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An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary

by Bosworth and Toller

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N

N, like m (q. v.), in Anglo-Saxon generally corresponds to n in Gothic and in other cognate dialects, e. g. net, hand, án; Goth. nati, handus, ains; O. H. Ger. nezzi, hant, ein; O. Sax. net, hand, én; but, like m, it falls away before ð and s, and the vowel which preceded the n is lengthened, e. g. cúð, tóð, óðer, múð, húsel, est; Goth. kunþs, tunþus, anþar, munþs, hunsl, ansts; O. H. Ger. chund, zand, andar, mund, anst; O. Sax. kúð, tand, óðar, múð, anst. If, however, n and s come together by the loss of an intervening vowel the n remains, e. g. winstre; O. H. Ger. O. Sax. winistar. The character which appears in the Runic poem is Runic-Nyd, and the verse, in which the name (cf. Icel. nauð) is given, is the following :--

Nýd byþ nearu on breósteoft tó helpe
niða bearnum,and tó hǽle gehwæðre
weorðeþ heó ðeáhgif hí his hlystaþ ǽror.
Runic pm. Kmbl. 341, 8-13.

ná, nó; adv. No, not; non. I. qualifying a verb expressed or implied, (a) without any other negative particle :-- Ná cunne nesciat, Wülck. Gl. 257, 28. Fela gódra háma ðe wé genemnan ná cunnan, Chr. 1001; Erl. 136, 29. Fremde ná heom God setton on gesyhþe, Ps. Th. 53, 3. Ná ðú andwlitan ðínne áwend fram mé, 101, 2. Swá sceal man dón, ðonne hé gegán þenceþ longsumne lof, ná ymb his líf cearaþ, Beo. Th. 3077; B. 1536. Ealle hí scínaþ, ná hwæðre ðeáh ealle efenbeorhte, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 460; Met. 20, 230. Gewíte ðes calic fram mé, ðeáh-hwæðere ná swá swá ic wylle, Mt. Kmbl. 26, 39. Ða habbaþ twegen casus and ná má on gewunan, Ælfc. Gr. 14; Som. 17, 3. Ðæt is se éþel ðe nó geendad weorþeþ, Exon. Th. 100, 12; Cri. 1640. Ic gelýfe nó ðæt him eorþwelan éce stondeþ, 309, 33; Seef. 66. Nó ðæt ðín aldor wolde Godes goldfatu in gylp beran, ne ðý hraðor hrémde ... ac ðæt oftor gecwæþ . . . ðæt hé wǽre ána Drihten, Cd. Th. 263. 34; Dan. 754. Nó seoððan ðæt hí mósten in ðone écan andwlítan, 288, 8; Sat. 377 : 304, 23; Sat. 634. (b) with other negatives :-- Hyt ná ne feóll non cecidit, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 25. Ne eom ic ná Crist, Jn. Skt. 1, 20. Ráde ðe mon ná ne rímde, Chr. 871; Erl. 76, 12. Næs ðæt ná ðæt hé nyste, Blickl. Homl. 19, 33. Ne hé hine ná ne onstyreþ, 21, 27. Ðæt ðás láreówas ne sceolan Godes dómas náwðer ne ná wanian, ne ne écan, 81, 4. Ne wandige ná se mæssepreóst nó for ríces mannes ege, 43, 9. Nǽron gé nó mín gemunende, ne gé nó geþohton, Past. 21; Swt. 151, 21. Swá nán óðer ná déþ, Menol. Fox 392; Men. 197. Nabbaþ ðás naman ná óðre gebígednysse, Ælfc. Gr. 11; Som. 15, 24. Nis ná má casa on gewunan ... nis ná má mislícra casa, 14; Som. 17, 4-7. Ne behófaþ náðor ðyssera pronomina ná má stemna búton twegra, 15; Som. 17, 38. Ne synd ná má namanspeligende bútan ðás fífténe, Som. 17, 46 : Blickl. Homl. 35, 24. Nó má, Exon. Th. 441, 25; Kl. 4. Telle ic ða weorþ-mynd ðæm wyrhtan, næs ná ðé, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, 19. Næs ná for ðam ðe ðæs landes swá fela wǽre, ac for ðam ðe se Wendelsǽ hit hæfþ swá tódǽled, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24, 25. Lufian wé hine ... næs nó on gesundum þingum ánum, ac eác swylce on wiðerweardum þingum, Blickl. Homl. 13, 7. II. qualifying (a) an adjective :-- Mid langum scipum ná manegum, Chr. Erl. 3, 7. Ðý ilcan sumera forwearþ nó læs ( = not a smaller number) ðonne xx scipa, 897; Erl. 96, 14. Wíse sweltende samod ná wís sapientes morientes, simul insipiens, Ps. Spl. 48, 9. (b) an adverb or adverbial phrase :-- Nis nó ðæt án ... ac eác not only ... but also, Blickl. Homl. 85, 15. Næs hit ná ðæt án ðæt ðú on ungemetlícum ungesǽlþum wǽre, ac eác ðæt ðú fulneáh mid ealle forwurde, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 14, 6. Ðe ná ðæt án mé, ac eác swylce míne geféran, mæg besencan, Coll. Monast. Th. 24, 31 : L. Ecg. P. iii. 1; Th. ii. 196, 13. Ná ðá git non dum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 59, 55. Ná swá numquam ita, Wülck. Gl. 248, 9. Ná lancge non diu, Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 31. Ná elles haud secus, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 42, 3. Ðú hit ná hú elles begitan ne miht, Bt. 32; Fox 114, 8. Ne mæg hé nó ðé raþor, Bt. tit. 32; Fox xvi, 15. Næs him nó ðý læs underþeóded eall ðes middangeard, 16, 4; Fox 58, 10. Ðá ná ðé læs beseah Lothes wíf underbæc, Scrd. 22, 42. Nó ðý fægra wæs, Cd. Th. 203, 6; Exod. 399. Nó ðý sél dyde, 246, 35; Dan. 489. Ne sý ná tó ðæs hwón (on no account) geendod náðer ne dægrédsang ne ǽfensang bútan ðam drihtlícan gebede, R. Ben. 38, 14 : 84, 1, 10 : 95, 7. Ná tó hwón (ná tó ðæs hwón, MS. T.), 111, 10. v. lytes-ná.

nabban ( = ne habban, the verb is conjugated throughout) not to have, to be without :-- Næbbe ic synne gefremed, Cd. Th. 160, 15; Gen. 2650, Næbbe ic welan, Andr. Kmbl. 601; An. 301. Nafast hláfes wiste, 621; An. 311. Ðú næfst nán þing, Jn. Skt. 4, 11. Næft ðú, Bt. Met. Fox 20, 71; Met. 20, 36. Hé nǽnige mehte nafaþ, Blickl. Homl. 31, 33. Hé wilnaþ ... ðæs ðe hé næft, Bt. 11, 1; Fox 34, 2. Næfþ, Ps. Th. 71, 12. Wé nabbaþ, Mk. Skt. 9, 13. Earmra manna gehelpan ðe sylfe nabbaþ and ðæra myhta nabbaþ ðæt hié wyrcen mágon, L. E. I. 3, Th. ii. 404, 22. Hí heora nabbaþ má ðonne hí heora habban, Bt. 26, 1; Fox 90, 19. Ðonne ðú hæfdest ðæt ðú noldest oððe næfdest ðæt ðú woldest, Fox 90, 31. Næfde heó nóht on hire, Blickl. Homl. 147, 15. Næfde gé, Jn. Skt. 9, 41. Nafa ðú fremde godas, Deut. 5, 7. Ðonne gé faran næbbe gé mid eów hláf, Blickl. Homl. 233, 17. Gif hé wíf næbbe, Ex. 21, 4. Ne mæg ðæt ná beón ðæt ða bearn langunga nabban, Blickl. Homl. 131, 26. Næbben, Beo. Th. 3705; B. 1850. Hét mé fremdne god hergan, oððe hí nabban, Exon. Th. 247, 12; Jul. 77. Sint hí ðé pliólícran hæfd ðonne næfd, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, note 10. [O. Frs. combines the negative with the verb in the same way.] v. ge-næfd.

nabo-gár, nabula. v. nafo-gár, nafola.

naca, an; m. A boat, bark, ship, vessel :-- Ne hié scip fereþ, naca, Exon. Th. 439, 17; Rä. 59, 5. Sǽgeáp naca, Beo. Th. 3797; B. 1896. Heáhstefn naca, Andr. Kmbl. 532; An. 266. Of nacan stefne, 582; An. 291 : Exon. Th. 306, 14; Seef. 7. On bearm nacan, Beo. Th. 433; B. 214. Néðan on nacan tealtum, Runic pm. 343, 22; Rún. 21. Flotan níwtyrwydne, nacan, Beo. Th. 596; B. 295 : Exon. Th. 474, 31; Bo. 39. [O. Sax. nako : O. H. Ger. nacho : Icel. nökkvi.] v. hring-, sǽ-, ýð-naca.

nacian; p. ode To strip (the clothes off a person) :-- Ðá hé ðæt nolde hé wæs nacod and on carcern onsænded when he would not do that (deny Christ), he was stripped and sent to prison, Shrn. 51, 12. [The shenship of his flesh he shal nakyn, Wick. Lev. xx, 19; he nakide (later version, made nakid) the hous of the pore man, Job xx, 19 : O nice men, whi nake ye youre bakkes, Chauc. Boeth. 1. 4288 : Prompt. Parv. nakyn nudo, denudo, v. p. 351, note 1. The verb to nake occurs as late as Tourneur who has 'nake your swords;' v. Skeat Dict. s. v. naked.] v. be-nacian, nacod.

nacod, næcad; adj. I. naked, bare; nudus :-- Nacod exertum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 144, 70. Næcad exerta, 107, 78. (a) of persons, without clothing :-- Nacod and ceald nuda, 61, 65. Nacod plegere gymnosophista, i. 17, 10. Ic eom nacod (nudus), Gen. 3, 10, 11. Ðá sæt ðǽr sum þearfa nacod, bæd him hrægles, Blickl. Homl. 213, 33 : Cd. Th. 255, 32; Dan. 633. Ic wæs nacod and gé mé scrýddon, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 36 : Cd. Th. 207, 29; Exod. 474. Gif ðú earm gewurðe, geþenc ðú ðæt ðín móder ðé nacodne gebær, Prov. Kmbl. 15. Nacode wé wǽron ácennede, and nacode wé gewítaþ, Homl. Th. i. 64, 28. Gé géfon hrægl nacedum, Exon. Th. 83, 13; Cri. 1355. Nacode scrýdan, Blickl. Homl. 213, 18. Se feónd swá micle iéðlícor ðæt mód gewundaþ swá hé hit ongiet nacodre ðære byrnan wærscipes, Past. 56; Swt. 431, 10. (b) of an animal, unsaddled, bare-backed :-- Hé nolde on nacedum assan rídan, Homl. Th. i. 210, 27. (c) of a sword, naked, unsheathed :-- Him ne hangaþ nacod sweord ofer ðam heáfde, Bt. 29, 1; Fox 102, 27 : Beo. Th. 1082; B. 539. II. bare in a metaph. sense, (a) of persons, destitute, stripped of property :-- Se nacoda wegférend vacuus viator, Bt. 14, 3; Fox 46, 29. Ðú (Adam) scealt on wræc hweorfan, nacod niédwædla, neorxna wanges dugeþum bedǽled, Cd. Th. 57, 16; Gen. 929. Ðú (Laban) mé (Jacob) woldest forlǽtan nacodne, Gen. 31, 42. (b). of words, not accompanied by deeds :-- God nele ðæt ðú hine lufie mid nacodum wordum ac mid rihtwísum dǽdum, Basil admn. 4; Norm. 40, 18. [Goth. nakwaþs : Icel. nökviðr : O. Frs. nakad : O. H. Ger. nachot, nahhut : Ger. nackt.] v. eall-, lim-nacod; nacian.

nacodian. v. ge-nacodian. [O. H. Ger. gi-, ant-nachatón.]

nǽcan to kill :-- Ic nǽce (other MSS. knǽce, nǽte) oððe ic ácwelle neco, Ælfc. Gr. 24; Som. 25, 56. [Cf. O. H. Ger. neihan immolare, Grff. 2, 1015.]

næced, e; f. Nakedness :-- Gif hwylc man stele mete oððe cláðas and hine hungor oððe næced ðǽrtó drife (fames vel nuditas eum coegerit), L. Ecg. P. iv. 25; Th. ii. 212, 4. Drihten ásent hungor on eów and þurst and næcede, Deut. 28, 48. [Goth. nakwadei : Icel. nekt nakedness.]

næcedness, e; f. Nakedness :-- Swá ðæt hig ne gesáwon heora fæder næcednesse, Gen. 9, 23. Ðé ne sceamaþ ðínre næcednysse, Homl. Th. i. 432, 5.

næct, nædder-, næddre, nǽdel. v. niht, næder-, nædre, nǽdl.

næder-bíta, an; m. An ichneumon :-- Næderbíta hinc neomon ( = ichneumon), Wrt. Voc. ii. 43, 49. Nædderbíta cicidemon, 131, 40.

næder-winde, an; f. The name of a plant, adder-wort :-- Næddrewinde viperina, Wrt. Voc. i. 63, 26. v. next word.

næder-, nædre-wyrt, e; f. Adder-wort; polygonum bistorta :-- Nædderwyrt uiperina, Wülck. Gl. 300, 23. Nædrewyrt. Ðeós wyrt ðe man uiperinam and óðrum naman nædderwyrt nemneþ, Lchdm. i. 96, 11. Nædderwyrt. Ðeós wyrt ðe man basilisca and óðrun naman nædder- (næddre-, MS. O) wyrt nemneþ, 242, 7 : iii. 8, 24. Genim næderwyrte, ii. 110, 25. [v. E. D. S. Pub. Plant Names, adderwort, and Lchdm. ii. Glossary.]

nǽdl, e; f. A needle :-- Nǽdl acus, Wrt. Voc. i. 85, 4 : Ælfc. Gr. 11; Som. 15, 18. Hwanon seámere nǽdl unde sartori acus, Coll. Monast. Th. 30, 33. Þurh nǽdle (nédle, Rush.) eáge per foramen acus, Mt. Kmbl. 19, 24 : Lk. Skt. 18, 25. Þurh nǽdle þyrel, Mk. Skt. 10, 25 : Wrt. Voc. ii. 73, 1. Nǽdle sceorpran, Soul Kmbl. 230; Seel. 116. Mið nédle acu, Wrt. Voc. ii. 117, 37. Mið naeðlae, Ep. Gl. 19 f, 30. [Goth. néþla : O. Sax. nádla : O. Frs. nédle : O. H. Ger. nádala : Icel. nál.] v. feax-, hǽr-nǽdl.

nædre, næddre, an; f. Any kind of serpent, adder, viper :-- Nædre gipsa, Wrt. Voc. ii. 41, 55 : natrix, 97, 36 : 60, 77. Snaca oððe nædre coluber, 16, 75. Gerumpenu, gehyrnedu nædre coluber cerastis. 15, 68 : 16, 2. Mé nædre beswác, Cd. Th. 55, 20; Gen. 897. Næddre vipera vel serpens vel anguis, Wrt. Voc. i. 78, 55. Fleónde næddre, 24, 1. Ðære nedran basilisci, ii. 12, 2 : 86, 58. Efter gelícnisse nedran (serpentes), Ps. Surt. 57, 5: Cd. Th. 271, 8; Sat. 102. Ðære scortan næddran spalangii, Hpt. Gl. 450, 25. Nedran colubri, Kent. Gl. 1095. God cwæþ tó ðære næddran (ad serpentem), Gen. 3, 14. Nædran celidrum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 21, 21. Nædran hilidros, i. celidros, 43, 38. Swá swá Moyses áhóf ða næddran . . . Ðá sende God fýrene næddran . . . God bebeád Moyse ðæt hé gewothte áne ǽrene næddran, and sette up tó tácne, and ðæt hé manode ðæt folc ðæt swá hwá swá fram ðám næddrum ábiten wǽre, besáwe up tó ðære ǽrenan næddran, Homl. Th. ii. 238, 4-19. Nædran serpentes, Ps. Th. 139, 3. Gif mon hine (gagates) on fýr déþ, ðonne fleóþ ðǽr neddran onweg, Bd. 1, 1; S. 473, 25. Nædrena draconum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 27, 71. Næddrena áttor venenum aspidum, Deut. 32, 33. Lá næddrena (ætterna, Lind.; nedrana, Rush.) cyn progenies viperarum, Mt. Kmbl. 3, 7 : 12, 34. Hig wurpon ealle hira gyrda nyðer and hí wurdon tó næddrum (versae sunt in dracones), Ex. 7, 12. [Goth. nadrs; Icel. naðr (in poetry); m.; naðra; f. : O. Sax. nadra : O. H. Ger. natra, natara; f. : Ger. natter.] v. hilde-, mere-, wæter-nædre.

næfde = ne hæfde. v. nabban.

næfig; adj. Not having means, poor :-- Þarfa ɫ næfga (næfre, Lind.) mendicus, Jn. Skt. Rush. 9, 8. Næfgum (næfigum, Lind.) egenis, 13, 29. Næfigum, Lind. 12. 5.

nǽfre ( = ne ǽfre); adv. Never. I. alone :-- Nǽfre ætýwde swylc, Mt. Kmbl. 9, 33. Nǽfre ic máran geseah eorl ofer eorþan, Beo. Th. 500; B. 247. Nǽfre gé mid blóde beódgereordu eówre þicgeaþ, Cd. Th. 91, 26; Gen. 1518. Eádig biþ se ðe in his éþle geþíhþ; earm se him his frýnd geswícaþ; néfre (?) sceal se him his nest áspringeþ (never shall he thrive whose provision fails him (?). Grein takes nefre = infirmus), Exon. Th. 335, 23; Gn. Ex. 38. II. with another negative :-- Ne hit nǽfre ne gewurðe nec unquam fiat, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 40, 14. Ðæt hí nǽfre ne gedóþ, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 15. Nǽfre siðan Rómáne ne rícsodon on Bretone, Chr. 409; Erl. 10, 7. Hié nǽfre his banan folgian noldon, 755; Erl. 50, 20. Nán man ne dorste sleán óðerne man, næfde hé nǽfre swá mycel gedón wið ðone óðerne, 1086; Erl. 222, 6.

nǽgan, négan; p. de To address, accost, speak to :-- Nigeþan síþe nǽgde se gomola, sǽgde eaforan worn, Exon. Th. 304, 5; Fä. 65. But generally the verb is accompanied by wordum :-- Ðú mé wordum nǽgest, fúsne frignest, 175, 26; Gú. 1200. Hine weroda God wordum nǽgde, Cd. Th. 179, 4; Exod. 23. Hé ðone wísan wordum nǽgde (hnǽgde, MS.) freán Ingwina, Beo. Th. 2641; B. 1318. Ongan ðá wíf weras wordum négan, Elen. Kmbl. 574; El. 287 : 1115; El. 559. v. ge-nǽgan.

nægel, nægl, es; m. I. the nail of a finger or toe :-- Nægel unguis; næglas ungues, Wrt. Voc. i. 43, 60. Fingras digiti . . . nægel ungula, 65, 4. Nægl, 283, 25. Nægl unguana, ii. 124, 10. Gif nægl of honda weorðe if a nail come off a hand, Lchdm. iii. 58, 7 : ii. 80, 20. Gif þuman nægl of weorðeþ, .iii. scill. gebéte . . . Æt ðám neglum gehwylcum scilling if a thumb-nail come off (from a blow) the bót shall be iii shillings . . . For each finger-nail a shilling (cf. L. Alf. pol. 56-60; Th. i. 94, 96 where the bót for the thumb-nail is 5 shillings, for the nail of the fore-finger and for that of the ring-finger 4 shillings each, for that of the middle finger 2 shillings, and for that of the little finger one shilling), L. Ethb. 54. 55; Th. i. 16, 9-14. Wið scurfedum nægle; nim gecyrnadne sticcan, sete on ðone nægl, Lchdm. ii. 150, 4 : i. 370, 9 : iii. 114, 21. Deóplíc dǽdbót biþ ...; ðæt íren ne cume on hǽre ne on nægle, L. Edg. C. 10; Th. ii. 280, 21. God of ðam láme flǽsc worhte and blód, bán and fell, fex and næglas, Homl. Th. i. 236, 16. II. a nail, peg :-- Nægl clavus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 22, 10. Nægl paxillum, palum, 116, 27. Nægles epigri vel clavi, i. 39, 63. Nægle cuspide, ii. 21, 24. Ðǽr hýdde wǽron næglas (the nails by which Christ was fastened to the cross) on eorþan, Elen. Kmbl. 2216; El. 1109 : 2227; El. 1115 : 2344; El. 1173. Ne gelýfe ic búton ic geseó ðæra nægela (clavorum) fæstnunge on his handa, and ic dó mínne finger on ðære nægela stede, Jn. Skt. 20, 25. Ðæt fýr eode andlang ðara nægla ðe seó studu mid gefæstnad wæs tó ðam wáge, Bd. 3, 17; S. 544, 31, col. 1. Mid næglum þurh-drífan ða hwítan honda, Exon. Th. 68, 27; Cri. 1110 : Rood Kmbl. 91; Kr. 46. Hié námon treówu, and slógon on óðerne ende monige scearpe ísene næglas, Ors. 4, 1; Swt. 158, 5. Heó lǽdde tó hire suna ða ísenan næglas ðe wǽron ádrifene þurh Cristes folman, Homl. Th. ii. 306, 15. Nægelas geseón anxsumnysse getácnaþ, Lchdm. iii. 212, 24. III. an instrument for striking the strings of a harp, v. hearpe-nægel, Exon. Th. 332, 12; Vy. 84. [O. Sax. nagal (in both senses) : O. Frs. neil (in both senses) : O. H. Ger. nagal unguis, clavus. paxillus : Icel. nagl unguis; nagli clavus : cf. Goth. ga-nagljan.] v. hearpe-, scóh-, steór-nægel.

nægel-seax, es; n. A knife for cutting the nails :-- Næglsex novaculum, Wrt. Voc. i. 35, 22 : novacula, 86, 22. [Laym. nail-sax (-sex).]

nǽgen = ne mǽgen :-- Gedó ðæt hý nǽgen dón ðæt yfel ðæt hý þencaþ make them unable to do the evil that they devise; decidant a cogitationibus suis, Ps. Th. 5, 11.

nægled-bord. v. næglian.

nægled-cnearr, es; m. A vessel the planks of whose sides are nailed together :-- Gewitan him ðá Norþmen nægledcnearrum, Chr. 937; Erl. 115, 2; Æðelst. 53.

næglian; p. ode, ede To nail, fasten with nails :-- Hí dulfon ɫ nægledun handa míne and fét míne foderunt manus meas, et pedes meas, Ps. Lamb. 21, 17. Síæ nægled on róde crucifigatur, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 23. Ne hié scip fereþ naca nægled bord (or nægled-bord; adj. ?) nor does ship carry her, vessel, nailed plank (or with nail-fastened sides), Exon. Th. 439, 17; Rä. 59, 5. Siððan nægled bord, fær séleste, flód up áhóf, Cd. Th. 85, 22. Hwonne hié of nearwe ofer nægled bord stæppan mósten when from durance over the vessel's (the ark) nail-fastened side they might step, 86, 20; Gen. 1433. Hió [næ]gled sinc hæleþum sealde (bracelets fastened with rivets or studs), Beo. Th. 4051; B. 2023. Næglede (ætlede, Th.) beágas, Exon. Th. 474, 22; Bo. 34. Nægledne, 400, 7; Rä. 20, 5. [Goth. ga-nagljan : Icel. negla : O. Sax. neglian; negilid sper, neglit skip : O. H. Ger. nagalian.] v. ge-nægled.

Nægling the name of Beowulf's sword :-- Nægling forbærst, sweord Beówulfes, Beo. Th. 5354; B. 2680.

nǽh, næht, nǽht, nǽm, nǽman, nǽmne. v. neáh, niht, náht, níd-nǽm, be-, míd-nǽman, nemne.

nǽming, e; f. Acceptance, agreement, bargain :-- Ceáp distractio; sala venditio; nǽmingce contractio vel contractus, Wrt. Voc. i. 55, 54-56.

nǽnig ( = ne ǽnig). I. used as an adjective, not any, none, no, (a) without another negative :-- Nǽnig óðer hý ǽfre má eft onlúceþ, Exon. Th. 20, 27; Cri. 324. Ðeáh ðe nǽnegu nédþearf wǽre, Met. 20, 25. Ðǽr nǽngu biþ niht on sumera, 16, 13. Naenge earbeðe nullo negotio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 115, 5. Nǽnigne ic sélran hýrde hordmádmum, Beo. Th. 2398; B. 1197. Hafaþ tóþ nǽnigne, Exon. Th. 439. 24; Rä. 59, 8 : Cd. Th. 272, 20; Sat. 122. Him ðæs nǽnige bót dydon, Blickl. Homl. 201, 23. (b) with other negatives :-- Nǽnig mon ne sceal lufian ne ne géman his gesibbes, 23, 16. Ðæt wíte ðe nǽfre nǽnig ende ne becymeþ, 51, 31. Ne hé nǽnigne man unrihtlíce fordémde, ne hine nǽnig man yrne ne funde, 223, 32. Ðǽr him nǽnig wæter wihte ne sceþede, Beo. Th. 3032; B. 1514. Óðer nǽnig sélra nǽre, 1723; B. 859. Nis nǽnigu gecynd, Salm. Kmbl. 839; Sal. 419. Ne sý eów nǽnigu cearo, Blickl. Homl. 145, 8. Ne hié nǽnigo firen ne gewundode, 161, 33. Næs nǽnig ylding, 87, 17. Nis nǽnig máre mægen, 31, 30. Eów nǽnig wuht ne deraþ, And. 14, 8. God ðonne ne gýmeþ nǽnges mannes hreówe, Blickl. Homl. 95, 29. Nǽnges þinges máre þearf nǽre, 175, 8. Hé nǽfre nǽnigum woruldrícum men onbúgan nolde, 223, 27. Warna ðé ðæt ðú hyt nǽnegum men ne secge, Mt. Kmbl. 8, 4. Ðæt hé nǽnigum óðrum men ne sǽde, Bd. 5, 9; S. 623, 3 : Blickl. Homl. 221, 16. Hié eów tó nǽnigre áre ne belimpeþ, Blickl. Homl. 41, 23 : 179, 15. Hí ne mihtan ðære heorde nǽnige góde beón, 45, 16. Hé nǽnige mehte wið ús nafaþ, 31, 33 : 79, 7. Ne bideþ hé æt ús nǽnig óðor edleán, 103, 21. Ne ðǽr nǽnige þingunga ne beóþ, 95, 30 : 157, 13 : 185, 9. Hé nǽfre nǽnige godcunde englas næfde, 181, 28. II. as a substantive, no one, not any one, (a) without another negative :-- Nǽnig bihelan mæg wom unbéted, Exon. Th. 80, 23; Cri. 1311 : 294, 20; Crä. 18 : Beo. Th. 3870; B. 1933. Nǽnig óðerne freóþ, Frag. Kmbl. 69; Leás. 36 : Exon. Th. 491, 29; Rä. 81, 6. Nǽnegum þuhte dæg on þonce, Met. 12, 15. Se ðe nǽngum scód, Exon. Th. 90, 1; Cri. 1467. Nǽnige neminem, Hpt. Gl. 457, 57. Ðǽr hé nǽnige forlét bendum fæstne, Andr. Kmbl. 2074; An. 1039. (b) with other negatives :-- Nis nǽnig swá snotor nymþe God seolfa, Cd. Th. 286, 8; Sat. 349. Ðone nǽnig heonon ne sceáwaþ, Blickl. Homl. 31, 9. Nǽnigne tweógean ne þearf, 83, 9. III. with partitive gen. (a) without another negative :-- Nǽnig fira ðæs fród leofaþ, Exon. Th. 351, 6; Sch. 76. Nǽnig wera gewiste, 412, 13; Rä. 30, 13. Nǽnig manna is, Andr. Kmbl. 1088; An. 544 : Salm. Kmbl. 120; Sal. 59. Him nǽnig wæs ǽlǽrendra óðer betera, Elen. Kmbl. 1008; El. 505. Nǽnig heora þohte, Beo. Th. 1385; B. 691. Nǽnegum áraþ leóde Deniga, 1201; B. 598. Ic nǽngum sceððe burgsittendra, Exon. Th. 407, 9; Rä. 26, 2. Mid ðý se cyning nǽnige þinga (nulla tenus) his bénum geþafian wolde, Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 11. (b) with other negatives :-- Ne ðǽr nǽnig wihte wénan þorfte, Beo. Th. 316; B. 157 : 490; B. 242. Nǽnig gumena ongitan ne mihte, Andr. Kmbl. 1971; An. 988 : Salm. Kmbl. 867; Sal. 433. Nǽniges Godes háligra gebyrd, ne his heáhfædera . . . ciricean ne mǽrsiaþ nemþe . . ., Blickl. Homl. 161, 9. Nis ðæt mín miht ne nǽnges úres ( = úre nǽniges), 151, 29. Be ðare nǽnigum gecweden beón ne mihte, 161, 22. Ne eart ðú ðon leófre nǽngum lifgendra, Exon. Th. 370, 5; Seel. Ex. 54. Ðeós dǽd nǽnige þinga forholen ne wurþe, Lchdm. iii. 60, 24 : Met. 10, 16 : 19, 37. Ne sculon mæssepreóstas náteshwón nǽnig þinga bútan óðrum mannum mæssan syngan, L. E. I. 7; Th. ii. 406, 21.

nǽnig-wiht; adv. Nothing, not, not at all :-- Andreas nǽnigwuht ðú gefirnodest Andrew, thou host nothing sinned, And. 10, 20. v. nán-wiht.

nǽniht. v. nán-wiht.

nǽp, es; m. Turnip, rape :-- Nǽp napus, rapa, Wrt. Voc. i. 31, 44, 51 : napis, 68, 18 : 286, 26 : ii. 114, 56. Wilde nǽp nap silvatica, i. 31, 27 : diptamnus vel bibulcos, 32, 5. Nim Ængliscne nǽp, Lchdm. iii. 12; 14. Nim smælne nǽp, 40, 5. Healde hine wið nǽpas, and wið ða þing ðe windigne ǽþm on men wyrcen, ii. 214, 3. [Nepe bacar, Wrt. Voc. i. 191, 39 : nepe coloquintida, cucurbita, Prompt. Parv. 353. See also E. D. S. Plant Names, nape, nep : Icel. næpa; f. a turnip.]

nǽp-sǽd, es; n. Seed of turnip or of rape :-- Genim senepes sǽdes dǽl and nǽpsǽdes, Lchdm. ii. 24, 15. Nim senepsǽd and nǽpsǽd, iii. 88, 15.

næpte, nǽre, nǽron. v. nepte, næs.

næs = ne wæs was not :-- Wǽre ðú tódæg on huntnoþe ? Ic næs, Coll. Monast. Th. 22, 1 : 34, 9. Ðú nǽre mildsiend ofer heora cild, Blickl. Homl. 249, 6. Man næs, ðe ða eorþan worhte, Gen. 2, 5. Nǽron ðá welige hámas, ne diórwyrþra hrægla hí ne girndan, forðam hí ðá git nǽran, Bt. 15; Fox 48, 4-6. Ða cyningas Rómeburg begeáton ðǽr Mutius nǽre (if it had not been for Mucius), Ors. 2, 3; Swt. 68, 20. Gif hé nǽre yfeldǽde, ne sealde wé hine ðé, Jn. Skt. 18, 30. Hié wýscaþ ðæt hié nǽfre nǽron ácennede Blickl. Homl, 93, 28. [O. Frs. nas = ne was; nére = ne wére.]

næs; adv. Not. I. alone :-- Búton hit riht sprǽc sý and behéfe næs ídel nisi recta locutio sit et utilis, non anilis, Coll. Monast. Th. 18, 16. Ic wylle mildheortnesse næs onsægdnesse, Mt. Kmbl. 9, 13. Gif hit fæger is, ðæt is of heora ágnum gecynde, næs of ðínum; heora fæger hit is, næs ðín, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 42, 33. Heó wæs ful cweden, næs æmetugu, Blickl. Homl. 5, 5. Ic cýðe mid dǽdum, næs mid wordum ánum, 181, 25 : Ps. Th. 48, 12. Næs hié ðære fylle gefeán hæfdon, Beo. Th. 1128; B. 562 : 6140; B. 3074. II. with another negative :-- Ábréd of ða fiðeru, næs ne cerfe, Lev. 1, 17. Ic ondrǽde ðæt hé wirige mé, and næs ná bletsige, Gen. 27, 12. Ðonne telle ic ða weorþmynd ðæm wyrhtan, næs ná ðé, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, 19. Gif ðú gesáwe þeóf, ðú urne mid him, næs ná ongeán hine, Ps. Th. 49. 19. Gesceapene tó ðon écan lífe, næs ná tó ðon écan deáþe, Blickl. Homl. 61, 8. Næs ná mid golde, ac mid gódum dǽdum, 95, 19. Lufian wé hine næs nó on gesundum þingum ánum, ac eác swylce on wiðerweardum þingum, 13, 7. [O. Frs. nas.]

næsc fawn-skin :-- Fel pellis, hýd cutis vel corium; næsc nebris, Wrt. Voc. i. 86, 37-39. Gefóh fox, ásleah of cucum ðone tuxl, lǽt hleápan áweg, bind on næsce, hafa ðé on, Lchdm. ii. 104, 13 : 140, 10. Dó on næsc, 36, 8. Naescum tractibus (cf. tracta; pl. in mulomedicina emplastrum ex variis medicamentis compositum, et in tela linea dístentum, Forcellini.), Wrt. Voc. ii. 122, 77.

næse. v. nese.

næs-gristle the gristle or cartilage of the nose :-- Naesgristlae cartilago, Ep. Gl. 7 b, 5. Naesgristle, Wrt. Voc. ii. 102, 45. Næsgristle, 13, 10. [Þe laðe helle wurmes þe freoteð ham ut te ehnen ant to nease gristles, O. E, Homl. i. 251, 16.] v. nos-gristle.

næss, ness, es; m. I. a ness, land running out into water, headland, promontory. [The word ness found in English local names is mostly of Scandinavian origin, Icel. nes; but, in a charter of 778, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 382, 28, Tucingnæs occurs, and in another of 801 is the passage, 'adjecto uno piscatorio on Taemise fluuio ubi dicitur Fiscnaes,' i. 216, 25. Other instances in the charters are, Herces næs, iii. 437, 1 : on scearpan næsse, 438, 22. Earna næs Eagles-ness, Beo. Th. 6055; B. 3031, Hrones næs Whales-ness, 5603; B. 2805, are examples of the word in foreign local names] :-- Æt brimes næsse at the sea-headland, Andr. Kmbl. 3417; An. 1712. Beorh wæterýðum neáh, be næsse, Beo. Th. 4478; B. 2243. Gesæt on næsse cyning, 4825; B. 2417. Wearþ on næs (of a lake) togen wundorlíc wǽgbora, 2883; B. 1439 : 3205; B. 1600. Se ðe næs (by the sea) gerád, 5789; B. 2898. Windige næssas wind-swept headlands, 2721; B. 1358. Neowle næssas headlands that plunge into the water, 2826; B. 1411. Hié Geáta clifu ongitan meahton, cúþe næssas, 3828; B. 1912. II. in connection with under, niðer, and often in pl. ground (as in under-ground) :-- Ongan ðá eorþan delfan, ðæt hé on twentigum fótmǽlum feor funde behelede under neólum niðer næsse gehýdde in þeóstorcofan (he found the cross hidden twenty feet underground), Elen. Kmbl. 1661; El. 832. Gǽst ellor hwearf under neowelne næs (underground, i. e. to hell), Judth. Thw. 239; Jud. 113. Sunne gewát tó sete glídan under niflan næs (sink beneath the horizon), Andr. Kmbl. 2611; An. 1307. Fyrgenstreám under næssa genipu niðer gewíteþ (the stream disappears in a dark chasm), flód under foldan, Beo. Th. 2724; B. 1360. Hí (the fallen angels) gedúfan sceolun niðær undær nessas (to hell) in ðone neowlan grund, Cd. Th. 266, 32 : Sat. 31 : 270, 15; Sat. 91. Ingong in ðæt atule hús (hell) niðer under næssas, neole grundas, Exon. Th. 136, 2; Gú. 535. v. sǽ-næss and next word.

næsse, an; f. A headland, promontory, cape :-- Óþ ða norþmestan næssan on eorþan to the most northerly cape on earth, Met. 9, 43. Næssun (-an ?) litora, Germ. 400, 488. v. næss.

næss-hliþ, es; n. The slope of a headland :-- Gesáwon on næshleoþum nicras licgean, Beo. Th. 2858; B. 1427.

nǽstan. v. ge-nǽstan.

næster cancale ( = ? κανκαλίs wild carrot), Wrt. Voc. ii. 129, 74.

næs-þyrel,-þyrl, es; n. A nostril :-- Næsþyrel pennula, Wrt. Voc. i. 282, 66 : nares, ii. 62, 5. Dó on ðæt næsþyrl, Lchdm. i. 352, 4. On næsþyrl bestungen, 348, 4. His (the dead man) næsþyrlo beóþ belocene, Blickl. Homl. 59, 14, Wið næsþyrla (næsþurla, 14, 11) sáre, Lchdm. i. 114, 19. Blódryne of næsþyrlon, 282, 12. Mid hundes lúsum, ða flugon intó heora múðe and heora næsþyrlum, Homl. Th. ii. 192, 22. Hit gǽþ þurh eówre næsþyrlu exeat per nares vestras, Num. 11, 20 : Ps. Spl. 113, 14. Dó on ða næsþyrlu. Lchdm. i. 72, 21. [Wick. : Prompt. Parv. nese-þirl.] v. nos-þyrel.

nǽtan; p. te To trample upon, crush, subdue :-- Oft ic cwice bærne nǽte mid níþe oft the living I burn, painfully oppress them, Exon. Th. 389, 7; Rä. 7. 4. Hé sceal weorðan his lífe tó nytte mid dý ðæt hé nǽte his unþeáwas mores pravorum premere, vitae prodesse, Past. 46, 5; Swt. 353, l0. Nǽtendne proterentem, Wrt. Voc. ii. 118, 3 : Ep. Gl. 18 b, 27. v. ge-nǽtan and next word.

nǽting, e; f. Blaming, upbraiding :-- Ac hú wéne wé hú micel scyld ðæt síe ðæt monn áþreóte ðære nǽtinge yfelra monna and nime sume sibbe wið ða wierrestan pensandum ergo est, quando ab increpatione quiescitur, quanta culpa cum pessimis pax tenetur, Past. 46, 6; Swt. 353, 11. [Cf. Goth. naiteins blasphemy.]

nafa a nave. v. nafu : nafa = ne hafa. v. nabban.

nafela, an; m. The navel :-- Nabula umbilicus, Wülck. Gl. 54, 13. Navela, Wrt. Voc. i. 44, 50. Ðínum nafelan, Kent. Gl. 32. Hé (Minutius) hiene (the elephant) on ðone nafelan ofstang, Ors. 4, 1; Swt. 156, 11. [O. Frs. navla : Icel. nafli : O. H. Ger. nabalo.]

nafel-sceaft, e; f. The navel :-- Ðisne lǽcedóm man sceal dó ðan manne se his nafuisceaft in týhþ, Lchdm. iii. 124, 22.

nafeþa, an; m. A nave :-- Naveþa modiolus, Wrt. Voc. i. 16, 22.

nafu, e; f. : nafa (?), an; m. A nave :-- Nafu modialis, Wrt. Voc. i. 284, 55. Sió nafa (nafu, Cott.) néhst ðære eaxe, Bt. 39, 7; Fox 220, 29. Sió nafu, Fox 222, 1. Se nafa, 222, 12. Fæst on ðære nafe, 222, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. [Icel. nöf : O. H. Ger. naba modiolus.]

nafu-gár, es; m. An auger :-- Nabogaar terebellus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 122, 21. Nabogár rotrum, 119, 31. Nafogár foratorium, 149, 74 : foratorium vel terebellum, 38, 50. Navegár terebrum, i. 16, 12 : 84, 63. [Wymble, nauger terere, 170, 17 : O. H. Ger. naba-gér terebellus, terebellum, terebrum : Icel. nafarr : Du. ave-gaar.]

