena cyst, 1350; B. 673 : 1609; B. 802. Bite írena, 4511; B. 2259. Íren ecgheard, Andr. Kmbl. 2363; An. 1183. [Icel. járn : Dan. jern : Swed. järn.] v. hring-íren; ísen, ísern.

íren; adj. Of iron, iron :-- Ecg wæs íren the edge was of iron, Beo. Th. 2922; B. 1459 : 5549; B. 2778. Hé hine hét áþenian on írenum bedde and hine cwicne hirstan he bade stretch him on an iron bed, and roast him alive, Shrn. 116, 2. Mid írenum gyrdum with iron rods, 115, 24 : Salm. Kmbl. 55; Sal. 28 : 942; Sal. 470. Scyttelas ýrenne hé forbræc vectes ferreos confregit, Ps. Spl. 106, 16. v. eal-íren, the following compounds, and ísen, isern.

íren-bend, es; m. An iron bond or band :-- Licgaþ mé ymbe írenbendas, Cd. 19; Th. 24, 2; Gen. 371. Írenbendum fæst, Beo. Th. 2001; B. 998. [Cf. Goth. eisarna-bandi.]

íren-byrne, an; f. An iron byrnie :-- Námon írenbyrnan, heard swyrd hilted, and his helm, Beo. Th. 5965; B. 2986.

íren-gelóma, an; m. An iron implement :-- Ða írengelóman ferramenta, Nar. 9, 19. v. gelóman.

íren-heard; adj. Iron-hard, Beo. Th. 2227; B. 1112.

íren-helm, es; m. An iron helmet :-- Írenhelm [or íren helm; but cf. preceding compounds] cassis, Ælfc. Gl. 51; Som. 66, 14; Wrt. Voc. 35, 4. [Cf. Icel. járn-hattr a kind of helmet.]

íren-þreát, es; m. A band having iron armour, Beo. Th. 666; B. 330.

íre-þweorh; adj. Having the mind perverted by rage, Exon. 67 a; Th. 248. 3; Jul. 90.

irfan; p. de To inherit :-- Yrfan hí swá hí wyrðe witan let the land devolve upon such as they know to be worthy or entitled [v. wyrðe], Chart. Th. 578, 9. v. [?] Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. i. xxxiii-v on the leases of church lands for lives, in which such phrases as the following occur :-- His dæg forgeaf, and æfter his dæg twám yrfeweardum. Such lives were sometimes named in the instrument setting forth the grant. [O. Frs. ervia to inherit : O. L. Ger. gi-ervan hereditare : Icel. erfa to honour with a funeral feast; mod. to inherit : O.H. Ger. erbet hæreditabit : Ger. erben.]

irfe, ierfe, yrfe, es; n. Inheritance, property :-- Gewriten yrfe legatum, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 96; Wrt. Voc. 20, 37. Ungewriten yrfe intestata hereditas, Som. 57, 101; Wrt. Voc. 20, 41. Yrfe drihtnes hereditas Domini, Ps. Spl. 126, 4. Yrfe sceal gedǽled deádes monnes a dead man's property must be divided, Exon. 90 a; Th. 338, 18; Gen. Ex. 80. Ne wilna ðú ðínes néhstan ierfes mid unrihte covet thou not thy neighbour's goods, L. Alf. 9; Th. i. 44, 21. Þolige his wǽpna and his ierfes let him forfeit his weapons and his property, L. Alf. pol. 1; Th. i. 60, 14. Gif hwá gefeohte on cyninges húse síe hé scyldig ealles his ierfes, L. In. 6; Th. i. 106, 3. Ðonne is riht ðæt heó sý healfes yrfes wyrðe and ealles gif hý cild gemǽne hæbban then is it right that she be entitled to half the property, and to all if they have children together, L. Edm. B. 4; Th. i. 254, 15. Ðú ðínes yrfes æðele gyrde álýsdest liberasti virgam hæreditatis tuæ, Ps. Th. 73, 3. Malalehel wæs æfter iarede yrfes hyrde fæder on láste Mahalaleel was after Irad the guardian of the heritage, in succession to his father, Cd. 52; Th. 65, 17; Gen. 1067. Nelle ic from mínum hláforde ne from mínum wífe ne from mínum bearne ne from mínum ierfe I will not go from my lord, nor from my wife, nor from my child, nor from my goods, L. Alf. 11; Th. i. 46, 9. Ne sylle gé ðæt land on éce yrfe terra non vendetur in perpetuum, Lev. 25, 23. His yrfe forhogode hæreditatem suam sprevit, Ps. Th. 77, 62. Gif hé wite hwá ðæs deádan ierfe hæbbe tiéme ðonne tó ðam ierfe and bidde ða hond ðe ðæt ierfe hafaþ ðæt hé him gedó ðone ceáp unbeceásne oððe gecýde ðæt se deáda nǽfre ðæt ierfe áhte if he know who has the property of the dead, let him then vouch the property to warranty, and demand of the hand which has that property, that he make the chattel uncontestable to him; or prove that the dead man never owned that property, L. In. 53; Th. i. 136, 4-8. Him on láste heóld land and yrfe malalehel, Cd. 58; Th. 71, 8; Gen. 1167. [Under the single form yrfe two words seem to be comprised; the one just given, also written ærfe, erfe, and another, which would correspond with a Gothic aurbi, connected with orf, with the meaning cattle. With the former may be compared Goth. arbi; n. heritage, inheritance : O. Sax. erƀi; n : 0. L. Ger. ervi; n. hæreditas : O. Frs. erve; n : O. H. Ger. arbi, erbi, arpi; n. possessio : Ger. erbe; n : Icel. arfr; m. inheritance; erfð; f. inheritance. See yrfe, orf]. v. sundor-irfe; and Grmm. R. A. pp. 466-7; 565.

irfe-béc; pl. f. A will, testament :-- Uncwedene yrfebéc ruptum testamentum : forswíged yrfebéc suppressum testamentum : underne yrfebéc nuncupatio : samhíwna yrfebéc jus liberorum, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 102-8; Wrt. Voc. 20, 42-6: ii. 49, 14. Áwǽgune yrfebéc inritum testamentum : unárlíce yrfebéc inofficiosum testamentum, 49, 15-18.

irfe-first, es; m. A delay before entering upon an inheritance; cretio, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 106; Wrt. Voc. 20, 44.

irfe-gedál, es; n. A division of an inheritance or property :-- Yrfe-gedál familiæ erciscundæ, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 109; Wrt. Voc. 20, 47. Yrfegedál familia erciscundæ, quia ærciscunda enim apud veteres divisio nuncupabatur, ii. 39, 26.

irfe-geflit, es; n. A dispute about inheritance :-- Ðá gehýrde wé manegu yrfegeflitu then did we hear of many disputes about the inheritance, Chart. Th. 486, 12.

irfe-gewrit, es; n. Writing concerning an inheritance, a will, testament :-- Ac hit gelamp ðæt Æðelréd cingc gefór ðá ne cýðde mé nán mann nán yrfegewrit ne náne gewitnesse ðæt hit ǽnig óðer wǽre bútan swá wit on gewitnesse ǽr gecwǽdon but it happened that king Ethelred died; then no man made known to me any testament or any witness that it was any other than as we two before with witness agreed, Chart Th. 486, 7. On ðam yrfegewrite in the testament, 32.

irfe-hand, a; f. One who manages the estate of a deceased person, an administrator [?] :-- Se mann se tó londe fóe ágefe hire erfehonda xiii pund pendingæ and heó forgifeþ xv pund for dý ðe mon ðás feorme ðý soel gelǽste let the man who succeeds to the land give to her administrator thirteen pounds of pennies; and he will give fifteen pounds, in order that this refection may be the better provided, Chart. Th. 474, 9. v. hand.

irfe-láf, e; f. An hereditary relic, heirloom, what is left of an inheritance, inheritance, heir :-- Hé fédeþ folc Iacobes and Israhéla yrfeláfe pascere Jacob servum suum, et Israel hæreditatem suam, Ps. Th. 77, 70. Ǽghwylcum máððum gesealde yrfeláfe to each he gave a gift, an heirloom, Beo.Th. 2110; B. 1053. Hé bátwearde swurd gesealde, ðæt hé syððan wæs mádme ðý weorðra, yrfeláfe, 3810; B. 1903. Wolde líge gesyllan his swǽsne sunu ángan ofer eorþan yrfeláfe he [Abraham] was ready to give to the flame, his dear son, the only heir that was left him on earth, Cd. 162; Th. 203, 14; Exod. 403.

irfe-land, es; n. Land that passes as an inheritance, heritable land :-- Ic cýðo hú mín willa is ðet mín ærfelond fére ðe ic gebohte on ǽce ærfe I declare how my will is that my heritable land shall go, that I bought in perpetual inheritance, Chart. Th. 476, 12. Hie dydon mín land him selfum tó ierfelonde dederunt terram meam sibi in hereditatem, Past. 50, 2; Swt. 387, 30. Gebletsa ðín yrfeland benedic hæreditati tuæ, Ps. Th. 27, 10. Sealde heora eorþan on yrfeland dedit terram eorum hæreditatem, 135. 22.

irfe-numa, an; m. One who takes an inheritance, an heir :-- Ðes and ðeós yrfenuma hic et hæc heres, Ælfc. Gr. 6; Som. 5, 33. Mín inbyrdling biþ mín yrfenuma ... Ne byþ ðes ðín yrfenuma ac ðone ðú hæfst tó yrfenuman ðe of ðé sylfum cymþ vernaculus meus heres meus erit ... Non erit hic heres tuus, sed qui egredietur de utero tuo, ipsum habebis heredem, Gen. 15. 3-4 : 21, 10. Ðes ys yrfenuma hic est heres, Mt. Kmbl. 21, 38 : Mk. Skt. 12, 7. Hit wǽre geþuht ðæs ðé máre gemynd ðæs fæder, ðá ðá se sunu, his yrfenuma, wæs gecíged ðæs fæder naman, Homl. Th. i. 478, 11. Fæderas and móddru bestandaþ heora bearna líc and heora yrfenuman him sylfum tó, forwyrde forestæppaþ fathers and mothers stand about the corpses of their children, and their heirs precede them to destruction, ii. 124, 18. Se ðe sitte uncwydd and uncrafod on his áre on lífe ðæt nán man on his yrfenuman ne spece after his dæge he who sits without contest or claim on his property during life, that no one bring an action against his heir after his day, L. Eth. iii. 14; Th. i. 298, 10. Gif hwá tó deádan týme, búton hé yruenoman hæbbe ðe hit clǽnsie, ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 9. Gif se bónda ǽr hé deád wǽre beclypod wǽre ðonne andwyrdan ða yrfenuman swá hé sylf sceolde ðeáh hé líf hæfde if the man of the house before his death were cited; then let the heirs answer as he himself would have had to do if he had lived, L. C. S 73; Th. i. 416, 1. Se man ðe on fyrdunge ætforan his hláforde fealle, beón ða heregeata forgyfene, and fón ðá yrfenuman tó lande and tó ǽhtan, 78; Th. i. 420, 16. [Goth. arbi-numja an heir : O. H. Ger. arpi-, erpi-nomo hæres : Ger. erb-nehmer : cf. Icel. arf-takari, arf-taki, arf-tökumaðr an heir.]

irfe-stól, es; m. An hereditary seat :-- Se burgstede, eádges yrfestól, Exon. 52 a; Th. 181, 14; Gú. 1293. Eafora chuses yrfestóle weóld, Cd. 79; Th. 98, 13; Gen. 1629. Ne þearf ic yrfestól eaforan bytlian ǽnegum mínra ... ne sealdest ðú mé sunu I need not build an hereditary seat for any descendant of mine. .. thou hast not given me a son, 99; Th. 131, 14; Gen. 2176.

irfe-weard, es; m. The guardian of an inheritance, an heir, possessor of a property :-- Hér ys se yrfeweard [erfuard, Lind : erfeword, Rush.] hic est heres, Lk. Skt. 20, 14. Ðǽr mé gifeðe ǽnig yrfeweard æfter wurde if any heir to follow me had been granted me, Beo. Th. 5455; B. 2731 : Cd. 83; Th. 103, 33; Gen. 1727. Óðres ne gýmeþ tó gebídanne yrfeweardas cares not to await another heir, Beo. Th. 4897; B. 2453. Wæs swá mycel mancwealm ðæt manige land binnan ðære byrig wǽran bútan ǽlcum yrfewearde there was so great a pestilence that many lands within the city were without any to inherit them, Ors. 5, 2; Bos. 102, 13. Ús is swíðe uncúþ hwæt úre yrfeweardas and lástweardas dón willon æfter úrum lífe we are very ignorant of what our heirs and successors will do after our life, Blickl. Homl. 51, 35. Ða ðe God bletsiaþ beóþ eorþan yrfeweardas benedicentes eum possidebunt terram, Ps. Th. 36, 21. Geréfa mín mynteþ ðæt mé æfter síe eaforan síne yrfeweardas my steward supposes that after me his children shall be heirs, Cd. 100; Th. 131, 29; Gen. 2183. Hwæðer freá wille ǽnigne ðé yrfewearda on woruld lǽtan, 101; Th. 134, 26; Gen. 2230. Ða sylfan wilniaþ him tó yrfeweardum tó habbanne ipsos habere heredes quærunt, Bd. 1, 27; S. 490, 18. Ic landes sumne dǽl sumum wífe hiere dæg forgæaf and æfter hiere dæge twám yrfeweardum I granted a certain portion of land to a certain woman for her life, and after her death to be held for two other lives, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 5, 10. See i. xxxiv. Forlét hé ðæs hwílenlecan ríces yrfeweardas his suna þrý tres suos filios regni temporalis heredes reliquit, Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 8. [Gen. and Ex. er(f)ward : O. Sax. erƀi-ward : Icel. (poët.) arf-vörðr an heir.]

irfe-, irf-weardness, e; f. An inheritance :-- Yrfeweardnes hereditas, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Sons. 57, 95; Wrt. Voc. 20, 36. Drihtnes dǽl wæs his folc and Iacob his yrfeweardnis pars domini populus ejus, Jacob funiculus hereditatis ejus, Deut- 32, 9. God cwæþ ðæt hé sylf wǽre heora yrfweardnyss, Homl. Th. ii. 224, 7. Ðonne biþ úre seó yrfeweardnes nostra erit hereditas, Mk. Skt. 12, 7.

irfe-, irf-weardian; p. ode To inherit, possess an inheritance :-- Ðú yrfweardast on eallum þeódum tu hæreditabis in omnibus gentibus, Ps. Spl. 81, 7. Hí yrfweardiaþ eorþan hæreditabunt terram, 36, 11. Ðæt ðú yrfweardige eorþan, 36. DER. be-irfeweardian.

irfeweard-wrítere, es; m. One who spectfies his heir in writing, a testator :-- Yrfeweardwrítere legatarius, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 99; Wrt. Voc. 20, 39.

irfe-wrítend, es; m. One who writes concerning the disposition of his property, one who makes a will :-- Yrfewrítend testator, Ælfc. Gl. 13; Som. 57, 100; Wrt. Voc. 20, 40.

irf-. v. irfe-.

irgþ, e : irgþu, irgþo; indecl; f. Sluggishness, cowardice, timorousness, pusillanimity :-- Wé witon georne ðæt hie for iergþe náðer ne durran ne swá feor friþ gesécan ne furþon hie selfe æt hám hie werian we know well that they from cowardice dare neither seek peace at such a distance, nor even defend themselves at home, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 136, 28. For eówre forhtnysse and yrhþe ðe eów eglaþ propter cordis tui formidinem, qua terreberis, Deut. 28, 67. Se man ðe ætfleó fram his hláforde oððe fram his geféran for his yrhþe sý hit on scipfyrde sý hit on landfyrde þolige ealles ðæs ðe hé áge and his ágenes feores the man that flies from his lord, or from his comrade, from cowardice, be it on an expedition by sea or by land, let him lose all that he owns and his own life, L. C. S. 78; Th. i. 420, 8. Ðá héton hí secgan ðysses landes wæstmbǽrnysse and Brytta yrgþo nunciatum est simul et insulæ fertilitas, ac segnitia Brittonum, Bd. 1; 15; S. 483, 15. Þurh lyðre yrhþe Godes bydela ðe clumedon mid ceaflum ðǽr hí scoldon clipian through the vile sluggishness of God's messengers, who mumbled with their mouths when they should have cried aloud, Swt. A. S. Rdr. 111, 202. [Laym. Arður, ærhðe bideled, 23546 : O. and N. he for arehþe hit ne forlete, 404: O. H. Ger. argida hebitudo, ignavia.] v. earg.

irhþ. v. irgþ.