-nág. v. ge-nág.

nágan = ne ágan. I. not to have, (a) with acc. :-- Náh se sacerd náne þearfe (sacerdoti non opus est), ðæt hé forwyrne ðam men rihtre andetnysse, L. Ecg. P. i. 2; Th. ii. 172, 11. Gif hé náh his selfes geweald, Met. 16, 21. Helle hlinduru nágon hwyrft, Exon. Th. 364, 29; Wal. 78. Ðeáh ðú hí nǽfre náhtest, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 1. Hé náhte his líchoman geweald, Blickl. Homl. 223, 11. Náhton hié náðer ne mete ne freónd, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 92, 34. Sí on cynges dóme hwæðer hé líf áge ðe náge, L. Eth. vii. 9; Th. i. 330, 25. (b) with gen. :-- Nágan wé ðæs heolstres, ðæt wé ús gehýdan mágon, Cd. Th. 271, 5; Sat. 101. II. not to be allowed, ought not :-- Náh náðer tó farenne ne Wylisc man on Ænglisc land, ne Ænglisc man on Wylisc, L. O. P. 6; Th. i. 354; 23. Náge hé hié út on elþeódig folc tó bebycgganne it shall not be allowable for him to sell her abroad into a foreign people, L. Alf. 12; Th. i. 46, 13. On ða gerád ðæt hine náge nán man of tó áceápienne, Chart. Th. 151, 13. Ðæt hit náge nán man fram ðære stówe tó dǽlanne, 157, 6.

náht. v. ná-wiht.

ná-hwǽr, -hwár, -wér; adv. I. no-where, in no place :-- Ná-hwǽr nusquam, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 55. Ðú ne ætstande náhwár on ðisum earde nec stes in omni circa regione, Gen. 19, 17. Hé sóhte his wǽpnu, ac hé ne geseah hí náhwǽr, Homl. Skt. 3, 257 : Blickl. Homl. 59, 20 : 181, 23. Ðeáh hé hire náwér ne geneálǽce on ǽlcere stówe hé is hire emnneáh though the sky nowhere approach the earth, it is everywhere equally near to it, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 22. II. in no case, never :-- Ðás prepositiones ne beóþ náhwár ána, ac beóþ ǽfre tó sumum óðrum worde gefégede, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 48, 50. Ne heard sweopu húse ðínum náhwǽr sceþþan [mágon], Ps. Th. 90, l0. Ðú mé náhwár forléte thou didst never forsake me, Homl. Th. i. 74, 32. III. in no respect, not at all :-- Eall moncynn and ealle nétenu ne notigaþ náwér neáh feórþan dǽles ðisse eorþan men and animals do not use anywhere near a fourth part of this earth, Bt. 18, 1; Fox 62, 8 : 18, 2; Fox 64, 6. Nese lá nese ne náwér neáh, Shrn. 196, 28. No trúige ús swá wel, ne náwér neáh swá ðám, 197, 13. [Cf. Icel. hvergi nær.]

ná-hwǽrn (?), -wérn; adv. No-where :-- Náwem non usquam, Wrt. Voc. ii. 61, 9 : 95, 8. Cf. ǽgwérn, Ors. Swt. 154, 22.

ná-hwæðer, náwðer, náðer, nóðer; pron. Neither :-- Náðor neuter, neutra, neutrum; náðres neutri; náðrum neutro, Ælfc. Gr. 18; Som. 21, 49. Getácnigende oððe sum þyngc tó dóne, oððe sum þingc tó þrowigenne, oððe náðor, 19; Som. 22, 23, 25. Náuðær næ síe tó ðon gedurstig ne cyning næ bisceop ne nánes hádes man nullus rex aut episcopus, vel, aliquis alius potens, sit tam audax, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 218, 26. Ne fornime nóder óðer ofer will let neither of you deprive the other against his or her will, Past. 51; Swt. 399. 34. Hí gecýðaþ ðonne hié endiaþ ðæt hié náwðer ne bióþ, 16, 3; Fox 56, 27. Ða þing ða ðe náuðer ne sint, ne getréwe tó habbenne ne eác éðe tó forlǽtanne, 7, 2; Fox 18, 15. Dydon swá hwæðer swá hý dydon ne dohte him náwðer whichever of the two they did, neither did them any good, Bt. 29, 2; Fox 106, 2 : Exon. Th. 12, 22; Cri. 189. His rihtwísnys nolde hí neádian tó náðrum Homl. Th. i. 112, 3. Godes gelaþung nis búton náðrum ðæra (the strong and the weak), ii. 390, 29. Swá mín sáwl bád ðæt ðú swylce heó for náhwæðer nówiht hǽle sicut expectavit anima mea, pro nihilo salvos facies eos, Ps. Th. 55, 6. Ðæt se yfela mǽge dón yfel ðeáh hé gód ne mǽge, and se deáda ne mǽge náuðer dón, Bt. 36, 7; Fox 182, 25. Hié náðer (náwðer, Cott. MS.) ne mágon, ne ðín helpan ne heora selfra, 14, 1; Fox 42, 9. Hié náðer næfdon siððan, ne heora namon ne heora anweald, Ors. 3, 1; Swt. 98, 7, Se ðe náðor nele, ne leornian ne tǽcan, Ælfc. Gr. pref.; Som. 1, 34. v. next word.

ná-hwæðer, náwðer, náðor; conj. Neither :-- Ðá ðá wé hit nó-hwæðer ne selfe ne lufodon ne eác óðrum monnum ne léfdon when we neither loved it ourselves nor allowed it to other men, Past. Swt. 5, 6. Wé nóhwæðér ne hit witan nyllaþ ne hit bétan nyllaþ, ne furðum ne récaþ hwæðer wé hit ongieten, 28; Swt. 195, 5. Náwðer ne ða wóhhǽmendan, ne ða ðe diófulgieldum þiówiaþ, ne ða unfæsðrádan, ne ða þiófas, ne ða giétseras, ne ða reáferas Godes ríce ne gesittaþ, 51; Swt. 401, 26. Nǽron náwðer ne on Fresisc gescæpene, ne on Denisc, Chr. 897; Erl. 95, 15 : Blickl. Homl. 45, 14. Láreówas ne sceolan Godes dómas náwðér ne ná wanian, ne ne écan, 81, 4. Hié náwðer ne him sylfum helpan ne mihton, ne nánum ðara ðe tó him áre wilnodan, 223, 2 : Bt. 29, 2; Fox 106, 5. Ðá nolde hé ásendan náðor ne engel, ne heáhengel, ne wítegan, ne apostolas, Homl. Th. ii. 6, 15. v. preceding word.

ná-hwanon; adv. From nowhere :-- Sió his gesǽlþ him náhwonan útane ne com, ac wæs simle on him selfum, Bt. 34. 7; Fox 144, 20.

ná-hwider; adv. No-whither, to no place :-- Hý náhwider faraþ bútan ðæs abbodes rǽde, R. Ben. 137, 10.

nalas (-læs, -les), nalles. v. nealles.

nám, e; f. Seizure of property belonging to one which is in the hands of another :-- Be naame. Ne nime nán man náne náme, ne innan scíre ne út of scíre, ǽr man hæbbe þríwa on hundrede his rihtes gebeden; (but on the failure of legal means) nime ðonne leáfe ðæt hé móte hentan æfter his ágenan, L. C. S. 19; Th. i. 386, 9-17. Cf. Nullus namium capiat . . . accipiat licenciam namium capiendi, L. W. I. 45; Th. i. 485, 13-17 : L. H. I. 29, 2; Th. i. 533, 7. Nulli sine judicio vel licencia namiare liceat alium in suo vel alterius, 51, 3; Th. i. 550, 5. [Cf. Icel. land-nám in Norse law an unlawful holding of another man's land, and hence a fine for trespassing on another man's land; in Icel. the taking possession of land as a settler : nes-nám in phrase nema nesnám to land on a ness and seize cattle : nám a seizing by the mind, learning : O. H. Ger. náma; nót-náma rapina.]

nama, an; m. I. a name :-- Sumum men, ðam is Æþelm nama, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. ii. 383, 24. Wæs ðam hæftméce Hrunting nama, Beo. Th. 2919; B. 1457. Ðære (eá) is Geon noma, Cd. Th. 15, 9; Gen. 230. Ego hoc feci, ic dyde ðis, ðon stent se ic on ðínes naman stede, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 3, 33. Naman titulo, Hpt. Gl. 509, 4 : vocabulo, 517, 61. Hé nemþ his ágene sceáp be naman propias oves vocat nominatim, Jn. Skt. 10, 3. Be naman cígean, Ps. Th. 146, 4. Ðone ilcan wé hátaþ óðre naman ǽfensteorra, Bt. 4; Fox 8, 3 : 33. 4; Fox 128, 27. Ðú nemdest eall mid áne noman, Met. 20, 56. Him se pápa Petrus tó noman scóp, Bd. 5, 7; S. 620, 43. God him sette naman Adam, Homl. Th. i. 12, 31. Hí him naman gesceópon, 92, 27. Hit ofetes noman ágan sceolde, Cd. Th. 44, 34; Gen. 719. II. a noun :-- Nomen is nama, mid ðam wé nemnaþ ealle þing ... Pronomen is ðæs naman speliend ... Amans lufigend cymþ of ðam worde amo, ic lufige; ðon nymþ hé of ðam naman him ealle ða six casus, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 3, 26-46. Sume synd ágene naman, swá swá is Eádgár, Dúnstán. Sume gemǽnelíce, kynincg, biscop, Som. 4, 10-11. [Goth, namó : Icel. nafn : O. Sax. namo : O. Frs. noma : O. H. Ger. namo.] v. freó-, heáh-nama.

nam-bóc; f. A book in which names are written, a register :-- Nombéc albo, Wrt. Voc. ii. 3, 1.

nam-bred, es; n. A tablet on which names are written, a register :-- Nombred albo, Wrt. Voc. ii. 81, 35.

nam-cúþ; adj. Having the name well-known, celebrated, famous, of note, of renown :-- Nabochodonossor se namcúþa cining, Ælfc. T. Grn. 8, 15. Ǽlcre namcúþre wyrte dǽl a bit of every well-known plant, Lchdm. i. 398, 9. Twegen sacerdas ðe ǽr on lífe wǽron swíðe namcúþe, Homl. Th. ii. 342, 3. Heáhfæderas namcúþe weras (the twelve patriarchs), Ælfc. T. Grn. 5, 2: R. Ben. 33, 20. On ðám gemótan ðeáh rǽdlíce wurðan on namcúðan stówan in those assemblies, though advisedly they were made in places of note, L. Eth. ix. 37; Th. i. 348, 18. Se ríca biþ namcúðre on his leóde ðonne se þearfa the name of the rich man is better known in his country than that of the poor man, Homl. Th. i. 330, 5. [Sodome and Gomorre, and alle þe nomecuðe buruhwes (famous cities), A. R. 334, 25. Cf. Icel nafn-kunnigr famous.]

namcúþlíce; adv. By name :-- Úre mǽþ nis ðæt wé ealle Godes gecorenan eów namcúðlíce gereccan it is not within our power to recount to you by name all God's elect, Homl. Th. ii. 72, 2. Hé gehwilce eardas namcúðlíce on gemynde hæfde, i. 558, 25. [Þurh him and ðurh ealle his freónd namcúðlíce, Chr. 1127; Erl. 256, 12.]

namian; p. ode. I. to name, mention the name of, mention :-- Git ðú namast Crist dost thou still name the name of Christ? Homl. Skt. 8, 165. Ða twá tabelan getácnodon ða twá bebodu ðe ic nú namode, Homl. Th. ii. 204, 21. On ðære ylcan byrig ðe wé ǽr namodon, 296, 32. Namedon, Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7, 7. Ðæt ðú nánne brýdguman nǽfre mé ne namige that you never mention the name of any bridegroom to me, Homl. Skt. 9, 37. Ðeáh ðe wé ðás sinderlíce namian though we mention the names of these in particular, Homl. Th. ii. 432, 23. II. to name, appoint by name to a particular duty, nominate :-- Gif hé ne mehte, ðonne namede him man six men, L. Ed. 1; Th. i. 158, 21. Beforan his witum ðe se cyng silf namode, L. Æðelst. v. 10; Th. i. 240, 6. III. to name, give a name to :-- Hwí namode Crist Abel rihtwísne? Boutr. Scrd. 18, 6. [O. Frs. nomia : O. H. Ger. namón.] v. ge-namian.

nam-mǽlum; adv. Name by name :-- Nammǽlum nominatim, per singula nomina, Hpt. Gl. 427, 28.

namnian; p. ode To name, call by name :-- Se namnode ðone Hǽlend be his naman, Ælfc. T. Grn. 10, 16. [O. Frs. namna, nanna.] v. nemnan.

nám-rǽden[n], e; f. Learning, erudition :-- Námrǽdenne litterature, Wrt. Voc. ii. 50, 19. [Cf. Icel. nám learning, study.]

nán [= ne án]; pron. I. as adjective, not one, none, no, (a) without other negatives :-- Nán mǽrra man wurde ácenned, Menol. Fox 319; Men. 161. Hit is nánum men getiohhod ac is eallum monnum it is not intended for one man, but for all men, Bt. 37, 2; Fox 188, 15. (b) with other negatives :-- Ne nán heora án nis ná læsse ðonne eall seó þrynnys and no one of them is less than all the Trinity, Homl. Th. i. 284, 1. Nán heort ne onscunode nǽnne león, ne nán hara nǽnne hund, ne nán neát nyste nǽnne andan ne nǽnne ege tó óðrum, 35, 6; Fox 168, 9-11. Nán swylc ne cwom....brýd, Exon. Th. 18, 28; Cri. 290. Swá nán óðer ná déþ mónaþ, Menol. Fox 392; Men. 197. Nán þing ðæs folces belyfen næs there was nothing left of the people, St. And. 34, 13. Næs ðæt nán þing wundor ðæt ... it was no wonder that, Deut. i. 37. Ða cild ðe niton nánes þinges nán gesceád ne gódes ne yfeles, 1, 39. Seó leáse wyrd ne mæg ðam men dón nǽnne dem, forðam heó nis nánes lofes wyrðe, Bt. 20; Fox 70, 22-24. Ne cyning næ bisceop ne nánes hádes man nullus rex aut episcopus, vel aliquis alius potens, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 218, 28. Hié nǽfre tó nánum men ne becumaþ, Bt. 11, 1; Fox 30, 27. Hé on náne wísan ne mæg forbúgan he can in no wise avoid, 16, 2; Fox 54, 5. Ðá ne mihton hig him nán word andswarian ne nán ne dorste hyne nán þing máre áxigean, Mt. Kmbl. 22, 46. Ne sǽdon hyt mé náne swá sóðfeste men, Shrn. 204, 22. II. as predicate :-- Forhwí ðé hátan dysige men wuldor nú ðú náne eart (nán neart, MS. Cott.) why do foolish men call thee glory, when thou art none, Bt. 30, 1; Fox 108, 3. III. as substantive, (a) absolutely, none, no man, nothing :-- Nán mihtigra ðé nis, ne nán ðín gelíca, 33, 4; Fox 128, 11. Nán in nearowe néþan móste, Exon. Tb. 436, 12; Rä. 54, 13. Ðam wæs nán tó gedále, Cd. Th. 84, 20; Gen. 1400. Hé nolde nǽnne forlǽtan ðe him fylgian wolde, Hy. Grn. 10. 38. Deáþ náne forlét, Met. 10, 66. (b) with partitive genitive :-- Næs ǽnig engel geworden, ne ðæs miclan mægen-þrymmes nán, Exon. Th. 22, 17; Cri. 352. Him ne mæg ealdfeónda nán átre sceþþan, 229, 2; Ph. 449. Gúþbilla nán, Beo. Th. 1610; B. 803: 1980; B. 988. Næs heora neáta nán geyfelad jumenta eorum non sunt minorata, Ps. Th. 106, 37. Ne þearf hæleþa nán wénan, Met. 7, 6. Hwæt wille gé cueðan hwæs oððe hwæs gé síen ? gé habbaþ gecýðed ðæt gé úres nánes ( = úre nánes) ne siendon quid vos hujus vel illius dicitis, qui nullius vos esse monstratis ? Past. 32, 1; Swt. 211, 14. Nánne ne sparedon ðæs herefolces, Judth. 11; Thw. 24, 40; Jud. 233. Náne þinga beór ne drince on no account let him drink beer, Lchdm. ii. 88, 10. [Icel. neinn : cf. O. Sax. nén : O. H. Ger. nein (particle of negation).] v. nǽnig.

nán-wiht, nán-uht. I. as subst. nothing :-- Nánwiht nihil, Wrt. Voc. i. 47, 32. Heó hire self gecýþ ðæt heó nánwuht ne biþ she herself shews that she is nothing, Bt. 20; Fox 70, 24. Ðú wéndest ðæt ðé nánwuht unrihtlíces on becuman ne mihte, 7, 3; Fox 22, 15 : 16, 3; Fox 56, 31: 38, 2; Fox 198, 6. Ðæt gecynd nyle nǽfre nánwuht wiðerweardes lǽtan gemengan, 16, 3; Fox 54, 36. Hió nánwuht elles ne lufaþ bútan ðé, 10; Fox 28, 24. Hé nánwuht ealles (nothing at all) næbbe ymbe tó sorgienne, 11, 1; Fox 32, 12. Hié hiora nánwuht ongiotan ne meahton, Past. Swt. 5, 12. Ðone ðe ðú nánwiht yfles on nystest, Blickl. Homl. 85, 36. Nánuht berendes, ne wíf ne niéten, ne mehton nánuht libbendes geberan, Ors. 4, 1; Swt. 158, 18. Nánuht ágiefan nolde ðæs ðe hié béna wǽron, 3, 11; Swt. 146, 35. Gé nánuht nabbaþ fæstes ne stronges, 2, 4; Swt. 74, 28. The Northern gospels have nǽniht (from nǽnig?) :-- Nǽniht unmæht biþ nihil impossibile erit, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 17, 20. Tó nówihte ɫ nǽnihte ad nihilum, 5, 13. Bibeód him ðæt nǽniht (ne ǽniht, Lind.) hiǽ gilǽdde on woeg praecepit ne quid tollerent in via, Mk. Skt. Rush. 6, 8. Náneht ɫ ne óht (nǽniht ɫ nóht, Rush.) nullam, Lk. Skt. Lind. 23, 22. II. as an adverb, nothing, not at all, no whit :-- Hé his godcundnesse nánwiht ne gewanode he no whit diminished his divinity, Blickl. Homl. 91, 9. Ne gefyrenodest ðú nánwuht thou hast done no sin, 235, 34. v. ná-wiht.

nápan. v. ge-nápan and nípan.

nard, es; m. Spikenard; nardus :-- Sealfbox deórwyrþes nardes alabastrum ungenti nardi spicati praetiosi, Mk. Skt.14, 3. Nardys, Lchdm. i. 184, 19. Ete nardes eár, 354, 12. Ele ðe sý of nardo, 246, 20. Nardes stenc, Exon. Th. 423, 28; Rä. 41, 29. [Goth. nardus : O. H. Ger. narda. From Latin.]

naru. v. ealdor-, feorh-, líf-naru.

nást. v. nytan.

nasu; f. The nose :-- Nasu naris; eall seó nasu columpna; forewerd nasu pirula, Wrt. Voc. i. 282, 63-65. Gif nasu þyrel weorþ, L. Ethb. 45; Th. i. 14, 10 : 48; Th. i. 14, 13. Gif man óðerne mid fyste in naso slæhþ, 57; Th. i. 16, 17. [Icel. nös : O. H. Ger. nasa.] v. nosu.

nát. v. nytan.

nátes-hwón; adv. Not at all, by no means :-- Haud, adverbium, ðæt is on Englisc nátes-hwón, Ælfc. Gr. 50, 16; Som. 51, 25. Náteshwón haud, minime, nullatenus, 38; Som. 40, 13-15 : nequaquam, Som. 41, 55 : nequaquam, nullo modo, Hpt. Gl. 433, 60 : haud, 466, 70 : minime, 470, 24. Ne eart ðú náteshwón wacost burga thou art by no means least of towns, Homl. Th. i. 78, 14. Ne mæg ic náteshwón búton mynstre nihtes wunian, ii. 182, 33: 80, 16. Sume teolunga sind ðe man earfoþlíce mæg oððe náteshwón (hardly or not at all) búton synnum begán, 288, 22 : Homl. Skt. 7, 104. Hé ne áwyrpþ náteshwón his wǽpna him fram, ǽr ðam ðe ðæt gewinn wurðe geendod, Basil admn. 2; Norm. 36, 9. Ne sculon mæssepreóstas náteshwón bútan óðrum mannum mæssan syngan, L. E. I. 7; Th. ii. 406, 21. v. ná-wiht.

náðor. v. ná-hwæðer.

nát-hwǽr; adv. In some place unknown, Exon. Th. 480, 8; Rä. 63, 8: 407, 14; Rä. 26, 5.

nát-hwæt; pron. indef. Something unknown :-- Rúwes náthwæt something rough, but what I know not, Exon. Th. 479, 17; Rä. 62, 9 : 436, 23; Rä. 55, 5 : 499, 25; Rä. 88, 21.

nát-hwilc; pron. indef. Some one, I know not who :-- Hæleþa náthwylc some man, I know not who, Elen. Kmbl. 146; El. 73. Hé, gumena náthwylc, Beo. Th. 4459; B. 2233. Ðara banena byre náthwylces the child of one of those murderers, but I know not of which, 4113; B. 2053 : 4451; B. 2224. Þurh náthwylces .... Exon. Th. 12, 21; Cri. 189. Hé in níþsele náthwylcum wæs in some unknown hall was he, Beo. Th. 3031; B. 1513. (Cf. sceaða ic nát hwylc, 554; B. 274.)

náuht. v. ná-wiht.

náwa [= ne áwa]; adv. Never :-- Ðæt is swíðe strang ðam ðe ðæt náwa ǽr þigde it is very strong for him who never before tasted it, Lchdm. ii. 252, 14. [Cf. O. Sax. O. H. Ger. néo : Goth. ni aiw.] v. áwa.

ná-wérn. v. ná-hwǽrn.

ná-wiht, nó-wiht, ná-uht, náwht, náht, nóht. I. as subst. with gen. es; n. (a) nothing, naught, a thing of no value, an evil thing :-- Is tó cýðanne hwelc náwuht (náuht, Cott. MSS.) ðes woruldgielp is intimandum est, quam sit nulla temporalis gloria, Past. 41,1; Swt. 299, 6. Náwuhtes cearu ofer ða ryhtwísnesse care for nothing besides righteousness, Swt. 302, 9. Ðú hí miht tó náwihte (ad nihilum) forniman, Ps.Th. 72, 16, 17 : 107,12. Spoede míne swé swé nówiht beforan ðé biþ substantia mea tanquam nihil ante te est, Ps. Surt. 38, 6. Tó nówihte, 14, 4 : 80, 15. Fore nówihte pro nihilo, 55, 8. Hé nówiht ne fremede nec ipse aliquid profecisset, Bd. 5, 9 tit.; S. 622, 6. Hé nówiht elles ne dyde, 2, 14; S. 518, 8. Yfel is náuht. Ðǽr yfel áuht wǽre, ðonne mihte hit God wyrcan. For ðý hit is náuht, Bt. 35, 5; Fox 164, 10-11. Heore þincþ eall náuht (nóht, Cott. MS.) ðæt heó hæfþ, 10; Fox 28, 28. Hú ne is se anweald ðǽr náuht? 16, 2; Fox 54, 7. Hú ne wást ðú ðæt hit nis náuht gecynde ne náuht gewunelíc ðæt ǽnig wiðerweard þing bión gemenged wið óðrum wiðerweardum do you not know that it is not a natural or usual thing, for contraries to be mingled with other contraries, 16, 3; Fox 54, 11. Ne eart ðú nó eallunga tó náuhte gedón thou art not altogether brought to naught, 10; Fox 30, 4. Weorðan tó náuhte to come to naught, Met. 11, 87. For náuht tó habbene to be considered worthless, Bt. 30, 1; Fox 108, 17. Mon ongiet mid hwelcum stæpum ðæt náwht (náuht, Cott. MSS.) wæs þurhtogen quibus vestigiis nequitia sit perpetrata, Past. 35, 3; Swt. 241, 18. Náht nichil, Wrt. Voc. i. 83, 68: nihili, 47, 33; nihil, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 8; Som. 9, 13. Náht mé wana biþ nihil mihi deerit, Ps. Spl. 22, 1. Nis ðæs mannes fæsten náht, ðe hine, sylfne on forhæfednysse dagum fordrencþ, Homl. Th. ii. 608, 23. Heora dýre gold ne biþ náhte wurð wið ða foresǽdan mádmas their precious gold will be worth nothing in comparison with the aforesaid treasures, Glostr. Frg. 2, 29. Tó náhte ad nihilum, Ps. Spl. 14, 5 : Ps. Th. 59, 11. Ne ðæt tó náhte nyt ne biþ it is to no purpose, Blickl. Homl. 57, 5. Hig tellaþ mín wedd for náht irritum facient pactum meum, Deut. 31, 20. For náhtum pro nihilo, Ps. Lamb. 80, 15. Ungeleáfsumum nóht biþ clǽne infidelibus nihil est mundum, Bd. 1, 27; S. 494, 40. Mon nóhtes wyrþe his sáule ne déþ ne his goldes ne his seolfres a man does not make his soul worthy of anything, of his gold or of his silver, Blickl. Homl. 195, 5. Næfdon heó nóht on hire, búton ðæt án ðæt heó hæfde mennisce onlícnesse, 147, 15. Ne fqrstent hit him nóht, ne him nóhte ðon má ne beóþ forlǽtna his ágna synna, Past. 21; Swt. 163, 19. ¶ genitive used as predicate :-- Ða sǽlþa ðe hé ǽr wénde ðæt gesǽlþa beón sceoldan, náuhtas nǽran (were worthless), Bt. 10. tit.; Fox xii. 6. Eówer godas ne synd náhtes, Homl. Skt. 7, 205. (b) with a genitive :-- Eallinga náwiht mægenes hæfeþ seó ǽfæstnys nihil omnino virtutis habet religio illa, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, 3. Ic ðæs nówiht wát, Exon. Th. 393, 5; Rä, 12, 5. Ealles náuht nothing at all, Bt. 36, 6; Fox 182, 8. Náuht elles nothing else, 3, 2; Fox 6, 11. Hé ne mæg útane náuht ágnes habban, 27, 2; Fox 98, 8. Ðes náht yfeles ne dyde hic nihil mali gessit, Lk. Skt. 23, 41. Náht elles búton nothing but, Blickl. Homl. 215, 3. Nóht elles ne wunaþ, búton ðæt án, 101, 4. Gif wé yfles nóht gedón habbaþ, Exon. Th. 262, 8; Jul. 329. II. as an adverb, not :-- Hit gelamp neáht micelre tíde æfter his slæge (non multo exacto tempore), Bd. 3, 9; S. 533. 30. Náht feor eást, 2, 13; S. 517, 15 : Blickl. Homl. 43, 26. Mannum ðe náht swíðe God ne lufiaþ, 53. 18: Wrt. Voc. ii. 55, 27. Ic wát ðæt ðú náht (áuht, Cott. MSS.) ne forsláwodest, Bt. 10; Fox 28, 15. Heó nóht lata ne wæs, Blicki. Homl. 163, 8. Ne þurfan gé nóht besorgian hwæt gé sprecan, 171, 18. Ne wæs hé nóht feor on oferhygd áhafen, 215, 32. Nóht longe ofer ðis, Exon. Th. 172, 15; Gú. 1144. Æfter nóht langre tíde, Bd. 5, 11; S. 626, 10. Ic nóht ðon ǽr ðære ærninge blon, 5, 6; S. 619, 15. [O. Frs. ná-wet : O. Sax. O. H. Ger. neó-wiht.] v. nátes-hwón and following words.

náwiht-, náht-fremmend, es; m. One who does evil :-- Genere mé fram níðe náht-frernmendra eripe me de operantibus iniquitatem, Ps. Th. 58, 2.

náwiht-, náwht-, náuht-gítsung, e; f. Wicked avarice :-- Ðonne hié wilniaþ þurh ða náwhtgítsunga (náuhtgídsunga, Cott. MSS.) ðæt hié hira woruldspéda ícean dum per avaritiae nequitiam multiplicari appetunt, Past. 44, 10; Swt. 333, 5.

náwiht-, náht-líc; adj. Good for nothing, worthless, naughty :-- Seó hæfde nigon dohtra, náhtlíce and fracode, Homl. Skt. 8, 11. Manna rǽdas syndon náhtlíce ongeán Godes geþeaht men's plans are of no avail against God's counsel, Chr. 979; Erl. 129, 27. Ða hé geceás ðe dyselíce and nahtlíce geþuhte synt he chose those that seemed foolish and of no account, R. Ben. 138, 30. v. next word.

náwiht-, nóht-líce; adv. Worthlessly, evilly :-- Ðætte nóhtlíce ðú dóe ut nequiter facias, Ps. Surt. 36, 8, 9.

náwiht-, náht-ness, e; f. Worthlessness, cowardice :-- Heom seggan Brytwalana náhtnesse (MS. E. náhtscipe. Cf. secgan Brytta yrgþo (segnitia), Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 15), Chr. 449; Erl. 12, 6.

náwiht-, náuht-wela, an; m. False wealth, wealth that is not really wealth :-- Gé wénaþ ðæt eówre náuhtwelan (nóht-, Cott. MS.) síen eówra gesǽlþa, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 37.

náwðer. v. ná-hwæðer.

Nazarenisc, Nazaresc; adj. Of Nazareth :-- Se Nazareniscea (Nazaresca, Lind.) Hǽlend, Mk. Skt. 10, 47: 14, 67. Ðone Nazareniscean (Natzarenisca, Lind.) Hǽlend, Jn. Skt. 18, 5.

ne. I. adv. (a) Not; non, ne :-- Ic ne dyde non feci, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 40, 13. Nis hit swá hit nys non, non, 40, 23. Warna ðæt ðú ðæt ne dó cave ne hoc facias, 40, 9. Hwí forbeád God eów, ðæt gé ne ǽton of ǽlcum treówe? Gen. 3, 1. Hí nyllaþ geswícan ðæt hí óðre men ne reáfigen, Past. 45, tit; Swt. 335, 4. Ne gǽst ðú ðanone non exies inde, Lk. Skt. 12, 59. Ne sleh ðu, Ne synga ðú. Ne stel ðú, Ex. 20, 13-15. (b) no, nay :-- Ne secge ic eów I tell you, Nay, Lk. Skt. 12, 51 : 13, 5. Ne secge ic ná, 13, 3. II. conj. Nor, neither; ne, neque, nec :-- Ne tunge ne handa oððe eágan syngion ne lingua nec manus oculive peccent, Ælfc. Gr. 44; Som. 45. 47. Ne ic ne herige ne ic ne tǽle nec laudo, nec vitupero, 45, 49. Ne ic ne dyde ne ic ne dó neque feci, neque faciam, 38; Som. 40, 9. Ne fare gé ne ne fyliaþ, Lk. Skt. 17, 23. Ne hig ne cweðaþ neque dicent, 17, 21. Ne him eác nǽfre genóg ne þincþ ǽr hé hæbbe eall ðæt hine lyst, Bt. 33, 2; Fox 124, 6. Suelcum ingeþonce geríst ðæt hé for lícuman tiedernesse ne for woroldbismere ánum wið ða scíre ne winne, ne hé ne síe giétsiende óðerra monna ǽhta, Past. 10; Swt. 61, 9-11. Ða ðe nóhwæðer ne óðerra monna ne wilniaþ, ne hiora ágen nyllaþ sellan, Past. 45, tit.; Swt. 335, 1. The word often occurs with other negatives. v. ná, ná-wiht, ná-hwæðer; it also coalesces with many words beginning with a vowel, with w or with h. v. nabban, nágan, næs, neom, nic, nyllan, nytan; nán, ná-, nát-, nǽfre, nǽnig. [Goth. ni : O. Sax. ne, ni : O. Frs. ne : O. H. Ger. ni.]

né-, neá-, neád. v. neó-, neáh-, níd.

neádian; p. ode (v. níd, VI) To force, compel, constrain :-- Neádaþ forlǽtan cogit intermittere, Hymn. Surt. 56, 13 : 84, 17. Útlagan ús wépan neádiaþ exules nos flere cogunt, 56, 3. Se ðe óðerne neádaþ ofer his mihte tó drincenne, Ælfc. T. Grn. 21, 31. God hine ne neádode on náðre healfe, ac lét hine habban his ágene cyre, Hexam. 15; Norm. 22, 30. Ne neádige hine man tó fæstene ne cogatur ad jejunium, L. Ecg. P. iv. 25; Th. ii. 212, 5 : L. Ælfc. C. 29; Th. ii. 352, 29. Neádede cogeret, Hpt. Gl. 519, 19. Neádiendum cogente, 503, 39. His deópe rihtwísnys nolde hí neádian tí náðrum, Homl. Th. i. 112, 3. v. ge-, of-neádian, nídan.

neádian, neódian; p. ode (v. níd, IV) To be necessary :-- On cealdum eardum neódaþ (is neód, W. F.), ðæt ðæs reáfes máre sý, on hleówfæstum læs. Ðæs abbodes forsceáwung sceal beón be ðysum, hú ðæs neódige, R. Ben. 89, 6, 8.

neádigness, e; f. Obligation :-- Neádinysse ɫ neóde debitum, Hpt. Gl. 456. 14.

neádlunga; adv. Forcibly, against one's will :-- Manega gewilniaþ óðres mannes wólíce and hí beóþ benǽmede neádlunga hyra ágenes many covet another man's goods, and they shall be forcibly deprived of their own, Basil admn. 9; Norm. 52, 20. v. nídlinga and next two words.

neádung, e; f. Force or violence used against any one, compulsion, necessity :-- Ðeós neádung haec vis, Ælfc. Gl. 9, 29; Som. 11, 62. Of ðisum leahtre (gítsung) beóþ ácennede reáflác, stala, unmǽþlic neádung, Homl. Th. ii. 220, 12. Hé nolde geniman ús neádunge of deófles anwealde, i. 26, 30. Hine betellan swilce hé neádunge gefremode ðæt fácn to excuse himself, as if he committed that crime of necessity, H. R. 105, 26. Neádunge vim, Hpt. Gl. 435, 70. [Icel. nauðung compulsion.] v. next word.

neádunga (-inga); adv. Forcibly, not willingly, under compulsion, of necessity :-- Hé nolde niman mancyn neádunga of ðam deófle búton hé hit forwyrhte he would not have taken mankind by force from the devil, unless he had forfeited it, Homl. Th. i. 216, 5. Ðone cniht ðe hé neádinga genam (rapuisset), Ors. 1, 8; Swt. 42, 10. Hí hine neádunga mid him lǽddon invitum duxerunt, Bd. 3, 18; S. 546, 22. Gif lǽweda man neádinga (invite) man ofsleá, L. Ecg. P. ii. 1; Th. ii. 182, 16. Neádunga, L. M. I. P. 6; Th. ii. 266, 27. Gif hé (man) wǽre neádunga (without power of choice, necessarily) Gode underþeód, ðonne næfde hé nán wuldor for gódum weorcum, Boutr. Scrd. 17, 26. Sió leáse gesǽlþ tíhþ on lást neádinga (inevitably) ða ðe hiere tó geþeódaþ from ðǽm sóðum gesǽlþum; seó wiðerweardnes full oft ealle ða ðe hiere underþeódde bióþ, neádinga getíhþ tó ðám sóðum gesǽlþum, swá swá mid angle fisc gefangen biþ, Bt. 20; Fox 72, 7-11. v. nídinga and preceding word.

neáh; adj. I. nigh, near :-- On ðam neáhgum mynstre [neáhnunnan-mynstre] de vicino virginum monasterio, Bd. 4, 1; S. 564, 4 note. Neágum proximis (cf. O. L. Ger. náan proximum), Germ. 399, 409. Seó ús neárre Ægyptus, Ors. 1, I; Swt. 14, 3. Seó ús neárre Ispania, Swt. 22, 31 : 24, 9. Síe se láreów eallum monnum se niéhsta and eallum monnum elnþrowiende on hira gesuincum sit rector singulis compassione proximus, Past. 16; Swt. 97, 22. Seó mǽgþ is seó nýhste on súþhalfe Humbre streámes provincia (Lindissi) quae est prima ad meridianam Humbrae fluminis ripam, Bd. 2, 16; S. 519, 19. Níhsta proxima, Ps. Spl. 21, 10. Sió néste hond the nearest relative, Chart. Th. 481, 21. Gif hwylc man wífige on his néhstan mágan (proximam cognatam), L. Ecg. P. ii. 18; Th. ii. 188, 26. Hiera niéhstan friénd, Past. 49; Swt. 377, 1. Heora nýhstan mágas, L. Eth. ii. 6; Th. i. 286, 32. II. in cpve. later, latter; superl. last, latest. v. ende-néhst :-- Se æftera ɫ nǽrra novissimus, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 21, 31. His ða nérran tíde wǽron wyrsan ðám ǽrran habuit posteriora pejora prioribus, Bd. 2, 15; S. 518, 31. Cedd and Adda and Bete and Dema, se nýhsta wæs Scyttysces cynnes, 3, 21; S. 551, 15. Ðis is Byrhtríces níhsta cwide (last will), Chart. Th. 500, 24. Óðer is se ǽresta apostol, óðer se néhsta, Blickl. Homl. 171, 9. On ðæm néhstan dæge on the last day, 21, 35. On ða néhstan tíd ðisse worlde, on dómes dæge, 123, 32. Óþ ða nýhstan orþuncge until his latest breath, L. Ælfc. E.; Th. ii. 392, 9. From Ninuse hiora ǽrestan cyninge óþ Sardanapolim heora níhstan, Ors. 6, 1; Swt. 252, 8. Be ðám neáhstan twám is æfter tó cweþanne de ultimis infra dicendum est, Bd. 4, 23; S. 594, 12. Monige beóþan ða ǽrestu nǽhstu and ða nǽhstu ǽrestu, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 19, 30. From ðǽm nǽhstum óþ ðe ǽrestum, 20, 8. Æt neáhstan postremo, Bd. 2, 6; S. 508, 19. Æt néhstan (Rush. níhsto) novissime, Mt. Kmbl. 25, 11: Blickl. Homl. 85, 1. Æt néxtan, Homl. Th. i. 66, 23. Æt niéhstan, Cd. Th. 84, 19; Gen. 1400. Æt níhstan, Ors. 4, 9; Swt. 192, 35. Æt nýhstan, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 4. Æt nýxtan, Chr. 994; Erl. 133, 20: 1010; Erl. 144, 9. v níhsta and next word.