Iringes weg via secta, Wrt. Voc. ii. 123, 50. v. Grmm. D. M. 332.

Ír-land, es; n. Ireland :-- Ðrie Scottas cuómon tó Ælfréde cyninge of Ýrlande, Chr. 891; Erl. 88, 6, note. Tó Írlande, 918; Erl. 104, 15: 1051; Erl. 176, 18. Se preóst cwæþ ðæt án wer wǽre on Írlande gelǽred, Swt. A. S. Rdr. 101, 200. Hé férde geond eal Yrrland, Homl. Th. ii. 346, 28. v. Íra-land.

ir-líc; adj. Angry :-- Hé swíðe irlícum andwlitan beseah tó ðam iungan cnyhte he looked at the young man with a very angry countenance, Th. AP. 4, 6 : 5, 3.

irman; p. de To make miserable or wretched, to afflict, vex :-- Ðá ongunnan twá þeóda Pyhtas norþan and Scottas westan hí onwinnan and heora ǽhta niman and hergian and hí fela geára yrmdon and hýndon then began two peoples, the Picts from the north, the Scots from the west, to attack them, and to take their possessions, and to harry, and afflicted and vexed them many years; Brittania denique subito duabus gentibus transmarinis vehementer sævis, Scottorum a circio, Pictorum ab aquilone, multos stupet gemitque per annos, Bd. 1, 12; S. 480, 24. Hé hæfde him tó gamene hú hé eorþcyningas yrmde and cwelmde he [Nero] made it his sport, how he could vex and torment the kings of this earth, Bt. Met. Fox 9, 94; Met. 9, 47. Ic mæg sleán and ierman míne heáfodgemæccan I can beat and vex my companions, Past. 17, 8; Swt. 121, 12. [Cf. O. H. Ger. ki-ermit uuerdemes aporiamur, Grff. i. 423.] v. for-, ge-yrman.

irmen, yrmen; adj. A word occurring mostly as a prefix with the idea of greatness, universality. In the following passages it occurs independently :-- Faraþ geond ealne yrmenne grund go through the whole earth, Exon. 14 b; Th. 30, 18; Cri. 481. Ofer ealne yrmenne grund, 66 a; Th. 213, 14; Jul. 10. [O. Sax. irmin- : Icel. jörmun-, e. g. jörmungrund the earth. See Grmm. D. M. 104-7 : 325, sqq.] . v. eormen-.

irmen-þeóde; pl. The peoples of the earth :-- Bringeþ Agustus yrmen-þeódum hláfmæssan dæg August brings Lammas day to all the nations of earth, Menol. Fox 276; Men. 139. [Cf. O. Sax. ik allun skal irmin-thiodun dómós adélian I shall judge all the nations of the world, Hel. 3316.]

irming, es; m. A poor, mean, wretched, miserable person, a wretch :-- Ic eom ána forlǽten yrming unicus et pauper sum ego, Ps. Th. 24, 14. Ic eom yrming and þearfa ego egenus et pauper sum, 39, 20. Ðú eart ðé godes yrming as to thee, thou art God's pauper, Exon. 36 b; Th. 118, 22; Gú. 243. Betere is ðé ðæt ðé sceamige nú hér beforan mé ánum yrmingce ðonne eft beforan Gode on ðam mycelan dóme melius est tibi nunc hic coram me solo misero pudefieri, quam posthac coram Deo in magno judicio, L. Ecg. C. prm; Th, ii. 132, 20. Ðá ða iermingas ðe ðǽr tó láfe wurdon út of ðǽm holan crupon ðe heó on lutedan when the wretched people that remained crept out of the holes that they had lurked in, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 92, 29. Se ðe ǽnigne ðissa ierminga besuícþ qui scandalizaverit unum de pusillis istis, Past. 2, 2; Swt. 30, 17. Ðæt is sió friþstów and sió frófor án eallra yrminga æfter ðissum weoruldgeswincum that alone is the asylum and the comfort of all the wretched after these labours in the world, Bt. Met. Fox 21, 33; Met. 21, 17. [Makede him erming þer he was er king, O. E. Homl. 2, 62 : Þu erming þu wrecche gost, O. and N. 1111 : Agag þe king, þu ært an ærming, Laym. 16690 : Icel. armingi a poor fellow, a wretch : O. H. Ger. arming pauper.] v. earming-, erming.

irmþ, e; irmþu, irmþo; indecl. f. Poverty, penury, misery, wretchedness, calamity, distress, disorder :-- Yrmþ miseria, Ælfc. Gr. 33; Som. 37, 24. Nis ðǽr on ðam londe yldu ne yrmþu in that land there is not age or misery, Exon. 56 b; Th. 201, 6; Ph. 52 : 64 b; Th. 238, 34; Ph. 614. Him gewearþ yrmþu tó ealdre upon them [Adam and Eve] came misery for ever, 73 a; Th. 272, 24; Jul. 504; 119 a; Th. 457, 15; Hy. 4, 84. Ne biþ him hyra yrmþu án tó wíte ac ðara óðerra eád tó sorgum nor alone shall their own misery be torment, but the bliss of the others shall be a grief, 26 b; Th. 79, 19; Cri. 1293. For yrmþe unspédig[ra] propter miseriam inopum, Ps. Spl. 11, 5. Ðeós of hyre yrmþe eall ðæt heó hæfde sealde hæc de pænuria sua omnia quæ habuit misit, Mk. Skt. 12, 44. Ðonne sende hé him fultum þurh sumne déman ðe hí álísde of heora yrmþe then he sent them help by some judge, who released them from their misery, Ælfc. T. Grn. 6, 26. Wið ðæs migðan yrmþe for disorder of the urine, Herb. 163, 3; Lchdm. i. 292, 7. Ic ádreáh feala yrmþa ofer eorþan I suffered many miseries on earth, Andr. Kmbl. 1939; An. 972 : Exon. 26 b; Th. 78, 5; Cri.1269. Ic eom gefylled mid iermþum saturatus sum miseria, Past. 36, 5; Swt. 253, 8. Seðe hine fram swá monigum yrmþum and teónum generede qui se tot ac tantis calamitatibus ereptum, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 19. Ðæt hí ðám yrmþum á ne wiðstanden in miseriis non subsistent, Ps. Th. 139, 10. Gif hé ðære tíde yrmþo beswicode si temporis illius ærumnis exemptus, Bd. 2, 12; S. 512, 36. Ðus hí heora yrmþo árehton ita suas calamitates explicant, 1, 13; S. 481, 43. Ðisse worlde yrmþa the miseries of this world, Blickl. Homl. 61, 3. Yrmþo, 203, 20. Dreógan yrmþu bútan ende to suffer endless misery, Elen. Kmbl. 1902; El. 953. Ðú scealt écan ðíne yrmþu, Andr. Kmbl. 2767; An. 1386. Yrmþo, 2381; An. 1192. Ides yrmþe gemunde the woman remembered her misery, Beo. Th. 2523; B. 1259. Hé ða yrmþu oncyrde ðe wé ǽr drugon he averted the miseries that before we suffered, Exon. 16 b; Th. 38, 29; Cri. 614. [O. E. Homl. ermðe poverty : Laym. ærmðe misery : O. H. Ger. armida paupertas, inopia, penuria.] v. ermþu, earmþu, eormþu, weoruld-irmþu.