neáh, néh nigh, near. I. as adv. (1) of place :-- Ealle hire mágas ða ðe ðǽr neáh wǽron, Blickl. Homl. 139, 16. Ic wát heáhburh hér áne neáh, Cd. Th. 152, 9; Gen. 2517. Fear oððe neáh, 63, 8; Gen. 1029. Ge neáh ge feor, Bd. 4, 4; S. 571, 7. Ge néh ge feor, Andr. Kmbl. 1083; An. 542. Gá hider neár accede huc, Gen. 27, 21. Mid ðý ic ðá wolde neár geseón quos cum adire vellemus vicinius, Nar. 22, 11. Swa fyr swá nýr, L. I. P. 21; Th. ii. 332, 16. Ðǽr ðǽr hé niéhst rýmet hæfde, Chr. 894; Erl. 90, 9. (2) of time :-- Ðisses middangeardes ende (or dat. ?) swíðe neáh is, Blickl. Homl. 107, 23. Eall ðás getimbro neáh is ðæt hí eall fýr fornimeþ and on axsan gehwyrfeþ cuncta haec aedificia, in proximo est ut ignis absumens in cinerem convertat, Bd. 4, 25; S. 600, 33. Nemnan ðæt ús neáh (lately) gewearð gecýþed, Exon. Th. 107, 26; Gú. 64. Ðá ic hine néhst geseáh when I last saw him, Cd. Th. 34, 12; Gen. 536. Ðonan hý God nýhst eágum ségun, Exon. Th. 34. 1; Cri: 535. (3) of degree, near, nearly, about :-- Heó hafaþ leáf neáh swylce mistel, Lchdm. i. 254, 12. Ða Finnas and ða Beormas sprǽcon neáh án geþeóde, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 34. Hié æt níhstan hæfdon ealra ðara anwald ðe ǽr néh heora hæfdon in the end they had dominion over all those who before nearly had dominion over them, 4, 9; Swt. 192, 35. Swá neáh wæs þúsend áurnen so nearly had a thousand years passed (all but twenty-seven), Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 23. Swíðe neáh ðú ongeáte ðæt riht, Bt. 34, 12; Fox 154, 10. Nihtscúwan neáh ne mihton (could not nearly) heolstor áhýdan, Col. Th. 184, 29; Exod. 114. Hí ne notigaþ náwér neáh feórþan dǽles ðisse eorþan they do not use anywhere near a fourth part of the earth, 18, 1; Fox 62, 9. Ðæt gé dón ne mágon, ne furþum náwér neáh, 18, 2; Fox 64, 6 : Shrn. 196, 28 : 197, 13. Ne maeg hió ðeáh gescínan áhwǽrgen neáh ealla gesceafta the sun cannot reach with its rays anywhere near all creatures, Met. 30, 10. Ús is þearf ðæt wé geþencen hwæt Dauid cwæþ and eác ðon dón swá wé nýhst mǽgan we must consider what David said, and besides that act as nearly as we can accordingly, L. E. I. 30; Th. ii. 426, 38. II. as prep. with dat. (I) of place :-- Neáh helle secus infernum, Ps. Spl. 140, 9. Neáh [Lind. Rush. néh] ðam túne juxta praedium, Jn. Skt. 4, 5. Seó flóweþ neáh ðære ceastre wealle, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478, 5. Him wæs engel neáh, Exon. Th. 112, 14; Gú. 143. Ðæt nán ne sǽte hiere x mílum neáh that no one should settle within ten miles of it (Carthage), Ors. 4, 13; Swt. 210, 22. Tó ðæm túne néh Oliuetes dúne, Blickl. Homl. 69, 33. Gang mé neár hider come hither nearer to me, 179, 30. Seó Ægyptus ðe ús neár is, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 12, 16. Swá hé biþ ðære sunnan neár swá biþ hire fyrr whether it (the moon) is nearer to the sun or farther from it, Shrn. 64, 32. Swá neár ende ðyssere worulde swá máre ehtnys ðæs deófles the nearer to the end of the world, the greater the devil's persecution, Homl. Th. ii. 370, 15. Ne biþ hió merestreáme ðé neár ðe on midne dæg, Met. 28, 37. Ðá se swég mé nýr wæs, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 31. Swá swá sió nafu férþ néhst (Cott. MS. neáhst) ðære eaxe, Bt. 39, 7; Fox 222, 1. Sceall beón se læsta dǽl nýhst ðæm túne, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 20, 33. (2) of time :-- Ne ðínre forþfóre swá neáh is neque mori adhuc habes, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 37, 32 : 3, 8; S. 531, 36. Ðære týde is neáh, ðæt Godes cyrce hafaþ sybbe on eorþan, Shrn. 154, 33. Biþ néh ðæm seofoþan dæge, Blickl. Homl. 95, 11. Hié wéndon ðæt hit neár worulde endunge wǽre ðonne hit wǽre, Past. 32; Swt. 213, 6. (3) of manner :-- Ic dó neáh ðam ðe ðú cwǽde juxta verbum tuum faciam, Ex. 8, 10. Neáh (juxta) eallon ðám þingum, ðe Drihten bebeád, Num. 1, 54: 8, 20. Neáh andefene prope modum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 66, 73. Ágnung biþ nér ðam ðe hæfþ ðonne ðam ðe æfter sprecþ possession is nine points of the law, L. Eth. ii. 9; Th. i. 290, 20. Ús sylfe gerihtlǽcan swá neáh swá wé nýhst mágon ðam rihte to direct ourselves as much according to right as we possibly can, Chart. Th. 615, 24. [Goth. néhw; adv.; cpve. néhwis : Icel. ná- (in cpds.); nær; adv. (pos. and cpve.) : O. Sax. náh; adv. prep, with dat.; cpve. náhor : O. Frs. ní, nei; adv.: O. H. Ger. náh; adv. prep. with dat.; náh; adj. contiguus, vicinus.] v. efen- (emn-), un-neáh, the preceding word, the cpds. with neáh-, and neáwung.

-neah. v. be-, ge-neah.

neáh-búend, es; m. A near-dweller, a neighbour :-- Ic eom neáh-búendum nyt, Exon. Th. 407, 8; Rä. 26, 2.

neáh-búr. v. neáh-gebúr.

neáh-dún, e; f. A neighbouring hill :-- Of ðǽm neáhdúnum and scrafum ex vicinis montium speluncis, Nar. 14, 6.

neáh-eá; f. A neighbouring river :-- Hié of ðǽm neáhéum and merum ða hronfiscas up tugon and ða ǽton, Nar. 22, 9.

neáh-eáland, es; n. A neighbouring island : - On ðysum neáheá-lande ðæt is nemned Ulcani, Shrn. 86, 1.

neáh-freónd, es; m. A near friend or relation :-- Ðǽr wæs mycel menigo manna gegaderod his mága and eác óðra his néhfreónda, Guthl. 12; Gdwin. 56, 22. [Icel. ná-frændi a near kinsman.]

neáh-, néh-gebúr, néhche-, néhhe-, néche-, néhe-búr, es; m. A neighbour :-- Néhgebúr adfinis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 9, 68 : convical, 135, 56. Míne frýnd and míne miáas and míne neáhgebúras amici mei, et proximi mei, Ps. Th. 37, 11. His neáhgebúras (néhebúras, Lind.: néhgibúras, Rush.) vicini, Jn. Skt. 9, 8. Hyre néhchebúras (néhhebúras, MS. A.: néhebúras, Lind.: néhgibúras, Rush.), Lk. Skt. 1, 58, 65. Néhhebúras, 14, 12 : 15, 6. Neapolite ða heora néhgebúras, Blickl. Homl. 201, 19. Néchebúrena gefeoht intestinum bellum, Wrt. Voc. i. 35, 16. V. men his neáhgebúra (néhbúra), L. Ath. i. 9; Th. i. 204, 11. On his néhebúra gewitnesse, v. 8, 7; Th. i. 238, 3. Se ðe æfter ǽnegum ceápe ríde, cýþe his neáhgebúrum ymbe hwæt hé ríde, L. Edg. S. 7; Th. i. 274, 20 : Ps. Th. 30, 13. Ne laða ðú ðíne welegan neáhgebúras, Past. 44; Swt. 323, 21. [Cf. Icel. ná-búi a neighbour.] v. next two words.

neáh-gebýrild, es; m. A neighbour :-- Néhebýrildas vicinas, Lk. Skt. Lind. 15, 9. v. next word.

neáh-gebýren, e; f. A neighbour :-- Heó clypaþ hyre frýnd and néhhebýryna (-byrna, MS. A.) convocans amicas et vicinas, Lk. Skt. 15, 9. v. neáh-gebúr.

neáh-gehúsa, an; m. A neighbour :-- Néhgehúsum mínum vicinis meis, Ps. Surt. 30, 12 : 78, 4, 12 : 79, 7.

neahhige; adv. Abundantly, frequently, Ps. Th. 138, 9. v. geneahhie.

neáh-, neá-lǽcan; p. -lǽhte, -lǽcte To draw nigh, approach :-- Ðis fýr mé swíðe neálǽceþ ignis mihi adpropinquat, Bd. 3, 19; S. 548, 24 : Exon. Th. 164, 4; Gú. 1006. Deáþ neálǽcte, 170, 16; Gú. 1112. Hé neálǽhte accessit, Gen. 27; 27. On ðære tíde ðe neálǽhte niðða bearnum, Cd. Th. 77, 32; Gen. 1284 : Judth. Thw. 21, 25; Jud. 34. Hí neáhlǽhton tó ðære ceastre adpropinquantes civitati; Bd. 1, 25; S. 487; 21. Hí ðam mynstre neálǽctan, 4, 25; S. 600, 28. Tó him neálǽcan, 4, 3; S. 567, 43. v. ge-, tó-neáhlǽcan.

neáh-, neá-lǽcung, e; f. A drawing nigh, approach :-- Ðá ðá hé gefrédde his deáþes neálǽcunge when he was sensible of the approach of his death, Homl. Th. i. 88, 8. Hý sylfe fram manna gesyhþe áscyriende ðara manna neálǽcynge ná underfóþ cutting themselves off from the sight of men they do not admit the approach of men, R. Ben. 135, 1. v. ge-neálǽcing.

neáh-líc; adj. Near :-- Unrótnysse neáhlíce tribulatio proxima, Ps. Lamb. 21, 12. [Icel. ná-ligr near, close at hand.] v. next word.

neáh-, neá-líce; adv. Nearly, about :-- Hié neálíce swá fela (tot pene) þearfena ofsleáþ swá hié ídelíce mid hiera ælmessan gehelpan meahton, Past. 45, 1; Swt. 335, 15. Hý blówaþ ðonne neálíce (just about when) óðre wyrta scrincaþ, Lchdm. i. 204, 13. [Icel. ná-liga nearly, almost : O. H. Ger. náh-lícho ferme.] v. ge-néhlíce.

neáh-, neá-, néh-mǽg, es; m. A near kinsman :-- His gebróðru and his neámágas fratres ejus omnisque cognatio illa, Ex. 1, 6. Neáhmága adfinium, Wrt. Voc. ii. 3, 8. His néhmága sum and his worldfreónda, Blickl. Homl. 113, 9. Se man leóf his néhmágum and his worldfreóndum, 111, 27. Wífe and cildan and néhmágon (MS. B. neáhmágum), L. C. S. 71; Th. i. 414, 1. [Icel. ná-mágr a near kinsman by marriage.]

neáh-mǽgþ, e; f. A neighbouring province (v. mǽgþ, IV. c) :-- On ða neáhmǽgþe in proximam provinciam, Bd. 4, 16; S. 584, 23. Ðæra neáhmǽgþa finitimarum provinciarum, 3, 24; S. 557, 15.

neáh-, néh-mann, es; m. A neighbour :-- Him se gesíþ eác fultumade and ealle ða neáhmenn juvante etiam comite ac vicinis omnibus, Bd. 4, 4; S. 571, 14. Ða néhmen vicini, 1, 33; S. 499, 10. Úrum neáhmannum vicinis nostris, Ps. Th. 79, 6: Shrn. 73, 35.

neáh-munt, es; m. A neighbouring mountain :-- Of ðæm neáhmunte (ex vicino monte) wealleþ wæter, Nar. 31, 7.

neáhness, e; f. Nearness, neighbourhood :-- Hwylc tóweard yfel ðú ðé on neáhnysse forhtast quae ventura tibi in proximo mala formidas, Bd. 2, 12; S. 514, 1. On néhnesse his cytan in vicinia cellae illius, 5, 12; S. 630, 42.

neáh-nunnan-mynster. v. neáh, I.

-neáhsen. v. ge-neáhsen.

neáh-sibb, e; f. Relationship :-- Néhsibbe propinquitatis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 66, 36.

neáh-sibb; adj. Related :-- Wé lǽraþ ðæt ǽnig cristen man ǽfre ne gewífie on his mǽges láfe ðe swá neáhsib (neáh sib, Th.) wǽre, L. C. E. 7; Th. i. 364, 24. Nán man ne wífige on neáhsibban (neáh sibban, Th.) nér (m', Th.) ðonne wiðútan ðam .iiii. cneówe let no one take a wife among his relations nearer of kin than beyond the fourth degree, L. N. P. L. 6,; Th. ii. 300, 14.

neáhsta a neighbour. v. níhsta.

neáh-stów, e; f. I. a neighbouring place :-- Ealle ða neáhstówa ðǽr ymbútan, Bt. 15; Fox 48, 22. II. neighbourhood :-- On ðære circean oððe on hire neáhstówe, Shrn. 81, 24.

neaht. v. niht.

neáh-þeód, e; f. A neighbouring people :-- Europe ne Asia ne ealle ða neáhþeóda, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 28. Ǽgðer ge hié self wéndon ge ealle ða neáhþeóda ðæt hié ofer hié ealle mehte anwald habban, 3, 1; Swt. 96, 6.

neáh-tíd, e; f. A time close at hand :-- Ðæt heó tó ðon ðider com ðæt heó hire sǽde ða neáhtíde hire geleórnesse quod ipsa ei tempus suae transmigrationis in proximum nunciare venisset, Bd. 4. 9; S. 577, 33.

neáh-tún, es; m. A neighbouring town :-- Sum eald man wæs in ðam néhtúne ðǽr ic wæs ðæs nama wæs Malchus there was an old man in the town near where I was, whose name was Malchus, Shrn. 36, 6.

neáh-wæter,es; n. A piece of water that is near :-- Wé gewícodon be ðǽm neáhwætrum, Nar. 22, 24.

neáh-west, -wist, e; f. : es; m. I. nearness, neighbourhood :-- Hé ne dorste his neáwiste geneálǽcan he dare not come into his neighbourhood, Homl. Th. i. 88, 21. Ungewuniendlíc for ðære sunnan neáweste uninhabitable on account of the nearness of the sun, Lchdm. iii. 260, 21. On ðære neáwiste næs nán wæterscipe, Jud. 15, 18. In ðara neáwiste in quorum vicinia, Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 28. Hig on neáwiste (in vicino) eardodon, Jos. 9, 16: Elen. Kmbl. 133; El. 67. Wæs ðǽr on neáweste (in proximo) hús, Bd. 4, 24; S. 598, 27 : Blickl. Homl. 197, 20: Chr. 924; Erl. 110, 13. Ðá wícode se cyng on neáweste ðare byrig, 896; Erl. 94, 5. Swá feala earmra manna swá on ðæs rícan neáweste sweltaþ, Blickl. Homl. 53, 5. Ða ðe on hire neáwiste lifgeaþ, 43, 2. Ne [mágon] húse ðínum on neáweste náhwǽr sceþþan flagella non appropiabunt tabernaculo tuo, Ps. Th. 90, 10. Ealle ða wǽpnedmen ðe him on neáweste wǽron, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 46, 2. Ealle ða rícu ðe him under beóþ oððe on neáweste, Bt. 16, 1; Fox 50, 3. Tó ðæs ríces neáwiste belimpeþ seó stów ad cujus vicina pertinet locus ille, Bd. 5, 12; S. 630, 22. II. the being with another, presence, society, fellowship :-- Hwæt is betere ðonne ðæs cyninges folgaþ and his neáwest (cf. ðæs cyninges geférrǽden, l. 2) what is better than to serve and be with the king ? Bt. 29, 1; Fox 102, 7. Hwelc is ǽngum men máre daru ðonne hé hæbbe on his geférrǽdenne and on his néweste feónd on freóndes anlícnesse, 29, 2; Fox 106, 14. Þincþ his neáwist (the presence of the dead body) láþlíco and unfæger, Blickl. Homl. 111, 30. Ne cume he ná on ðæs cyninges neáwiste (ansýne, MS. H.), L. Edm. E. 3; Th. i. 246, 3. Se sacerd démde ðæt hé sceolde beón áscyred fram manna neáwiste the priest judged that he (the leper) should be separated from the society of men, Homl. Th. i. 124, 25. Hé férde tó folces neáwiste and bodade, 352, 11. From alre néweste geleáfulra sýn heó ásceádene, Chart. Th. 29, 19. Mid ðý ic wæs him on neáwiste, hé ðus wæs sprecende, Bd. 3, 13; S. 538, 23. Forlǽt mec englas geniman on ðínne neáwest (into thy presence), Exon. Th. 455, 13; Hy. 4, 49. Ic forboden ǽlcon bisceope and mæssepreóste ðæt hig nánes wífmannes neáweste mid him næbbon (ne mulieris alicujus societatem secum habeant), L. Ecg. P. ii. 6; Th. ii. 198, 8. Wé lǽraþ ðæt ǽnig preóst ne lufige wífmanna neáwiste, L. Edg. c. 60; Th. ii. 256, 21. Hí wífes neáwiste forléton, L. Ælfc. C. 1; Th. ii. 342, 14 : Homl. Skt. 10, 204. Libia and Agrippina wurdon swá gelýfede ðæt hí forbugon heora wera neáwiste, Homl. Th. i. 374, 33. Ne can ðara idesa ówðer þurh gebedscipe beorna neáwist, Cd. Th. 148, 36; Gen. 2467. [Laym. ne-, neo-weste (-uste) : Icel. ná-vist presence : O. H. Ger. náh-wist praesentia.]

nealles, nalles, nallæs, nallas, nales, nalæs, nalas; adv. Not, not at all :-- (a) in the second clause of a sentence. Ðonne telle ic ða weorþ-mynd ðæm wyrhtan, nealles ðé I ascribe the honour to the maker, not to thee, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, 19 note. Swá sceal mǽg dón, nealles inwitnet óðrum bregdan, Beo. Th. 4340; B. 2167 : 4365; B. 2179. Hé spræc þurh feóndscipe, nalles hé hié freme lǽrde, Cd. Th. 38, 22; Gen. 610 : 14, 2; Gen. 212. Hét hine ðære sweartan helle grundes gýman, nalles wið God winnan, 22, 26; Gen. 346. Nallæs, Soul Kmbl. 206; Seel. Verc. 104. Hwæðere him on ferhþe greów breósthord blódreów, nallas beágas geaf, Beo. Th. 3443; B. 1719: 3503; B. 1749. Ic feówer men geseó tó sóðe, nales mé selfa [sefa?] leógeþ, Cd. Th. 242, 9; Dan. 416. Ðǽr heó brynewelme bídan sceolden, nales swegles leóht habban, 266, 27; Sat. 28. Waraþ hine wræclást, nales wunden gold; ferþloca freórig, nalæs foldan blǽd, Exon. Th. 288, 16-19. Ðis ic cweþe æfter forgifenysse nalæs æfter bebode hoc autem dico secundum indulgentiam, non secundum imperium, Bd. 1, 27; S. 495, 45. Hí áwendan áweg, nalæs wel dydan, Ps. Th. 77, 57: Andr. Kmbl. 92; An. 46. Ðú eart geong, nalas wintrum fród, 1012; An. 506: Beo. Th. 2991; B. 1493 : Blickl. Homl. 207, 17. (b) in the first clause :-- Nealles him handgesteallan ymbe gestódon, ac hý on holt bugon, Beo. Th. 5185; B. 2596 : 4296; B. 2145 : 4446; B. 2222. Nealles ... hwæðre, 5738; B. 2873. Heó nalles on goldes wlite ne scíneþ, ac on sundorweorþunge heó gewuldrad stondeþ, Blickl. Homl. 197, 8 : Cd. Th. 173, 19; Gen. 2863 : 249, 14; Dan. 530. Nales, Exon. Th. 60, 1; Cri. 963 : 111, 3; Gú. 121. Nalæs ... ðágyt, Beo. Th. 85; B. 43. Nalas ... ah, Blickl. Homl. 121, 11: Andr. Kmbl. 3180; An. 1593. Nales ðæt án ðæt ... ac eác swelce not only ... but also, Ors. 1, 2; Swt. 30, 27: 1, 7; Swt. 40, 4. Nalæs ðæt án ðæt ... ac swylce eác, Bd. 3, 13; S. 538, 4 : 1, 14; S. 482, 24 : 4, 29; S. 608, 17. Nalæs ðæt án ... ac eác, 2, 12; S. 514, 8. Écan gesǽlþa sóhtan nallas þurh ðæt án ðæt hí wilnodon ðæs líchomlícan deáþes, ac eác manegra sárlícra wíta hié gewilnodon, Bt. 11, 2; Fox 36, 3. (c) with an adjective or adverb :-- Nealles swǽslíce, Beo. Th. 6169; B. 3089. Nalles hólinga, 2156; B. 1076. Nalles hneáwlíce, Cd. Th. 108, 20; Gen. 1809. Nales feám síðum, Elen. Kmbl. 1633; El. 818. Nales hólunge, Cd. Th. 61, 14; Gen. 997. Nales swá wíde, Wrt. Voc. ii. 60, 55. Nales [nalles, 60, 69] ungeráde non dissona, 86, 12. Monge, nales feá, Exon. Th. 72, 11; Cri. 1171. Nalæs æfter myclum fæce non multo post, Bd. 1, 14; S. 482, 33. Nalæs æfter mycelre tíde, 4, 23; S. 593, 24. Oft, nalæs seldan, Ps. Th. 74. 4.

neán; adv. I. from near :-- Neán and feorran from near and far, Cd. Th. 14, 28; Gen. 225. Feorran oððe neán, 64, 8; Gen. 1047. Somnaþ súþan and norþan, eástan and westan, faraþ feorran and neán, Exon. Th. 220, 26; Ph. 326: Beo. Th. 1683; B. 839. Ic eów wísige ðæt gé genóge neón sceáwiaþ beágas I will guide you so that from near ye may gaze on rings in abundance. Beo. Th. 6200; B. 3104. II. near, close at hand :-- Gif ðú Grendles dearst neán bídan if thou durst here await Grendel, 1061; B. 528. Wæs ðæs wyrmes wíg wíde gesýne, neán and feorran, 4624; B 2317. Hí ðære eaxe útan ymbhwerfaþ, ðone norþende neán ymbcerraþ (cf. hí sint swá neáh ðam norþende ðære eaxe, Fox 214, 20), Met. 28, 14. III. nearly, about :-- Neán twelfwintre fere annorum duodecim, Lk. Skt. 8, 42. Ðá wæs geworden æfter ðam wordum neán (MS. A. neáh) eahta dagas, 9, 28. Ðá wæs neán seó syxte tíd erat autem fere hora sexta, 23, 44. Wé ðæs hereweorces neán myndgiaþ we bear that warlike deed in mind nearly as it happened, have an accurate remembrance of it, Elen. Kmbl. 1311; El. 657. v. for-neán.

neap a cup, Lchdm. i. 374, 23. v. hnæpf.

Neapolite; pl. The Neapolitans, Blickl. Homl. 201, 19.

neár; neara, nearo. v. neáh; nearu.

nearu; adj. I. narrow, strait, confined, not spacious :-- Neara scræf gurgustulum, Wrt. Voc. i. 58, 29. Neare pyt puteus angustus, Kent. Gl. 901. Gangaþ inn þurh ðæt nearwe (MS. B. nearuwe : Lind. nearuo : Rush. naarwe) geat ... Eálá hú neara (MS. A. nearu : Lind. naruu : Rush. naru) is ðæt geat intrate per angustam portam ... Quam angusta porta, Mt. Kmbl. 7, 13-14 : Lk. Skt. 13, 24. Se sǽ ðe ǽgðer is ge nearo ge hreóh, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 28, 12. Alexander him ðæt ondréd for ðære nearwan stówe ðæt hé ðá on wæs timens angustias quibus inerat locorum, 3, 9; Swt. 124, 25. In án nearo fæsten ungeféredra móra in angustias inaccessorum montium, Bd. 4, 26; S. 602, 20. Nearo wíc mansionem angustam, 4, 28; S. 605, 23. Tóbrǽdan ofer ða nearwan eorþan (cf. ofer ðás nearowan eorþan sceátas, Met. 10, 16), Bt. 19; Fox 68, 25. Binnon nearwum gemǽrum intra fines angustiores, Bd. 4, 26; S. 603, 9. Nearewum artis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 5, 67. Mid ða nearwan arta, 5, 57. Ofereode stíge nearwe, enge ánpaðas, Beo. Th. 2823; B. 1409. II. narrow, limited, poor, restricted :-- Hú ne ongite gé hú neara (Cott. MS. nearo) se eówer hlísa beón wile, Bt. 18, 2; Fox 64, 14. Swíðe nearewe (Cott. MS. nearwa) sent and swiðe heánlíce ða menniscan gesǽlþa, 11, 1; Fox 30, 25. Hét hié from hweorfan neorxna wange on nearore líf, Cd. Th. 58, 11; Gen. 944. III. strait, oppressive, causing anxiety (of that which restricts free action of body or mind) :-- Nýd byþ nearu on breóste niða bearnum ineed straitens the breast of man, Runic pm. Kmbl. 541, 8; Rún. 10. Nearo nihtwaco the anxious night watch, Exon. Th. 306, 13. In hæft under nearone clom (under confining fetter), Exon. Th. 138, 2; Gú. 570. Ðone nearwan níþ onfón, Cd. Th. 43, 27; Gen. 697 : 304, 22; Sat. 634. Of ðǽm nearwum bendum, Homl. Skt. 3, 197 : Exon. Th. 435, 6; Rä. 53, 3. Under nearwum clommum,134, 22; Gú. 511. Hié wilnodan ðæt hé hié of ðǽm nearwan þeóstrum álésde, Blickl. Homl. 103, 13. IV. oppressed, not having free action :-- Wið nearwre sworetunge for difficult breathing, Lchdm. i. 340, 11. Hym beóþ on hyra brósten nearuwe (people with asthma), iii. 116, 23. V. strict, severe :-- Ðæt hié ne þyrfen bión gesewene æt ðæm nearwan dóme ut a districta judice videri non debeant, Past. 53, 2; Swt. 413, 16. [O. Sax. naru.]

nearu, we; nearu (o); indecl. f. I. confinement, durance, prison :-- Hwonne hié of nearwe stæppan mósten, of enge út ǽhta lǽdan (when they might come out of the ark), Cd. Th. 86; Gen. 1433. Hió bebeád ðæt hine man of nearwe and of nýdcleofan, fram ðam engan hofe forléte, Elen. Kmbl. 1418; El. 711. Næglas of nearwe scínende the nails shining from the hole where they had been hidden, 2227; El. 1115. Neb wæs mín on nearwe my face was in confinement, Exon. Th. 392, 1; Rä. 11, 1. Siððan mé nioþan upweardne on nearo fégde afterwards fixed me upside down in durance, 479, 12; Rä. 62, 6 : 480, 8; Rä. 63, 8. II. a strait, difficulty :-- On nearwe in a strait, Elen. Kmbl. 2203; El. 1103. Nearwe genýddon on norþwegas wiston him be súþan Sigelwara land the difficulties of the situation forced them to the north for they knew that to the south of them lay the land of the Ethiopians, Cd. Th. 181, 29; Exon. 68. Nearu, nearo þrowian to be in straits, Andr. Kmbl. 828; An. 414: Beo. Th. 5182; B. 2594. Hé ǽr fela nearo néþende níða gedígde from many straits and strifes had he come safely, 4689; B. 2350. Hine of nearwum út forlét, Vald. 2, 8. In nearowe néþan to venture into difficulties, Exon. Th. 436, 12; Rä. 54, 13.

nearu-bregd, es; n. A wile or trick that brings others into straits (v. preceding word and nearu, III) :-- Néþde ic nearobregdum, ðǽr ic Neron biswác, ðæt hé ácwellan hét Cristes þegnas, Exon. Th. 260, 24; Jul. 302.

nearu-cræft, es; m. An art that confines or imprisons (?) :-- Beorh wunode on wonge nearocræftum fæst ðǽr on innan bær eorl gestreóna ... feá worda cwæþ : Hold ðú nú hrúse eorla ǽhte the mound stood on the plain firm in its prisoning powers (able to keep in durance the treasure entrusted to it); therein bore the earl treasures ... few words he spake : Hold thou now, earth, the possessions of earls, Beo. Th. 4475-4488; B. 2241-2248. v. nearu; f. I.

nearu-fáh; adj. Disastrously hostile, bearing enmity the result of which is to reduce others to straits :-- Wæs ðæs wyrmes wíg wíde gesýne, nearofáges níð, him se gúþsceaþa Geáta leóde hatode and hýnde, Beo. Th. 4623; B. 2317.

nearu-gráp, e; f. A close grasp :-- Án wiht is ... hreóh and réþe hafaþ ryne strongne ... and be grunde faraþ ... neól is nearográp, Exon. Th. 491, 28; Rä. 81, 6. v. gráp.

nearu-líc; adj. Oppressive, distressing, grievous :-- Feala mé se Hǽlend hearma gefremede, níða nearolícra, Elen. Kmbl.1822; El. 913. v. next word.

nearulíce; adv. I. narrowly, within narrow limits, briefly :-- Nearolíce strictim, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 60. Ys seó foresǽde bóc (Genesis) on manegum stówum swíde nærolíce gesett (is a mere narrative of events), and ðeáh swíde deóplíce on ðam gástlícum andgite, Ælfc. Gen. Thor. 4, 3. II. oppressively, grievously :-- Ða ðe nearwlícast cúðan swician those who knew how to cheat in most oppressive manner, L. I. P. 12; Th. ii. 320, 24. III. narrowly, exactly, strictly :-- Manegu díglu þing sindon nearolíce (subtiliter) tó smeáganne many secret things are to be narrowly examined, Past. 21, 3; Swt. 153, 13. Swá swýðe nearwelíce hé hit létt út áspyrian (of the enquiry which was made when Doomsday Book was compiled), Chr. 1085; Erl. 218, 34. [He nule nout so neruhliche demen ase ʒe siggeð, A. R. 334, 14.]

nearuness, e; f. I. a strait :-- Mid longre nearonesse be eástan Constantinopolim ligeþ juxta Constantinopolim longae mittuntur angustiae, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 8, 21. II. oppression, distress (of body) :-- Nearones breósta oppression of the chest, Lchdm. ii. 204, 27. Ðæt (asthma) ys nearunyss ... and breóst byþ innen mid micle nearnysse, iii. 116, 23-26. III. distress (of mind), anxiety, tribulation, trouble, grief :-- Hér is seó lǽnlíce winsumnes ac ðǽr is seó syngale nearones in this world is the transient delight, in the next is the perpetual distress, L. E. I. introd.; Th. ii. 394, 8. Hú ne witon wé ðæt nán nearewnes ne nán unrótnes nis nán gesǽlþ nam non esse anxiam, tristemque beatitudinem quid attinet dicere? Bt. 24, 4; Fox 86, 20. Hé on swá micelre nearanuesse becom he fell into so great trouble (was imprisoned), 1; Fox 2, 27. Swá hwá swá ða flǽsclícan unþeáwas forlǽtan wile hé sceal geþolian micele nearanesse corporis voluptatum appetentia plena est anxietatis, 31, 1; Fox 110, 26. Seó hreówsung ne beoþ ná bútan sorge and búton nearonesse, Fox 110, 29. On swá micelre módes unréto and nearonisse anxietate, Nar. 30, 24. Nearonessa angustia, Ps. Th. 218, 243. On mínum earfoþum and nearonessum in tribulatione, 4, 1. Of nearonessum heora de necessitatibus eorum, Ps. Lamb. 106, 6. Nearonessum módes mentis angoribus, Bd. 2, 12; S. 513, 33, note.

nearu-níd, -néd, e; f. Sore need, grievous trouble :-- Ða menigo ðe ðé mid wuniaþ on nearonédum [or (?) on nearo nédum in confinement by force], Andr. Kmbl. 203; An. 102. From naronéðe de angusta (as if, angustia?), Lk. Skt. p. 8, 6.

nearu-searu, we; f. A wile that causes restraint or confinement (?) :-- Hýdde wǽron þurh nearusearwe næglas on eorþan (of the nails in the cross that had been buried), Elen. Kembl. 2215; El. 1109.

nearu-sorh, -sorg, e; f. Oppressive care, grievous trouble :-- Nearusorge dreáh, Elen. Kmbl. 2520; El. 1261.

nearu-þanc, es; m. Illiberal thought, wickedness :-- Feóndlícra nearaþanca spiritalium nequitiarum, Hpt. Gl. 426, 61. Syle heom æfter nearuþancum (nearoþancnysse, Ps. Lamb. 27, 4), wiðmétednyssa heora da illis secundum nequitiam adinventionum ipsorum, Ps. Spl. 27, 5.

nearu-þancness. v. preceding word.

nearu-þearf, e; f. Pressing need :-- Ic on ýðum slóg niceras nihtes, nearoþearfe dreáh, Beo. Th. 849; B. 422: Exon. Th. 5, 14; Cri. 69.

nearu-wrenc, es; m. A trick or wile that causes anxiety or trouble, Exon. Th. 316, 5; Mód. 44.

nearwe; adv. I. straitly, strictly, closely :-- Nearwe gebunden straitly bound, Exon. Th. 463, 2; Hö. 64. Hyne sár hafaþ nearwe befongen, Beo. Th. 1957; B. 976: Elen. Kembl. 2550; El. 1276 : Met. 21, 5. II. narrowly, strictly, exactly (of enquiry) :-- Þeódcwén ongan georne sécan nearwe, tó hwan hió ða næglas gedón meahte, Elen. Kmbl. 2313; El. 1158 : 2476; El. 1240. III. oppressively, forcibly :-- Ðonne hine æt niéhstan nearwe stilleþ G, Salm. Kmbl. 268; Sal. 133. Nearwe gebéged, Cd. Th. 292, 26; Sat. 446. IV. anxiously, in a manner causing trouble :-- Hyge gnornende nihtes nearwe the mind mourning in anguish at night, Exon. Th. 174, 25; Gú. 1183. Ferþ gebysgad, nearwe genǽged, 162, 35; Gú. 986. Ðá heó nearwe beswác yldran ússe when the serpent deceived our first parents to their hurt, 226, 30; Ph. 413 : Frag. Kmbl. 51.; Leás. 27.

nearwe-líce. v. nearu-líce.

nearwian; p. ode. I. to make narrow, straiten, compress :-- Se ðe mec nearwaþ, Exon. Th. 407, 25; Rä. 26, 10. II. to become narrow, contracted :-- Sefa nearwode (of Noah when drunk), Cd. Th. 94, 32; Gen. 1570. Sinc searwade, sib nearwade, Exon. Th. 353, 63; Reim. 37. v. ge-nearwian, nirwan.

neát, es; n. A neat, an ox or a cow, cattle, beast, animal :-- Gif neát mon gewundige, weorpe ðæt neát tó honda oððe foreþingie, L. Alf. pol. 24; Th. i. 78, 9. Nán neát nyste nǽnne andan tó óðrum, Bt. 35, 6; Fox 168, 10. Ne ligeþ hé eallinga on ðære eorþan suá ða creópendan wuhta, ac biþ hwæthwugu upáhæfen suá ðæt neát from eorþan, Past. 21, 3; Swt. 157, 1. Fugel oððe fisc on sǽ oððe eorþan neát, feldgongende feoh bútan snyttro, Exon. Th. 371, 23; Seel. 80. Foldan neát, Salm. Kmbl. 436; Sal. 218. Ic eom anlíc ánum neáte ut jumentum factus sum, Ps. Th. 72, 18. Sealde heora neát (jumenta) hæglum, 77, 48. Deór and neát bestiae et universa pecora, 148, 10. Ða dumban neát, Andr. Kmbl. 134; An. 67. Tó neáta scypene ad stabula jumentorum, Bd. 4, 24; S. 597. 9. Nǽnig mann scypene his neátum ne timbreþ, 1, 1; S. 474, 32. Ðám monnum ðe beóþ neátum gelíce, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 42, 3 note : 41, 5; Fox 254, 5. [O. Frs. nát : Icel. naut cattle, oxen : O. H. Ger. nóz jumentum.] v. sleg-neát.