irnan; p. arn, pl. urnon; pp. urnen To run :-- Ic yrne cucurri, Ps. Spl. T. 118, 32. Seó eá Danai irnþ ðonan súþryhte the river Don runs thence due south, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 8, 17. Ǽspringe irneþ wið his eardes, Bt. Met. Fox 5, 29; Met. 5, 15. Hé arn him sylf tó his hrýðera falde ipse ad armentum cucurrit, Gen. 18, 7. Ðonne orn hé eft inn tó ðæm temple ad templum recurrit, Past. 16, 3; Swt. 103, 4. Ðú urne mid him simul currebas cum eo, Ps. Th. 49, 19. Ðá urnon him tógénes twegen ðe hæfdon deófolseócnesse occurrerunt eí duo habentes dæmonia, Mt. Kmbl. 8, 28. Gangende ðyder urnon, Mk. Skt. 6, 33 : Jn. Skt. 20, 4. Tó ðam ylcan ryne ðe hié ǽr urnon, Bt. 21; Fox 74, 12. Ðæt hí mǽgen iernan and fleón tó ðæs láreówes móde ut ad pastoris mentem recurrant, Past. 16. 4; Swt. 103, 22. Hé sceal yman forþ he must run forth, Exon. 128 b; Th. 494, 9; Rä. 82, 5. Seó [eá] is irnende of norþdǽle, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 8, 15. Ac hí forweorþan wætere gelícost ðonne hit yrnende eorþe forswelgeþ ad nihilum devenient, velut aqua decurrens, Ps. Th. 57, 6. Óþ ðæt wintra biþ þúsend urnen until a thousand years are passed, Exon. 61 a; Th. 223, 23; Ph. 364. DER. á-, be-, ge-, geond-, ofer-, on-, óþ-, tó-, þurh-, under-, up-, ymb-irnan. v. rinnan.

irnere. v. fore-irnere.

irre, es; n. Anger, wrath, ire, rage :-- Ðonne tyht hie ðæt ierre [Cott. MS. irre] ðæt hie wealwiaþ on ða wédenheortnesse ... Ðonne ðæt ierre æfþ anwald ðæs monnes hé self nát hwæt hé on ðæt irre déþ impellente ira in mentis vesaniam devolvuntur ... Quos cum furor agit in præceps, ignorant quidquid irati faciunt, Past. 40, 1; Swt. 289, 5-10. Godes yrre ys ofer hig egressa est ira a domino, Num. 18, 46. Nú is gefylled ðæt mycelle hátheort and ðæt mycelle yrre ðyses ealdermannes now is completed the great rage and anger of this ruler, Blickl. Homl.151, 11. Síe ǽlc monn lætt tó iorre iorra forðon weres sóþfæst godes ne giwyrcaþ sit omnis homo tardus ad iram; ira enim viri justitiam Dei non operator, Rtl. 28, 21 : 40, 35 : 41, 3. Seó gesceádwísnes sceal wealdan ǽgðer ge ðære wilnunga ge ðæs yrres reason must rule both desire and anger, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 9. Hé him weg worhte wráðan yrres viam fecit semitæ iræ suæ, Ps. Th. 77, 50. Ic bidde ðé, hláford, ðæt ic móte bútan yrre wið ðe sprecan oro, domine mi, loquatur servus tuus verbum in auribus tuis et ne irascaris, Gen. 44, 18. Wurdon mé on yrre yfele and hefige in ira molesti erant mihi, Ps. Th. 54, 3. Ðæt gé fleón fram ðam tówerdan yrre fugite a ventura ira, Lk. Skt. 3, 7. Ðá cwæþ se hláford mid yrre tunc iratus paterfamilias dixit, 14, 21. Mid miclum wylme and yrre onstyred nimio furore commotus, Bd. 1, 7; S. 471, 41. Ðá wæs hé mid yrre swíðlíce onstyred, Blickl. Homl. 199, 16. Ic ondréd his graman and his yrre timui indignationem et iram illius, Deut. 9, 19. Ágeót ofer hí ðín ðæt grame yrre effunde super eos iram tuam, Ps. Th. 68, 25. Ða hine on yrre gebringaþ qui in ira provocant, 65, 6. Ðé læs gé habban godes yrre ne super omnem coetum oriatur indignatio, Lev.10, 6. Hé gearwe wiste ðæt hie godes yrre habban sceoldon, Cd. 33; Th. 43, 24; Gen. 695: Exon. 61 b; Th. 226, 20; Ph. 408. Godes yrre bær the wrath of God was upon him, Beo. Th. 1427; B. 711. [Godess irre iss upponn himm, Orm. 18000 : O. E. Homl. A. R. eorre : Reliq. Antiq. urre.] v. eorre, and next word.

irre, yrre; adj. I. Gone astray, wandering, confused, perverse, depraved :-- Ðæt wæs earfoþcynn yrre and réðe genus pravum et peramarum, Ps. Th. 77, 10. Óþ ðæt his eáge biþ æfþancum ful yrre geworden until his eye is filled with evil thoughts and gone astray, Salm. Kmbl. 994; Sal. 498. Sumum méces ecg yrrum ealowósan ealdor óþþringeþ the edge of the sword crushes the life out of one, confused [or angry?] and mad with drink, Exon. 87 b; Th. 330, 10; Vy. 49. Ealle synt yrre ða ðe unwíse heora heortan hige healdaþ mid dysige turbati sunt omnes insipientes corde, Ps. Th. 75, 4. II. angry, enraged, wrathful, indignant :-- And ierre hé hwearf ðonan and he went away in a rage, Chr. 584; Erl, 18, 25. Iorra iratus, Rtl. 179, 36. Hwí eart ðú yrre quare iratus es? Gen. 4, 6. Se cyning wæs yrre wið mé, 41, 10. Hé wæs mé yrre, Deut. 1, 37. Ðá wearþ, yrre god and ðam werode wráþ, Cd. 2; Th. 3, 12; Gen. 34. Ne hine nǽnig man yrne ne grammódne ne funde nor did any man find him angry or cruel, Blickl. Homl. 223, 33. Þurh yrne hyge with anger, purpose, Exon. 16 b; Th. 36, 10; Cri. 620. Hé hine on yrre mód gebrohtan exacerbaverunt eum, Ps. Th. 77, 40. Ða irran [Cott. MS. ierran] nyton hwæt hie on him selfum habbaþ and eác ðætte wierse is ðætte hie ful oft wénaþ ðætte hiera hierre [Cott. MS. ierre] síe ryhtwíslíc anda ignorant quidquid a semetipsis patiuntur irati; nonnunquam vero, quod est gravius, iræ suæ stimulum justitiæ zelum putant, Past. 40, 1; Swt. 289, 10. Hie wǽron tó ðon hátheortlíce yrre ðæt hie woldan ðone cásere cwicenne forbærnan they were so furiously enraged, that they wanted to burn the emperor alive, Blickl. Homl. 191, 11. Yrre wǽron begen réðe angry were both and fierce, Beo. Th. 1543; B. 769. [Forð wende þe eorl ire [2nd MS. yr] on his mode, Laym. 18597 : Þe eorre Demare iratus Judex, A. R. 304, 24: Goth. airzis wisan or wairþan to go astray, err; airzei, airziþa error; airzjan to lead astray : O. Sax. irri angry; irrian to disturb, confuse : O. L. Ger. irrón errare, commovere : O. H. Ger. irri vagus, lascivus; irre sín errare; irra-heit error; irrado impedimentum : irran impedire, confundere; irrón errare, apostatare : Ger. irre confused, wandering; irren to err, go astray. Cf. irsian, and see Diefenbach i. 21 : Grff. i. 449 sqq.] v. eorre.

irre-mód; adj. Of angry mood, angry-minded :-- Eode yrremód, him of eágum stód líge gelícost leóht unfæger, Beo. Th. 1456; B. 726.

irre-weorc, es; n. A work undertaken in anger :-- Engla drihten wile uppe heonan sáwla lǽdan and wé seoððan á ðæs yrreweorces hénþo geþoliaþ the Lord of angels will up from hence lead souls, and we ever after shall suffer the humiliation of that angry feat [the harrowing of Hell], Cd. 222; Th. 289, 17; Sat. 399.

irringa, irrenga; adv. Angrily, in anger :-- Be ðæm ilcan hé cwæþ eft ierrenga hinc iterum iratus dicit, Past. 56, 7; Swt, 435, 11. Ðá tó evan god yrringa spræc, Cd. 43; Th. 56, 27; Gen. 918. Seó beó sceal losian ðonne heó hwæt yrringa stingþ the bee shall perish when she stings anything in anger, Bt. 31, 2; Fox 112, 26 : Bt. Met. Fox 18, 13; Met. 18, 7. Yrrenga, 26, 167; Met. 26, 84. Se brǽda sǽ of clomme bræc up yrringa on eorþan fæðm the broad sea from durance broke up angrily on to earth's bosom, Exon. 24 b; Th, 70, 31; Cri. 1147. Gé mec yrringa up gelǽddon ðæt ic of lyfte londa getimbru geseón meahte, 39 b; Th. 131, 13; Gú. 455, Hé yrringa slóh he angrily smote, Beo. Th. 3135; B. 1565 : 5921; B. 2964. v. eorringa.

ir-scipe, es; m. Anger :-- Æfter mycelnes[se] his irscipes secundum multitudinem iræ suæ, Ps. Lamb. second 9, 4.

irsian; p. ode. I. to be angry, to rage :-- Hú lange yrsast ðú on ðínes esnes gebed quousque irasceris in orationem servi tui, Ps. Th. 79, 5. Synfull yrsaþ peccator irascetur, 111, 9. Ðonne ús ðara manna mód yrsade and ús wiðerwearde wǽron cum irasceretur animus eorum adversum nos, 123, 3. Swá him yrsade se for ealle spræc feónda mengu so did he, who spake for all the multitude of fiends, rage against him [Guthlac], Exon. 35 a; Th. 114, 11 : Gú. 171. Moises ðá yrsode and áxode iratusque Moyses ait, Num. 31, 14. His gebróðru yrsodon swíðe wið hine invidebant ei fratres sui, Gen. 37, 11. Ne yrsa ðú wið mé, Nar. 43, 7. Yrsiaþ irascimini, Ps. Lamb. 4, 5. Ic bidde ðæt ðú ne yrsie obsecro ne irascaris, Gen. 18, 32. Yrre is ðære sáwle forgifen tó ðý ðæt heó yrsige ongeán leahtres anger is given to the soul that it may be angry against vice, Homl. Skt. 1, 104. Ðæt ðe hió mid ryhte irsian sceall that with which rightly it must be angry, Past. 40, 4; Swt. 293. 13. Ðǽr ðǽr ðú neóde irsian scyle gemetiga ðæt ðeáh in case you needs must be angry, still be moderate, Prov. Kmbl. 24. Úþwitan secgaþ ðæt sió sáwul hæbbe þrió gecynd án is ðæt heo biþ wilnigende óðer ðæt hió biþ irsiende þridde ðæt hió hió gesceádwís philosophers say that the soul hath three natures, one is that it desires, the second that it is angry, the third that it is rational, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 4. Ðæt irsigende mód hé gegremeþ and wierse ierre [Cott. MS. irre] hé ástyreþ irati animus ad deteriora provocatur, Past. 10, 3; Swt. 63, 13. Hwæthwugu biþ betweoh ðǽm irsiendan and ðǽm ungeþyldgan . . . ða iersigendan him tó getióþ ðæt ðætte hie eáþe bútan bión meahton in hoc ab impatientibus iracundi differunt . . . isti, quæ tolerentur, important, 40, 4; Swt. 293, 15. Ða Iudéiscan yrsigende cwǽdon tó Criste the Jews being angry said to Christ, Homl. Th. ii. 236, 4. II. to make angry, to anger, provoke :-- Hí yrsodon moyses irritaverunt Moysen, Ps. Spl. 105, 16.

irsigend-líc; adj. Capable of anger :-- Úþwytan secgaþ ðæt ðære sáwle gecynd is þrýfeald. Án dǽl is on hire gewylnigendlíc óðer yrsigendlíc þrydde gesceádwíslíc philosophers say that the nature of the soul is threefold. There is one part in her capable of desire; a second capable of anger, a third is rational [cf. Bt. 33. 4; Fox 132, 4], Homl. Skt. 1, 97.

irsung, e; f. Anger, readiness to anger, irascibility :-- Twá ðara gecyndu habbaþ nétenu swá same swá men óðer ðara is wilnung óðor is irsung two of those natures beasts have the same as men, one of them is desire, the other is anger, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 132, 6. Yrsung, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 371; Met. 20, 185. Oft ungemetlícu irsung biþ gelícet ðæt monn wénaþ ðæt hit síe ryhtwíslíc anda sæpe effrenata ira spiritalis zeli virtus æstimatur, Past. 20, 1; Swt. 149, 11. Sió gesceádwísnes sceal on gehwelcum waldan semle irsunge [cf. wealdan ðæs yrres, Fox 132, 10], Bt. Met. Fox 20, 397; Met. 20, 199. Of irsunge wyxt seófung and of ðære geþwǽrnesse lufu from anger grows sighing, and from gentleness love, Prov. Kmbl. 23. Gé yldran ne sceolan gé eówru bearn tó yrsunge geciegean ye parents, ye shall not provoke your children to anger, L. E. I. 33; Th. ii. 430, 39. Hé hyne sceal forhabban wyð yrsunga he shall restrain himself from anger, Lchdm. iii. 140, 27. Ac ða irsunga [Cott. MS. iersunga] sindun swíðe ungelíca óðer biþ swelce hit síe irres anlícnes ... óðer biþ ðæt ierre ðæt mon síe gedréfed on his móde bútan ǽlcre ryhtwísnesse óðer ðara irsunga biþ tó ungemetlíce átyht on ðæt ðe hió mid ryhte irsian sceall óðer on ðæt hió ne sceal biþ ealneg tó swíðe onbærned sed longe alia est ira, quæ sub æmulationis specie subripit, alia, quæ turbatum car et sine justitia prætexta confundit. Illa enim in hoc, quod debet, inordinate extenditur; hæc autem semper in his, quæ non debet, inflammatur, Past. 40, 4; Swt. 293, 9-14.

irþ, e; f. I. ploughing, tilling :-- For yrþe for ploughing; ad arandum, L. R. S. 21; Th. i. 440, 27. II. the produce of arable land, a crop :-- Ðæt ðæs wæstmes yrþ ðǽr má upyrnende wǽre. Ðá him ðá ðæt sǽd broht wæs ofer ealle tíd tó sáwenne and ofer eallne hiht wæstm tó beranne ðe hé on ðam ylcan land seów ðá georn ðǽr sóna upp genihtsumlíc yrþ and wæstm ut illius frugis ibi potius seges oriretur. Quod dum sibi adlatum, ultra omne tempus serendi, ultra omnem spem fructificandi, eodem in agro sereret; mox copiosa seges exorta est, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 38-602, 1. Ic sello ðás land mid cwice erfe and mid earþe and mid eallum þingum ðe tó londum belimpaþ I give these lands with the live stock, and crops and all things that belong to the lands, Chart. Th. 481, 3. Rípe yrþe maturam segetem, Bd. 1, 12; S. 480, 35, note. III. ploughed land :-- Cf. on ða foryrþe eástewerde, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 449, 32 where Kemble translates foryrþ 'the land which is first ploughed,' xlii. [On erthes aracionibus, Pall. 4, 68 : Scott. earth the act of earing or ploughing.] v.gærs-, gafol-, lencten-yrþ; and erian.

irþ-land, es; n. Arable land :-- Ierþland arva, Wrt. Voc. 285, 6. Yrþland arva, 289, 77. Ðanon up andlang yrþlandes, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 23, 31. Ic áwéste ðínne buruh and gewyrce tó yrþlande I will lay waste thy city and make it into ploughed land, Homl. Skt. 3, 224. Ðonne is ðes londes ðe ic hígum selle xvi gioc ærþelandes and médwe now of the land that I give to the convent there are sixteen acres of arable land and meadow, Chart. Th. 477, 26.

irþling, es; m. I. a husbandman, farmer, ploughman :-- Yrþlingc arator, Wrt. Voc. 73. 34: Ælfc. Gr. 41; Som. 44, 8. Noe ðá yrþling began tó wircenne ðæt land coepitque Noe vir agricola exercere terram, Gen. 9, 20. Móna se twentigoþa cild ácenned yrplincg a child born on the twentieth day of the moon will be a husbandman, Lchdm. iii. 194, 6. Hwæt sægest ðú Yrþlingc quid dicis in, Arator? Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 11. Hwilce ðé geþuht betwux woroldcræftas heoldan ealdordóm? Eorþtilþ forðam se yrþling ús ealle fétt qualis tibi videtur inter seculares artes retinere primatum? Agricultura, quia arator nos omnes pascit, 30, 23-8. Sume synt yrþlincgas sume scéphyrdas sume oxanhyrdas alii sunt aratores, alii opiliones, quidam bubulci, 19, 3. Laboratores sind yrþlingas and ǽhtemen, tó ðam ánum betǽhte, ðe hig ús bigleofan tiliaþ, Ælfc. T. Grn. 20, 19. II. the name of a bird, a cuckoo [?] :-- Irþling cucuzata, Wrt. Voc. 281, 14 : birbicariolus, 281, 22. Ærþling tanticus, 29, 63. Geác cuculus, eorþling birbicaliolus, 63, 3-4. Yrþling berbigarulus vel tanticus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 12, 60. Erdling bitorius, 102, 1. Erþling enistrius, 143, 57. In connection with the cuckoo it may be noticed that cucusare is given in DuCange as the verb properly used of the note of the cuckoo; and see Grmm. D. M. 640, sqq. on the cuckoo as associated with a particular season of the year. However, in Wrt. Voc. 62, 22 the lapwing is glossed by cucurata.

is is. v. eom.