Neátan-leáh (?) Netley, Chr. 508; Erl. 14, 18.

neáten, neá-west. v. níten, neáh-west.

neáwung, e; f. Nearness, coming near :-- In neáwung síe sumer in proximo sit aestas, Mk. Skt. Lind. 13, 28.

nebb, es; n. I. a neb (dialect.), nib, a beak, a beak-shaped thing :-- Neb rostrum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 119, 25. Ðæt nebb (of the Phænix) líxeþ swá glæs oððe gim, Exon. Th. 218, 24; Ph. 299. Neb (of a ship), 392, 1; Rä. 11, 1. Neb (of a plough), 403, 1; Rä. 22, 1. Nebb (of a rake), 416, 23; Rä. 35, 3. Neb (of a musical instrument), 413, 16; Rä. 32, 6. Ic (a key) bregde nebbe, 498, 6; Rä. 87, 8. Ic (a helm) hæbbe heard nebb, 489, 29; Rä. 79, 1. II. a nose, the gristle of the nose :-- Neb internasum (cf. nose gristle internasus, 43, 20), Wrt. Voc. i. 64, 50. Gif mon óðrum ðæt neb (nebb, MSS. B. H.: næb, MS. G.) of ásleá, gebéte him mid. lx. sciɫɫ., L. Alf. Pol. 48; Th. i. 94, 8. III. the face, countenance :-- Neb facies, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 51 : vultus, Hpt. Gl. 475. 6. Hys nebb (facies) wæs mid swátlíne gebunden, Jn. Skt. 11, 44. Neb, Met. 31, 23. Be blǽdrum ðe on mannes nebbe sittaþ ... smyre ðæt neb mid, Lchdm. i. 86, 5-8. Mid ðam wlitegostan nebbe, Homl. Th. i. 430, 14. Ðonne wé wendaþ úre neb tó eástdǽle, 262, 10: ii. 102, 26. Heó helode hire nebb (vultum), Gen. 38, 15 : Ex. 3, 6. Spǽte ðæt wíf on his nebb (faciem), Deut. 25, 9: Num. 12, 14. Ðá forceáw hé his ágene tungan and wearp hine on ðæt neb foran (in os tyranni abjecit), Bt. 16, 2; Bt. 52, 25. Hý habbaþ twá neb on ánum heáfde duas in uno habentes capite facies, Nar. 35, 24. [Icel. nef (gen. pl. nefja) the nose; the beak of a bird.]

nebbian; p. ode To turn the face towards anyone (?), to retort upon anyone (?) :-- Se ríca besihþ on his pællenum gyrlum, and cwyþ : 'Nis se loddere mid his tættecon mín gelica.' Ac se apostol Paulus hine nebbaþ mid ðisum wordum (retorts upon him, meets him, with these words) : ' Ne brohte wé nán þing tó ðisum middangearde, ne wé nán þing heonon mid ús lǽdan ne mágon, Homl. Th. i. 256, 7-12.

neb-corn, es; n. A pimple on the face :-- Gif nebcorn on wífmannes nebbe weaxan ... hit áfeormaþ of ealle ða nebcorn, Lchdm. i. 118, 22-25.

neb-gebræc, es; n. A defluxion from the head, mucus of the nose :-- Nebgebræc coriza ( = κορυζα), Wrt. Voc. i. 19, 28: ii. 135, 77.

Nebrond, es; m. Nimrod :-- Freónd Nebrondes, Salm. Kmbl. 426; Sal. 213. v. Nefrod.

nebwlát-ful; adj. Bold, impudent, shameless :-- Nebwlátful, scamleás frontosa, Hpt. Gl. 506, 78. v. next word and wlátian.

neb-wlátung, e; f. Boldness, impudence; frontositas, Lye (from a vocabulary in the Cotton library). v. preceding word.

neb-wlatung, e; f. Dejection; vultus demissio, Lye.

neb-wlitu, e; f. The form of the face, the face, countenance :-- Heora nebwlitu sceán swá swá sunne, Homl. Th. ii. 426, 10. Ic ne mæg on his nebwlite beseón, Homl. Skt. 7, 104. Hí gesáwon his nebwlite swylce sumes engles ansýne, Homl. Th. i. 46, 5. Sege ús his nebwlite describe his face to us, 456, 15. Ne behealde gé heora nebwlite, ii. 404, 28.

néchebúr, necte-gale, néd-. v. neáh-gebúr, nihte-gale, níd-.

nediende (?) abominandum, execrandum, Hpt. Gl. 515, 40.

nefa, an; m. I. a nephew; nepos :-- Bróder sune vel suster sune ðæt is nefa, Wrt. Voc. i. 51, 71. Neva nepos, 72, 35. Hlóþhere Ægelbrhytes nefa (cf. hé him onsende Leutherium his nefan (nepotem), Bd. 3,7; S. 530. 29), Chr. 670; Erl. 34, 29: 789; Erl. 57, 34: Ælfc. Gr. 9, 31 : Som. 11, 69. Eám and nefa, Exon. Th. 431. 35; Rä. 47, 6. Heó wæs Édwines nefan (nepotis) dohtor, Bd. 4. 23; S. 593, 2. Hé swylces hwæt secgan wolde eám his nefan, Beo. Th. 1766; B. 881. II. a grandson :-- Nefena bearnum pronepotibus, filiis nepotum, Hpt. Gl. 426, 50. Ealdra nefena pronepotum, 445, 56. III. a step-son :-- Nefa prifignus, Wülck. Gl. 41, 28. [Icel. nefi a cognate kinsman, a nephew : O. Frs. neva : O. H. Ger. nefo nepos, sobrinus : Ger. neffe.] v. for-, ge-nefa.

nefene, an; f. A niece or grand-daughter :-- Bróðer dochter vel suster dohter, nefene neptis, Wrt. Voc. i. 51, 72. Nefenu[m] nepotibus (neptibus?), Hpt. Gl. 485, 42.

nefne, nemne. I. conj. connecting clauses, Unless, except :-- Hé hyra má ácwellan wolde, nefne him witig God forstóde, Beo. Th. 2116; B. 1056: 6101; B. 3054: Exon. Th. 340, 5; Gn. Ex. 106 : 345, 11; Gn. Ex. 186. Hí sǽdon, nemne (nisi) hí him máran andlyfne sealdon, ðæt hí woldan him sylfe niman, Bd. 1, 15; S. 483, 37. Hé læg swá swá deád mon nemne ðynre éðunge ánre ætýwde ðæt hé lífes wǽre quasi mortuus jacebat, halitu tantum pertenui quia viveret demonstrans, 5, 19; S. 640, 24. Nymne, 1, 27; S. 493, 38. Nó hé fóddor þigeþ, nemne meledeáwes dǽl gebyrge, Exon. Th. 215, 29; Ph. 260: 124, 12; Gú. 338: 249, 10; Jul. 109 : Beo. Th. 3108; B. 1552 : 5302; B. 2654. Næfne, 506; B. 250. On weres wæstmum, næfne (except that) hé wæs mára ðon ǽnig man óðer, 2710; B. 1353. Hwæt hæfðe seó godcunde þurh ða menniscan nemne búton ðæt heó mihte beón ácenned, Blickl. Homl. 19, 22. II. connecting words in the same case (contracted clauses, the verb of the second clause being the same as that in the first, and not expressed :-- Ne gehýrde nǽnig man on his múþe óht elles nefne Cristes lof and nytte sprǽce, 223, 36: Exon. Th. 308, 28; Seef. 46. Nǽneg dorste nefne sinfreá, Beo. Th. 3873; B. 1934. Ic lyt hafo heáfodmága nefne ðec, 4309; B. 2151. Ðæt unc ne gedǽlde nemne deáþ ána ówiht elles, Exon. Th. 442, 34; Kl. 23 : Andr. Kmbl. 1327; An. 664. III. prep. Except :-- Nemne feáum ánum, Beo. Th. 2167; B. 1081.

nefre. v. nǽfre.

Nefrod, es; m. Nimrod :-- Nefrod se gigant; se Nefrod wæs Chuses sunu, Bt. 35, 4; Fox 162, 17. v. Nebroud.

nefte. v. nepte.

né-fugol, négan, néh, néhsta, neht, nele, nellan. v. neó-fugol, nǽgan, neáh, níhsta, neht, nyllan.

nemnan, nemnian; p. nemde. I. to name, give a name to a person or thing :-- Ða cennest sunu ðone ðú nemnest Hǽlend, Blickl. Homl. 7, 19, Ðú nemdest mid áne noman ealle tógædere woruld, Met. 20, 55. Ða hé nemde (nominavit) apostolas; Simonem ðæne hé nemde (cognominavit) Petrus, Lk. Skt. 6, 13-14. Hé ðone yldestan Noæ nemde, Cd. Th. 75, 4; Gen. 1235. Hig nemdon (vocant) hyne hys fæder naman Zachariam, Lk. Skt. 1, 59. Ðysne dæg hié nemdon siges dæg, Blickl. Homl. 67, 13. II. to use such and such a name or title in speaking of a person or thing :-- Ðone wé wifel wordum nemnaþ which we call beetle, when we speak of it, Exon. Th. 426, 14; Rä. 41, 73. Hine tó sylfcwale secgas nemnaþ men speak of him as a suicide, 330, 25; Vy. 56. Eác hí óðre worde beornas Baðan nemnaþ men also use the name Bath in speaking of it, Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 13: 975; Erl. 124, 32. David sylf nemde hine drihten ipse David dicit eum dominum, Mk. Skt. 12, 37. Heó sylf hié þeówen nemde, Blickl. Homl. 13, 13. Drihten ða cynelícan burh forhogodlíce naman nemde the Lord used a contemptuous name (wíc) in speaking of the royal city, 77, 23, 26. Ðis andwerde líf hé nemde for weg this present life he spoke of as a way, L. E. I. 35; Th. ii. 432, 23. Ðone hwítan hláf (the eucharistic bread) ðone ðú sealdest Saban ússum fæder nemdon heó hine swá (sic eum appellare consuerant), Bd. 2, 5; S. 507, 15. Ne gyrne gé ðæt eów man Láreówas nemne nolite vocari Rabbi, Mt. Kmbl. 23, 8: Ps. Th. 82, 4. Ðéh ðe gewrito oft nemnen eal ða lond Méðia, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 10, 24. Ðeáh mon anweald and genyht tó twǽm þingum nemne ðeáh hit is án though power and abundance be spoken of as two things, yet are they one, Bt. 33. 1; Fox 120, 21. Hí gewunedon hí móder cýgean and nemnian (tó hátenne and tó nemnenne, MS. B.) quam matrem vocare consueverant, Bd. 4, 23; S. 594, 39. Ðæs fæder wæs Wóden nemned, 1, 15; S. 483, 30: Blickl. Homl. 81, 1. On ðǽm bócum ðe nemned is Actus Apostolorum, 133, 11 : 137, 31. Ðæt wæs swíðe heálíc nama ðæt Sanctus Johannes engel wæs nemned, 167, 32. Ðam is tó naman nemned Drihten Dominus nomen est ei, Ps. Th. 67, 4. III. to call upon the name of, address by name, to invoke :-- Ne nemn ðú Drihtnes naman on ýdel ne byþ unscyldig se ðe his noman on ýdel nemþ non assumes nomen Domini Dei tui in vanum! nec enim habebit insontem Dominus eum,qui assumpserit nomen Domini frustra, Ex. 20, 7. Ic naman ðínne nemde, Dryhten, Ps. Th. 118, 55. Hé nemde mé mínne noman vacavit me nomine meo, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 37. Hine se ár be naman nemde, Elen. Kmbl. 155; El. 78. Se nemde God niþþa bearna ǽrest ealra, Cd. Th. 69, 13; Gen. 1135. God nemdon and hine bǽdon, 48, 22; Gen. 779. Ongan swegles weard be naman nemnan, Judth. Thw. 22, 27; Jud. 81. IV. to mention by name, to mention, relate :-- For míne bróðru ic bidde, and míne ða neáhstan nemne swylce, Ps. Th. 121, 8. Ðǽm unþeáwum ðe ic ǽr nemde, Met. 25, 62. Ealle ða óðru gód ðe wé ǽr nemdon, Bt. 24, 3; Fox 84, 24 : Cd. Th. 288, 20; Sat. 383. Sege hwæt ic þence, nemn gif ðú hit gereccean mǽge, Blickl. Honal. 181, 14. Mágun wé nemnan we can tell, Exon. Th. 107, 25; Gú. 64. Ðeáh ðe ic hý níhst nemnan sceolde though I should mention their names last, 326, 10; Víd. 126. Pronomen spelaþ ðone naman ðæt ðú ne þurfe tuwa hine nemnan the pronoun represents the noun so that you need not mention it (the noun) twice, Ælfc. Gr. 5; Som. 3, 30. Swá on ðære, ilcan láre nemned (mentioned) is, Blickl. Homl. 133, 34. V. to name, nominate :-- Gif landágende man ætsace, ðonne nemne man him his gelícan ealswá micel Wente swá cyninges þegne, L. N. P. L. 52; Th. ii. 298, 10. [Goth. namnjan: O. Sax. O. H. Ger. nemnian : Icel. nefna.] v. ge-nemnan, namnian, namian.

nemne. v. nefne.

nemnigend-líc; adj. Nominative :-- Nominativus is nemnigendlíc, mid ðam casu wé nemnaþ ealle þing, Ælfc. Gr. 7; Som. 6, 17.

nemþe. v. nimþe.

Nen the river Nen in Northamptonshire :-- Ðæt water, ðæt man cleopeþ Nen, Chr. 963; Erl. 122, 17.

neó a corpse. v. dryht-né, neó-bedd, -fugol, -síð. [Goth. naus : Icel. nár.]

neó-bedd, es; n. A bed for a corpse :-- Ic in mínum neste neóbed ceóse 'I shall die in my nest' (A. V.), Exon. Th. 235, 7; Ph. 553. God wearp hine niðer on ðæt neóbedd (that couch of corpses, Hell; cf. Milton 'that fiery couch'; and Icel. ná-strönd the place where the dead came, who had not fallen in battle), Cd. Th. 22, 19; Gen. 343.

neód, néd, niéd, nýd, e; f. Desire, eagerness, diligence, earnest endeavour :-- Wæs him neód micel ðæt hié tóbrugdon fira flǽschoman him to fódderþege great was their desire to rend the bodies of men for their repast, Andr. Kmbl. 316; An. 158. Biþ him neód micel ðæt hé ða yldu móte wendan tó lífe feorg geong onfón it is most eager to turn old age to life, to receive youth, Exon. Th. 210, 22; Ph. 189 : 228, 3; Ph. 432. (Cf. O. Sax. was im niud mikil that sie selƀon Krist gisehan móstin they desired eagerly to see Christ.) Ús is eallum neód ðæt wé ðín médrencynn mótan cunnan we all desire to know thy descent on the mother's side, 15, 33; Cri. 245. Wundorlíc is geworden ðín wísdóm ne mæg ic him on neóde á neáh cuman (I cannot with all my endeavours come near it), Ps. Th. 138, 4. Noe tealde ðæt hé on neód hine gif hé land ne funde sécan wolde Noah reckoned that if the raven did not find land it would eagerly seek him, Cd. Th. 87, 4; Gen. 1443. Hié God herigaþ, and him be namon gehwam on neód (earnestly) sprecaþ, 242, 25; Dan. 424. Ic ðínne naman on neód secge confitebor nomini tuo, Ps. Th. 137, 2. Sóðfæste ðínne naman willaþ þuruh neód herigean justi confitebuntur nomini tuo, 139, 13. Se ðe naman ðínne þurh neód forhtaþ he that is earnest in reverencing thy name, 60, 4. ¶ The instrumental with adverbial force occurs very frequently in the Psalms. Neóde, néde, niéde, nýde earnestly, diligently, eagerly :-- Weoroda mǽst fore Waldende gǽþ neóde and nýde (the good will go eagerly, the wicked only on compulsion), Exon. Th. 66, 15; Cri, 1072. Oft hé hǽþengield gesóhte neóde geneahhe (very diligently), 244, 7; Jul. 24 : Ps. Th. 82, 12, 13. His naman neóde heriaþ, 67; 4. His naman neóde lufiaþ, 68, 37. Hí hyrdnesse neóde begangaþ they diligently keep watch, 89, 5 : 112, 2 : 121, 6. Néde, 105, 36 : 118, 55. Nýde, 118, 132 : 114, 4. Niéde, Ps. Ben. 43, 27. Þurh ðínra neóda (niéda, MS. Verc.), lust by the pleasure of thy passions, Exon. Th. 369, 29; Seel. Ex. 48. Hé ús on hæft nimeþ ofer ússe neóde lust (contrary to our desires), 16, 30; Cri. 261. Wé ðǽrinne andlangne dæg nióde namon in the hall the live long day we took our pleasure, Beo. Th. 4238; B. 2116. [O. Sax. niud : O. Frs. niod : O. H. Ger. niot; m. desiderium, cupido.] v. next word.

neód ( = neád) necessity. The distinction in form between the word = Goth. nauþs, and the preceding word seems not to have been observed in A. S. MSS. See the passages under níd.

neód-fracu, e; f. Desire, appetite, the object of desire or of appetite :-- Wuhta gehwilc hnipaþ of dúne, wilnaþ tó eorþan, sume nédþearfe, sume neódfræce (cf. ealle beóþ of dúne healde wið ðære eorþan and ðider wilniaþ oððe ðæs ðe hí lyst oððe ðæs ðe hí beþurfon, Bt. 41, 6; Fox 254, 28), Met. 31, 15.

neód-freónd. v. níd-fréond.

neód-ful; adj. Earnest, zealous :-- Bidde ic monna gehwone ðe ðis gied wræce, ðæt hé mec neódful gemyne, Exon. Th. 285, 26; Jul. 720.

neódian to be necessary. v. neádian.

neód-laðu; f. Earnest, hospitable invitation :-- Hé frægn gif him wǽre æfter neódlaðu niht getǽse Beowulf asked if to Hrothgar the night had been pleasant after the hospitality of the preceding evening (?) (cf. him wæs ful boren and freóndlaðu wordum bewægned, 2389; B. 1192), Beo. Th. 2644; B. 1320.

neód-líce; adv. Diligently, sedulously, zealously, eagerly, earnestly :-- Smire ða sídan mid dý neódlíce smear the sides with it diligently, Lchdm. ii. 262, 11. Dá éfste se abbud wið ðæs muneces, and neódlíce (eagerly, anxiously) cwæþ : 'Hwǽr is se ðe ðú feredest?' Homl. Th. i. 336, 22 : ii. 26, 5. Lustlíce gehyrdon ða ðe him gelǽrde wǽron and eác swylce neódlíce mid dǽdum lǽston ða ðe hí ongitan mihton libenter ea quae dicerentur, audirent; libentius ea quae intelligere poterant, operando sequerentur, Bd. 4, 27; S. 604, 18. Gód is ðæt man neódlíce Drihtnes naman ásinge, Ps. Th. 91, 1 : 128, 6 : 133, 3: 148, 12. Neódlíce on naman ðínum ealle eorþbúend egsan habbaþ greatly do all dwellers on earth stand in awe of thy name, 101, 13. Mé neódlíce tó forsceape scýhte, Cd. Th. 53, 21; Gen. 897. Nǽnig ðínra þegna neódlucor ne gelustfullícor hine sylfne underþeódde tó úra goda bigange ðonne ic nullus tuorum studiosius quam ego culturae deorum nostrorum se subdidit, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, 5. Nýdlícor libentius, 4, 13; S. 583, 4. [O. Sax. niud-líko.]

neód-lof, es; n. Diligent praise :-- Herian naman Drihtnes mid neódlofe (cf. hebbaþ neódlíce eówre handa on hálig lof, 133, 3), Ps. Th. 148, 12.

neód-spearuwa, an; m. An active, restless sparrow (cf. (?) sparuwe is a cheaterinde brid; cheatereð euer ant chirmeð, A. R. 152), Ps. Th. 123, 6.

neód-weorþung, e; f. Great honouring :-- For naman ðínes neódweorþunge propter nomen tuum. Ps. Th. 142, 11.

neó-, né-fugol, es; m. A bird that feeds on carrion, a vulture or crow :-- Néfuglas sittaþ þeódherga wæl þicce gefylled carrion-birds sit gorged with the slain, Cd. Th. 130, 12; Gen. 2158.

neól. v. neowol.

neom, neam, nam = ne eom am not, nis = ne is is not :-- Ðæs gescý neom (nam, Lind.: næm, Rush.) ic wyrðe tó berenne, Mt. Kmbl. 3, 11. Neam ic non sum, Ps. Surt. 118, 30. Sí eówer sprǽc: Hyt ys, hyt ys; nyt nys, hyt nys, Mt. Kmbl. 5, 37. Nis álýfed it is not allowed, Homl. Th. i. 94. 29.

neómian (?) to produce harmonious sounds :-- Nægl (plectrum) neómigende (MS. neome cende), Exon. Th. 332, 12; Vy. 84. [Grein compares the word with O. H. Ger. niumón jubilare, psallere; there is also the noun niumo modulatio, sonus, canticum.]

neón. v. neán.

neorxna wang, es; m. Paradise :-- Paradisum ðæt wé hátaþ on Englisc neorxna wang, Hexam. 16; Norm. 24, 5 : Cd. Th. 13, 26; Gen. 208 : Blickl. 17, 15 : Homl. Th. i. 12, 32. Gif hé beget and yt rinde sió ðe cymþ of neorxna wonge, ne dereþ hím nán átter. Ðonne cwæþ se ðe ðás bóc wrát hió wǽre torbegete, Lchdm. ii. 114, 4. Neorxena wang, Gen. 2, 9 : 3, 8. Neorxnewong, Hpt. Gl. 447, 2. Nearxnewang, Hy. Surt. 64, 25. Nerxnewang, 47, 12. Nercsna ([n]erexna, Rush.) wong, Lk. Skt. Lind. 23, 43. Neirxna wong, Mt. Kmbl. p. 8, 5 : Rtl. 124, 7. Nerxna wong, 124, 3.

neósan; p. de (?) with gen. acc. or clause. I. to search out, find out by enquiry :-- Wolde ic ánes tó ðé cræftes neósan ðæt ðú me getǽhte hú ðú sǽhengeste sund wísige one art would I find out by enquiry of thee; that thou wouldest teach me how for the sea-horse thou guidest its swimming, Andr. Kmbl. 968; An. 484. Hý neósan cwóman, hwæðere him ðæs wonges wyn sweðrade, Exon. Th. 123, 12; Gú. 321. II. to seek, visit (a) a place :-- Gewát his beddes neósan Holofernes sought his couch, Judth. Thw. 22, 15; Jud. 63: Beo. Th. 3587; B. 1791. Setles neósan, 3576; B. 1786. Ceóles neósan, 3617; B. 1806: Andr. Kmbl. 620; An. 310. Éðles neósan, 1660; An. 832: 2050; An. 1027. Burga neósan, Elen. Kmbl. 304; El. 152. Wíca neósan, Beo. Th. 251; B. 125: Exon. Th. 184, 5; Gú. 1339. Þýstra, wíta neósan to seek hell, 275, 23; Jul. 554 : 280, 18; Jul. 631. Hámes niósan, Beo. Th. 4722; B. 2366: 4765; B. 2381. Éce staðulas neósan, Cd. Th. 207, 30; Exod. 474. (b) a person :-- Úser neósan, Beo. Th. 4155; B. 2074. Com ðá hǽðenra h1óþ háliges neósan, Andr. Kmbl. 2778; An. 1391 : Exon. Th. 170, 30; Gú. 1119. Ic his neósan wille, 145, 8; Gú. 691. Word áres oft neósendes (ðín), 175, 6; Gú. 1190. III. to seek with hostile intent (cf. sécan) :-- Wyrm yrre cwom fiónda niósan, láðra manna, Beo. Th. 5336; B. 2671. [Goth. bi-niuhsjan to spy out : Icel. nýsa to pry, enquire : O. Sax. niusian : O. H. Ger. niusian niti, conari.] v. next word.

neósian; p. ode with gen. acc. or clause. I. to search out, find out by enquiry or inspection, to inspect :-- Wolde neósian Nergend, hwæt his bearn dyde, Cd. Th. 53, 2; Gen. 855. Gewát neósian heán húses hú hit Hring-Dene gebún hæfdon he came and inspected the lofty house, how the Hring-Danes had ordered it, Beo. Th. 230; B. 115. II. to seek, visit (a) a place :-- Wæs his gewuna ðæt Norþanhymbra mǽgþe sóhte and neósode solebat Nordanhymbrorum provincian revisere, Bd. 3, 23; S. 554, 7. Gewiton him wígend wíca neósian, Frysland geseón, Beo. Th. 2255; B. 1125. (b) a person :-- Mannes sunu ðe ðú neósast (visitas), Ps. Th. 8, 5. Neósode hé min eft me revisens, Bd. 5, 6; S. 619, 43. Se hine ǽghwylce daga neósade, Exon. Th. 162, 11; Gú. 974. Hwílum mennisce áras neósedon (hine or his), 157, 16; Gú. 892. Ic wæs on ðæm carcerne and gé min neósodon, L. E. I. 32; Th. ii. 428, 29. Se leófa cuma se ðe gewunade úre bróðer neósian (visitare), Bd. 4, 3; S. 568, 17. Ðone ðe hí untrumne neósian cóman, 4, 11; S. 579, 40 : R. Ben. 17, 2. Ðonne Drihten úre hwylces neósian wille, Blickl. Homl. 125, 13. III. to seek with hostile intent (cf. sécan), to visit with calamity, disease, etc. :-- Leomu hefegedon, hé gecneów ðæt hine ælmihtig ufan neósade (cf. the phrase the visitation of God), Exon. Th. 159, 24; Gú. 931. Ðǽr Ongenþeów Eofores niósade (MS. niosað), Beo. Th. 4966; B. 2486. [O Sax. niusón.] v. ge-neósian and preceding word.

neó-síþ, es; m. Death :-- Se sceal æfter neúsíþum wunian wítum fæst Exon. Th. 316, 27; Mód. 55.

neósung, e; f. A visiting, visitation :-- Synna forgyfenys, húselgang and Godes neósung sind eallum gemǽne, Homl. Th. i. 64, 32. Johannes wearþ on ðysum dæge tó heofenan ríces myrhþe þurh Godes neósunge genumen, 58, 4. Mid ðý ðá æfter langre tíde com tó him for neósunge intingan (gratia visitationis), Bd. 4, 3; S. 569, 41. Búton niósunga absque visitatione, Kent. Gl. 710. v. ge-neósung.

neótan, niótan; p. neát, pl. nuton To enjoy, have the benefit of, make use of, (a) with gen. :-- Brúc ðisses beáges and ðisses hrægles neót, Beo. Th. 2439; B. 1217. Niótaþ inc ðæs óðres ealles all other take for your use, Cd. Th. 15. 18; Gen. 235. Lífes, feores neótan to live. Hwylc is manna ðæt feores neóte quis est homo, qui vivet, Ps. Th. 88, 41 : Exon. Th. 328,14; Vy. 17. Niótan, Cd. Th. 31, 17; Gen. 486 : 26, 4; Gen. 401. Mínes éðelríces eádig neótan, Exon. Th. 89, 25; Cri. 1462 : 223, 18; Ph. 361 : 356, 14; Pa. 11. Geofona neótan, 225, 5; Ph. 384 : 152, 6; Gú. 804. Willum neótan blǽdes and blissa, 184, 21; Gú. 1347 : 82, 26; Cri. 1344. Ðæt hé ðær brúcan mót wonges mid willurn, and welan neótan lífes and lissa, 208, 2; Ph. 149. Sécan swegles dreámas and (ðara dreáma) willum neótan, Andr. Kmbl. 1620; An. 811. Wǽpna neótan to make good use of his weapons, Byrht. Th. 140, 55; By. 308. (b) with acc. :-- Ic ðé on ða fægran foldan gesette tó neótenne neorxna wonges beorhtne blǽdwelan, Exon. Th. 85, 14; Cri. 1391. [Goth. niutan : O. Sax. niotan : O. Frs. niata : Icel. njóta : O. H. Ger. niuzan (with gen. and acc.) uti, frui.] v. be-, (bi-)neótan.

neóten. v. níten.

neoþan; adv. Down, beneath, from beneath :-- Nyþan (niþan, neoþan) dedeorsum, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 238, 10. On heofenum and on eorþan neoþan in coelo sursum et in terra deorsum, Jos. 2, 11. Ealle stówa hé neoþan underwreþeþ, Blickl. Homl. 23, 20. Ðæt wæter wæs sweart under ðæm clife neoþan, 211, 2 : Cd. Th. 20, 18; Gen. 311. Wrætlíc is seó womb neoþan, Exon Th. 219, 14; Ph. 307 : 392, 2; Rä. 11, 1: 407, 14; Rä. 26, 5 : 414, 14; Rä. 32, 20. Ðú mé of neowelnesse neoþan álýsdest, Ps. Th. 70, 19 : 103, 7 : Elen. Kmbl. 2228; El. 1115. Neoþan, Exon. Th. 479, 11; Rä. 62, 6. v. be-, wið-neoþan, and next word.

neoðane; adv. Beneath, below :-- Hér is fýr micel ufan and neoþone, Cd. Th. 24, 8; Gen. 375. Ufane and neoþan, Met. 20, 141. [O. Sax. niðana : O. H. Ger. nidana subtus, subtu.]

neoþan-weard; adj. Low in position :-- Nioþanweard hype ilia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 110, 54.

neoþemest. v. next word and neoþor.

neoþera, niþera; adj. (without a positive form) Lower :-- Neoþera welor albrum ( = labrum), Wrt. Voc. ii. 7, 79: i. 282, 71. Niþera lippe labrum, 43, 25. Ðú generedest míne sáule of ðære neoþeran helle, Blickl. Homl. 89, 28. Neoþran, Ps. Spl. 85, 12. On seáðe ðam neoþeran in lacu inferiori, 87, 6. Cyng áh ðone uferan and bisceop ðone nyþeran, L. E. G. 4; Th. i. 168, 16. On nyþerum eorþan in inferioribus terrae, Ps. Spl. 138, 14. On ða neoþran eorþan, 62, 9. On ðás niþeran dǽlas ðisse ceastre, Blickl. Homl. 239, 6. Yfemest is eallra gesceafta fýr ofer eorþan, folde neoþemest, Met. 20. 85. On ðære nyþemystan (lowest) bytminge, Homl. Th. i. 536, 10. Ða niþemestan ic gebrenge æt ðám héhstan, and ða héhstan æt ðám niþemestan, Bt. 7, 3; Fox 20, 35. Gé underþiódaþ eówre héhstan medemnesse under ða eallra nyþemestan gesceafta, 14, 2; Fox 44, 34. On ða neoþemestan helle wítu, Blickl. Homl. 185, 6.

neoþe-, nioþo-, niþe-weard; adj. Low, situated beneath, bottom of (the noun with which the adjective agrees) :-- Niþeweard fót planta; hóh niþeweard calx, Wrt. Voc. i. 283, 73, 75. Is se hals gréne nioþoweard and ufeweard, Exon. Th. 218, 23; Ph. 299. On nyþewerdum ðam munte ad radices montis, Ex. 19, 17. Hé (Noah's ark) wæs on nyþe-weardan wíd, and on ufeweardan nearo, Homl. Th. i. 536, 9. Wyrc hié of nioþoweardre netlan, Lchdm. ii. 128, 6. Wyl neoþewearde netelan, 312, 5. Lege on ðone pyt neoþeweardne lay it at the bottom of the pit, i. 398, 22. Neoþouard crepidinem, Wrt. Voc. ii. 98, 5. Tósliten of ufewerdum óþ neoþewerd (nioðuord, Lind.: nioþawordum, Rush.), Mk. Skt. 15, 38. Nypeweard (nioþaweard, Lind.: neoþewearde, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 27, 51. Of neoþeweardum imis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 43. 57. Fram his hnolle ufewerdan óþ his ilas neoþewerde from the crown of his head to the soles of his feet, Homl. Th. ii. 452, 27.

neoþor, nioþor, niþor; adv. (without a positive form) Lower, in an inferior position :-- Niþor inferius, nyþemyst infime, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 42, 14. Se ðe wæs neoþor on endebyrdnysse wearþ fyrmest on þrowunge he (Stephen) that was lower in order, was first in suffering, Homl. Th. i. 50, 4. Ðá heó ðá hié in ðæm gefeohte neoþor geségon qui dum se inferiores in bello conspicerent, Bd. 3, 18; S. 546, 16. Ðé læs ðe ðæt mód sý neoþer ðonne se líchoma, Homl. Skt. 1, 58. Nioþoror, Bt. 41. 6; Fox 254. 31. Sió eorþe is nioþor ðonne ǽnig óðru gesceaft, Bt. 33, 4; Fox 130, 20. Nioþor hwéne, Beo. Th. 5392; B. 2699. Ðæt mód glít nioþor and nioþor (niþor and niþor, Hatt. MS.) stæpmǽlum, Past. 38, 7; Swt. 278, 2. Hine nyþor ásette Metod the Lord humbled him (Nebuchadnezzar), Cd. Th. 247, 7; Dan. 493.

neówan, neówe, neowel, neówian, neówinga, neówness. v. níwan, níwe, neowol, níwian, níwinga, níwness.

neowol, nifol, nihol, nihold, neól, niwol; adj. I. prone, prostrate :-- Nihol pronus, Ep. Gl. 20 b, 2. Nihold, Wrt. Voc. ii. 118, 20. Hwí líst ðú neowel on eorþan cur jaces pronus in terra? Jos. 7, 10. Hé feóll niwel on ða eorþan, Gen. 33, 3. Niwol, Bt. 1; Fox 4, 3. Neowol, Met. 1, 80. Ðǽrrihte férde eall seó heord myclum onrǽse niwel on sǽ ecce impetu abiit totus grex per praeceps in mare, Mt. Kmbl. 8, 32. Neól ic fére, Exon. Th. 403, 2; Rä. 22, 1. Hít swá niowul (prostrate) up árǽrde, Bt. 3, 1; Fox 4, 26. Neowle nihtscúwan the shades of night that had settled down upon earth, Cd. Th. 184, 28; Exod. 114. Ða neowelan cernua, Wrt. Voc. ii. 18, 14 : 78. 59. Neóle cernuas, 83, 3. Nióle, 18, 42. Nifle nædran cynn serpentes, Ps. Th. 148, 10. II. deep down, low, profound (v. neowolness) :-- Niól infima, 110, 73. Under neólum niþer næsse deep underground, Elen. Kmbl. 1660; El. 832. In ðam neólan scræfe in that deepest den (hell), Exon. Th. 283, 23; Jul. 684. In ðissum neowlan genipe (hell), Cd. Th. 271, 7; Sat. 102. In ðone neowlan grund to that profound abyss, 267, 1; Sat. 31 : 270, 16; Sat. 91. In ðis neowle genip, 275, 31; Sat. 180 : 292, 25; Sat. 446. Drihten for ðé of ðæm heán heofone on ðás neowlan gesceaft niðer ástáh for thee the Lord descended from the high heaven to this lower world, L. E. I. prm.; Th. ii. 396, 2. Gé beóþ forǽltene on ðone neowlan helle seáð ye shall be dismissed to the bottomless pit, 396, 18. Gǽst ellor hwearf under neowelne næs, Judth. Thw. 23, 9; Jud. 113. Sunne gewát tó sete glídan under niflan næs, Andr. Kmbl. 2611; An. 1307. Nyþer gefeallaþ under neowulne grund descendunt usque ad abyssos, Ps. Th. 106, 25. Neowle næssas low-lying headlands, Beo. Th. 2826; B.1411; Niþer under næssas, neóle grundas (hell), Exon. Th. 136, 3; Gú. 535.

neowol-líc; adj. Profound :-- Hé siccetunga teáh of niwellícum breóste he heaved sighs from the depths of his breast, Homl. Skt. 7, 66.

neowolness, e; f. A deep place, an abyss :-- Neowelnys abyssus, Ps. Spl. 35, 6. Seó neólnes cliopaþ tó ðære neólnesse abyssus abyssum invocat, Ps. Th. 41, 8. Ealle wyllspringas ðære micelan niwelnesse, Gen. 7, 11 : 1, 2. Of neowelnesse de abyssis terrae, Ps. Th. 70, 19. In neólnesse, in súsla grund, Elen. Kmbl. 1882; El. 943 Ealle neowelnessa omnes abyssi, Ps. Th. 148, 7. Neowelnyssa, Cant. Moys. 5. Neólnessa, Blickl. Homl. 93, 12. On þa neowólnesse ðæs seáþes in profunda, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 21. Neólnisse abyssos, Ps. Surt. 32, 7, Nywolnessa, Ps. Th. 103, 7.

nép; adj. Lacking, scanty (?) :-- Mægen wæs on cwealme fæste gefeterod forþganges nép the force of the Egyptians was fast fettered in death, they could make no advance (when they were overwhelmed in the Red Sea), Cd. Th. 207, 20; Exod. 469. v. next word.

nép-flód, es; m. A neap-tide, a very low tide :-- Népflód vel ebba ledona, Wrt. Voc. i. 57, 11 : ledo, 63, 74: ii. 98, 22. On ǽlcum ánum geáre weaxeþ ðæt flód ðæs sǽs feówer and twentigum síða, and swá oft wanaþ; fylleþflód biþ némned on lǽden malina, and se népflód ledo, Shrn. 63, 31. [Cf. Eng. Gilds (E. E. T. S.), p. 425, 30, where 'neep sesons' are mentioned, the times of neap-tides.]

nepte, nefte, an; f. Nep or nip (v. E. D. S. Plant-Names), cat's mint :-- Nepte nepita, Wrt. Voc. ii. 62, 40. Nepte, i. 30, 21. Nepte. Ðás wyrte man nepitamon, and óðrum naman nepte nemneþ, and eác Grécas hý mente orinon hátaþ, Lchdm. i. 208, 7-9. Nefte, ii. 122, 13 : 316, 5 : 318, 12. Neptan sǽd, iii. 72, 11. Wyl neftan, ii. 62, 25 : 76, 19 : 142, 3 : 266, 11. [Prompt. Parv. nepte nepta.]

ner, es; n. A refuge :-- Geworden is [Dryhten] ner oððe rótnes ðam þearfan factus est Dominus refugium pauperi, Ps. Lamb. 9, 10. v. ge-ner.

nergend, nerigend, neriend, es; m. A saviour, preserver :-- Ðec, mihtig God, nergend, Cd. Th. 239, 24; Dan. 375. Crist nergend, Hy. Grn. ii. 291, 39. Dryhten God, nerigend fira, Andr. Kmbl. 2573; An. 1288. Neregend, 581; An. 291. Se Godes cwide is folces nerigend (MS. B. neriend), Salm. Kmbl. 162; Sal. 80. Nergendes hǽs God's command, Cd. Th. 173, 29; Gen. 2863. Nergende leóf, 77, 35; Gen. 1285. Ealra fǽmnena cwén cende ðone sóþan Scyppend and ealles folces Férfrend, and ealles middangeardes Hǽlend, and ealra gásta Nergend, and ealrasáula Helpend, Blickl. Homl. 105, 18. [O. Sax. neriand (Christ).]

nerian; p. ede To save :-- Wyrd oft nereþ unfǽægne eorl if a man's death be not doomed, oft destiny saves him, Beo. Th. 1149; B. 572. Of neádum heora hé nerode (eripuit) hig, Ps. Spl. 106, 6. Hié hálig God nerede, Cd. Th. 84, 13; Gen. 1397: 90, 6; Gen. 1491. Hí freá nerede fram hellcwale, Exon. Th. 73, 14; Cri. 1189. Ðín ealdor nere, Cd. Th. 152, 2; Gen. 2502. Ðæt ðú nerige (eruas) mé, Ps. Spl. 39, 18. Se ðe wyle oððe sceall nerian eruiturus, Ælfc. Gr. 41; Sons. 44, 26. Hyne God wolde nergan wið níþum, Exon. Th. 135, 16; Gú. 525. Gewiton feorh heora fleame nergan, Cd. Th. 120, 126; Gen. 2000. Nergean, 151, 16; Gen. 2509. Tó nergenne, 234, 1; Dan. 285. Tó nerganne, Exon. Th. 185, ii; Az. 6. Neriende Crist (cf. O. Sax. neriendi Krist), Hy. Grm. ii. 286, 4, 28. Nerigende, Cd. Th. 238, 15; Dan. 355. Nergende Crist, 300, 25; Sat. 570. [Goth. nasjan : O. Sax. nerian : O. Frs. nera : O. H. Ger. nerian alere, pascere, sustentare, salvare : Ger. nähren : cf. Icel. næra to nourish.] v. ge-nerian.

nering, e; f. Protection, defence :-- Nerin[ge] presidio, protectionis, Hpt. Gl. 527, 68.

Neron, es; m. Nero :-- Neron cwæþ, Blickl. Homl. 175. 33. Nerones wíf Libia, 173, 13. Tó Nerone, 173, 10.

nerwet. v. nirwett.

nesan; p. næs; pl. nǽson; pp. nesen To be saved from, to escape from :-- Ðam ðe mid sceolon mereflód nesan those who are to be saved with you from the flood (the living creatures in the ark with Noah), Cd. Th. 81, 7; Gen. 1341. v. ge-nesan.

nese ( = ne sí); adv. No (the opposite of gese) :-- Wylt ðú ðis? Nese vis hoc ? Non, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 40, 13. Wylt ðú wé gadriaþ hig? Ðá cwæþ hé, Nese (non), Mt. Kmbl. 13, 29. Syllaþ ús of eówrum ele ... Ðá andswarudun ða gleáwan, Nese, 25, 9. Ðá cwæþ hé : Nese (Lind. næsæ) fæder Abraham, Lk. Skt. 16, 30. Sume cwǽdon, he is gód; óðre cwǽdon, nese (Lind. næse), ac hé beswícþ ðis folc, Jn. Skt. 7, 12. Næsi, Jn. Skt, Lind. 21, 5. Hwæðer ðú swelces áuht geworhtes habbe. Nese, nese, Bt. 14, 1; Fox 40, 26, 33.

-nes[s], -nes[s],-nys[s], a frequently occurring suffix of feminine abstract nouns, cf. Goth. -assus, e. g. ufar-assus : O. H. Ger. -nessi; f. nessi; n.; -nissa, -nissi; f. -nissi; n. v. Grimm. Gram. ii. 321 sqq.

ness. v. næss.

nest, es; n. A nest; also the young birds in the nest; nidus :-- Nest nidus, Wrt. Voc. i. 77. 39 : Ælfc. Gr. 8; Som. 7. 30. Ic in mínum neste neóbed ceóse, 'I shall die in my nest,' Exon. Th. 235, 6; Ph. 553 : 212, 25; Ph. 215. Nest timbran, gearwian, getimbran, wyrcan to build a nest, 210, 20, 21; Ph. 189 : 228, 2; Ph. 432 : 229, 6; Ph. 229. Ðíne bearn gegaderian swá se fugel déþ his nest (nidum) under his fiðerum, Lk. Skt. 13, 34. Heofones fuglas habbaþ nestþ (MS. A. nest : Lind. nesto) volucres coeli habent nidos, 9, 58. Nest (Lind. nestas ɫ nesto), Mt. Kmbl. 8, 20 : Homl. Th. i. 160, 34. [O. H. Ger. nest nidus.] v. nistian, nestlian.

nest, es; n. I. provisions, victuals :-- Se him his nest áspringeþ he whose provisions fail him, Exon. Th. 335, 23; Gn. Ex. 38. Sum sceal on feorwegas gongan, and his nest beran, 329, 3; Vy. 28. On ðæm fætelse ðe hyre foregenga hyra begea nest þyder lǽdde, Judth. Thw. 23, 19; Jud. 128. II. provisions served out at fixed times, rations :-- Nest epimenia (οπιμήνια cf. fóstraþas epimoenia, 32, 41. Epimenia expensae vel exennia vel tributa quae dantur per singulos menses, Ducange), Wrt. Voc. ii. 107, 32. Ða cempan cwǽdon: Hwæt dó wé? Ðá sǽde hé him : Beóþ éðhylde on eówrum andlyfenum (Lind. Rush. nestum = stipendiis), Lk. Skt. 3, 14. [Icel. nest; n. provisions : O.H. Ger. wega-, fart-nest viaticum.] v. weg-nest, nest-pohha.

nést, nésta. v. neáh, níhsta.

nestan; p. te To spin :-- Ne wynnes and ne nestas non laborant neque nent, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 6, 28. Nestaþ, Lk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 12, 27. [Cf. Icel. nist a pin; nista to pin : O. H. Ger. nestilo, nestila vitta, funiculus, redimiculum, vitta, fibula, ansa : Ger. nestel.]

nestlian; p. ede To make a nest :-- Ðár spearwan nestliaþ illic passeres nidificabunt, Ps. Lamb. 103, 16. [Þar nestleþ (1st MS. næstieþ) hearnes, Laym. 21753. Nestlyn nidifico; nestlyd nidificatus; nestelynge nidificatio, Prompt. Parv. 354.] v. nistian, nistlan.

nest-pohha, an; m. A bag for food, wallet :-- Nestpoha pera, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 10, 10. [Cf. Icel. nest-baggi a wallet.]

neta, an; m. A caul :-- Inilve intestinum; midhryþre onentem; neta disceptum; blind þearm cecum, Wrt. Voc. i. 284, 2-5. v. nette.

netele, netle, netel, an; f. A nettle :-- Netele urtica, Wrt. Voc. i. 289, 43: ii. 65, 49. Netle, i. 31, 60 : 68, 25. Netel (netele, netle) urtica; blind netel (netele, netle) archangelica, 79, 30, 31. Netle, blinde netle, Lchdm. ii. 66, 4. Netele. Genim ðysse wyrte seáw ðe man urticam, and óðrum naman netele nemneþ i. 310, 14-16. Seó reáde netele lamium purpureum, iii. 52, 11: ii. 58, 10 : 92, 10. Netelan sǽd, i. 228, 24 : ii. 94, 12. Of nioþoweardre netlan, 128, 7. Nim netelan, 152, 10 : 312, 5. Ða greátan netlan (urtica dioica), 86, 12. Smale netelan (urtica urens), 68, 4. Netlan verticeta, Wrt. Voc. ii. 124, 20. [O. H. Ger. nezila] v. worþig-netele.

néten, neteness. v. níten, nytenness.

néðan; p. de To have courage to do, to dare to do, to venture :-- Néþeþ hwílum meówle ðæt heó on mec grípeþ the maiden has at times the courage to lay hold on me, Exon. Th. 407, 15; Rä. 26, 5. Néðde ðǽr ic Neron beswác I dared to go where I deceived Nero, 260, 24; Jul. 302. Hé in ðæt búrgeteld néðde he ventured into the pavilion, Judth. Thw. 25, 25; Jud. 277. Git on deóp wæter aldrum néðdon ye ventured into deep water at the risk of your lives, Beo. Th. 1024; B. 510 : 1080; B. 538. Ic néðan gefrægn hæleþ tó hilde I have heard that warriors dared to do battle, Cd. Th. 124, 9; Gen. 2060. Néðan on nacan tealtum to venture upon the unsteady vessel, Runic pm. Kmbl. 343, 21; Rún. 21. In nearowe néðan, Exon. Th. 436, 13; Rä. 54, 23. [Goth. ana-nanþjan to be bold : Icel. nenna to strive, have a mind to : O. H. Ger. nendjan insurgere; gi-nendjan audere.] v. ge-néðan.

néðing, e; f. Daring, audacity :-- Ðæt hé þurh néðinge wunne, Exon. Th. 109, 33; Gú. 99. Ða swá swíðe hiene ondrédan ðe on westeweardum ðisses middangeardes wǽron ðæt hié on swá micle néðinge ... hiene æfter friþe sóhton on eástweardum ðeosan middangearde those who were in the west of this earth feared him (Alexander) so much, that they had the courage to visit him in search of peace in the east of this earth, Ors. 3, 9; Swt. 136, 24. [Icel. nenning activity, energy : cf. O. H. Ger. nendigí audacia.]

net-gearn, es; n. Net-yarn, string for making nets :-- Án cliwen gódes nettgernes, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 451, 7.

net-ráp, es; m. A toil :-- Netrápas plagas, Wrt. Voc. i. 48, 26 : 57, 21.

nett, es; n. I. a net (for fowling, fishing, or hunting) :-- Net rete, Wrt. Voc. i. 285, 16. Nyt, 73, 41. Ned cassis, ii. 14, 3. Hyra net wæs tóbrocen, Lk. Skt. 5, 6. Úres fisceres nett nostri piscatoris rete, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Som. 19, 57. Feallaþ on nette his cadent in retiaculo ejus, Ps. Spl. 140, 11. Ic mín nett út lǽte laxabo rete, Lk. Skt. 5, 5: Mt. Kmbl. 4, 18. Lǽtaþ ðæt nett on ða swíðran healfe, Jn. Skt. 21, 6. Ic bréde nett plecto, Ælfc. Gr. 28; Som. 32, 8. Óþ ðæt ðe hig (wildeór) cuman tó ðám nettan ... Ne canst ðú huntian búton mid nettum? Coll. Monast. Th. 21, 15-21 : 22, 11. On feala wísan ic beswíce fugelas, hwílon mid nettum, 25, 11. Hí forléton hyra nett (netta, Lind.) relictis retibus, Mt. Kmbl. 4, 22 : Homl. Th. i. 578, 21. II. a mosquito-net :-- Nette, fleógryfte conopio, Wrt. Voc. ii. 19, 18. III. net-work, web :-- Swá tedre swá swá gangewifran nett, Ps. Th. 38, 12. Ðonne hió (the spider) geornast biþ ðæt heó áfǽre fleógan on nette, 89, 10. Folc gescylde hálgan nette (with a net-work of clouds), Cd. Th. 182, 11; Exod, 74. [Goth. nati : O. Sax. netti, (fisk-)net : O. Frs. nette : Icel. net; gen. pl. netja : O. H. Ger. nezzi rete.] v. ǽl-, boge-, breóst-, deór-, dræg-, feng-, fisc-, fleóh-, here-, hring-, inwit-, mycg-, searo-, wæl-nett, and next word.

nette, an; f. The net-like caul :-- Nette (under the heading de membris hominum) disceptum i. reticulum (cf. hoc reticulum, pinguedo circa jecur, 704, 7), Wülck. Gl. 293, 6. Nettae oligia, 35. 34. Nytte obligia, Wrt. Voc. i. 45, 18. Nette, ii. 63, 39 : disceptum, 26, 19. [Icel. netja the caul: cf. O. H. Ger. nezzi adeps intestini; pl. intestina.] v. neta.

neurisn, e; f. A kind of paralysis :-- Wið paralisin and wið neurisne, Lchdm. i. 12, 21 : 130, 11.

newe-, niwe-, nu-seóða,an; m. The pit of the belly :-- Be ðam nafolan and bæcþearme and neweseóðan, Lchdm. ii. 232, 1. Niweseóðan, 164, 8. Sió biþ on ða swíðran sídan áþened óþ ðone neweseóðan, 198, 1 : 242, 19 : 258, 6. Nuseóðan, 160, 12. Cf. (?) seód.

né-west, néxt, néxta. v. neáh-west, neáh, níhsta.

ní-. v. níw-.

nic = ne ic not I :-- Wilt ðú fón sumne hwæl? Nic vis capere aliquem cetum? Nolo, Coll. Monast. Th. 24, 17. Eart ðú wítega? Hé cwæþ nic, Jn. Skt. 1, 21. Eart ðú of ðysses leorningcnihtum? Ðá cwæþ hé : Nicc, ne eom ic, 18, 17.

ní-cend, -cumen. v. níw-cenned, -cumen.

nicor, es; m. I. a hippopotamus :-- Him wǽron ða breóst gelíce niecres breóstum hypopotami pectore, Nar. 20, 29. Nicoras hypopotami, 11, 11. II. a water-monster :-- Sanctus Paulus wæs geseónde on norþanweardne ðisne middangeard, ðǽr ealle wætero niþer gewítaþ, and hé ðǽr geseah ofer ðæm wætere sumne hárne stán ... and under ðæm stáne wæs niccra eardung and wearga. And hé geseah ... manige swearte sáula ... and ða fýnd on nicra onlícnesse heora grípende wǽron ... gewitan ða sáula niþer and him onféngon ða nicras, Blickl. Homl. 209, 29-211, 5. On nicera mere, Beo. Th. 1695; B. 845. Ic on ýðum slóg niceras nihtes, 848; B, 422 : 1154; B. 575. Nicras, 2859; B. 1427. [Icel. nykr a sea-goblin; a hippopotamus : O. H. Ger. nichus a crocodile. v. Grmm. D. M. 135, 146.]

nicor-hús, es; n. The abode of a 'nicor,' Beo. Th. 2827; B. 1411.

níd, neád, néd, neód, niéd, nýd, es; n.: e; f. I. necessity, inevitableness :-- Neód (néd, Lind. Rush.) ys ðæt swycdómas cumon necesse est ut veniant scandala, Mt. Kmbl. 18, 7 : Homl. Th. i. 514, 33. Gif ðæt nýd ábǽdeþ cum ipsa necessitas compellit, Bd. 1, 27; S. 497, 1. Nemne hwylc nýd máre ábǽdde, 3, 5; S. 526, 28. Swá hyne nýd fordráf, Judth. Thw. 25, 25; Jud. 277. Nýd biþ wyrda heardost, Salm. Kmbl. 622; Sal. 310. Eádfriþ for neóde (neáde, MS. T.: nýde, MS. B.) tó Pendan gebeáh Eadfrid necessitate cogente ad Pendam transfugit, Bd. 2, 20; S. 521, 15 : Chr. 1016; Erl. 154, 11. Mid nýde gebǽded necessitate cogente, Bd. 3, 24; S. 556, 7. Nýde genýdde forced by necessity, Beo. Th. 2014; B. 1005. II. necessity, need, urgent requirement :-- Ne néd is ðé ðætte hwelc ðec gifregne non opus est tibi ut quis te interroget, Jn. Skt. Rush. 16, 30. Mé is neód necesse habeo, ic habbe neóde necesse habeo, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 38. Nis Gode nán neód úre ǽhta, Homl. Th. i. 140, 24. Nis Gode nán neód ðæt wé gód wyrcan, ne hé nán þing ne hǽt for his ágenre neóde, Homl. Skt. 11, 299. Seó þearlwísnes ðæs heardan lífes him ǽrest of nýde becom for bóte his synna ac forþgangendre tíde ðæt hé ðæt nýd on gewunon gecyrde ... ex necessitate obvenerat, sed ... necessitatem in consuetudinem verterat, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 32, Nabbaþ hí neóde tó farenne, Mt. Kmbl.14, 16 : Lk. Skt. 14, 18. III. a necessary business, duty :-- Neád debita, Wrt. ii. 139, 68. Ús is neód (it is our bounden duty) ðæt wé ða hálgan eástertíde be ðam sóðan regole healdon, Lchdm. iii. 256, 17. Ús is twýfeald neód on bóclícum gewritum. Ánfeald neód ús is, ðæt wé ða bóclícan láre mid carfullum móde smeágan; óðer ðæt wé hí tó weorcum áwendan, Homl. Th. ii. 284, 23. Hé férde embe sumere neóde he was going about some necessary business, 508, 15. Nolde Maurus of ðam mynstre faran for nánre neóde, bútan hé nýde sceolde, Homl. Skt. 6, 290. Eádsige hine wel lǽrde and tó his ágenre neóde and ealles folces manude (exhorted him with regard to his duty as king), Chr. 1043; Erl.168, 5. Hé wolde gán embe his neóde forþ, Homl. Th. i. 290, 18. Gafele ɫ nédde (neáde?) debito, necessitate, Hpt. Gl. 440, 29. Neóde debitum, 456, 14. On ðam tóweardan lífe ne beóþ ðás neóda (the duties of feeding the hungry, etc.), ne ðás þénunga Homl. Th. ii. 442, 18. Neódum causis, Hpt. Gl. 412, 57. IV. need, what one wants :-- Ðæt man underfó máre ðonne his líchaman neód sý, Homl. Th. ii. 590, 21. Mid ðý hí ðá ðæt scyp gehlæsted hæfdon mid ðám þingum ðe swá mycles síþfætes nýd ábǽdde cum navi imposuissent quae tanti itineris necessitas poscebat, Bd. 5, 9; S. 623, 18. Ne lufode hé woruldlíce ǽrehta for his neóde ána (to supply his own needs only), ac tó dǽlenne eallum wædliendum, Homl. Th. ii. 340, 21. Gylde se túnscipe tó ðære muneca neóde (ad usus), Chart. Th. 307, 26. Tó ðæs minstres neóde, 362, 7. Ðú hogast embe ðíne neóde, Homl. Th. i. 488, 24. Ðám mannum ðe heora neóde habbaþ who have what they want, ii. 106, 18. Hé sylþ him his neóde he gives him what he wants, Lk. Skt. 11, 8. God dæghwamlíce ús déþ úre neóde God daily supplies our needs, Basil Admn. 4; Norm. 40, 29 : Homl. Th. i. 516, 9. Ealle úre neóda ǽgðer ge gástlíce ge líchamlíce, 272, 16. V. necessity, need, difficulty, hardship, distress :-- Lust hæfþ wíte and neád wuldor-beáh gegearwaþ pleasure hath punishment and hardship is a preparation for a crown, R. Ben. 26, 9. Ðá cwǽdon hié ðæt him leófre wǽre ðæt hié an swelcan niéde ðeáþ fornóme ðonne hié mid swelcan niéde friþ begeáte tutius rati sese armatos mori quam miseros vivere, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 174, 25-27, Sume men ða wǽtan for ðæm nýde þigdon suam urinam vexatos ultimis necessitatibus haurientes, Nar. 9, 22. Moises sǽde Drihtne ðæs folces neóde, Ex. 15, 25. Of neádum mínum genera mé de necessitatibus meis erue me, Ps. Spl. 24, 18 : 106, 6. Nédum, 30, 9. Niédum, Andr. Kmbl. 2754; An. 1379. VI. force, compulsion :-- Ríccra manna need vis potestatis, Wrt. Voc. i. 21, 28. Ne eom ic nánre neáde gecnéwe, Chart. Th. 296, 1. Him beóþ ealle mid néde (by force), on genumene, Blickl. Homl. 49, 26. Mid nǽnigum néde gebǽded, 83, 32. Ða kyningas ðe ic mid néde tó hýrsumnesse gedyde, Nar. 32, 19. Má hreósende for ealddóme ðonne of ǽniges cyninges niéde, Ors. 2, 4; Swt, 76, 3. Heofena ríce þolaþ neád (vim), Mt. Kmbl. 11, 12. Néd, Ps. Surt. 37, 13. Nýd, Ps. Spl. 37, 12. VII. the name of the rune, Runic-Nyd, N; hence the symbol is sometimes put instead of writing the word, Runic pm. Kmbl. 341, 8; Rún. 10 : Exon. Th. 429, 22; Rä. 43, 8 : 50, 14; Cri. 800 : 284, 28; Jul. 704 : Elen. Kmbl. 2519; El. 1261. [Goth. nauþs : Icel. nauð, neyð : O. Sax. nód : O. Frs. néd : O. H. Ger. nót vis, violentia, exactio, necessitas, tribulatio, angor.] v. hæft-, nearo-, óht-, þeów-, þreá-níd; néde, nédes, and neód.

nídan; p. de To force, compel, urge :-- Ic nýde cogo, Ælfc. Gr. 28; Som. 32, 14 : Hé ús ne nét (Cott. MS. néd) tó ðam ðæt wé néde scylen gód dón, Bt. 41, 4; Fox 252, 3. Hé nýt (compellet) eów ðæt gé faron út, Ex. 11, 1. Hié hié selfe nídaþ (Cott. MSS. niédaþ) tó healdonne swígean, Past. 38, 1; Swt. 271, 16. Se páps nédde Adrianus ðæt hé biscopháde onfénge, Bd. 4, 1; S. 564, 6. Gif gé gesáwen hwelce mús ðæt wǽre hláford ofer óðre mýs and nídde (Cott. MS. nédde) hié æfter gafole (exacted tribute from them), Bt. 16, 2; Fox 52, 3. Hé nýdde his leorningcnihtas on scyp stígan, Mk. Skt. 6, 45. Ne nýdde hé ná ðæt folc tó his cwale he did not force the people to kill him, Homl. Th. i. 216, 1. Ðá nýdde hé ðone unclǽnan gást út, Lk. Skt. 9, 42. Hé hié nýdde in fæðm fýres, Cd. Th. 230, 14; Dan. 233. Ða Egiptiscan nýddon (urgebant) ðæt folc út of hira lande, Ex. 12, 33. Ðá nýddon hine his yldran tó ðæm ðæt hé sceolde woroldlícum wǽpnum onfón, Blickl. Homl. 213, 1. Ðone hig nýddon ðæt hé bǽre hys róde, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 32. Nýd compelle, Lk. Skt. 14, 23 : Homl. Th. ii. 376, 14. Ne niéde (MS. H. nýde) ðú hine you shall not press him (the debtor), L. Alf. 35; Th. i. 52, 22. Hwæðer seó godcunde foretiohhung oððe sió wyrd ús néde tó ðam ðe hí willen, Bt. 40, 7; Fox 242, 15. Nédendum dóme urgente decreto, Hpt. Gl, 488, 68. Ic eom nýded, Bd. 3, 13; S. 538, 26. [Goth. nauþjan : Icel. neyða : O. Sax. nódian : O. Frs. néda : O. H. Ger. nótian.] v. ge-nýdan, neádian.

níd-bád, e; f. An exaction, a due, toll :-- Ic Æðelbald Myrcna cincg wæs beden from bisceope Milréde ðæt ic him áléfde alle nédbáde tuegra sceopa, Chart. Th. 28, 25 : 29, 8. Hé nymeþ nýdbáde he (Grendel) takes toll, Beo. Th. 1200; B. 598. v. bádian, bǽdan, níd debitum, nídgafol, and next word.

níd-bádere, es; m. One who exacts toll :-- Ic him álýfde alle nédbáde tuegra sceopa, ða ðe ðǽr ábǽdde beóþ from ðǽm nédbáderum in Lundentúnes hýðe, and nǽfre ic ne míne lástweardas ne ða nédbáderas geþrístlǽcen ðæt heó hit onwenden, Chart. Th. 29, 7-14. v. preceding word.

níd-bebod, es; n. An urgent command, mandate :-- Healdeþ nýdbibod hálgan Dryhtnes, Exon. Th. 350, 32; Sch. 72.

níd-behéfe; adj. Necessary, needful :-- Neádbehéfe necessarium, Hpt. Gl. 524, 65. Án þing is niédbehéfe, Lk. Skt. 10, 42. Is ðeáh niédbehéfe ungelǽredum woroldmonnum, Lchdm. iii, 440, 32. Se man wæs ðam déman þearle nýdbehéfe, Homl. Skt. 4, 144. On eallum ðissum þingum is geþyld nýdbehéfe, Homl. Th. i. 470, 31. Seó hand getácnaþ úrne nýdbehéfan freónd, ðe ús úre neóde déþ, 516, 8. Synd gesealde from ðam abbode ealle neádbehéfe þing, R. Ben. 92, 2 : 127, 5. In Godes lofe and in nýdbehéfum weorcum wé sceolon gewunigan, L. E. I. 42; Th. ii. 438, 31. Wé habbaþ ða nýdbehéfestan ánunga áwritene, Boutr. Scrd. 23, 12. v. níd-behóf and next word.

níd-behéfe (?) necessity :-- Ðá hnédbihoefe (Lind. néd) hæfde quando necessitatem habuit, Mk. Skt. Rush. 2, 25.

níd-behóf; adj. Necessary, needful :-- Án þing is nýdbehóf, Homl. Th. ii. 440, 9. v. níd-behéfe.

níd-behóflíc; adj. Necessary :-- Hé sǽde ðæt him wǽre his líf nýdbehóflíc quia multum necessaria sibi esset vita ipsius, Bd. 5, 5; S. 618, 3.

níd-beþearf; adj. Necessary :-- Sumæ béc ða ðe niédbeþearfosta (níd-beþyrfesta, Cott. MSS.) síen, Past. præf,; Swt, 7, 7.

níd-boda, an; m. One who announces violence or distress (v. níd, V, VI) :-- Sincalda sǽ, nýdboda (the Red Sea which overwhelmed the Egyptians), Cd. Th. 207, 29; Exod. 474.

níd-brýce, es; m. Necessary use, requirement, need :-- Ðá wolde se hálga sum hús timbrian tó his nédbrícum, Homl. Th. ii. 144, 31.

níd-bysig; adj. Troubled by distresses :-- Ðǽr (in hell) ðú (the devil) nýdbysig fore oferhygdum eard gesóhtes, Exon. Th. 267, 31; Jul. 423.

níd-bysigu, -bysgu; f. Distress, trouble :-- Nýdbysgum neáh, Exon. Th. 354, 11; Reim. 44.

níd-clamm, -clomm, es; m. Necessity, need, distress :-- Of neád-clammum heora hé álǽdde de necessitatibus eorum eduxit, Ps. Lamb. 106, 28.

níd-cleofa, -clafa (?), an; m. A prison :-- Ðæt hine man of nearwe and of nýdcleofan fram ðam engan hofe up forléte, Elen. Kmbl. 1419; El. 711. In nédcleofan nearwe geheaðrod, 2249; El. 1276. Ðá wæs carcernes duru behliden . . . symle heó wuldorcyning herede in ðam nýdclafan, Exon. Th. 256, 31; Jul. 240. v. next word.

níd-cofa, an; m. A prison :-- Se hálga wæs lǽded in ðæt dimme ræced, sceal ðonne in neádcofan nihtlange fyrst wunian, Andr. Kmbl. 2619; An. 1311.

níd-costing, e; f. A distressing trial, affliction :-- Nearwum genǽged nýdcostingum, Exon. Th. 171. 14; Gú. 1126.

níd-dǽda, an; m. One who does something under compulsion :-- Gif hé æfter sunnan upgonge ðis déþ (kills the housebreaker), hé biþ mansleges scyldig, and hé ðonne self swelte, búton hé niéddǽda (nýd-, MS. H.) wǽre (unless he were forced to do it in self-defence), L. Alf. 25; Th. i. 50, 21. Cf. Se ðe hine nédes ofslóge oððe unwillum oððe ungewealdes, 13; Th. i. 46, 22. v. níd-wyrhta.

níde, neáde, neóde, níde, niéde, nýde; adv. (a case of níd, q. v.). I. of necessity, as a natural, inevitable consequence, from force of circumstances :-- Gif gé neáde swá dón sceolon (si sic necesse est), dóþ swá gé wyllon, Gen. 43, 11. Wegférende móton for neóde mete neáde ferian and for unfriþe man mót freólsǽfenan nýde fulfaran betweonan Eferwíc, and six míla gemete travellers may, when compelled by circumstances, carry food to supply their needs; and on account of war, a man may, on the eve of a festival, when compelled by circumstances, travel between York and a distance of six miles, L. N. P. L. 56; Th. ii. 298, 25-27. Forðamðe wé witon ðæt án wealdend is eallra þinga wé sceolon beón néde geþafan (we must inevitably assent to the conclusion) ðæt hé síe se héhsta hróf eallra góda, Bt. 34, 12; Fox 154, 7. Ðes middangeard néde (as the result of natural, inevitable laws) on ðás eldo endian sceal, Blickl. Homl. 117, 35. Wæs his fæder cininges þegna aldorman. Ðá sceolde Sanctus Martinus néde (as an inevitable result) beón on his geógoþháde on ðære geférǽdenne cininges þegna, 211, 22. Niéde sceal bión gebrocen ðæt mód ðara hiéremonna, gif se láreów ágiémleásaþ ðæt hé hiera útan ne helpe, Past. 18; Swt. 137, 13 : Ors. 5, 2; Swt. 218, 20. Ðǽr ðǽr ðú neóde irsian scyle, gemetiga ðæt ðeáh, Prov. Kmbl. 24. Hit is on worulde swá leng swá wyrse, and swá hit sceal nýde ǽr Antecristes tócyme yfelian swíðe, Wulfst. 156, 4 : 157, 8. II. of necessity, because a law, natural, moral or human, is to be satisfied :-- Ðis sceal se mæssepreóst néde bebeódan the priest is bound by his duty to proclaim this, Blickl. Homl. 49, 6. Ðone andleofan ðe hé néde big lifgean sceolde (the provision that nature required), 213, 20. Ðás béc sceal mæssepreóst néde habban (these books are indispensable), and hé ne mæg bútan beón, L. Ælfc. C. 21; Th. ii. 350, 15. Niéde hé sceolde him forgyfan ánne (custom required it), Lk. 23, 17. III. from force, under compulsion, without free-will :-- Nán nyle onginnan ðæt ðæt hé nele, búton hé néde scyle (unless he is forced), Bt. 36, 3; Fox 176, 9 : 41, 4; Fox 252, 3. Sceal néde riht wyrcean se ðe ǽr nolde, L. O. D. 3; Th. i. 354, 9. Néde oððe lustum héran, Met. 9, 44. Niéde sceoldon gombon gieldan, Cd. Th. 119, l0; Gen. 1977. v. next word.

nídes; adv. Of necessity, not willingly :-- Se ðe hine nédes (nýdes, MS. G.) ofslóge, L. Alf. 13; Th. i. 46, 22. v. níd-dǽda and preceding word.

níd-, nýd-fara, an; m. One who journeys under compulsion, who is forced to march, Cd. Th. 191, 1; Exod. 208. v. next word and nídgenga, -dǽda.

níd-faru, e; f. A journey one is forced to take, death :-- Fore there neidfaerae naenig uuirthit thoncsnotturra than him tharf sié, Archaeologia, vol. xxviii. p. 357. v. níd-gedál.

níd-freónd, es; m. One closely connected by relationship or friendship :-- Hé wæs pápan ǽhte bifealden Enagrius his neódfreóndes, Shrn. 36, 4. [O. H. Ger. nót-friunt; pl. necessarii.] v. níd-gestealla, -mǽg.

níd-gafol, es; n. A tax that must be paid, tribute :-- Nédgaefel ðæm cásere tributum Caesari, Mt. Kmbl. p. 18, 2. Ymbe ðæt neádgafol úres Drihtnes, ðæt sýn úre teóþunga and cyricsceattas, L. Edg. S.; Th. i. 270, 26, 13. v. níd-gild.

níd-gedál, es; n. An inevitable parting, the parting of body and soul :-- Nis nú swíðe feor ðam ýtemestan endedógor nýdgedáles, Exon. Th. 172, 9; Gú. 1141. Se Dryhtnes dóm wísade tó ðam nýhstan nýdgedále, 129, 5; Gú. 416. Þurh nýdgedál, 158, 9; Gú. 906.

níd-genga, an; m. One who is forced to go or one who goes in misery :-- Nacod nídgenga (Nebuchadnezzar), Cd. Th. 255, 32; Dan. 633. v. níd-fara.

níd-gestealla, an; m. One who is closely bound to another by the ties of comradeship :-- Hié á wǽron æt níða gehwam nýdgesteallan, Beo. Th. 1769; B. 882. v. níd-freónd.

níd-geweald, es; n. Power that is forcibly exercised or that causes distress, tyranny :-- Of deófles nýdgewalde genered, Exon. Th. 89, 2; Cri. 1451.

níd-gewuna, an; m. A necessary, suitable custom (v. néd, IV) :-- Neádgewuna debitus usus, i. congruus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 139, 72.

níd-gild, es; n. Enforced payment, tribute, exaction :-- Scandlíce nýdgild ús sind gemǽne, Wulfst. 162, 11. [Icel. nauð-gjald.] v. níd-gafol.

níd-gilda, an; m. One who is forced to pay :-- Neádgilda debitor i. obnoxius, reus, Writ. Voc. ii. 139, 74.

níd-gripe (?) a violent grasp :-- Hyne (Grendel) sár hafaþ in níd-gripe (MS. mid gripe; Th. níþgripe) nearwe befongen, Beo. Th. 1956; B. 976.

níd-hád, es; m. Force, compulsion :-- Neádháde vim, Wrt. Voc. ii. 72. 54.

níd-, néd-, niéd-, nýd-hǽmed, es; n. Rape, L. Alf. pol. 25, 26; Th. i. 78, 11-18.

níd-hǽmestre, an; f. A woman who has been violated, a mistress :-- Nédhǽmestran amatricis, Hpt. Gl. 509, 70.

níd-hǽs, e; f. A command which is attended by compulsion :-- Man for cyning gebidde and hine búton neádhǽse heora willum weorðigen let people pray for the king, and honour him without injunction, of their own accord, L. Wih. 1; Th. i. 36, 16.

níd-help; m. f. Help in need, needful help :-- On wísum scrifte biþ swíðe forþ gelang forsyngodes mannes nýdhelp, L. Pen. 1; Th. ii. 278, 3.

níd-hírness, e; f. Enforced obedience, servitude :-- In nédhérnesse ic bégo in servitutem redigo, Rtl. 6, 9.

niding. v. neádung and next word.

nídinga (-unga); adv. By force, against a person's will :-- Nédunga violenti, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 11, 12. Ðý læs nédunga genom Crist menn ne raperet Christus homines, Rtl. 197, 35. Woldon hine dón niédenga (nídenga, Cott. MSS.) tó cyninge, Past. 3, 1; Swt. 33, 14. Ðá tugon heó hine nýdinga of ðam mynstre illum invitum monasterio duxerunt, Bd. 3, 18; S. 546, 22. Gif hwá mǽden nýdinga nimþ si quis puellam invitam ceperit, L. Ecg. P. ii. 130; Th. ii. 186, 20. v. neádunga, nídlinga.