ÍS, es; n. I. ICE :-- Ís glacies, Ælfc. Gl. 94; Som. 75, 103; Wrt. Voc. 52, 53. Hwí ne wundriaþ hí hwí ðæt ís weorþe why do not they wonder why ice comes? Bt. 39, 3; Fox 214, 35. Ofer eástreámas ís brycgade the ice formed a bridge over the streams, Andr. Kmbl. 2524; An. 1268 : Exon. 90 a; Th. 338, 4; Gn. Ex. 73. Íses gicel stiria, stillicidia, Ælfc. Gl. 16; Som, 58, 68; Wrt. Voc. 21, 55. Hit eal gemealt íse gelícost it all melted just like ice, Beo. Th. 3221; B. 1608. Ðá eode hé sumre nihte on íse unwærlíce dum incautius forte noctu in glacie incederet, Bd. 3, 2; S. 525, 1. Styccum healfbrocenra ísa semifractarum crustis glacierum, 5, 12; S. 631, 26. II. the name of the Rune Runic-Is = i :-- Runic-Is byþ oferceald ungemetum slidor ice is exceedingly cold and excessively slippery, Runic pm. 11; Kmbl. 341, 14. [O.Frs. O. H. Ger. ís; n : Icel. íss; m : Ger. eis; n.]

-isc, modern -ish, a suffix of adjectives, connoting the quality of the object denoted by the stem, e.g. ceorl-isc churl-ish, cild-isc child-ish; also connotes origin from a place or stock, e. g. Engl-isc, Gréc-isc, Iudé-isc. The suffix may be seen in the cognate dialects in the following words, Goth. Þiud-isk-o after the manner of the Gentiles; Iudaiw-isk-s : O. Sax. menn-isk human : O.Frs. mann-isk : Icel. bern-sk-r childish; En-sk-r English : Dan. Engel-sk English : O.H. Ger. diut-isc : Ger. deut-sch.

ís-ceald; adj. Ice-cold :-- Ísceald sǽ, Exon. 81 b; Th. 306, 28; Seef. 14: 307. 5; Seef. 19: Bt. Met. Fox 27, 6; Met. 27, 3.

isen, iesen, iesend. v. Lchdm. iii. 361, col. 2; and gesen in the appendix.

ÍSEN, es; n. Iron, steel, an implement made of iron :-- Ísen ferrum, Wrt. Voc. 85, 13 : Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 58. Ðis ýsen hic calibs, 9; Som. 13, 18. Eorþe swilce ísen terra ferrea, Deut. 28, 23. Ðá wæs se ofen onhǽted ísen eall þurhgléded then was the furnace heated, the iron made red hot, Cd. 186; Th. 231, 8; Dan. 244. Ísenes scearpnyss acumen, Ælfc. Gr. 9; Som. 9, 31. Gemeng tógædere mid glówende ísene mix together with a glowing iron, L. M. 2, 24; Lchdm. ii. 216, 1. Ne delfe nán man ða moran mid ísene let no man dig up the roots with iron, Lchdm. iii. 30, 24. Bútan ǽlcan ísene genumen gathered without using any iron implement, Lchdm. iii. 4, 29 [cf. Grmm. D. M. 1148, sqq. as to the use of iron in getting plants]. The two following passages refer to the ordeal [v. ísen-ordál] by hot iron :-- Gif hé hine ládian wille ðonne gá hé tó ðam hátum ísene and ládige ða hand mid ðe man týhþ if he be willing to clear himself, then let him go to the hot iron, and clear the hand therewith that is accused, L. Ath. i. 14; Th. 206, 23. Ǽlc tiónd áge geweald swá hwæðer hé wille swá wæter swá ísen, L. Eth. iii. 6; Th. i. 296, 4. Ácele ðú wealhát ísen ðonne hit furþum síe of fýre átogen cool very hot iron when it is just drawn from the fire, L. M. 2, 45; Lchdm. ii. 256, 15. [Ayenb. izen (but the general form in middle English is that with r) : O. H. Ger. ísen : Ger. eisen,] v. íren, ísern; brand-, delf-, gád-, ordál-ísen.

ísen; adj. Iron, made of iron :-- Ísen ferreus, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 4, 58. Seó gyrd wæs eal ísen the rod was all iron, Homl. Th. ii. 312, 17. Hig hyne on ánum ýsenum scrýne gebrohton on ðære byrig Damascus they brought him in an iron chest to the city of Damascus, St. And. 38, 8. Drihten sett ísen geoc on eówerne swuran dominus ponet jugum ferreum super cervicem tuam, Deut. 28, 48. Ísene bendas vincula ferrea, Ps. Th. 149, 8. Ádrífan ísene næglas þurh ða handa, Homl. Th. i. 146, 11. Ðá wurdon hrædlíce forþ áborene ísene clútas and ísene clawa and ísen bedd ... Decius cwæþ 'Lecgaþ ða ísenan clútas háte glówende tó his sídan,' 424, 18-35. v. íren, isern.

ísen-grǽg; adj. Iron-grey :-- Ísengrǽg ferrugo, i. color purpuræ subnigræ:ísengrǽgum blóstme ferrugineo flore vel purpureo, Wrt. Voc. ii. 147, 63-67. Ða ísengrǽgan ferrugineas, 38, 44, [Icel. járn-grár : Ger. eisen-grau.]

ísen-hearde, an; f. Ironhard; centaurea nigra, Lchdm. iii. 4, 28 : 22, 31 : 334, col. 2. See Plant Names in E. D. S. Pub. iren-harde, iron-heads, iron-weed.

ísen-hyrst; adj. Fitted with iron :-- Ǽrest of ísenhyrste gate ... eft in on ísenhyrsten geat first, from the gate fitted up with iron ... back to the same gate, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 130, 27 ... 131, 19. [Cf. Icel. járnsleginn mounted with iron.]

ísenian; p. ode. To furnish or cover with iron (armour): Ða ísnodan truman ferratas acies, Wrt. Voc. ii. 147, 52.

ísen-ordál, es; n. The ordeal by hot iron, in which the accused who wished to clear himself had to bear, on the naked hand, a piece of red hot iron. The passages from which the following extracts are taken will illustrate this mode of trial :-- Gif hit sý ýsenordál beón þreó niht ǽr man ða hand undó if it be the ordeal by hot iron, let it be three days before the hand be undone, L. Ath. i. 23; Th. i. 212, 3. Wé cwǽdon . . . ðæt man . . . myclade ðæt ordálýsen ðæt hit gewege þrý pund . . . and hæbbe se teónd cyre swá wæterordál swá ýsenordál swá hwæðer him leófre sý we have ordained that the ordeal-iron be increased so that it weigh three pounds . . . and let the accuser have the choice of ordeal by water or by iron, whichever he prefer, iv. 6; Th. i. 224, 12-16. See too, Dóm be hátan ísene, 7; Th. i. 226, 7, sqq; and Schmid A. S. Gesetz. p. 419. [Cf. Icel. bera járn, járn-burðr in Cl. and Vig. Dict. and see Grmm. R. A. 915, sqq.] v. ordál.

ísen-panna, -panne, an; m. f. A fryinig-pan :-- Ísenpanna sartago, Wrt. Voc. 82, 68. Ísenpanne, Ælfc. Gl. 26; Som. 60, 94; Wrt. Voc. 25, 34. See other compounds of íren, ísen, ísern.

ísen-smiþ, es; m. An iron-smith, worker in iron, blacksmith :-- Tubalcain wæs égðer ge goldsmiþ ge ísensmiþ Tubalcain fuit malleator et faber in cuncta opera æris et ferri, Gen. 4, 22. Ic hæbbe smiþas ísen[e]smiþas goldsmiþ seolforsmiþ ársmiþ habeo fabros, ferrarios, aurificem, argentarium, ærarium, Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 35. [Cf. Wick. iren-smiþ : Icel. járn-smiðr a blacksmith : O. H. Ger. ísarn-smid faber ferrarius : Ger. eisen-schmied.] v. ísen-, isern-wyrhta.

ísen-swát, es; m. [?] :-- Smít on ísenswát, L. M. 2, 65; Lchdm. ii. 296, 18. See iii. 366, col. 1.

ísen-tanga, an; m. A pair of snuffers :-- Candel candela; ísentanga munctorium, Wrt. Voc. 81, 34-5. v. tang, tange.

ísen-wyrhta, an; m. A worker in iron, blacksmith :-- Ísenwyrhta ferrarius, Wrt. Voc. 73, 28. v. ísen-smiþ, ísern-wyrhta.

ísern, es; n. Iron, an instrument or weapon made of iron :-- Sweord sceal on bearme drihtlíc ísern the sword shall lie in the lap, the noble steel, Menol. Fox 511; Gn. C. 26. Oft mec ísern scód sáre on sídan oft has iron harmed me sorely in the side, Exon. 126 a; Th. 485, 14; Rä. 71, 13 : 130 a; Th. 499, 5; Rä. 88, 11. Áres and ísernes æris, ferri, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 23 : Cd. 52; Th. 66, 23; Gen. 1088. Ísernes dǽl, Exon. 114 b; Th. 439. 25: Rä. 59, 9. Wið slege ísernes oððe stenges for a blow from iron [sword] or stick, Herb. 32, 8; Lchdm. i. 132, 4. Wið wunda som hý sýn of íserne som hý sýn of stenge, 63, 3; Lchdm. i. 166, 9. Achilles mid ðysse sylfan wyrte (yarrow) gehǽlde ða ðe mid íserne geslegene and gewundude wǽran, 90, 1; Lchdm. i. 194, 8. Ðú swyltst nalles mid íserne ácweald swá ðú wénst ac mid átre morieris, non ferro quod suspicaris, sed veneno, Nar. 31, 27. Gebundene on íserne ligatos in ferro, Ps. Th. 106, 9. Íserne wund, Exon. 102 b; Th. 388, 2; Rä. 6, 1. Þurh ðæt ísern ðæt mægen ðara þreátunga is getácnod per ferrum increpationis fortitudo signatur, Past. 21, 6; Swt. 163, 24. Se lǽce hýd his ísern wið ðone moon ðe hé sníðan wile the surgeon hides his knife from the man he wants to cut, 26, 3; Swt. 185. 25. [Goth. eisarn iron, an iron fetter : O. Sax. ísarn : O. L. Ger. ísarn chalybs : O. Frs. ísern : Icel. ísarn (occurs five times in old poetry; the usual form is járn) : O. H. Ger. ísarn.] v. íren, ísen; hóc-, leóht-, mearc-, stemping-ísern.

ísern; adj. Iron, made of iron :-- Hé him tǽhte ðæt hé him genáme áne íserne hearstepannan and sette betweoh hine and ða burg for íserne weall et tu sume tibi sartaginem ferream, et pones eum murum ferreum inter te et inter civitatem, Past. 21, 5; Swt. 161, 7 : Cd. 186; Th. 231, 16; Dan. 248. Íserne steng vectes ferreos, Ps. Th. 106, 15. Hét gebindan beám ðone miclan ǽrenum clammum and ísernum he bade bind that great tree with brazen bands and with iron, Cd. 200; Th. 248, 29; Dan. 520. [Goth. eisarneins : O. L. Ger. O.H. Ger. ísarnin : Ger. eisern.] v. íren, ísen.

ísern-byrne, an; f. An iron byrnie or corslet :-- Hé him of dyde ísernbyrnan, Beo. Th. 1347; B. 671. v. íren-byrne.

ísern-gelóman. v. gelóman.

ísern-here, es; m. An iron-clad host :-- Ísernhergum án wísode, Cd. 160; Th. 199, 33; Exod. 348.

ísern-wyrhta, an; m. A worker in iron, a blacksmith; ferrarius, Ælfc. Gl. 2; Som. 55, 46; Wrt. Voc. 16, 18. v ísen-wyrhta.

ís-gebind, es; n. A bond of ice :-- Winter ýðe beleác ísgebinde winter locked up the wave with icy bond, Beo. Th. 2270; B. 1133.

ís-geblǽd, es; m. [?] A blister that is produced by ice :-- Wið ýsgeblæd Lchdm. iii. 36, 22.

ís-gicel v. gicel.

ísig; adj. Icy, covered with ice :-- Ðǽr stód hringedstefna ísig and útfús, Beo. Th. 65; B. 33. v. eall-ísig.

ísig-feðera; adj. Having ice on the wings :-- Stearn ísigfeðera, Exon. 81 b; Th. 307, 15; Seef. 24.

í-síðes; adv. At that time, at once, directly :-- Man ísíðes sóna ðǽræfter swytelaþ it is immediately thereafter manifested, L. I. P. 24; Th. ii. 338, 11. [Cf. í-dæges.]

Ismahéli; pl. m. Ishmaelites, Bedouins :-- Ðá þiccodan ðider semninga ða ismahéli on horsum and on olfendum then crowded thither on a sudden the Bedouins, on horses and camels, Shrn. 38, 4.

Ismahélitas; pl. m. Ishmaelites :-- Ismæhélita, Ismahelitum, Ps. Th. 82, 6. Ysmahélitum Ismaelitis, Gen. 37, 28.

Ismahélitisc; adj. Ishmaelite :-- Æt ðám Ismahélitiscum mannum de manu Ismaelitarum, Gen. 39, 1.

ís-mere, es; m. A mere covered with ice :-- Scíneþ sunne sóna ísmere weorþeþ tó wætre the sun shines, at once the icy lake turns to water, Bt. Met. Fox 28, 123; Met. 28, 62.

Ispania Spain; Hispania, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24, 1, 7. 9.

-isse. This suffix, Lat. -issa, which in later English became the common suffix to mark the feminine gender, is found before the Norman Conquest in the word abbud-isse abbess. [Cf. -estre.]

Ístas; pl. m. The Esthonians :-- Ic wæs mid Ístum, Exon. 86 a; Th. 323, 31; Víd. 87. [Icel. Eistir.] v. Éste; and see Grmm. Gesch. D. S. 499, sqq.

istoria history :-- Istoriam Indéa ríces, Salm. Kmbl. 7; Sal. 4.

-istre. v. -estre.

Italie, a; pl. The Italians or Italy :-- Pencentes Italia folc, Ors. 4, 2; Swt. 160, 27. Pirrus fór of Italium (ab Italia), 4, 1; Swt.158, 30 : 154, 32.

íð, iéð, ýð; adv. compve. More easily :-- Ðæt hie hiera godum ðé iéð blótan mehten that they might the more easily sacrifice to their gods, Ors. 2, 2; Swt. 64, 29. Hwá meahte iéð monnum rǽdan bútan scylde ðonne se ðe hí gescóp quis principari hominibus tam sine culpa, quam is, qui hos nimirum regeret, quos ipse creaverat? Past. 3. 1; Swt. 33, 16. Ðý ýþ, Exon. 120 b; Th. 463, 6; Hö. 66. v. eáðe, éð.

íðan; p. de To lay waste, desolate, destroy :-- Ic ýðde eotena cyn and on ýðum slóg niceras nihtes, Beo. Th. 846; B. 421. Ýðde ðisne eardgeard ælda scyppend the creator of men laid waste this world, Exon. 77 b; Th. 291, 20; Wand. 85. Ýðan, 126 a; Th. 484, 13; Rä. 70, 7. Íðende depopulis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 27, 27. [Icel. eyða to lay waste, destroy, waste desolate : O. H. Ger. ódian desolare, Grff. i. 150 : Ger. ver-öden.] v. á-íðan.

íðast, íðost; adv. superl. Most easily :-- Ýðast meahtan frófre findan might find comfort most easily, Exon. 19 b; Th. 50, 15; Cri. 800. Ýðæst, 26 b; Th. 79, 1; Cri. 1284. Ýðost, Hy. 7, 3; Hy Grn. 287, 3. v. íð.

íð-belig; adj. Easily made angry :-- Ne wé tó ýðbelige [eáðbylige, MS. D.] ne sýn, ne tó langsum yrre hæbben, Wulfst. 253, 11.