-nídla, -nýdlíc. v. þreá-nídla, -nídlíc.

nýrd-líce. v. neód-líce.

nídling, es; m. I. one who serves of necessity, a slave, bondman :-- Gif ðú fioh tó borge selle ðínum geféran ðe mid ðé eardian wille, ne niéde ðú hine swá niédling (MS. H. nýdling), L. Alf. 35; Th. i. 52, 22. Hié on cnihtháde wǽron óðerra manna niédlingas in youth they had been the bondmen of others, Ors. 2, 2; Swt. 66, 17. Se æðeling bebeád ðæt hié ða consulas and witan him beforan drifen swá swá niédlingas, ðæt heora bismer ðý máre wǽre, 3, 8; Swt. 122, 7. Hý ealle tó nýdlingum him gedydon, 1, 5; Swt. 34. 34. Wæterberere oððe nédlungum lixarum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 52, 73. II. one who has to serve on board ship, a sailor :-- Nédling nauta; nédlingas nauticos, 60, 30, 29. Ðá ongunnon ða nýdlingas and ða scypmen ða ancras on ðone sǽ sendan woldon ðæt scyp mid gefæstnian tentabant navitae anchoris in mare missis navem retinere, Bd. 3, 15; S. 541, 40.

nídlinga; adv. By force, against a person's will :-- Gif hwá mǽden nýdlinga nimþ si quis puellam invitam ceperit, L. Ecg. P. ii. 13; Th. ii. 186, 20 note. v. neádlunga.

níd-mǽg, es; m. A near kinsman, a cousin :-- Iohannes úres Dritenes nýdmǽg, L. Ælfc. P. 9; Th. ii. 366, 37. v. níd-máge, -freónd, -sibb; and cf. Icel. nauð-maðr a near kinsman.

níd-mægen, es; n. Force, violence :-- Nédmægn vim, Rtl. 117, 25.

níd-máge, an; f. A near kinswoman, a cousin :-- Ǽfre ne geweorðe ðæt cristen man gewífige on ðæs wífes nýdmágan ðe hé ǽr hæfde, L. Eth. vi. 12; Th. i. 318, 16. Nédmágan, L. C. E. 7; Th. i. 364, 24. v. níd-mǽg.

níd-micel; adj. Very important, urgent :-- Nédmycel (medmycel, MS. B.) ǽrende wé ðider habbaþ, and ús is þearf ðæt wé hit gefyllon, St. Andr. 6, 20.

níd-nǽm, e; f. A taking by force, rapine :-- Nǽnigum biscope álýfed sí ówiht of heora ǽhtum þurh nýdnǽme him on geniman (violenter abstrahere), Bd. 4. 5; S. 572. 36. Gif hwá binnan ðám gemǽrum úres ríces reáflác and niédnǽme dó, L. In. 10; Th. i. 108, 9. [Cf. O. H. Ger. nót-numft violentia, rapina.] v. next word.

níd-nǽman; p. de To take by force, to force a woman, to ravish :-- Gif hwá nunnan gewemme oððe wydewan nýdnǽme, L. Eth. vi. 39; Th. i. 324, 25 : L. C. S. 53; Th. i. 406, 2, 3. v. níd-niman.

nídness, e; f. Necessity :-- Ðeáhhwæðere mid nýdnysse hire man mót lýfan ðæt heó mid ðam sig tametsi si necesse est, licet viro ejus ei permittere secum esse, L. Ecg. C. 33; Th, ii. 158, 10.

níd-nima, an; m. One who takes by force :-- Nédniomu violenti, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 11, 12. Nédnioma (-niomo, Lind.) raptores, Lk. Skt. Rush. 18, 11. [Cf. O. H. Ger. nót-nemo rapidus; nót-numeo raptor.]

níd-niman; pp. -numen To take by force, ravish :-- Ðeáh heó nýdnumen (neád-, MS. B.) weorðe, þolige ðæra ǽhta, búton heó fram ðam ceorle wille eft hám ongeán and nǽfre eft his ne weorðe, L. C. S. 74 Th. i. 416, 13. v. níd-nimung, -nǽman.

níd-nimu (?), e; f. A taking by force, rapine :-- Fulle sint nédnima (-nimende, Rush.) pleni sunt rapina, Mt. Kmbl. 23. 25. Full is mið nédnime, Lk. Skt. Rush. 11, 39. Nédnioma rapinam, Rtl. 21, 18. v. níd-nǽm.

níd-nimung, e; f. A taking by force, rapine :-- Wífa nýdnimung stuprum, raptum, Wrt. Voc. i. 21, 32. Full is mið nédnimincg plenum est rapina, Lk. Skt. Lind. 11, 39.

níd-riht, es; n. (v. níd, III). I. a duty that must be performed, service, office; officium, debitum :-- Nédreht debitum, Rtl. 89, 26. God-cund þeówdóm is gesett on cyriclícum þénungum æfter canoneclícan gewunan tó niédrihte eallum gehádedum mannum. On ǽlcne tíman man sceal God herian ... Ac ðeáhhwæðere sindon gesette tíman synderlíce tó ðam ánum, ðæt gif hwá for bisgan oftor ne mǽge, ðæt hé húru ðæt niédriht dæghwamlíce gefylle, Btwk. 194, 3-8. II. a due, what must be paid :-- Eallum ǽhtemannum gebyreþ midwintres feorm and Eástorfeorm ... tóeácan heora nýdrihte, L. R. S. 9; Th. i. 438, 2. v. next word.

níd-scyld, e; f. Bounden duty :-- Sóna swá hé tó ðære áre cymþ, swá þyncþ him ðæt se hié him niédscylde sceolde se se hié him sealde as soon as he comes to the honour, it seems to him that he who gave it him was bound to grant it as a matter of right; repente perveniens jure sibi hoc debitum, ad quod pervenerit, putat, Past. 9; Swt. 57, 6. v. preceding word.

níd-sibb, e; f. Relationship :-- Neádsibba necessitudinum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 61, 15. v. níd-mǽg.

níd-syn[n] (?), e; f. A sin of violence :-- Hú ic becwom in ðis neowle genip nídsynnum (MS. mid synnum : Grein, níþsynnum) fáh, Cd. Th. 275, 32; Sat. 180.

níd-syndrig; adj. Quite apart (?) :-- Hí sylfe ða munecas nǽdsyndrige (monachos) seipsos, Cod. Dip. B. i. 154, 12.

níd-þearf, e; f. I. necessity, inevitableness :-- Sum hit sceal geweorþan unáwendendlíce, ðæt biþ ðætte úre nýdþearf (néd-, Cott. MS.) biþ, and his willa biþ. Ac hit is sum swá gerád ðæt his nis nán neódþearf (néd-, Cott. MS.), and ðeáh ne deraþ nó ðeáh hit geweorþe, Bt. 41, 3; Fox 250, 1-4. II. necessity, constraint :-- Ðé nán neódþearf ne lǽrde tó wyrcanne ðæt ðæt ðú worhtest, ac mid ðínum ágenum willan ðú ealle þing geworhtest, 33, 4; Fox 128, 11. III. need (for something) :-- Nis him nánes þinges nédþearf, 42; Fox 258, 8. Him biþ nídþearf (niéd-, Cott. MSS.) ðæt hé fleó, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 16. Is suíðe micel niédþearf ðæt ..., Swt. 159, 2. Ðé heora nán nýdþerf nis eft on mé tó nimene bonorum meorum non eges, Ps. Th. 15, 1. Nédþearf, Met. 20, 20. Mycel is nýdþearf manna gehwylcum ðæt ..., Wulfst. 157, 10. Hé wæs fram him eallum áræfned fore nýdþearfe his úttran weorca (ob necessitatem operum ipsius exteriorum), Bd. 5, 14; S. 634, 13. Him nánes ne biþ wana, ne hé nánes neódþearfe næfþ, Bt. 24, 1; Fox 80, 22. Wé habbaþ nédþearfe ðæt wé ongyton, Blickl. Homl. 23, 1 : 81, 36. IV. a necessary thing, what a person needs :-- Wuhta gehwylc wilnaþ tó eorþan, sume nédþearfe (cf. ealle ðider (earthwards) willniaþ ... ðæs ðe hí beþurfon, Bt. 41, 6; Fox 254, 29) sume neódfræce, Met. 31, 15. Hé wirþ swá earm ðæt hé næfþ furþum ða neódþearfe áne (fit ut necessariis egeat), ðæt is wist and wǽda; wilnaþ ðonne ðære neádþearfe, næs ðæs anwealdes, Bt. 33, 2; Fox 124, 15-18. Seó gítsung ne cann gemet, ne nǽfre ne biþ gehealden on ðære nídþearfe, ac wilnaþ simle máran ðonne hé þurfe, 26, 2; Fox 94, 6. Se cyning his láreówum sealde heora nýdþearfe on missenlícum ǽhtum (necessarias in diversis speciebus possessiones), Bd. 1, 26; S. 488, 20. V. need, distress, trouble :-- Hwí noldest ðú cuman tó ús tó ðære tíde ðe ús nýdþearf wæs quid recessisti longe in tribulatione? Ps. Th. 9, 20. Ðæt gé mé ne forseón on ðisse mycclan nédþearfe tíde, Blickl. Homl. 151, 23. Gedó ðæt ðú mé gefriðie æt mínre nýdþearfe de necessitatibus meis eripe me, Ps. Th. 24, 15. Fylston eów æt nýdþearfe in necessitate vos protegant, Deut. 32, 38. Seldon bútan máran nýdþearfe (praeter arctiorem necessitatem) má ðonne ǽne síþe on dæge ðæt heó wolde mete þicgan, Bd. 4, 19; S. 588, 11. VI. a necessary business :-- Ðá cwǽdon hí ðæt hí wǽron on heora nýdþearfum swýðe geswencte, Guthl. 14; Gdwin. 64. 3. [O. H. Ger. nót-duruft necessitas, necessarium : Ger. noth-durft.] v. níd and next word.

níd-þearf; adj. Necessary, needful :-- Ys cræft mín behéfe þearle eów and neódþearf est ars mea utilis valde vobis et necessaria, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 27: 29, 17. Is eallum mannum nédþearf and nytlíc ðæt hié heora fulwihthádas wel gehealdan, Blickl. Homl. 109, 25. Behóflíc ɫ nédþarf necessarius, Mk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 11, 3. Án is nédþarf ɫ behóflíc unum est necessarium, Lk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 10, 42. Nédþærfo tído ymbhuoerfnise undercymende necessaria temporum vicissitudine succedente, Rtl. 37, 35. Habban góde geféran and þearle neódþearfe (necessarios), Coll. Monast. Th. 29, 31. v. preceding word and nídþearfness.

nídþearf-líc; adj. Necessary, needful, useful :-- Neádþearflíc operae pretium, Hpt. Gl. 433. 25 : 506, 29 : operae pretium, necessarium, utile, justum, 499, 78 : debitum, necessarium, 424, 51. Is swýðe nýdþearflíc (necessaria) gesceád, Bd. 1, 27; S. 496, 35. Gif ic síe ðínum folce nédþearflíc tó hæbbene, Blickl. Homl. 225, 26. Bútan tó his neódþearflícre þénunge nisi ad usum necessarium, Bd. 2, 16; S. 520, 8. Be monigum sócnum ða ðe him nýdþearflíce (necessariae) gesewen wǽron, 1, 27; S. 488, 33. Ða þing ðe heora andlyfene nédþearflíco gesawen wǽron, 1, 26; S. 487, 35. Nýdþearflícu, 5, 9; S. 622, 26 : 4, 3; S. 567, 31. Be ðám nýdþearflícan þingum, intingum, Bd. 1, 27; S. 488, 24 : 2, 4; S. 505, 30. Neádþearflícum gestreónum debito emolumento, Hpt. Gl. 432, 69. Ða nédþearflícan hús, Bd. 4, 28; S. 605, 25.

nídþearflíce; adv. Necessarily :-- Nédþearflíce (níd-, nýd-, neád-) necessario, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 37.

nídþearfness, e; f. I. necessity, compulsion :-- Mid rihtre nýdþearfnysse gebǽded justa necessitate compulsus, Bd. 2, 2; S. 502, 27. II. necessity, need (for something) :-- Mycel nýdþearfnys is ðæt ðæt gesceád ... necessaria est magna discretio, 1, 27; S. 497, 17. III. need, trouble, distress :-- Wæs biddende ðætte hé on swá mycelre neódþearfnysse his bigengum gehulpe deprecatus est ut in tanta rerum necessitate suis cultoribus succurreret, 3, 2; S. 524, 15 : Cant. M. ad fil. 38. Of nédþearfnessum de necessitatibus, Ps. Surt. 30, 8 : 24, 17. On neádþearfnessum in opportunitatibus, Ps. Lamb. second 9, 1. Nýdþearfnyssum, Ps. Spl. C. 106, 6. Ymb heora nédþearfnesse in necessitatibus suis, Bd. 4, 23; S. 594, 1.

níd-þeów, es; m. A slave, thrall :-- Wé ðé, Hǽlend, biddaþ ðæt ðú gehýre hæfta stefne ðínra niédþiówa, Exon. Th. 22, 33; Cri. 361. Ne derige se hláford his mannum, ne forðan his nýdþeówan, L. I. P. 7; Th. ii. 314, 3. v. next word.

níd-þeówetling, es; m. One who is forced into slavery (for an unsatisfied claim) :-- Hér kýð on ðissere béc ðæt Ælfríc wolde þeówian Putraele him tó nýdþeówetlinge (the enslavement was abandoned at the intercession of Bora, Ælfric's brother, on payment to Ælfric of eight oxen; Bora received sixty pence for his mediation), Chart. Th. 628, 11-26.

níd-þeówian; p. ode To reduce to servitude, to compel service from :-- Gif man cirican nýdþeówige (cf ǽnig man heonan forþ cirican ne þeówige, L. Eth. v. 10; Th. i. 306, 27 : vi. 15; Th. i. 318, 26), L. N. P. L. 21; Th. ii. 294, 1.

níd-þing, es; n. A necessary thing :-- Ealra neádþinga hé (the monk) sceal hihtan and wilnigan fram his mynstres fæder (the abbot), R. Ben. 57, 3.

níd-wædla, an; m. A needy person :-- Ðú scealt on wræc hweorfan nacod niédwædla, neorxna wanges dugeþum bedǽled, Cd. Th. 57,16; Gen. 929.

níd-wís; adj. Necessary, due :-- Lof neádwís laus debita, Hy. Surt. 49. 29. Neádþearflíc ɫ neádwís debitum, necessarium, Hpt. Gl. 424, 52. Swá swá se líchama biþ ontend þurh unálýfede lustas, swá eác byrnþ seó sáwul þurh neádwís wíte, Homl. Th. ii. 338, 19. Neádwísum ɫ neád-þearflícum gestreónum debito emolumento, Hpt. Gl. 432, 68. Þances hit ágylde neadwíse grates rependat debitas, Hy. Surt. 27, 21. Loft neádwíse laudes debitas, 86, 33. v. níd, III.

nídwíslíce; adv. Of necessity :-- Hé sylf wæs ðære hálgan ǽ underþeód, ðæt hé ða álýsde ðe neádwíslíce ðære ǽ underþeódde wǽron, Homl. Th. i. 94, 16.

nídwísness, e; f. Necessity :-- Neádwísnysse debitum, Hpt. Gl. 462, 69.

níd-wraca, an; m. One who is forced to be an avenger, who avenges an affront :-- Gif ǽnig gilda hwilcne man ofstleá, and hé neádwraca sí, and his bismer béte, fylste ǽlc gegylda, Chart. Th. 611, 29. v. níd-dǽda, -fara.

níd-wracu, e; f. Violence, misery caused by violence :-- Wæs ðæt gewin láð and longsum, ðe on ða leóde becom, nýdwracu níþgrim, nihtbealwa mǽst, Beo. Th. 388; B. 193. Hyne God wolde nergan wið níþum, and hyra nýdwræce deópe déman, Exon. Th. 135, 17; Gú. 525.

níd-wyrhta, an; m. One who acts from necessity, an involuntary agent :-- Se ðe nýdwyrhta biþ ðæs ðe hé misdéþ, se biþ ðý beteran dómes symle wyrðe, ðe hé nýdwyrhta wæs ðæs ðe hé worhte, L. Eth. vi. 52; Th. i. 328, 23-25. On mænigre dǽde ðonne man biþ nýdwyrhta, ðonne biþ se gebeorges ðé bet wyrðe ðe hé for neóde dyde ðæt ðæt hé dyde, L. C. S. 69; Th. i. 412, 12-14. v. níd-dǽda.

niéd, niéten. v. níd, níten.

nifol. v. neowol.

nift, e; f. A niece, grand-daughter, or a step-daughter :-- Nift privigna, filia sororis, Ep. Gl. 18 b, 6. Nift privigna, Wrt. Voc. ii. 117, 80. Seó wæs nift ðæs hína ealdres (neptem patris families), Bd. 3, 9; S. 534, 5. Ic an míne láuedy half marc goldes an míne nifte ánn óre wichte goldes, Chart. Th. 556, 27. [Prompt. Parv. nypte, nifte neptis; nypt, broderys douter lectis : Rebecca was forð nefte (great niece) of Abraham, Gen. a. Ex. 1386 : O. Frs. nift niece : Icel. nipt a female relative, sister, daughter, niece : O. H. Ger. nift neptis, privigna.] Cf. nefa.

níg-. v. níw-.

nígan (?) :-- Ðonne ic búgendre stefne styrme, stille on wícum siteþ nígende (one who listens [?]), Exon. Th. 390, 27; Rä. 9, 8.

nigon nine. I. as subst. :-- Hwǽr synt ða nigone (nygene, MS. A : nigona, Lind. : nióne, Rush.), Lk. Skt. 17, 17. Ðá hét se cyng faran mid nigonum ðara níwena scipa, Chr. 897; Erl. 95, 20. II. as adj. : Harold wes gewend mid nigon scipon, 1052; Erl. 183, 18. Nigon nihtum ǽr middum sumere, 898; Erl. 96, 19. Ic ofslóh niceras nigene, Beo. Th. 1154; B. 575. [Goth. O. H. Ger. niun : O. Sax. O. Frs. nigun : Icel. níu.]

nigon-feald; adj. Nine-fold :-- Nigonfeald novenarius, Ælfc. Gr. 49; Som. 50, 17.

nigonteóþa nineteenth :-- Se niganteóþa getælcircul circulus decennovenalis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 131, 33. Nigonteóþe healf geár, Chr. Erl. 4. 7 : 855; Erl. 68, 33. Ðý nigonteóþan geáre mínes lífes, Bd. 5, 24; S. 647, 28.

nigontig ninety :-- Ofer nigon and nigontigum rihtwísra, Lk. Skt. 15, 7. v. hund-nigontig.

nigontíne nineteen :-- Embe nigontýne niht, Menol. Fox 141; Men. 71.

nigontín-líc; adj. Containing the number nineteen :-- Ða nigontýnlícan hringas rihtra Eástrana circuli Paschas decennovenales, Bd. 5, 21; S. 643, 26.

nigon-wintre; adj. Nine years old :-- Ðá hé nigonwintre cniht wæs cum esset novem annos natus, Ors. 4, 8; Swt. 186, 10.

nigoþa ninth :-- Embe ða nigoþan tíde, Mt. Kmbl. 20, 5. Fram ðære sixtan tíde óþ ða nigoþan tíde. Ymbe ða nigoþan tíd clypode se Hǽlend, 27, 45. 46. Ðý nigeþan dæge, Bd. 5, 23; S. 645, 9. Nigend half eight and a half, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 194, 11. Nigende, vi. 203, 15. Nióþa, Mt. Kmbl. p. 3, 16 : 11, 8.

nihol, nihold. v. neowol.

níhsta, an; m. A neighbour; proximus :-- Se ðe his neáhstan yfeles nán þing ne dyde, and se ðe hosp on his neáhstan ne sette, R. Ben. 3, 20-22. Ne girn ðú ðínes neáhstan wífes (uxorem proximi tui), Deut. 5, 21. Gif ðú wed nime æt ðínum nǽhstan, Ex. 22, 26. Gif hwá ofslihþ his néhstan, 21, 14. Lufa ðínne néhstan (Lind. nésta), Mt. Kmbl. 19, 19. Hwylc is mín néhsta (neestæ, Lind.)? Lk. Skt. 10, 29. Lufa ðínne néxtan (néste, Lind : néxstan, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 5, 43. Hwá is úre néxta ? Homl. Th. ii. 318, 1. Hwelc ðara niéhstena (níhstena, Cott. MSS.) ðæs ofslægenan, Past. 21; Swt. 167, 3. Tó nýhstan his, Ps. Spl. 11, 2 : Ps. Th. 11, 2. v. neáh.

nihstig, nistig, nestig; adj. Fasting :-- Gedrinc his on niht nistig, Lchdm. i. 74, 1, 6 : 76, 7, 13. Nyhstig, iii. 48, 2. Nihstig, 48, 15 : 50, 21 : i. 82, 14 : 84, 16. v. niht-nihstig.

nihstnig fasting (?) :-- Eft hý (monks) gaderiaþ hý on nixtnig, ðæt hý raca gehýren æt heora fæder ... Hý siððan heora líchoman gereordaþ, R. Ben. 138, 2-8.

niht, næht, næct, neaht, neht, nyht, e; f.: but also with gen. es. I. night (as opposed to day) :-- Niht is gesett mannum tó reste on ðysum middanearde ... Úre eorþlíce niht (nyht, MS. M.) cymþ þurh ðære eorþan sceade... Seó niht hæfþ seofan dǽlas fram ðære sunnan settlunge óþ hire upgang. Án ðæra dǽla is crepusculum, óðer is vesperum, þridde is conticinium, feórþa is intempestum, ðæt is midniht, fífta is gallicinium, syxta is matutinum vel aurora, seofoþa is diluculum, Lchdm. iii. 240, 10-244, 5. Hé hine micelre tíde ðære deáhlan neahte swong, Bd. 2, 6; S. 508, 13. Scínaþ þurh ða scíran neaht, Met. 20, 229. Niht (næht, Lind. Rush.) cymþ ðonne nán man wyrcan ne mæg, Jn. Skt. 9, 4 : 13, 30. Fira bearnum neálǽhte niht seó þýstre, Judth. Thw. 21, 25; Jud. 34. Hé com tó him ánes nihtes, Shrn. 16, 27. Næs nǽnig man ðe ǽfre nihtes tídum dorste on ðære ciricean cuman, Blickl. Homl. 207, 34. Wacana næhtes vigilia noctis, Lk. Skt. Lind. Rush. 2, 8 : Mt. Kmbl. Lind. Rush. 14, 25. Swá swá se beorhta dæg tódrǽfþ ða dimlícan þeóstru ðære sweartan nihte, Homl.Th. i. 604, 2. On dæge and ná on nihte, 36, 28. Hé fealh ðære ilcan niht of ðǽm bendum, Ors. 5, 11; Swt. 236, 12 : Bd. 1, 33; S. 499. 9 : Blickl. Homl. 215, 15. Tó niht hac nocte, Num. 22, 19. On næht nocte, Ps. Surt. 16, 3. On niht ǽr hé ræste, Blickl. Homl. 47, 18. Feówurtig daga and feówurtig nihta (Lind. næhta), Mt. Kmbl. 4, 2. Þreó niht and dagas, Cd. Th. 20, 12; Gen. 307. Dagum and nihtum, Met. 20, 213. II. night, darkness (as opposed to light) :-- Seó swearte niht ðære écan geniþerunge, Homl. Th. i. 530, 23. Dryhten ðe ús of duste geworhte, nergend of nihtes sunde, Salm. Kmbl. 675; Sal. 337. III. night (as in se'n-night, fort-night; cf. Tacitus' Germania, c. xi : 'Instead of reckoning by days as we do, they reckon by nights') :-- Be ánre nihtes (MS. B. nihte) þiéfþe, L. In. 73; Th. i. 148, 11. Hé fór ymb áne niht tó Ígleá, and ðæs ymb áne tó Éþandúne ... and ðǽr sæt xiiii niht ... and hé was xii niht mid ðam cyninge, Chr. 878; Erl. 80, 12-24. Embe seofon niht, Blickl. Homl. 45, 31. Emb tén niht, 117, 16. On twám nihtum biþ mannes sunu geseald on synfulra hand, 73, 1. For tén nihtum ten days ago, 131, 10. Mid ðon dæge wæs gefylled se dæg ðe is nemned Pentecosten ymb fíftig nihta æfter ðære gecýþdan ǽriste, 133, 14. [Goth. nahts : O. Sax. naht : O. Frs. nacht : Icel. nátt, nótt : O. H. Ger. naht.] v. Eáster-, efen- (emn-, em-), Frige-, mæsse-, mid-, middel-, mónan-, sæter-, sin-, sunnan-, þunres-, Tíwes-, Wódnes-niht; nihtes.

niht-bealu, wes; n. Bale or hurt that comes at night, Beo. 389; B. 193.

niht-buttorfleóge, an; f. An insect that flies at night; blatta, Wrt. Voc. i. 23, 65.

niht-eáge, -ége; adj. Able to see at night :-- Nihteáge nyctalmus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 62, 23. Nihtége nictalmus, i. 20, 8.

niht-eald; adj. A day old :-- Gif hit biþ nihteald þiéfþ if it is a theft a day old, i. e. if a day passes between the commission of the crime and the capture of the thief, L. In. 73; Th. i. 148, 10.

niht-egesa, an; m. Terror by night :-- Ne ðú ðé nihtegsan ondrǽdest non timebis a timore nocturno, Ps. Th. 90, 5. [Cf. O. H. Ger. naht-forhta timor nocturnus.]

nihte-gala, an; m. A nightingale :-- Nihtegala luscinia, Wrt. Voc. i. 62, 25. v. next word.

nihte-gale, an; f. A bird whose note (v. galan) is heard at night. I. the night-raven :-- Naechthraebn, ali dicunt nectigalae noctua, Ep. Gl. 16 b, 15; but more generally II. the nightingale :-- Naectegale luscinia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 113, 30 : roscinia, 119, 23. Nectægalae roscinia, Ep. Gl. 22 b, 27. Nictigalae achalantis, 1 f, 6. Nehtegale achalantis vel luscinia vel roscinia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 99, 3. Nihtegale, 4, 24 : luscinia, 51, 27 : philomela, 1. 63, 23. Nightegale lucinia vel philomela, 29, 12. [O. L. Ger. nahti-gala luscinia, acredula : O. H. Ger. nahti-gala luscinia, filomela; also corax, nocticorax, noctua.]

nihte-líc. v. niht-líc.

nihterne, neahterne; adj. Nocturnal :-- Þurh nihterne besmitenesse per nocturnam pollutionem, Confess. Peccat. v. next word.

nihterne, neahterne, nihternum; adv. For a night :-- Ðæs gást wæs neahterne of líchoman álǽded his (Fursey) spirit was for a night taken from his body, Shrn. 51, 30. Lǽt standan neahterne, Lchdm. ii. 24, 21 : 32, 25. Lǽt licgean neahterne, 66, 12. Bind on ða eágan nihterne, 34. 23. Lǽt beón nihterne, 74, 14 : 270, 8. Lǽt standan nyhternum, iii. 16, 17. v. preceding and following words, and dægþerne.

nihternness, e; f. Night-time :-- Ðonne gescylt ðé God wið unswefnum ðe nihternnessum on menn becumaþ then will God protect thee against evil dreams that come to men at nights, Lchdm. iii. 288, 22. v. preceding word.

nihtes (gen. of niht, q. v.); adv. At night, night :-- Ne mæg ic búton mynstre nihtes wunian I cannot stop out of the monastery at night, Homl. Th. ii. 182, 34. Ðá gestód hé æt ánum éhþyrle óþ forþ nihtes (far on into the night), 184, 27. Hys leorningcnihtas cómon nihtes (nocte), Mt. Kmbl. 28, 13. Ðæra eágan scínaþ nihtes, Nar. 34, 14, Se biþ dæges hát and nihtes ceald, 36, 27. Dæges and nihtes die et nocte, Ps. Th. 1, 2 : Mk. Skt. 4, 27 : Blickl. Homl. 47, 11 : 127, 30 : 137. 22. Deges and naehtes, Ps. Surt. 31, 4. [O. Sax. nahtes : O. Frs. nachtes : O. H. Ger. nahtes : Ger. nachts.]

niht-feormung, e; f. Entertainment for the night :-- Hé (Lot) ðám rincum (the angels) beád nihtfeormunge, Cd. Th. 147, 2; Gen. 2433.

niht-genga, an; m. A creature that goes at night, a goblin, evil spirit :-- Wið feóndes costunga and nihtgengan and maran, Lchdm. ii. 306, 12. Wyrc sealf wið nihtgengan, 342, 1. Wið ælfcynne and nihtgengan and ðám mannum ðe deófol mid hǽmþ, 344, 7. Gif men hwylc yfel costung weorþe oððe ælf oððe nihtgengan, 344, 16. Hió (betony) hyne scyldeþ wið unhýrum nihtgengum and wið egeslícum gesihþum and swefnum, i. 70, 5.

niht-genge, an; f. A night-goer, an animal that prowls at night, a hyena :-- Naectgenge hyna, Wrt. Voc. ii. 110, 41. Nihtgenge hyna, 43, 6.

niht-gerím, es; n. Reckoning by days (v. niht, III), number of days :-- Æfter seofontýnum nihtgerímes after seventeen days, Menol. Fox 52; Men. 26: 110; Men. 55 : Andr. Kmbl. 229; An. 115 : 315; An. 158. Ealra hæfde v. and syxtig ðá hé forþ gewát and nigon hund eác nihtgerímes in all the number of his days when he died was nine hundred and sixty-five years, Cd. Th. 72, 28; Gen. 1193. [Cf. dógorgerím, and Icel. náttar-tal : Chauc. nighter-tale.]

niht-gild, es; n. A service, sacrifice celebrated at night :-- Nihtgild nyctilia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 61, 18. Blóstmfreólsas and nihtgilda floralia nictelia (cf. blóstmgeld floralia, Wrt. Voc. ii. 37, 52), Hpt. Gl. 515,18.

niht-glóm, es; m. (?) The darkness of night :-- Wæs ðam báncofan æfter nihtglóme (when the shades of night prevailed) neáh geþrungen, Exon. Th. 158, 27; Gú. 916. v. ǽfen-glóma.

niht-helm, es; m. The covering of night, night's curtain :-- Niht-helm geswearc deorc ofer dryhtgumum night's curtain dark was drawn over men, Beo. Th. 3583; B. 1789.

niht-hræfn, es; m. The night-raven, night jar, night-owl :-- Naechthraebn noctua, nocticorax, Ep. Gl. 16 b, 15, 18. Naehthraefn noctua, Wrt. Voc. ii. 114, 76. Nihthræfn nycticorax, i. 63, 12. Nihthrefn, 281, 42. Nihthremn, ii. 60, 36. Nihtremn, i. 29, 35. Nihthrefne (nihtrefen, Ps. Spl.; næhthrefn, Ps. Surt.; nihthræm, Ps. Lamb.) gelíc, Ps. Th. 101, 5. [Icel. nátt-hrafn : O. H. Ger. naht-hraban nocticorax, noctua, bubo.]

niht-hróc, es; m. The night-rook, raven :-- Nihtróc nycticorax, Ps. Lamb. 101, 7.

niht-lang; adj. Night-long, a night in length :-- Nafa ðú nánes þearfan wedd mid ðé nihtlangne fyrst si pauper est proximus tuus, non pernoctabit apud te pignus, Deut. 24, 12 : Cd. Th. 191, 2; Exod. 208 : Andr. Kmbl. 1668; An. 836 : 2620; An. 1311 : Elen. Kmbl. 134; El. 67. Nihtlongne fyrst, Beo. Th. 1060; B. 528. [Icel. nátt-langt for a night.] v. next word.

niht-langes; adv. For the night :-- Ic bidde eów ðæt gé gecirron tó mínum húse and ðǽr wunion nihtlanges, Gen. 19, 2. [Ne moste nihtlonges istonden, Laym. 15504.] v. preceding word.

niht-líc; adj. Nightly, of the night, nocturnal :-- Fram ege nihtlícum a timore nocturno, Ps. Spl. 90, 5. For nihtlecum ege, Past. 56; Swt. 433, 11. Hí swuncon on nihtlícum réwette, Homl. Th. ii. 384, 24. Ða steorran sint mannum tó nihtlícere líhtinge gesceapene, i. 110, 15. On nihtlícre tíde at night, Lchdm. iii. 234, 21 : 270, 26. On nihtlícre gesyhþe in a vision of the night, Bd. 5, 10; S. 625, 12. Hine drehton nihtlíce gedwimor, Homl. Th. i. 86, 18. Ðæs synfullan líf is wiðmeten nihtlícum þeóstrum, ii. 200, 33. Nihtlícum tídum in the night seasons, Bd. 3, 11; S. 536, 11. Þerh næhtlíco mysto per nocturnas caligines, Rtl. 171, 39. [Icel. nátt-ligr : O. H. Ger. naht-líh nocturnus.]

niht-nihstig, -nestig; adj. Fasting for a night :-- Sele nihtnestig drincan, Lchdm. ii. 64, 18. Gedrinc ǽlce dæge neahtnestig, 30, 26. Drince iii morgenas neahtnestig, 296, 12. Mid his selfes nihtnestiges migoþan, 42, 1. Sele nihtnestigum drincan, 64, 9, 19 : 186, 5. Syle on morgenne ðam seócum men neahtnestigum, 286, 11.

niht-rest, e; f. The couch on which one rests at night :-- Abram síne nihtreste ofgeaf, Cd. Th. 173, 18; Gen. 2863.

niht-rím, es; n. A number of days :-- Nihtrím scridon, Exon. Th. 167, 35; Gú. 1070.

niht-sang, es; m. I. the service at the seventh of the canonical hours, compline :-- Nú gebyraþ mæssepreóstum ðæt hí ða seofon tídsangas gesyngon . . . nihtsang seofoþan, L. Ælfc. C. 19; Th. ii. 350, 3-7 : R. Ben. 40, 7. Hwænne wylle gé singan nihtsangc (completorium), Coll. Monast. Th. 34, 3. II. a copy of the service :-- Sind .ii. fulle sangbéc and .i. nihtsang . . . Hé ne funde ná má búton áne capitulare and .i. forealdodne nihtsang ..., Chart. Th. 430, 8, 28. [Icel, nátt-söngr.]

niht-scada (-sceadu ?) night-shade (plant name) :-- Nihtscada strumus vel uva lupina, Wrt. Voc. i. 31, 18.

niht-scúa, -scúwa, an; m. The darkness, shades of night :-- Ðonne nípeþ nihtscúa, Exon. Th. 292, 24; Wand. 104 : 307, 29; Seef. 31. Æfter nihtscúan, 162, 5; Gú. 971. Under nihtscúwan, Cd. Th. 124, 10; Gen. 2060. Neowle nihtscúwan, 184, 28; Exod. 114.

niht-slǽp, es; m. Sleep during the night :-- Ðæt ilce geþanc ðe heom amang ðam nihtslǽpe wæs on heora heortan, eall ðá hí áwac. Odon hí ðæt sylfe geþohton, Homl. Skt. 23, 442.

niht-wacu (o); f. A night-watch :-- Mec oft bigeat nearo nihtwaco æt nacan stefnan, Exon. Th. 306, 13; Seef. 7. v. next word.

niht-wæcce, an; f. A night-watch, vigil :-- Nihtwæccan vigiliae, Wrt. Voc. i. 18, 22. Hyrdas wǽron waciende and nihtwæccan (-wæcan, MS. C.) healdende pastores erant vigilantes et custodientes vigilias noctis, Lk. Skt. 2, 8. [Icel. nátt-vaka : O. H. Ger. naht-wacha vigilia.]

niht-waru, e; f. Night-wear :-- Genóh byþ ðam munuce ðæt hé hæbbe twá cúlan and twegen syricas for ðære nihtware and for ðæs reáfes þweále, R. Ben. 90, 4.

niht-weard, es; m. A guard who keeps watch at night :-- Heofoncandel (the fiery pillar) barn, níwe nihtweard, Cd. Th. 185, 1; Exod. 116.

niht-weorc, es; n. A work done at night :-- Nihtweorce (the defeat of Grendel) gefeh, Beo. Th. 1659; B. 827.

nillan. v. nyllan.

nima. v. níd-nima.

niman; p. nam, pl. námon; pp. numen (kept in the slang word nim = steal. Cf. Shakspere's Corporal Nym). I. to take, receive, get; sumere, accipere :-- Nimþ sumpserint, Kent. Gl. 1056. Hwár nime wé (hwonon ús tó niomane, Rush.) swá fela hláf ? Mt. Kmbl. 15, 33. Cristes onsægdnesse ðe wé æt ðæm weofode nimaþ, Blickl. Homl. 77. 5. Ðæt (food) hé ǽr tó blisse nam, 57, 7. Ðá nam Petrus and ða óðre apostolas hié (Mary), and hié ásetton ofer hire bǽre, 149, 5. Hié náman blówende palmtwigu and bǽron him tógeánes, 69, 30. Nim and telle Israhéla folc, Num. 1, 2. Nim ǽnne oððe twegen tó ðé adhibe tecum unum vel duos, Mt. Kmbl. 18, 16. Nim ðé ðis ofæt on hand, Cd. Th. 33, 11; Gen. 518. Ðæt ðú nǽfre ne nyme wíf mínum suna of ðisum mennisce. Gen, 24, 3. Nán man ne sceal sceattas niman for Godes cyrcan, Homl. Th. ii. 592, 21. Hé lǽrde tó healdenne reogollíces lífes þeódscipe swá swíðe swá ða níwan Cristenan hit niman (capere) mihton, Bd. 3, 22; S. 553; 11. Héht his sweord niman, Beo. Th. 3621; B. 1808. II. to take, keep, hold; tenere :-- Nimþ mé seó swýðre ðín tenebit me dextera tua, Ps. Spl. 138, 9. Ðú nǽme (tenuisti) hand ða swýðran, 72, 23. Hé ðæt wolcn him beforan nam he had the cloud before him, Blickl. Homl. 121, 14. Hí oferhygd nam (tenuit), Ps. Th. 72, 5. Hí hí be handum nóman junctis manibus, Bd. 4, 13; S. 582, 31. III. to take, catch :-- Hér beóþ oft numene missenlícra cynna weolcscylle, 1, 1; S. 473, 17. IV. to contain :-- Nó swá ðæt heó (the coffin) ðone líchoman neoman mihte, 4, 11; S. 580, 7. V. to take (with one), carry, bring :-- Ðá nam hé fíf stánas on his herdebelig, Blickl. Homl. 31, 17. Námon wé hláfas mid ús, Mt. Kmbl. 16, 7. VI. to take (to one), give :-- Hát ðé niman Pilatus ǽrendgewrit, Blickl. Homl. 177, 2. VII. to take forcibly, seize, take away, carry off; tollere, capessere, auferre, rapere :-- Ic nyme tollo, Ælfc. Gr. 28; Som. 32. 53. Ðam ðe ðín reáf nymþ qui auferet tibi vestimentum, Lk. Skt. 6, 29. Se ðe hine deáþ nimeþ, Beo. Th. 887; B. 441. Gúþ nimeþ freán eówerne, 5066; B. 2536. Þeófas ðe on mannum heora ǽhta on wóh nimaþ, Blickl. Homl. 61, 22. Manige men ða moldan neomaþ on ðǽm lǽstum, 127, 11. Nimaþ capessunt, Wrt. Voc. ii. 23, 33. Nam capessit, 20, 8. Hé nam tulit, Kent. Gl. 209. Nam mid handa rinc on ræste, Beo. Th. 1496; B. 746. Ðæt hé móste niman ðæs Hǽlendes líchaman ... Ðá com hé and nam ðæs Hǽlendes líchaman ut tolleret corpus Jesu ... venit ergo et tulit corpus Jesu, Jn. Skt. 19, 38. Ðæt flód com and nam (tulit) hig ealle, Mt. Kmbl. 24, 39. Nimaþ ðæt pund fram him auferte ab illo mnam, Lk. Skt. 19, 24. Nis nánum men álýfed ðæt hé nime on his þeówe ǽnig feoh nemini licet servo suo pecuniam aliquam auferre, L. Ecg. P. addit. 35 note; Th. ii. 238, 11. Gif mec hild nime. Beo. Th. 909; B. 452. Mé sceal wǽpen niman, Byrht. Th. 139, 11; By. 252. Ne biþ álýfed æt ðam þeówan his feoh tó nimanne non licet pecuniam suam servo auferre, L. Ecg: P. addit. 35; Th. ii. 238, 6. VIII. in phrases in a metaphorical sense :-- Andan niman to take umbrage, offence. Ðá nam ðæt folc micelne andan ongeán his láre, Homl. Th. i. 26, 21. Tó ðon ealdfeóndas ondan nóman, Exon. Th. 115, 14; Gú. 189. Bysne niman be, æt to take example by, from. Nime heó bysne be ðisre wudewan, Homl. Th. i. 148, 5. Hí námon ða bysne ðæs fæstenys æt ðam Niniveiscan folce, 244, 23. Casum niman to take a case (of the government of verbs), Ælfc. Gr. 41; Som. 43, 57. Eard niman to take up one's abode. Ðǽr ic eard nime hic habitabo, Ps. Th. 131, 15. Heofones cyning sylf cymeþ, nimeþ eard in ðé, Exon. Th. 5, 1; Cri. 63. Freónd-rǽdene niman amicitias jungere, Ex. 34, 12. Friþ niman wið to make peace with, Chr. 867; Erl. 72, 17 : 868; Erl. 72, 29 (often in the Chronicle). Geleáfan niman to believe, Cd. Th. 41; 2; Gen. 650. Geþeódrǽdene nimán wið to associate with. Gif hwylc bróðor gedyrstlǽcþ ðæt hé on ǽnige wísan geþeódrǽdene nime wið ðone ámánsumedan, R. Ben. 50, 11. Graman niman to take offence, feel angry. Ðá nam hé micelne graman and andan tó ðám mannum, Homl. Th. i. 16, 30. Láre niman to accept teaching. Hý leng mid him lare ne námon, Salm. Kmbl. 926; Sal. 462. Lufe niman tó to take an affection for. Máran lufe nimþ se heretoga tó ðám cempan, ðe æfter fleáme his wiðerwinnan þegenlíce oferwinþ, Homl. Th. i. 342, 2. Mód niman to take courage, Bd. 1, 16; S. 484, 25. On niman to take effect on, Lchdm. ii. 84, 6: 234, 5 : 282, 22. On gemynd niman to bear in remembrance, Elen. Kmbl. 2464; El. 1233. On hæft niman to take captive, Exon. Th. 16, 29; Cri. 260. Sibbe niman wið to make terms with. Ne nim ðú náne sibbe wið ðæs landes menn ne ineas pactum cum hominibus illarum regionum, Ex. 34, 15. Sige niman to gain the victory, Chr. 871; Erl. 74, 8 (and often). Tó gemæccan niman to take to wife, Cd. Th. 76, 17; Gen. 2258. Tó suna niman to adopt as a son, Ors. 1, 12; Swt. 52, 16. Wæpna niman to take up arms, 1, 10; Swt. 44. 32. Ware niman to take care. Hé ne nom náne ware húlíce hié wǽron, 5, 4; Swt. 224, 21. Weg niman to take, go one's way, Cd. Th. 80, 16; Gen. 1329. Wícstówa niman to pitch a camp, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 200, 8. [Goth. niman : O. Sax. niman : O. Frs. nima, nema : Icel. nema : O. H. Ger. neman tollere, carpere, vellere, rapere, capere.] v. á-, æt-, be- (bi-), dǽl-, for-, ge-, of-, ofer-, under-niman.

nimþe, nemþe, nymþe; conj. Unless, except :-- Nimþe nisi, Wülck. Gl. 249, 9. Nimþe wén wǽre ni forsan, Wrt. Voc. ii. 61, 4 : 93. 3. I. connecting clauses :-- Ne hine mon on óðre wísan his béne týþigean wolde, nemþe hé Cristes geleáfan onfénge, Bd. 3, 21; S. 550, 43. Ne sceal nǽfre his torn tó rycene beorn ácýðan, nemþe hé ǽr ða bóte cunne, Exon. Th. 293, 9; Wand. 113. Nymþe mé Drihten gefultumede, wénincga mín sáwl sóhte helle, Ps. Th. 93, 16 : Beo. Th. 3321; B. 1657. II. connecting words in the same case (contracted clauses, the verb of the second clause being the same as that in the first, and not expressed) :-- Nǽnig óðerne freóþ in fyrhþe, nimþe feára hwylc (freóþ), Fragm. Kmbl. 71; Leas. 37. Næs monna gemet, ne mægen engla ðæt eów mihte helpan, nimþe Hǽlend God, Cd. Th. 295, 27; Sat. 493. Nǽniges Godes háligra gebyrd ciricean ne mǽrsiaþ, nemþe Cristes sylfes and ðyses Johannes, Blickl. Homl. 161, 11. Ne wé ús náht elles ne wénden nemþe deáþes sylfes, Bd. 5, 1; S. 613, 26. Unc gemǽne ne sceal elles áwiht nymþe lufu langsumu, Cd. Th. 114, 17; Gen. 1905 : 252, 8; Dan. 575. Nis ðé wiðerbreca man on moldan, nymþe Metod ána, 251, 22; Dan. 567. Hwá is ðæt ðé cunne, nymþe éce God, 266, 7; Sat. 18. Nis nǽnig swá snotor, nymþe God seolfa, 286, 11; Sat. 350. Ic nǽngum sceþþe nymþe bonan ánum, Exon. Th. 407, 11; Rä. 26, 3. Nabbaþ wé tó hyhte nymþe cyle and fýr, Cd. Th. 285, 10; Sat. 335. Eaforan syndon deáde nymþe feá áne, 128, 30; Gen. 2134. Cf. nefne.

nimung, e; f. A taking, plucking :-- Niming héra vulsio spicarum, Lk. Skt. p. 5, 3. v. níd-nimung.

nió-bedd, niód, niól, niowol, niótan, nioþan, -nip. v. neó-bedd, neód, níd, neowol, neótan, neoþan, ge-nip.

nip (?) :-- Nipum rudente, Germ. 399. 451.

nípan; p. náp, pl. nipon; pp. nipen To grow dark :-- Ðonne won cymeþ, nípeþ nihtscúa, Exon. Th. 292, 24; Wand. 104. Náp nihtscúa, 307, 29; Seef. 31. Nípende niht, Beo. Th. 1098; B. 547 : 1302; B. 649. v. ge-nípan, ge-nip.

nirwan, nirwian; p. de, ode To constrain, repress, blame, threaten :-- Moyses onféng scínendum wulderhelme forðon hé symle ða nyrugde ðe God oferhogodan Moses received a shining crown, because he ever repressed those that despised God, Blickl. Homl. 49, 12. Hí fýrene tangan him on handa hæfdon and mé nyrwdon and mé tóbeótodan ðæt hí mé mid ðám gegrípon woldon forcipibus igneis quos tenebant in manibus, minitabantur me comprehendere, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 43. Ne ne on ðínum yrre ne nyrwa ðú mé neque in ira tua corripias me, Ps. Spl. 37. 1. v. ge-nyrwian, nearwian.

nirwett, es; m. I. narrowness :-- Ic hit geféran ne mehte for ðara wega nerwette (propter angustas semitas), Nar. 25, 5. II. a narrow place, pass :-- Se engel eode intó ánum nyrwette angelus ad locum angustum transiens, Num. 22, 26. III. oppression of the chest, difficulty of breathing :-- Hit fremaþ myclum gedruncen wið nyrwyt, Lchdm. i. 140, 1 : 144, 17. v. nearuness and next word.

nirwþ, e; f. Confinement, a prison :-- Nirwþa ergastula, Wrt. Voc. ii. 33. 24.

nis. v. neom.

nistan, nistian to build a nest :-- Ðǽr sperwan nistiaþ illic passeres nidificabunt, Ps. Spl. 103, 18. Nistaþ (MS. nistaðað), Ps. Surt. 103, 17. [O. H. Ger. nistian, nistón nidificare.] v. nistlan.

nistig. v. nihstig.

nistlan to make a nest :-- On ðam spearwan nystlaþ, Ps. Th. 103, 16. Nistlaþ, 83, 3. v. nestlian, nistan.

nitan, nitenness. v. nytan, nytenness.

níten, niéten, neáten, nýten, es; n. An animal, beast, cattle :-- Ǽlc cuce þing vel nýten animal : ǽlces kynnes nýten pecus, jumentum, Wrt. Voc. i. 22, 37, 38 : 78, 49. Réðe nýten feralis bestia, ii. 147, 54. Ðis nýten haec pecus, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 32; Som. 12, 10. Ðis nýten istud animal; ðyses nýtenes istius animalis; ðás níhtenu ista animalia, 15; Som. 18, 34-36. Swá nýten geworden eom ut jumentum factus sum, Ps. Spl. 72, 22. Sum nýten is ðe wé nemnaþ broc, Lchdm. i. 326, 11. Néten, Met. 20, 191. Niéten, Salm. Kmbl. 44; Sal. 22. Hé hine on his nýten (nétne, Lind.) sette, Lk. Skt. 10, 34. Nýtenu and deór fixas and fugelas God gesceóp on flǽsce bútan sáwle. Ða nýtenu hé lét gán álotene, and hé forgeaf ðám nýtenum gærs, Homl. Th. i. 276, 3-6. Men and nýtenu sweltaþ homines et jumenta morientur, Ex. 9, 19. Swá stunte nýtenu sicut bruta animalia, Coll. Monast. Th. 32, 19. Ða ungesceádwísan neótena, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 21. Nétenu, 34, 11; Fox 152, 6. Ðám monnum ðe beóþ neátenum gelíce, 14, 1; Fox 42, 3. Lǽde seó eorþe forþ cuce nítenu, Gen. 1, 24. v, neát.

níten-líc; adj. Animal, after the manner of a brute :-- Gé nételícan (nétenlícan, Cott. MS.) men O! terrena animalia, Bt. 16, 2; Fox 50, 35.

niþ[þ] a man. v. niþþas.

niþ, es; n. A place low down, an abyss :-- Lǽdaþ in ðæt sceaðena scræf, scúfaþ tó grunde in ðæt nearwe niþ, Cd. Th. 304, 22; Sat. 634. v. níþ-sele, -wundor.

níþ, es; m. I. envy, hatred, enmity, rancor, spite, ill-will, jealousy :-- Ðis synt ða ídelnyssa ðisse worlde ... níþ and æfésta and hátheortnys hae sunt vanitates hujus mundi ... odium et invidiae et furor, L. Ecg. P. i. 8; Th. ii. 174, 32. Ne mehte se níþ betux him twǽm gelicgean the enmity between the two could not die out, Ors. 3, 11; Swt. 152, 14. Gif him þince ðæt hé næddran geseó ðæt biþ yfeles wífes níþ if he fancies he sees a snake, that means a bad woman's spite, Lchdm. iii. 174, 17. Blátende níþ livid envy, Cd. Th. 60, 14; Gen. 981 : Andr. Kmbl. 1536; An. 769. Níþ wið God enmity with God, Exon. Th. 302. 23; Fä. 40. Áhrede mé hefiges níþes feónda mínra eripe me de inimicis meis, Ps. Th. 58, 1. Genere mé fram níþe náhtfremmendra, 58, 2. Paulus ehte cristenra manna, ná mid níþe (rancorously), swá swá ða Iudéiscan dydon, ac hé wæs bewerigend ðære ealdan ǽ, Homl. Th. i. 388, 31. Hió mid wíflíce níþe wæs feohtende on ðæt underiende folc she (Semiramis) with a woman's rancor was carrying on war against that harmless people, Ors. 1, 2; Swt. 30, 19. Ðæt gé eówer mód gemetgien on ðæm níþe ut in increpationis zelo se spiritus temperet, Past. 21, 4; Swt. 159, 15. Ðǽr is friþ bútan æféstum, sib bútan níþe, Exon. Th. l01, 18; Cri. 1660. Hé slóh hildebille ðæt hit on heafolan stód níþe genýded he smote with his battle-blade, that, forced on by hate, it stuck in the (dragon's) head, Beo. Th. 5353; B. 2680. Ða hwíle ðe hé nýþ oððe andan hæbbe on his heortan wið his ðone néhstan quamdiu invidiam vel malitiam in corde suo cum proxima suo habet, L. Ecg. P. ii. 27; Th. ii. 192, 27. Siððan genam Saul micelne níþ tó Davide, Homl. Th. ii. 64, 16. Hannibal gecýþde ðone níþ and ðone hete (odium) ðe hé beforan his fæder swór, Ors. 4, 8; Swt. 186, 9. Hé him forgeaf ðone níþ ðe hé tó him wiste he (Augustus) forgave them (the Germans who had slain Varus) the ill-will he felt towards them, 5, 15; Swt. 250, 15. Hé ne róhte heora eallra níþ, Chr. 1086; Erl. 222, 32. Ic hine on sette módhete, longsumne níþ, Cd. Th. 105, 22; Gen. 1757 : 47, 30; Gen. 768. Níþa gebǽded forced by feelings of hatred, Exon. Th. 254, 27; Jul. 203 : 270, 9; Jul. 462. II. action which arises from hatred, strife, war, hostility :-- Hé cwæþ níþes ofþyrsted ðæt hé on norþdǽle heáhsetl heofena ríces ágan wolde all too eager for strife he said that in the north of heaven a throne he would own, Cd. Th. 3, 7; Gen. 32 : 120, 15; Gen. 1995. Gúþbill nacod æt níþe the blade bared in battle, Beo. Th. 5163; B. 2585. Níþe róf bold in battle, Judth. Thw. 22, 7; Jud. 53. Níþ áhebban wið to strive against, Elen. Kmbl. 1672; El. 838. Níþa ofercumen, fǽge and geflýmed, Beo. Th. 1694; B. 845. Æt níþa gehwam nýdgesteallan, 1768; B. 882. Níþa cræftig, 3929; B. 1962 : 4346; B. 2170. Hé níþa gedígde, hildehlemma, 4690; B. 2350 : 4785; B. 2397. III. the effect of hatred, persecution, trouble, vexation, annoyance, affliction, tribulation, grief :-- Ðá wæs wyrmes wíg wíde gesýne nearofáges níþ (the disastrous effects of the dragon's malice), 4623; B. 2317 : Cd. Th. 83, 22; Gen. 1383. Oft ðǽr bróga cwom ealdfeónda níþ oft came terror there, trouble from the hate of ancient foes, Exon. Th. 110, 24; Gú. 112 : 125, 29; Gú. 361 : 345, 25, 30; Gn. Ex. 195, 197 : 346, 4; Gn. Ex. 200. Him leófre wǽre ðæt hié an swelcan niéde (MS. C. néðe) deáþ fornóme ðonne hié mid swelcan niéde friþ begeáte cum intolerabiles conditiones pacis audissent, tutius rati sese armatos mori quam miseros vivere, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 174, 26. Hæfde hé sele Hróðgáres genered wið níþe, Beo. Th. 1658; B. 827 : Andr. Kmbl. 2073; An. 1039. Hié habban sceoldon hellgeþwin, ðone nearwan níþ,Cd.Th. 43, 27; Gen. 697 : 48, 13; Gen. 775. Ic wræc Wedera níþ, Beo. Th. 850; B. 423. Scyld ðú ðé nú ðú ðysne níþ genesan móte, Lchdm. iii. 52, 17. Ðæt ðú mé generige níþa gehwylces eripe me, Ps. Th. 118, 170 : Exon. 230, 8; Ph. 469. Fela mé se Hǽlend hearma gefremede, níþa nearolícra, Elen. Kmbl. 1822; El. 913. Níþa georn, bealwes beald, Blickl. Homl. 109, 28. Hǽle wið deófla níþum, 171, 30. Hé mec wile wið ðám níþum genergan, Exon. Th. 116, 24; Gú. 212 : 140, 34; Gú. 620. Ofer ða níþas ðe wé nú dreógaþ, 105, 8; Gú. 20. Ic mé forhtige fyrenfulra fǽcne níþas conturbatus sum a tribulatione peccatoris, Ps. Th. 54, 2. Helle heáfas, hearde níþas, Cd. Th. 3, 20; Gen. 38. IV. evil, wickedness, malice :-- Níþ synfulra nequitia peccatorum, Ps. Surt. 7, 10. On ðara ácorenra monna heortan sceal ðære nædran lytignes and hire níþ ðære culfran biliwitnesse gescirpan in electorum cordibus debet simplicitatem columbae astutia serpentis acuere, Past. 35, 1; Swt. 237, 22. Mid ðý níþe yfles ingeþonces malitiae peste, 33, 5; Swt. 220, 19. Níþe nequitiae, Ps. Spl. 54, 17. Þurh næddran níþ through the serpent's malice, Cd. Th. 290, 8; Sat. 412 : Exon. Th. 226, 29; Ph. 413. Níþa geblonden (Holofernes). Judth. Thw. 21, 25; Jud. 34. Níþa efter níþum teolunge heara secundum nequitias studiorum ipsorum, Ps. Surt. 27, 4. Æfter níþas, Ps. Spl. C. 27, 5. [A. R. Orm. Laym. niþ : Gen. and Ex. nið and strif : Goth. neiþ φθόνos : O. Sax. níð : O. Frs. níth : Icel. níð a libel, lampoon : O. H. Ger. níd invidia, rancor, discidium, invidentia, iniquitas.] v. bealu-, fǽr-, gár-, helle-, here-, hete-, inwit-, orleg-, searo-, sin-, spere-, wæl-níþ.

níþ; adj. (?) Vexatious, rancorous :-- Æfǽstum onǽled, níþum nearowrencum (or níþum from preceding word?), Exon. Th. 316, 5; Mód. 44. [Cf. he fell off heffne dun Inntill niþ hellepine. Orm. 13677.]

níþ-cwalu, e; f. Grievous destruction :-- Hé hý generede from níþ-cwale, and eác forgeaf éce dreámas, Exon. Th. 77, 18; Cri. 1258.

níþ-cwealm, es; m. Violent death, destruction :-- Heora neát niþ-cwealm forswealh jumenta eorum in morte conclusit, Ps. Th. 77, 50.

níþ-draca, an; m. A hostile, malicious dragon, Beo. Th. 4538; B. 2273.

niþemest. v. neoþera.

niþer; adv. Down, beneath, below :-- Niþer deorsum, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 40, 6. Ðé wearþ helle seáþ niþer gedolfen beneath was the pit of hell dug for thee, Exon. Th. 267, 30; Jul. 423. Ðá hé nyþer ábeáh cum se inclinasset, Jn. Skt. 20, 5. Ic nyþer álǽte submitto, Ælfc. Gr. 28; Som. 31, 41. Hé nyþer áléde deposuit, Lk. Skt. 23, 53. Nyþer ásceótan to cast down, Homl. Th. i. 170, 23. Hé niþer ásette ða mihtigan deposuit potentes, Cant. Mar. 52. Ðonne heó nyðer byþ ástigen, Anglia viii. 319, 19. Ðæt hí hine nyþer bescufon ut praecipitarint eum, Lk. Skt. 4, 29. Se ðe nyþer com of heofonum qui descendit de caelo, Jn. Skt. 3, 13. Ðú niþer færst (descendes) óþ helle, Mt. Kmbl. 11, 23. Niþer feallaþ procident, Ps. Lamb. 71, 9 : 94, 6. Niþer fylþ decidat, 89, 6. Gá nyþer descende Mt. Kmbl. 27, 40. Hé nyþer ne eode, Ex. 32, 1. Gang niþer, Deut. 9, 12. Niþer gewitan descendere, Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 21. Hwearf him eft niþer (to hell) boda bitresta, Cd. Th. 47, 18; Gen. 762. Niþer stígan descendere, Ps. Lamb. 27, 1 : Lchdm. iii. 210, 17. Hé sceal má þencan up ðonne nyþer he must direct his thought upwards rather than downwards, Bt. 41, 6; Fox 254, 31. [Laym. niðer : O. E. Homl. Marh. neoþer : Gen. and Ex. neðer : O. Sax. niðar : O. Frs. nither : Icel. niðr : O. H. Ger. nidar deorsum : Gen. nieder.] v. niþere.

niþera. v. neoþera.

niþer-bogen down-bent :-- Tó ðære niþerbogenan ác, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 72, 1. [Cf. Icel. niðr-bjúgr.]

niþer-dǽl, es; m. A lower part :-- On niþerdǽlum eorþan in inferioribus terrae, Ps. Th. 138, 13.

niþere, niþre; adv. Down, beneath, below :-- Læg mín flǽschoma in foldan bigrafen, niþre gehýded in byrgenne, ðæt ðú meahte beorhte uppe on roderum wesan, Exon. Th. 89, 34; Cri. 1467. Uppe ge niþre, 360, 3; Pa. 74. [O. H. Ger. nidare, nidere : Icel. niðri.]

niþer-gang, es; m. Descent :-- Mid hyra upgange oððe nyþergange, Lchdm. iii. 246, 8. [Icel. niðr-gangr, -ganga.]

niþer-heald; adj. Bent downwards :-- Nis ðæt gedafenlíc, ðæt se módsefa monna ǽniges niþerheald wese, and ðæt neb upweard, Met. 31, 23. [Cf. Hie mugen lihtliche cumen mid þare niðerhelde (the downward slope), O. E. Homl. ii. 230, 347 : O. H. Ger. nidar-haldig reclinus.]

niþerian, niþrian; p. ode. I. to bring low, humiliate :-- Se ðe hine nyþeraþ qui se humiliat, Lk. 14, 11. Hí nyþerodon humiliaverunt, Ps. Spl. 93, 5. II. to accuse, condemn :-- Ne ǽnig mon ðec niþraþ (condemnavit), Jn. Skt. Rush. 8, 10. Hí niþeriaþ condemnabunt, Ps. Spl. 93. 21. Niþrigaþ condemnabunt, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 12, 41. Ðæt hiǽ niþradun (accusarent) hine, Mk. Skt. Rush. 3, 2. Niþrad damnatus, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 27, 3. Wæs neþored damnatur, Hpt. 495, 2. [Orm. niþþrenn : Laym. neoþered : Icel. niðra to put down, lower : O. H. Ger. niderren humiliare, accusare, condemnare.] v. ge-niþerian.

niþerigend-líc; adj. Deserving condemnation :-- Þurh gódne willan herigendlíc oððe of yflum willan nyþergendlíc, Boutr. Scrd. 20, 1.

niþer-líc; adj. I. low (of position) :-- Án þeósterful dene swíðe niþerlíc, Homl. Th. ii. 338, 5. Heortan niþerlícan cordis ima, Ps. Surt. ii. p. 202, 5. On nyþerlícum eorþan in inferioribus terrae, Ps. Lamb. 62, 10. Tó nyþerlícum ad inferos, Cant. An. 6. Hé his eágan bígde on ðás nyþerlícan þing oculos in inferiora deflectens, Bd. 3, 19; S. 548, 8. II. low, humble, inferior :-- In ðisse nyþerlícan worulde in this lower world, Shrn. 123, 10. Ða nyþerlícan humilia, Blickl. Gl. Gé sécaþ ðære heán gecynde gesǽlþa tó ðám niþerlícum and tó ðám hreósendlícum þingum, Bt. 14, 2; Fox 44, 30 : Homl. Th. ii. 522, 30.

niþerness, e; f. Lowness, a low position, the bottom :-- Ðá geseah hé swá þýstre dene under him in nyþernesse gesette vidit quasi vallem tenebrosam subtus se in imo positam, Bd. 3. 19; S. 548, 9.

niþer-scyfe, es; m. A pushing down, falling down, hasty downward movement :-- Niþerscyfe per praeceps, Hpt. Gl. 468, 74. v. scyfe.

niþer-sige, es; m. A going down, setting :-- Sunne oncneów niþersige (occasum) hire, Ps. Lamb. 103, 19 : 113, 3. Ofer niþersi[g]e super occasum, 67, 5.

niþer-stige, es; m. A descent :-- Se upstige and se niþerstige the ascent and descent (of the angels seen by Jacob in his dream), R. Ben. 23, 7. Tó Olivetes muntes nyþerstige ad descensum montis Oliveti, Lk. Skt. 19, 37. [Cf. Icel. niðr-stiga a descent : O. H. Ger. nidar-stiga.]

niþerung, e; f. I. a bringing low, humiliation, overthrow :-- Ic salde iów mæhte hénnisse ɫ niþrunge ofer nedre dedi vobis potestatem calcandi supra serpentes, Lk. Skt. Rush. 10, 19. Ǽttrige niþerunge venenata detrimenta, Hpt. Gl. 450, 39. II. damnation, condemnation :-- Niþrung damnatio, Lk. Skt. Lind. 23, 40 : 24, 20. Hé hí fram yrmþurn écre niþerunge generede, Bd. 4, 13; S. 582, 26 : 5, 13; S. 633, 14. In niþrunge in condemnatione, Rtl. 24, 19. For ðæs dæges nyþerunge ad damnationem diei, L. Ecg. P. add. 22; Th. ii. 236, 4 : Bd. 5, 14; S. 635, 2. [O. H. Ger. nidarunga damnatio : cf. Icel. niðran degradation.]

niþer-weard; adj. Downward, turned downwards :-- Neb is mín niþerweard, Exon. Th. 403, 1; Rä. 22, 1 : 416, 24; Rä. 35, 3. Niþer-wearþ, 413, 15; Rä. 32, 6.

niþer-weardes, -weard; adv. Downwards, in a downward direction :-- Niþerweardes per praeceps, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 8, 32. Nyþerwerd deorsum versum, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 41, 63. Niþerwurd in praeceps, deorsum, Hpt. Gl. 499. 66.

niþe-weard. v. neoþe-weard.

níþ-full; adj. Envious, malicious :-- Ǽfre biþ se níþfulla (envious) man on gedréfednysse, forðan ðe se anda his mód ǽlcere gástlícere blisse benǽmþ, Homl. Th. i. 606, 2. Se níþfulla wer ... se gesibsuma wer the malicious man ... the man that loves peace, Basil admn. 6; Norm. 46, 20, 22, 30. Feóndes níþfulles fácne hostis invidi dolum, Hymn. Surt. 3, 21. Ðeós costung is of ðam níþfullan deófle, Boutr. Scrd. 23, 10. Níþfullum rancida, amara, Hpt. Gl. 475, 73. Ðá geseah se hálga wer ðæs árleásan preóstes níþfullan ehtnysse, Homl. Th. ii. 162, 34. Níþfulra lividorum, Hpt. Gl. 519, 69.

níþful-líce; adv. Maliciously, enviously :-- Gé ðone rihtwísan Crist níþfullíce ácwealdon, Homl. Th. i. 46, 25.

níþ-gæst, es; m. A malicious, malignant guest :-- Hé ðone níþgæst (the dragon) slóh, Beo. Th. 5391; B. 2699. Under níþgysta (the devils who persecuted Guthlac) nearwum clommum, Exon. Th. 134, 21; Gú. 511.

níþ-geteón, es; n. Injurious malice :-- Sigor áhwearf of norþmanna níþgeteóne (when Abraham defeated those who carried away Lot), Cd. Th. 124, 26; Gen. 2068.

níþ-geweorc, es; n. Malicious, evil work :-- Ðeáh hé (Grendel) róf síe níþgeweorca, Beo. Th. 1370; B. 683.

níþ-grim[m]; adj. Savage, cruel :-- Nýdwracu níþgrim, nihtbealwa mǽst, Beo. Th. 388; B. 193. Mé beþeahton þeóstru níþgrim, Ps. Th. 54, 5. Cf. hete-grim.

níþ-gripe (?), es; m. A hostile grasp :-- Hyne (Grendel) sár hafaþ in níþgripe (MS. mid gripe, nídgripe [?]) nearwe befongen, Beo. Th. 1956; B. 976.

níþ-heard; adj. Bold in battle, audacious :-- Níþheard cyning (Constantine), Elen. Kmbl. 389; El. 195 : (Beowulf), Beo. Th. 4826; B. 2417. Ðá wearþ sum tó ðæs árod ðara beadorinca, ðæt hé in ðæt búrgeteld níþheard néðde, Judth. Thw. 25, 25; Jud. 277. [Cf. O. H. Ger. Nídhart (proper name).]

níþ-hete, es; m. I. rancorous, hate, enmity :-- Áwehte ðone wælníþ Nabochodonossor þurh níþhete, Cd. Th. 219, 2; Dan. 48. II. affliction, grievous trouble :-- Ðe hié generede wið ðam níþhete (the fiery furnace), 233, 22; Dan. 279. III. malice, wickedness :-- Æfter níþhete wiðmétednyssa heora secundum nequitiam adinventionum ipsorum, Ps. Spl. T. 27, 5. Cf. hete-níþ.

níþ-hete, es; m. A malignant foe :-- Léton ðone hálgan bídan burh-wealle néh, his níþhetum, nihtlangne fyrst, Andr. Kmbl. 1667; An. 836. Cf. scyld-hete.

níþ-hycgende having hatred or malice in the heart :-- Slógon eornoste Assiria oretmæcgas níþhycgende nánne ne sparedon with hate in their hearts Assyria 's warriors they (the Hebrews) hewed, not one did they spare, Judth. Thw. 24, 40; Jud. 233. Him (Christ) mid næglum þurhdrifan níþhycgende ða hwítan honda, Exon. Th. 68, 28; Cri. 1110.

níþ-hygdig; adj. Having the mind disposed to strife, bold :-- Hyrsta swylce on horde ǽr níþhýdige men genumen hæfdon, Beo. Th. 6311; B. 3166. [O. Sax. níð-hugdig maliciously disposed (applied to Herod and to the devil).] Cf. níþ-heard.

níþing, es; m. A villain, one who commits a vile action :-- Walreáf is níþinges dǽde, L. Ath. iv. 7; Th. i. 228, 3. Se cing and eall here cwǽdon Swegen for níþing (Swegen had treacherously put Beorn to death), Chr. 1049; Erl. 174. 31. [Icel. níðingr a villain. v. Cl. & Vig. Dict.] v. un-níþing.

níþ-líce; adv. Cowardly, meanly :-- Earhlíce ɫ níþlíce muliebriter, Hpt. Gl. 424, 1.

níþ-loca, an; m. A place where one is shut up in misery :-- Under níþ-loc[an] gebunden, under bealuclommum, Exon. Th. 463, 3; Hö. 64.

niþor. v. neoþor.

níþ-plega, an; m. Battle, Andr. Kmbl. 827; An. 414.

niþre. v. niþere.

níþ-sceaða, an; m. A malignant foe, Exon. Th. 397, 23; Rä. 16, 24.

níþ-sele, es; m. A hall where one is exposed to the hatred of a foe :-- [Grein reads niþ-sele a hall low down, beneath the water.] Hé [in] níþsele náthwylcum wæs, ðǽr him nǽnig wæter wihte ne sceþede, Beo. Th. 3030; B. 1513.

níþ-syn. v. níd-syn.

niþþas, niþas; pl. m. (a poetical word used only in the plural) Men :-- Niþþas findaþ gold, gumþeóda bearn, Cd. Th. 14, 27; Gen. 225. Niþþa bearna ǽrest ealra, 69, 14; Gen. 1135 : 77, 33; Gen. 1284 : Beo. Th. 2015; B. 1005 : Exon. Th. 167, 34; Gú. 1070. Niþþa nergend, 140, 18; Gú. 612. Niþþa gehwylcum, 360, 15; Wal. 6. Geneósian niþa bearna ealra þeóda ad visitandas omnes gentes, Ps. Th. 58, 5 : 65, 3 : 71, 17. Niþa náthwilc, Beo. Th. 4436; B. 2215. Niþa gehwam unásecgendlíc, Elen. Kmbl. 928; El. 465. Hé from sceolde niþþum hweorfan he must die, Cd. Th. 74, 16; Gen. 1223 : 75, 5; Gen. 1235. Hé is niþum swǽs, is ðín milde mód ofer manna bearn, Ps. Th. 99, 4. Neáh is Drihten niþum eallum ðe hine mid sóþe hige séceaþ prope est Dominus omnibus invocantibus eum in veritate, 144, 19. Ðú eart mihtum swíð niþas tó nergenne, Cd. Th. 234, 1; Dan. 285. [Goth. nithjis a kinsman : Icel. niðr; pl. niðjar a son, kinsman.]

níþ-weorc, es; n. Battle, conflict :-- Níþweorca heard brave in battle, Chr. 973; Erl. 124, 26.

níþ-wracu; gen. -wræce; f. Severe punishment :-- Ða fǽmnan hét þurh níþwræce nacode þennan, and mid sweopum swingan, Exon. Th. 253, 28; Jul. 187. Cwom Nabochodonossor of níþwracum (his exile among the beasts of the field), Cd. Th. 257, 28; Dan. 664.

níþ-wundor, es; n. A wonder that bodes evil, a portent :-- Ðǽr mæg nihta gehwæm níþwundor (niþ-, Grein) seón, fýr on flóde, Beo. Th. 2735; B. 1365.

níwan, neówan, neón; adv. Recently, lately, newly :-- Níwan, neówan, nuper; Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 39, 58. Secgeaþ hí ðæt sume dæge ðider níwan (nuper) cóme cýpemen, Bd. 2, 1; S. 501, 4. Ða þing ðe ús níwan bodade syndon ea quae nunc nobis nova praedicantur, 2, 13; S. 516, 11. Ðonne man níwan wíf nymþ cum acceperit homo nuper uxorem, Deut. 24, 5. Ðone consul ðe hié ðá níwan geset hæfdon, Ors. 2, 6; Swt. 86, 32. Gif hwelc man biþ wíteþeów níwan geþeówad, L. In. 48; Th. i. 132, 7. Ic eom se ðe nú níwan com. Swilce hé swá cwǽde : Ic wæs geswutelod nú níwan, Glostr. Fragm. 50, 2-4. For ðære swíðlícan ehtnysse ðe ðá níwan ásprang æfter Carines slege on account of the fierce persecution that just then had sprung up after the murder of Carinus, Homl. Skt. 5, 326. Gif hwá níwan tó mynstres drohtnunge gecyrran wyle if a man's wish to turn to a monastic life is but newly formed, R. Ben. 96, 3. Gelamp nýwan it happened lately, Nicod. Thw. 8, 27 : 19, 37. Seó núgyt neówan is becumen and gelǽded tó Godes geleáfan quae (ecclesia Anglorum) nuper adhuc ad fidem adducta est, Bd. 1, 27; S. 489, 12. Hé eów neón gesceód lately he harmed you, Andr. Kmbl. 2354; An. 1178. [Cf. O. H. Ger. níwanes nuper.] v. níwane.

níwan-ácenned new-born :-- Ðá wæs broht tó fulwihte níwanácenned cild, Shrn. 130, 7. Cf. níw-cenned.

níwan-cumen recently come (to a particular belief), a neophyte :-- Níwancumen neofitus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 59, 68. Cf. níw-cumen.

níwane; adv. Lately, recently :-- Wénaþ ðæt ðæt ne sié eald gesceaft, ac síe geworden níwane, Bt. 39, 3; Fox 216, 4. v. níwan.

níw-bacen; adj. New-baked :-- Wé mid ús námon nígbacene hláfas panes calidos sumpsimus, Jos. 9, 12.

níw-cealct, -cilct newly white-washed :-- On ánum nícealtan (níwcilctan, MS. C.) húse in cubiculo nuper calce illito, Ors. 6, 32; Swt. 286, 30.

níw-cenned, -cend new-born :-- Mid hyre nícendum cilde cum recens nato parvulo, Bd. 2, 16; S. 520, 1.

níw-cumen newly come (to a particular belief), a neophyte :-- Nícumen neophytus, Hpt. Gl. 480, 12. Se sylfa nígecumena (nícumena, nígcumene) bróðor, R. Ben. 101, 15. Be nígcumenra (nícumenra, Wells, Frag.) gebróðra andfenge, 97, 2. Tǽce him mon siððan tó nígcumenra manna húse, 97, 11. v. níwan-cumen.

níwe, neówe; adj. I. new, not yet used :-- Ne ásend nán scyp of níwum reáfe on eald reáf; elles ðæt níwe slít, and se níwa scyp ne hylp ðam ealdan, Lk. Skt. 5, 36. Smyre mid níre (MS. B. ánre) feþere, Lchdm. i. 234, 13. Hé léde hyne on hys níwan byrgene, Mt. Kmbl. 27, 60. Gé ðǽr gemétaþ níwe byrgenne, Blickl. Homl. 147, 30. II. new, recent, not of long standing, not long made :-- Nán man ne sent níwe wín on ealde bytta; elles ðæt níwe wín brycþ ða bytta . . . Ac níwe wín is tó sendenne on níwe bytta ... And ne drincþ nán man eald wín and wylle sóna ðæt níwe, Lk. Skt. 5, 37-39. Ðá hé (the Roman name) com ǽrest tó Parþum, and wæs ðǽr swíðe níwe, Bt, 18, 2; Fox 64, 13. Níwe móna neomenia, Wrt, Voc. i. 16, 51. Se níwa neophytus, ii. 60, 64. Seó (the English Church) núgyt is níwe on geleáfan, Bd. 489, 41. Ðy læs se steall swá níwre cyricean tealtrian ongunne, 2, 4; S. 505, 11. Ðis gelimpþ seldon, and nǽfre búton on níwum mónan, Lchdm. iii. 242, 23. Nó on níwan wylme, ac on lancsumere mynsteres drohtnunge, R. Ben. 9, 6. Hé ðone winter mid ðý níwan folce (the newly converted Frisians) wunode, Bd. 5, 19; S. 639, 26. Níwan stefne anew, Cd. Th. 94, 1; Gen. 1555 : Andr. Kmbl. 245; An. 123. Niówan, Beo. Th. 3582; B. 1789. On swá niówan gefeán, Andr. Kmbl. 3336; An. 1672. Ðá sceáwode Scyppend úre his weorca wlite, níwra gesceafta, Cd. Th. 13, 25; Gen. 208 : 55. 4; Gen. 889. On ðisum níwum dagum in these modern times, Homl. Th. i. 608, 23 : Homl. Skt. 13, 177. Brembel ðe síen begen endas on eorþan; genim ðone neówran wyrttruman, Lchdm. ii. 292, 1. III. new (to anything), inexperienced :-- Swá swíðe swá ða níwan Cristenan hit niman mihte in quantum rudes capere poterant, Bd. 3, 22; S. 553, 10. Ðǽm níwum neotericis, Wrt. Voc. ii. 60, 58. Ðæt is ðæt mon ða earce bere on ðǽm saglum ðætte ða gódan láreówas ða hálgan gesomnunge lǽrende ða níwan (niéwan, Cott. MSS.) and ða angeleáffullan mód mid hira láre gelǽde tó ryhtum geleáfan vectibus arcam portare est bonis doctoribus sanctam ecclesiam ad rudes infidelium mentes praedicando deducere, Past. 22, 2; Swt. 171, 13. Níwa láre rudimenta, Rtl. 80, 3. IV. new, novel, different from what has gone before :-- Árás níwe cing ðe nyste hwæt Iosep wæs, Ex. 1, 8. Hasterbal se níwa cyning Asdrubal novus imperator, Ors. 4, 6; Swt. 176, 33. Hwæt is ðeós níwe lár, Mk. Skt. 1, 27. Níwe circhálgung (v. cyric-hálgung) encenia, Wrt. Voc. i. 16, 52. Calic níwre ǽ (novi testamenti), Mt. Kmbl. 26, 28. Nemde níwan stefne; nama wæs gecyrred, Elen. Kmbl. 2119; El. 1061. Him ne wæs nǽnig earfoþe ðæt líchomlíce gedál on ðære neówan wyrde (in their new condition), Blickl. Homl. 135, 31. Ic eów sylle níwe bebod, Jn. Skt. 13, 34. Singaþ Drihtne neówne sang, Ps. Th. 149, 1 : Ps. Surt. 32, 3. Hí hæfdon neówne gefeán geméted, Elen. Kmbl. 1737; El. 870. Fægere word ðis synd . . . ac forðon hí níwe syndon and uncúþe, Bd. 1, 25; S. 487, 9. Lyt swígode níwra spella, se ðe næs gerád, Beo. Th. 5788; B. 2898. Hí sprecaþ níwum tungum, Mk. Skt. 16, 17. Gelǽrdan biscepas swelce níwe rǽdas swelce hié fol oft ǽr ealde gedydan, Ors. 4, 7; Swt. 184, 2. Singaþ sangas neówe, Ps. Th. 95, 1. [Goth. niujis : O. Sax. níwi : O. Frs. níe : O. H. Ger. niuwi, níwi novus, recens, rudis modernus.] v. ed-níwe.

níwe, níge; adv. Newly, recently :-- Wé níwe syndon tó ðissum geleáfan gedón we are newly turned to this faith, Blickl. Homl. 247, 34. Syððan heó níge cealfod hæfþ after it (a cow) has recently calved, L. R. S. 13; Th. i. 438, 19. Sceal mon lácnian swilce ádle mid cú meolcum oððe gáte swá níge molcene drince (or let him drink goat's milk as newly milked as possible), Lchdm. ii. 218, 22 : 222, 13. v. níwan.

niwel. v. neowol.

níw-fara, an; m. A new-comer, a stranger :-- Ic eom nífara hider on eorþan beforan ðé and ælþeódig incola ego sum apud te in terra, et peregrinus, Ps. Th. 38, 15.

níw-gecirred newly converted :-- Nígecerred neophytus, novellus, Hpt. 488, 4.

níw-gehálgod newly consecrated :-- Hieu se nígehálgode (níghálgoda) cynincg, Homl. Skt. 18, 326.

níw-gehwirfed newly converted :-- Ðæt hé ða nígehwyrfedan (níghwurfedan, MS. C.; níghwerfdan, MS. V.) mid fulluhte áþwóge, Homl. Skt. 5, 126.

níw-hwirfed newly converted :-- Níhwurfed ɫ nílǽred neophytus, Hpt. G1. 48o, 13. v. preceding word.

níw-hworfen newly converted :-- Betwux ðam níghworfenum folce (the recently converted people of Kent), Homl. Th. ii. 130, 27.

níwian; p. ode To renew, renovate, restore :-- Nú mé Sethes bearn torn níwiaþ, Cd. Th. 76, 16; Gen. 1258. Hé níwade Cnutes lage (v. Freeman's Old English History, p. 241), Chr. 1064; Erl. 196, 2. Ne wrec ðú ða ǽrran yflu, búton hí mon eft níwige, Prov. Kmbl. 35. Swá ðæt ðú ǽghwylce dæg ðone drenc níwie (níwige, MS. B.), Lchdm. i. 192, 15. Burh rǽran, and sele settan, salo níwian, Cd. Th. 113, 3; Gen. 1881. Sár níwigan, Elen. Kmbl. 1878; El. 941. Eft níwige emendare, Mt. Kmbl. p. 2, 12. Wǽren ǽrendracen, gesend tó Ængla lande tó níwianne ðone geleáfan, Chr. 785; Erl. 57, 17. Eorþan neówiende anseón terrae novas faciem, Hymn. Surt. 97, 34. [Chauc. newe : Goth. ana-niujan : O. Sax. níwian : O. H. Ger. niuwón, níwón novare.] v. ed-, ge-níwian.

ni-wiht nothing :-- Tó niwihte ad nihilum, Ps. Surt. 59, 14. v. ná-wiht.

níwinga, níw-lǽred. v. níwunga, níw-hwyrfed.

níw-líc; adj. New, fresh :-- Bearn ðíne swá swá gýwlícra elebergena filii tui sicut nouellae oliuarum, Ps. Lamb. 127, 3.

níwlíce; adv. Newly, recently :-- Níwan nuper, níwlícor nuperius, níwlícost nuperime, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 42, 11. Hér cumaþ tó eów níwlíce twegen men, Homl. Th. ii. 494, 7. Hí hæfdon níwlíce gesett they had recently decreed, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 202, 26. Hió ðá wæs níwlíce cristen, 6, 4; Swt. 260, 12.

níwness, e; f. Newness, novelty :-- Ne sceal him mon ánne mete gebeódan, ac missenlíce, ðæt seó niównes ðara metta mǽge him góde beón, Lchdm. ii. 240, 15. Ðæs mónan níwnys, Anglia viii. 310, 38. Ðá wæs se déma mid ða neównysse (novitate) swá monigra heofonlícra wundra swýðe gedréfed, Bd. 1, 7; S. 478. 44. Míne níwnysse juventutem meam, Ps. Lamb. 42, 4.

niwol. v. neowol.

níw-tirwed new-tarred :-- Flotan níwtyrwdne, Beo. Th. 595; B. 295.

níwung, e; f. A beginning, rudiment :-- Níwunge rudimenta, Hpt. Gl. 428, 18. v. níwe, III.

níwunga; adv. Anew :-- Níwunga (niówunga, Rush.) denuo, Mk. Skt. Lind. 14, 40. Niúnge (niówunga, Rush.), Jn. Skt. 3, 3. Neówinga, Andr. Kmbl. 2787; An. 1396. v. ed-níwinga.

níwerne; adj. Young, tender :-- Sum wíf mid hire nýwerenan (MS. Bodl. niwernan, glossed by tenero) cilde, Homl. Th. i. 566, 5.

nixtnig. v. nihstnig.