íð-dǽde; adj. Easy to do :-- Hit wæs Gode ýðdǽde, ðá hé hit swá gedón habban wolde, Wulfst. 15, 18. v. eáð-dǽde.

íðe; adj. Easy, pleasant :-- Nó ðæt ýðe byþ tó befleónne that is not easy to flee from, Beo. Th. 2009; B. 1002 : 4822; B. 2415. On his heortan hé Gode þancie ealles ðæs ðe hé him forgeaf ǽgðer ge ýðran ge unýðran in his heart let him thank God for all that he has given him, both pleasant and unpleasant, L. E. I. 29; Th. ii. 426, 11. Ús ðis se æðeling ýðre gefremede this the prince has made easier for us, Exon. 17 a; Th. 39, 25; Cri. 627. v. eáðe, éðe, un-íðe.

íðe-líce; adv. Easily :-- Iéðelíce and scortlíce ic hæbbe nú gesǽd hiora ingewinn without making the account difficult or long I have now related their intestine struggle, Ors. 2, 6; Swt. 88, 28. Iéðelíce forneáh búton ǽlcon gewinne easily, almost without any struggle, 3, 7; Swt. 112, 28. Ýðelíce, Beo. Th. 3116; B. 1556. Forðæm se lytega feónd swá micle iéðelícor ðæt mód gewundaþ swá hé hit ongiet nacodre ðare byrnan wær-scipes quia hostis callidus tanto liberius pectus percutit, quanto nudum a providentiæ lorica deprehendit, Past. 56, 1; Swt. 431, 10. v. eáðe, éðelíce, un-íðelíce.

íð-fynde; adj. Easy to find :-- Ýðfynde, Andr. Kmbl. 3092; An. 1549. v. eáð-, éð-fynde.

íð-gesýne; adj. Easy to see :-- Ýðgesýne, Beo. Th. 2493; B. 1244. v. éð-gesýne.

íð-ness, e; f. Easiness, freedom, ease, sati faction, delight :-- Hwelce íðnesse hæfþ God æt úrum wítum neque Deus nostris cruciatibus pascitur, Past. 54, 5; Swt. 425, 11. v. un-íðness, éðness.

. v. geó.

iuc, ioc a yoke; jugum, Wrt. Voc. 284, 54 : ii. 46, 37 : juger, 38. Ioc jugum, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 58; Wrt. Voc. 16, 30 : Ps. Spl. C. 2, 3 : Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 11, 29, 30 : Rtl. 108, 21. [These examples should be given under geoc.] v. geoc.

iuc-boga, an; m. The bow or curved part of a yoke :-- Iucboga jujula [among things connected with vehicles], Wrt. Voc. 284, 50 : jugula, ii. 46, 36.

iucian; p. ode To join, yoke :-- Ic iucige jungo, Ælfc. Gr. 28; Som. 31, 53. v. ge-iukod.

iuc-sticca, an; m. The bar of a yoke :-- Ioc-sticca obicula, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 61; Wrt. Voc. 16, 33. (Cf. O. H. Ger. iuh-rota pertica, Grff. ii. 491.]

iuc-téma, an; m. An animal yoked with another :-- Ioctéma jugalis, Ælfc. Gl. 3; Som. 55, 59; Wrt. Voc. 16, 31. [cf. ge-týme.]

Iudan burh Jedburgh, Chr. 952; Erl. 118, 26.

iú-dǽd, e; f. A deed done of old or formerly :-- Gú-dǽda, Exon. 64 a; Th. 235, 12; Ph. 556. Iúdǽdum, 76 a; Th. 284, 26; Jul. 703 : Cd. 217; Th. 276, 10; Sat. 186.

Iudéa Judea :-- Fram Iudéa de Judæa, Mt. Kmbl. 4, 25. On ðam wéstene Judéæ in deserto Judææ, 3, 1.

Iudéas; gen. a; pl. m. The Jews; Judæi, Jn. Skt. 2, 20. Eal Iudéa þeód omnis Iudæa Mt. Kmbl. 3. 5. Betwux ðám Iudéum, Jn. Skt.10, 19.

Iudéisc; adj. Jewish :-- Ðá stód án Iudéisc wer, ðæs nama wæs Nichodemus, Nicod. 11; Thw. 5, 38 : Jn. Skt. 18, 35. Crist cwæþ be ðám ungeleáffullum Iudéiscum wá eów Christ said of the unbelieving Jews 'Woe to you,' Ælfc. Gr. 48; Som. 49, 5.

iú-geára; adv. Formerly :-- Breoton wæs iúgeára Albion háten Brittania cui quondam Albion nomen fuit, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 8. v. geó-geára.

iugian to join, yoke :-- Ic iugie hí tó syl jungo eos ad aratrum, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 15. v. iucian.

iúgoþ youth, young people, Jos. 5, 5 : Homl. ii. 506, 21: Homl. Skt. 6, 2. v. geógoþ.

Iúla, an; m. December or January :-- Mónaþ Decembris, ǽrra Iúla, Menol. Fox 439; Men. 221. v. Geóla.

iú-leán, es; n. A reward for something done long ago :-- Iúleán ðæs ðe hine of nearwum Widia út forlét a reward, because in time past Widia released him from straits, Wald. 2, 7.

iú-mann, es; m. A man of old, of a former time :-- Iúmonna gold, Beo. Th. 6096; B. 3052. v. gió-mann.

iú-meówle, an; f. One who was a maiden long ago, an old woman :-- Ió-meówlan, Beo. Th. 5854; B. 2931.

iung; adj. Young :-- Sum iung man, Th. Ap. 3, 23 : 4, 7 : Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 27 : Ælfc. Gl. 45; Som. 64, 106; Wrt. Voc. 32, 41 : 64, 93; Wrt. Voc. 32, 28. v. geong.

iung-líc; adj. Youthful :-- Iunglícre ylde, Ælfc. T. Grn. 16, 40. v. geong-líc.

iung-ling, es; m. A youth :-- Iunglingc juvenis, Wrt. Voc. 73, 19: Gen. 4, 23. Sum iungling him fyligde adulescens quidam sequebatur eum, Mk. Skt. 14, 51 : Homl. Th. ii. 312, 16. v. geong-ling.

Iútan, Iútas. v. Iótas.

iú-wine, es; m. A friend of old or former times :-- Wát his iúwine eorþan forgiefene knows that his friends of old are committed to earth, Exon. 82 b; Th. 311, 15; Seef. 92.

ÍW, es; m. Yew :-- Íw taxus, Ælfc. Gl. 46; Som. 64, 131; Wrt. Voc. 32, 65 : Wrt. Voc. 79. 74 : 285, 49. Se hearda íw, Exon. 114 a; Th. 437, 18; Rä. 56, 9. On ðone ealde íw ðonan of ðon íwe to the old yew; thence from the yew, Cod. Dipl. Kmbl. iii. 218, 35. In proper names, vi. 306, col. 2; 307, col. 1. [Chauc. ew : Icel. ýr a yew, a bow : O. H. Ger. íwa taxus : Ger. eibe.] v. eow.

íwan; p. de To show, bring before the eyes, display, reveal :-- Ýweþ and yppeþ shews and reveals, Salm. Kmbl. 985; Sal. 494. Ðá ýwde hé ðǽr synne wisan culpam esse demonstravit, Bd. 1, 27; S. 496, 2. Ðá ýwde ic him sóna ða ylcan bóc ðara reogola quibus statim protuli eundem librum canonum, 4, 5; S. 572, 25. Mid his sylfes dǽde ýwde and cýdde propria actione præmonstraret, 4, 27; S. 604, 40. Ýwaþ mé ánne peninc ostendite mihi denarium, Lk. Skt. 20, 24. Wénþ gif hé hit him iéwe ðæt hé him nylle geþafigean ðæt hé hine sníðe he expects, if he show it [the knife] to him, that he will not allow him to cut him, Past. 26, 3; Swt. 185, 25. Ðíne miltse ýwe show thy mercy, Exon. 11 b; Th. 15, 32; Cri. 245. Ðæt land ðe ic ðé ýwan wille the land that I will show thee, Cd. 83; Th. 105, 11; Gen. 1751. Ord and ende ðæs ðe him ýwed wæs the beginning and end of what was revealed to him, 180; Th. 225, 31; Dan. 162. DER. æt-, ge-, óþ-íwan [-ýwan]; and see eáwan, eówan.