, nóh, nóht, nolde, nom-, noma. v. ná, ge-nóh, ná-wiht, nyllan, nam-, nama.

nón, es; n. I. the ninth hour; hora nona :-- Prím prima; undern tertia; middæg sexta; nón nona; ǽfen vesperum, Wrt. Voc. i. 53, 10-15 : R. Ben. 40, 13. Ða nigoþan tíde ðe wé nón hátaþ, Homl. Th. ii. 256, 35. Ðá com nón dæges, Beo. Th. 3204; B. 1600. Hí him tó gewunon náman ðæt hí fæston tó nónes (ad horam nonam), Bd. 3, 5; S. 527, 9. Tó huíl nónes ad horam nonam, Mt. Kmbl. Lind. 27, 45, 46. On tíde nónes, Mk. Skt. Rush. 15. 33, 34. Tó underne and tó nóne ... and tó middæge. Lchdm. iii. 218-222, often. Fram middæge óþ nón, H. R. 107, 9. Sele drincan on undern, on middæg, on nón, Lchdm. ii. 140, 2. II. the service held at the ninth hour, nones :-- Wé sungon nón cantavimus nonam, Coll. Monast. Tb. 33, 35. [O. Sax. nón, nuon : Icel. nón; n. nones, about three o'clock.] v. ofer-nón.

non, es; m. The title given to the older by the younger monks :-- Ða yldran hyra gingran bróðor nemnen, and ða gingran hyra yldran nonnos (nonas, Wells, Frag.) nemnen, R. Ben. 115, 19. v. nunne.

nón-gereord, es; n. A repast after the service of nones :-- Siððan hý ðone forman cnyl tó nóne gehýren, gangen hý ealle from hyra weorce and dón hý gearuwe, ðæt hý mágon tó cirican gán, ðonne mon eft cnylle. Ðonne eft æfter heora nóngereorde rǽdan hý eft heora béc, R. Ben. 74, 8.

nón-mete, es; m. An afternoon meal :-- Nónmete merenda, Wrt. Voc. i. 38, 14 : annona, 291, 2 : ii. 8, 67. On xii mónþum ðú scealt sillan ðínum þeówan men vii hund hláfa and xx hláfa, búton morgenmetum and nónmetum, Salm. Kmbl. p. 192, 19. [Prompt. Parv. nunmete merenda, p. 360. v. note there.]

nón-sang, es; m. The service held at the ninth hour, nones :-- Ða seofon tídsangas . . . nónsang, L. Ælfc. C. 19; Th. ii. 350, 7. De officio nonae horae (nónsang), Btwk. 216, 31 : R. Ben. 39, 19 : 40, 7. Nónsang wé singaþ nonam psallimus, Hymn. Surt. 60, 35.

nón-tíd, e; f. The ninth hour :-- On undern, on midne dæg, on nóntíde, Homl. Th. ii. 74, 9.

nón-tíma, an; m. The ninth hour :-- On nóntíman wé sculon God herian, forðam on ðone tíman Crist gebæd for ðám ðe him deredon, and siððan his gást ásende, Btwk. 216, 31.

Normandíg, e; f. Normandy :-- Willelm cyng fór ofer sǽ tó Normandíg, and Eádgár cild com of Scotland tó Normandíge, Chr. 1074; Erl. 212, 3-4.

Nor-men. v. Norþ-mann.

Norren, Noren; adj. Norse, Norwegian :-- Se Norrena cyng, Chr. 1066; Erl. 201, 12. Ólaf ðæs Norna cynges sunu, 201, 34. [Icel. Norrœnn, Norœnn.]

[norþ]; adj. In a northerly position :-- Ðæt folc ðe tó ðære norþerran byrig hiérde, Chr. 922; Erl. 108, 19. Hét Eádweard cyning átymbran ða norþran burg, 913; Erl. 100, 34. On ðǽm dagum wæs ðæt norþmeste [ríce] micliende, Ors. 6, 1; Swt. 252, 12. Sciþþie ða norþmestan 1, 7; Swt. 40, 6. Óþ ða norþmestan næssan on eorþan, Met. 9, 43. [Icel. nyrðri, norðari; nyrðstr, norðastr.] See the compounds of which norþ forms the first part.

norþ; adv. In a northerly direction or position :-- Ðæt is norþ ehta hund míla lang, Bd. 1,1; S. 473, 11. Hié Baldred norþ ofer Temese ádrifon, Chr. 823; Erl. 62, 20. Hié fóron norþ ymbútan, 894; Erl. 91, 6. Symle swá norþor swá smælre ever the further north, the narrower, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 18, 29. Hé ealra Norþmonna norþmest búde, 17, 2. [O. Sax. norð : O. Frs. north : Icel. norðarr; cpve.; norðast; super.]

norþan; adv. From the north :-- Se wind se ðe ǽr súþan bleów, hine norþan áwearp, Bd. 2, 7; S. 509, 28. Gif hér wind cymþ westan oððe eástan, súþan oððe norþan, Cd. Th. 50, 11; Gen. 807. See following words.

norþan-eástan; adv. From the north-east :-- Ðonne se stearca wind cymþ norþan-eástan, Bt. 9; Fox 26, 19.

norþan-eástan in be norþan-eástan to the north-east, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24, 10 : 16, 18.

norþan-eástan-wind a north-east wind; eurus, euroauster, circius, Wrt. Voc. 1, 36, 13, 17. [Cf. O. H. Ger. nordóstir-wint aquilo.]

Norþan-hymbre; pl. The Northumbrians, Northumbria, the people or province north of the Humber :-- Hé Ida féng tó ríce, ðonon Norþanhymbra cynecyn onwóc, Chr. 547; Erl. 16, 7. Ðǽr wæs ungemetlíc wæl geslægen Norþanhymbra, 867; Erl. 72, 15. Norþanhymbra mǽgþ ðe Ceólwulf ofer is, Bd. 5, 24; S. 646, 28. Hér fór se here of EástEnglum on Norþanhymbre, Chr. 867; Erl. 73, 7. v. Norþ-hymbre.

norþan-weard; adj. Northward :-- Sanctus Paulus wæs geseónde on norþanweardne ðisne middangeard, Blickl. Homl. 209, 30. Ða Pyhtas geférdon ðis land norþanweard the Picts occupied the north of this land, Chr. Erl. 3, 13.

norþan-westan; adv. From the north-west; a circio, Hpt. Gl. 512, 11 : Wrt. Voc. ii. 3, 44 : 98, 40.

norþan-westan in be norþan-westan to the north-west, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 16, 5.

norþan-westan-wind a wind from the north-west; corus, aquilo vel boreas, Wrt. Voc. i. 36, 16, 18. [Cf. O. H. Ger. nortwesterwint circius.]

norþan-wind a wind from the north :-- Norþanwind septentrio, Wrt. Voc. i. 36, 11. Ðæs norþanwindes ýst, Bt. 9; Fox 26, 20. Stearc stormas and norþanwindas, 23; Fox 78, 27. v. norþ-wind.

norþ-dǽl, es; m. I. a northern part :-- Middaneardes norþdǽl Europa, Hpt. Gl. 512, 20. Sió hǽte hæfþ genumen ðæs súþdǽles máre ðonne se cyle ðæs norþðǽles hæbbe, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24, 29. Nú hæbbe wé áwriten ðære Asian súþdǽl; nú wille wé fón tó hire norþdǽle, Swt. 14, 6. Sittan on ðam norþdǽle heofenan ríces, Homl. Th. i. 10, 25 : Cd. Th. 3, 8; Gen. 32. Norþdǽl aquilonem, Ps. Th. 89, 11. Hé wæs mid firde farende on Sciþþie on ða norþdǽlas, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 44, 7. Peohtas ongunnon eardigan ða norþdǽlas ðysses eálondes, Bd. 1, 1; S. 474, 18. II, the north :-- Breoton is geseted betwyh norþdǽle and westdǽle Britannia inter septentrionem et occidentem locata est, S. 473, 9. Ðonne ástígeþ blódig wolcen from norþdǽle, Blickl. Homl. 91, 32.

Norþ-Dene; pl. The North-Danes, Beo. Th. 1571; B. 783 : Ors. 1, 1;, Swt. 16, 25, 27.

norþ-duru a door on the north side of a building :-- Beforan ðære norþdura, Blickl. Homl. 203, 34. [Icel. norðr-dyrr; n. pl.]

norþ-eást; adv. North-east. v. following words.

norþeást-ende the north-east end :-- Óþ ðone norþeástende ðisses middangeardes, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 14, 14.

norþeást-lang; adj. Long in a north-easterly direction :-- Brittania is norþeástlang Britannia per longum in boream extenditur, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24, 12.

norþ-ende the north end or part :-- Ðý þriddan dæge seó eorþe on ðæm norþerne and on ðam eástende sprecaþ him betweónum, Blickl. Homl. 93, 11. Ðone norþene ðære eaxe (the north-pole), Met. 28, 14.

Norþ-Engle; pl. The inhabitants of the north of England :-- On Norþ-Engla lage stent ... be Norþ-Engla lage, L. Eth. vii. 13; Th. i. 332, 7-10.

norþerne; adj. I. northern :-- Norþene ýst, Met. 6, 14. Norþerne wind africum, Ps. Lamb. 77, 26. Of Japhet com ðæt norþerne mennisc be ðære norþsǽ ... Europa on norþdǽle [is gedǽled] Japhetes ofspringe, Ælfc. T. Grn. 4, 37. Hine gelǽhton sume ðæs norþernan folces some of the Northumbrians seized him (after a battle between Northumbrians and Mercians), Homl. Th. ii. 356, 29. Ða norþerne men the men from the north of England, Chr. 1064; Erl. 196, 2. II. applied to the Scandinavians :-- Guma norþerna (guman norþerne, other MSS.), 937; Erl. 112, 18. Godrum se norþerna cyning, 890; Erl. 86, 27.

norþe-weard; adj. Northward, north :-- Norþeweard, ðǽr hit smalost wǽre, hit mihte beón þreora míla brád tó ðæm móre the northern part of Norway, where it was narrowest, might be three miles broad to the mountains, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 18, 31. Ðonne is tóemnes ðæm lande súþeweardum Sweóland, óþ ðæt land norþeweard; and tóemnes ðæm lande norþeweardum Cwéna land alongside the south of the country (Norway), up to its northern part, lies Sweden; and alongside its northern part the country of the Fins, Swt. 19, 1-3. Ðæt Babylonicum wæs ðæt forme, and on eásteweardum; ðæt æfterre wæs ðæt Crécisce, and on norþeweardum, 2, 1; Swt. 60, 3. Æt Baddanbyrg westeweardre and norþeweardre ... of foxhylle norþeweardre, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. ii. 249, 26, 34. From easteweardan ðisses middangeardes óþ westeweardne, and fram súþeweardum óþ norþeweardne, Bt. 18, 1; Fox 62, 2. v. norþ-weard.

norþ-folc, es; n. The northern division of a people; (a) the people of the north of England :-- Humbre tósceádeþ súþfolc Angelþeóde and norþfolc, Bd. 1, 25; S. 486, 18. (b) the people of Norfolk, Norfolk :-- Hé wæs geboren on Norþfolce. Ðá geaf se cyng his sunu ðone eorldóm on Norþfolc and Súþfolc, Chr. 1075; Erl. 213, 4-5 : 1085; Erl. 218, 21.

norþ-gemǽre a boundary to the north :-- Ðara landa norþgemǽro sindon æt ðǽm beorgum Caucasus, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 10, 26, 33.

Norþ-Gyrwas; pl. The northern division of the Gyrwas :-- Norþ-Gyrwa syxhund hýda, Cod. Dip. B. i. 414, 19.

Norþhámtún Northampton :-- Ne innan Lægreceastre scíre, ne innan Norþhámtúne, Chr. 1087; Erl. 224, 36.

norþ-healf, e; f. The north-side, the north :-- Æt ðæs weofudes sídan ðe ys on norþhealfe ad latus altaris, quod respicit ad aquilonem, Lev. 1, 11 : Blickl. Homl. 209. 1 : Ps. 47, 2 : Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 12, 13 : Swt. 22, 13. [Icel. norðr-hálfa northern region : O. H. Ger. nord-halba the north side.]

norþ-here, es; m. An army belonging to the north :-- Heó (the English force) gehergade swíðe micel on ðæm norþhere, ǽgðer ge on mannum ge on gehwelces cynnes yrfe, and manega men ofslógon ðara Deniscena, Chr. 910; Erl. l00, 13.

Norþ-hymbre; pl. The Northumbrians, Northumbria, the people or province north of the Humber :-- Norþhymera cyning, Homl. Th. ii. 356, 23. Norþhymbra cining, Chr. 761; Erl. 53, 15. Hér bræc se here on Norþhymbrum ðone friþ, 911; Erl. 100, 16. Hér fór se here on Norþhymbre, 867; Erl. 72, 7 : 873; Erl. 76, 18. v. Norþan-hymbre.

Norþ-hymbre; adj. Northumbrian :-- Ða Northymbran leóde, Swt. A. S. Rdr. 95, 9.

Norþ-hymbrisc; adj. Northumbrian :-- Tó Norþhymbriscum gereorde, Swt. A. S. Rdr. 97. 58.

norþ-land a northern land :-- Hé fór on Sciððie ða norþland, Ors. 1, 2; Swt. 30, 3.

norþ-lane a north lane :-- Óþ norþlanan tó strǽte, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. i. 1, 15.

norþ-leóde; pl. The north-folk of England, Angles :-- Norþleóda cynges gild (ðæs cyninges wergyld mid Engla cynne), L. Wg. 1; Th. i. 186, 2.

norþ-líc; adj. Northern :-- Ðære norþlícan boreali, Wrt. Voc. ii. 12, 46.

Norþ-mann, es; m. A man belonging to a northern country. I. a Norseman, Norwegian or Dane :-- Ealle ða ðe on Norþhymbrum búgeaþ, ǽgþer ge Englisce ge Denisce ge Norþmen, Chr. 924; Erl. 110, 17. Gewitan him ðá Norþmen nægledcnearrum, 937; Erl. 115, 2. Ða Cwénas hergiaþ hwílum on ða Norþmen (Norwegians) ofer ðone mór, hwílum da Norþmen on hý, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 19, 3-5 : 16, 36. Ða Normen áhton sige, Chr. 1066; Erl. 199, 40 : 200, 26. Hé sǽde ðæt Norþmanna land (Norway) wǽre swýðe lang and swýðe smæl, Swt. 18, 24. Hé (Ohthere from Halgoland) ealra Norþmonna norþmest búde, 17, 2. On his dagum cómon ǽrest iii scipu Norþmanna ... Ðæt wǽron ða érestan scipu Deniscra manna ðe Angelcynnes land gesóhton, Chr. 787; Erl. 57, 21-25. Ðǽr geflémed wearþ Norþmanna bregu, 937; Erl. 112, 33. Wǽran ǽr under Norþmannum, 942; Erl. 116, 15. The word occurs as a proper name :-- Norþman Leófwines sunu, 1017; Erl. 161, 6. II. referring to other countries :-- Norþmen (those who attacked Sodom), Cd. Th. 120, 16; Gen. 1995. Norþmonna, 124, 25; Gen. 2068. Norþmonnum, 119, 9; Gen. 1977. [Icel. norð-maðr a Norwegian : O. H. Ger. nord-man.]

norþmest. v. norþ; adj. adv.

Norþ-Mirce; pl. The North-Mercians :-- Wið Norþ-Myrcum, Bd. 3, 24; S. 557, 37.

norþ-portic a north-porch :-- On ðære cyricean norþportice in porticu aquilonali, Bd. 2, 3; S. 557. 37.

Norþriga, an; m. A Norwegian :-- Cnut cyningc ealles Engla landes cyningc, and Dena cyningc, and Norþrigena cyningc, L. C. E. pref.; Th. i. 358, 4.

norþ-rihte; adv. Due north :-- Dá fór hé norþryhte be ðæm lande he sailed due north along the coast, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 9, 12.

norþ-rodor the north part of the sky, Exon. Th. 178, 33; Gú. 1253.

norþ-sǽ a northern sea :-- Norþsǽ mare arctoum, Wrt. Woc. i. 41, 66. Of Japhet com ðæt norþerne mennisc be ðære norþsǽ, Ælfc. T. Grn. 4, 38. Án geweorc on Defnascíre be ðære norþsǽ, Chr, 894; Erl. 91, 8. [Icel. norðr-sjór.]

norþ-sceáta a northern promontory, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 28, 3.

Norþ-Scottas the Northern Scots, Bd. 3, 3; S. 526, 12.

norþ-þeód a northern people :-- Hergung ðara norþþeóda (the peoples who harried Britain after the Romans went), Bd. 1, 14; S. 482, 38.

Norþ-Walas, -wealas; pl. The Welsh, Wales :-- Ða cyningas on Norþ-Wealum, Howel and Cledanc, Chr. 922; Erl. 108, 27. Se here ... hergodon ǽgðer ge on Cornwealum and on Norþ-Wealum, 997; Erl. 134, 9. Ælfgár eorl gesóhte Griffines geheald on Norþ-Wealan, 1055; Erl. 190, 3. Ecgbryht lǽdde fierd on Norþ-Walas, 828; Erl. 64, 12 : 853; Erl. 68, 10. Hí hergodon on Norþ-Wealas, 918; Erl. 102, 25.

Norþ-Wealh-cynn, es; n. The Welsh, Chr. 922; Erl. 108, 28. Sum dǽl ðæs Norþ-Wealcynnes, 894; Erl. 92, 21.

norþ-weard; adj. North :-- Hé búde on ðæm lande norþweardum, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 17, 3. v. norþe-weard.

norþ-weard; adv. Northward :-- Hé éfste norþweard, Chr. 1016; Erl. 154, 28.

norþweardes; adv. Northwards :-- Hié ða herehýþ woldon ferian norþweardes ofer Temese, Chr. 894; Erl. 90, 23.

norþ-weg a way going to the north :-- Nearwe genýddon on norþwegas wiston him be súþan Sigelwara land, Cd. Th. 181, 29; Exod. 68. [Icel. norðr-vegar; pl.]

norþ-west; adv. North-west :-- Se þridda [gára líþ] norþwest, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 24. 5.

norþwest-ende the north-west end :-- Thyle is on ðam norþwestende ðisses middaneardes, Bt. 29, 3; Fox 106, 24 : Ors. 5, 3; Swt. 220, 23.

norþwest-gemǽre a north-west boundary :-- Ðære Affrica norþ-westgemǽre is æt ðæm ilcan Wendelsǽ, Ors. 1, 1; Swt. 8, 31.

Norþ-wic Norwich :-- Hér com Swegen tó Norþwíc ... Ðá gerǽdde Ulfkytel wið ða witan on Eást-Englum, Chr. 1004; Erl. 139, 17. Ðá geaf se cyng his sunu ðone eorldóm on Norþfolc and Súþfolc; ðá lǽdde hé ðæt wíf tó Norþwíc, 1075; Erl. 213, 6.

norþ-wind a north wind :-- Twegen norþwindas circius et boreus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 21, 55. [O. H. Ger. nord-wind aquilo, boreas.] v. norþan-wind.

Norweg, es; m. [The plural seems the more usual form.] Norway :-- Sume férdon tó Norwæge, Chr. 1070; Erl. 209, 30. Hér fór Cnut cyng tó Norwegum (Norwegon, Erl. 162, 37), 1028; Erl. 163, 13. Hér com Ólaf cyng eft intó Norwegum, 1030; Erl. 163, 16. Harold cyng of Norwegon, 1066; Erl. 199, 37. Com Harold of Norwegan, Erl. 200, 12. Harold cyng on Norwegan, 200, 18, 27, 34, 40. [Icel. Noregr, occasionally Norvegr (vegr = way).]

nose. v. nosu.

nos-, nosu-gristle the gristle or cartilage of the nose :-- Nosgrisele internasus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 48, 31. Nosugrisle cartilago, i. 64, 49. v. under nosu.

nosle. v. nostle.

nos-þyrel, -þyrl, -terl, es; n. A nostril :-- Dó on ðæt næsþyrl (nos-, MS. B.), Lchdm. i. 352, 4. Nosþyrla nares, Wrt. Voc. i. 43, 19. Úteweard nosterle pinnulae, 43, 22. Nosterla hǽr vibrissae, 21, 52. Se brǽþ on heora nosþyrlum, Homl. ii. 98, 9. Dó on ða næsþyrlu (nos-, MS. B.), Lchdm. i. 72, 21. [Chauc. nose-thirl, -þril : Wick. nose-, nese-þirl, -þril : Prompt. Parv. nese-thyrlys, naris : O. Frs. nosterle.] v. næs-þyrel.

nostle, nosle, an; f. A fillet, band :-- Nostle fascia, Wrt. Voc. i. 26, 8 : ansa, ii. 6, 34. Nosle vel sárcláþ fasciola, i. 40, 62. Nostlena vittarum, ii. 87, 65. Mid nostlum (noslum, Hatt. MS.) gebunden, Past. 13, 2; Swt. 86, 10.

nosu, neosu; gen. a and e; also an; f. I. the nose :-- Nosu nasus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 62, 4 : 1. 43, 17 : 64, 48 : naris, ii. 60, 37 : nasus vel naris, i. 70, 29. Eal ufweard nosu columna; foreweard nosu pirula, 43, 18, 21. Eal nosu columna, ii. 16, 49. Nose grystle internasus vel interfinium, i. 43, 20. Odoratus stænc on ðæra nosa, Homl. Skt. 1, 198. Wið ðæt hwam on nosa (nosan, MS. B.) wexe, Lchdm. i. 116, 11. Se ðe hæfþ miccle nosu nasatus, Ælfc. Gr. 43; Som. 45, 10: Past. 11, 1; Swt. 65, 3-4. Hé hæfþ medemlíce nosu, Homl. i. 456, 18 : 568, 33. Hé hæfde midmycle nosu þynne, Bd. 2, 16; S. 519, 34. Wið blódryne of nosum, Lchdm. i. 72, 17 : 352, 3. Gif hwylcum weargbrǽde weaxe on ðám nosum, 86, 1. Wé gestincaþ mid úrum nosum, Past. 56; Swt. 433. 20 : Bd. 5, 12; S. 628, 42. Ða telgran habbaþ ǽgðer ge eágon ge nosa (nosan, MS. B.), Lchdm. i. 318, 11. Nose hí habbaþ nares habent, Ps. Th. 134, 17 : 113, 14. II. a ness, a piece of land projecting into water :-- Of hliþes nosan, Beo. Th. 3789; B. 1892. Æt brimes nosan, 5599; B. 2803. Cf. næss, næssa. [Laym. neose, nose : O. E. Homl. nease : A. R. neose : Havel. nese : Prompt. Parv. nese, nose : Chauc. nose : O. Frs. nose : Icel. nös : O. H. Ger. nasa.] v. nasu.

not, es; m. A mark, sign :-- Mé þingþ wynsumlíc ðæt is ðæra preósta notas ðám bócerum gekýðe ðé læs ðe hig witan ðæt ða rímcræftige weras sýn bútan cræftigum getácnungum, Anglia viii. 333, 17-19. v. wæl-not.

-note. v. ǽ-note.

notere, es; m. One who makes notes :-- Notera ɫ wrítera notariorum, Hpt. Gl. 473, 12. v. not-writere.

nóþ, e; f. I. temerity, presumption, boldness, daring :-- Ðú sylfa meaht gecnáwan ðæt ic ðisse nóþe wæs nýde gebǽded ðæt ic ðé sóhte thyself may'st know, that I was by need compelled to the presumption of visiting thee, Exon. Th. 263, 1; Jul, 343. II. an adventurous band (?) :-- Semninga on sealtne wǽg mid ða nóþe (the sailors who have landed on the whale thinking it an island) niþer gewíteþ gársecges gæst (the whale), 361, 31; Wal. 28. [O. H. Ger. nand temeritas, praesumtio.] v. néþan.

nóþ occurs often as a component of proper names. v. Txts. 642.

nóðer. v. ná-hwæðer.

notian; p. ode. I. to make use of, employ, enjoy; (a) with gen. :-- Gif ðú his wel notast hwæt biþ wæstnbǽrre if you make good use of it (dung), what is more productive? Homl. Th. ii. 408, 34. Ða ðe ðisses middangeardes notigaþ swelce hí his nó ne notigen qui utuntur hoc mundo, tanquam non utantur, Past. 50, 2; Swt. 389, 1-2. Eall moncyn and ealle nétenu ne notigaþ náwér neáh feórþan dǽles ðisse eorþan, Bt. 18, 1; Fox 62, 8. Ðæt hý (garments) synd gemǽte ðám ðe hyra notiaþ R. Ben. 89, 19. Nota ðæs wísdómes ðe ðú habbæ, Shrn. 189, 18. Gif hé þurh ða gebedu gehǽled ne biþ, notige ðonne se abbod cyrfes, R. Ben. 52, 19. Notian ðara (the garments), ðe for hwylcere neóde on ýtinge faraþ, 91, 12. Betǽce ðǽm ðe heora (tools) notian sceolan, 56, 6. Ic wille mid ðære geférrǽdene libban and ðære áre mid him notian (enjoy with them the property given to them), Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 344, 26. (b) with dat. :-- Hwilc eówer ne notaþ cræfte mínon quis vestrum non utitur arte mea? Coll. Monast. Th. 31, 9. Hý scylun lǽca þeáwe notian, R. Ben. 51, 2. (c) with acc. :-- Gold and seolfor sind góde, gif ðú hí wel notast : gif ðú sylf yfel bist, ne miht ðú hí wel notian, Homl. Th. ii. 410, 8-9. (d) case undetermined :-- Man ða reáf nime, ðe hé ǽr notode, R. Ben. l01, 24. Nota ðenna neód sig use the medicine when need be, Lchdm. i. 378, 18. II. to discharge an office :-- Búton hé forworhte, ðæt hé ðære hádnote notian ne móste, L. R. 7; Th. i. 192, 16. [A. R. notien : O. and N. ich notie : Orm. þu notesst : Ayenb. noteþ : Icel. nota to make use of.] v. be-, ge-notian; nyttian.

notu, e; f. I. use, profit, advantage :-- Nittung vel notu usus, Wrt. Voc. i. 21, 39. Hæbbe se abbod á mid him gewrit ealra ðæra ǽhta; ðonne seó notu (the use of tools, etc.) on gebróðra gewrixle biþ, sý ðæt gewis á mid ðam abbode, ðæt hé wite, hwæt betǽht sý and hwæt underfangen, R. Ben. 56, 8. Hí tó ðínre note gelǽnde wǽron, Bt. 14, 2; Fox. 44, 2. Ðæt se man tó note (to profit) wyrcean wille, Btwk. 222, 8. Hit læg wéste and gé his náne note ne hæfdon it lay waste and you got no good from it, Ors. 1, 10; Swt. 48, 25. Gif Drihten tó lytele note and nytwyrðnesse on his heorde angyt, R. Ben. 11, 2. [Se ðe ðaren bróðren note gewanie, God gewani his dages hér on werlde, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iv. 215, 21.] II. an office, employment :-- Ne nán gehádod man ne sceal him tó geteón ðæt hé Crist spelige ofer his hálgan híréd, búton him seó notu fram Godes láreówum betǽht sý, Homl. Th. ii. 592, 30. Hé geset ðé tó ðære ylcan note (to the office of butler), Gen. 40, 13. Ða hwíle ðe hié tó nánre óðerre note ne mǽgen while they are fit for no other employment, Past. pref.; Swt. 7, 12. Ne rǽden gebróðru, ne ne singen be nánre endebyrdnesse, ac ða sýn gecorene tó ðære note, ðe hit dón cunnon, R. Ben. 63, 6 : 49, 18. Cristes gespelia hé is and his note and spelinge on mynstre healt, 10, 12. Ealne dæg hí fleardiaþ and nǽnige note dreógaþ they trifle all day, and exercise no useful employment, L. I. P. 14; Th. ii. 322, 25. On eallum betǽhtum notum, R. Ben. 29, 5. III. the discharge of an office, conduct of business :-- Gif hit beón mæg swylc notu þurh decanonas on mynstre sý gefadod ... ðæt ná nán ǽnlípig ne módige ðonne mynstres notu manegum biþ betǽht if possible, let such a conducting of its business by deans be arranged in the monastery, that no single person grow proud, when the conduct of business is committed to many, 125, 8-11. [O. E. Homl. note profit, use : O. and N. note office : Chauc. note business : Prompt. Parv. note opus, occupacio : O. Frs, note usus : cf. Icel. not; pl. use, utility.] v. nytt.

not-wrítere, es; m. One who writes notes :-- Notwrítera notariorum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 59, 66. v. notere.

nó-wiht. v. ná-wiht.

. I. adv. Now, at this time :-- Nú nunc vel modo, Wrt. Voc. i. 76, 70. Ǽr oððe nú dudum, ii. 27, 56. Nú nunc, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 39, 59. Ic hæbbe sumne cnapan, ðe nú (modo) hás ys for hreáme, Coll. Monast. Th. 19, 29. Hú him ðá speów mid wísdóme ... and hú man útanbordes wísdóm and láre hieder on lond sóhte,and hú wé hié nú sceoldon úte begietan gif wé hié habban sceoldon, Past. Pref.; Swt. 3, 8-13. Understandaþ, ðæt deófol ðás þeóde nú fela geára dwelode, Wulfst. 156, 8. Babylonia, seó ðe mǽst wæs and ǽrest ealra burga, seó is nú læst and wéstast, Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 74, 23. Nǽron náðer góde ne ðá, ne nú, 2, 5; Swt. 86, 12. Wá eów ðe nú hlihaþ, forðon gé eft wépaþ, Blickl. Homl. 25, 23. Ðú meaht geseón nú gén (still) swátge wunde, Exon. Th. 89, 17; Cri. 1458 : Beo. Th. 5711; B. 2859. Micel is nú géna lád ofer lagustreám, Andr. Kmbl. 844; An. 422 : 950; An. 475. Nú gyt (adhuc) lytel fæc and ná biþ synfull, Ps. Spl. 36, 10. Nú giet, Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 76, 1. Ne þearft ðú ðé ondrǽdan feorhcwealm nú giet (as yet), Cd. Th. 63, 26; Gen. 1038. Ic wát manig nú gyt micel mǽre spell, Andr. Kntbl. 1628; An. 815. Ðás tácno ðe ic nú hwíle big sægde the signs that I have just now spoken of, Blickl. Homl. l09, 6. Hé nú hwonne (quandoque) biþ on wuldre árísende, Bd. 2, 1; S. 500, 16. Swá swá wé nú rihte (straightway, directly) secgaþ, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Som. 17, 53. Futurum tempus is tówerd tíd, stabo ic stande nú rihte, 20; Som. 23, 9. Modo nú ðá oððe hwíltídum, 38; Som. 41, 37. Nú ðá nunc, Ps. Spl. 11, 5. Ðǽr sitt nú ðá mid his hálgum, Homl. Th. i. 182, 30 : Beo. Th. 857; B. 426 : Cd. Th. 51, 24; Gen. 831. II. conj. Now, since, when :-- Nú ðonne nú ǽlc gesceaft onscunaþ ðæt ðæt hire wiðerweard biþ since, then, every creature shuns that which is contrary to it, Bt. 16, 3; Fox 56, 4 : Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 74, 26. Ðeáh hí nú eall hiora líf áwriten hæfdon ... hú ne forealldodon ða gewritu ðeáh now though they had written all their life, yet would not the writings wax old? Bt. 18, 3; Fox 64, 36. Forhwí ðé hátan dysige men wuldor, nú ðú náne eart, 30, 1; Fox 108, 2. Ond nú (since) ðeós hálige tíd englum tó blisse wearþ, ðonne ..., Blickl. Homl. 123, 1. Wé mágon geþencean, nú (since) ða sint Godes bearn genemned ðe sibbe wyrcaþ, Past. 47; Swt. 359, 12. Hú mæg hé hira bión orsorg, nú (when) se hierde cwæþ, 54; Swt. 427, 5. Nú . . . nú (in principal and dependent clauses) :-- Wé wyllaþ nú eów gereccan óðres mannes gesihþe nú se apostol Paulus his gesihþe mannum ámeldian ne móste, Homl. Th. ii. 332, 26 : Cd. Th. 26, 8-9; Gen. 403-404 : Beo. Th. 857-865; B. 426-430. Ðonne is nú tó geþencenne on ðás hálgan tíd, nú wé úrne líchoman clǽnsiaþ, Blickl. Homl. 39, 1. Nú ic sceal geendian earmlícum deáþe, nú wolde ic gebétan, Swt. A. S. Rdr. 101, 205. Nú ðonne nú ða líchomlícan lǽcas ðus scyldige gerehte sint, nú is tó ongietanne ..., Past. 49; Swt. 377, 21. III. interj. :-- Nú is seóc se ðe ðú lufast ecce quem amas infirmatur, Jn. Skt. 11, 3. Sume syndon ortativa . . . heia nú lá, age nú lá; ðis is eác menigfealdlíce, agite nú gé lá, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Som. 40, 27-28. Nú lá age jam, Wülck. Gl. 252, 43. [Goth. Icel. O. Sax. O. Frs. O. H. Ger. nu, nú.]

-nugan. v. be-, ge-nugan.

-numa. v. irfe-numa.

Numantie, Numentie, Numentíne, Numentínas; pl. The Numantians :-- Se consul fór on Numentíne, Ispania folc, Ors. 5, 2; Swt. 218, 29. Numentie áhnescaden, 5, 3; Swt. 222, 15. On Numantie, 220, 22. Numantia duguþ, 222, 8. Numentia fæsten, 5, 2; Swt. 218, 32. On Numantium, 5, 3; Swt. 220, 19. On Numentínas, Ispania þeóde, 5, 2; Swt. 218, 13.

Numentisc; adj. Of Numantia :-- Se wæs Numentisc, Ors. 5, 3; Swt. 222, 14.

nume-stán, es; m. A pebble :-- Cealc, numestán calculus, Wrt. Voc. ii. 13, 6.

Numeðe; pl. The Numidians :-- Numeðe, Ors. 4, 10; Swt. 200, 9. Numeðia cyning Numidarum rex, 5, 7; Swt. 228, 6.

numol; adj. Able to take or contain much :-- Numol capax, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 60; Som. 13, 41. Numul, gripul capax, qui multum capit, Wrt. Voc. ii. 128, 29. v. scearp-, teart-numol.

núna; adv. Now :-- Núna nunc, Wülck. Gl. 254, 24. [Icel. núna.]

nunne, an; f. A nun, a vestal :-- Árwurðe wudewe vel nunne nonna, Wrt. Voc. i. 42, 30. Nunna, 72, 3. Nunne sanctimonialis, 284, 68. Wæs on ðam sylfan mynstre sum hálig nunne erat in ipso monasterio quaedam sanctimonialis femina, Bd, 4, 23; S. 595, 36. Caperronis wæs hátenu heora goda nunne (virgo vestalis), Ors. 4, 4; Swt. 162, 31. Se ðe mid nunnan hǽme, gehálgodre legerstówe ne sý hé wyrðe, L. Edm. E. 3; Th. i. 246, 6. Ǽfre ne geweorðe, ðæt cristen man gewífige on gehálgodre ǽnigre nunnan, L. Eth. vi. 12; Th. 318, 17. Gif hwá wið nunnan forlicge, sí ǽgðer his weres scildig, ge hé ge heó, L. N. P. L. 63; Th. ii. 300, 20. Be nunnan hǽmede. Gif hwá nunnan of mynstre út álǽde bútan kyninges léfnesse geselle hundtwelftig sciɫɫ .... Gif heó leng libbe ðonne se ðe hié út álǽdde, náge hió his ierfes ówiht. Gif hió bearn gestriéne, næbbe ðæt ðæs ierfes, L. Alf. pol. 8; Th. i. 66, 14-20. Be nunnena onfenge. Gif hwá nunnan mid hǽmedþinge, oððe on hire hrægl, oððe on hire breóst bútan hire leáfe gefó sý hit twýbéte, 18; Th. i. 72, 7-10. Nunnan regollíce libban let nuns live according to their rule, L. Eth. v. 4; Th. i. 304, 27. Sum fǽmne of ðæra nunnena ríme quaedam de numero virginum, Bd. 5, 3; S. 616, 3. Nunnena pól, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. iii. 313, 26. [Icel. nunna : O. H. Ger. nunna, from Lat. nonna.]

nunn-híréd, es; m. A nunnery :-- Ðe ǽr ðes nunhírédes wes, Chart. Th. 232, 6.

nunn-, nunnan-mynster, es; n. A nunnery :-- Ðæt nunmynster (monasterium virginum) ðæt mon nemneþ Coludesburhg, Bd. 4, 25; S. 599, 19 : 5. 3; S. 615, 41. In tó nunnanmynstre, Chart. Th. 231, 35. [Cf. Icel. nunnu-klaustr a nunnery.] v. neáh-nunnan-mynster.

nunn-scrúd, es; n. The habit of a nun :-- Finde Æþelflæd án hyre nunscrúde, lóce hwæt hió betsð mǽge, Chart. Th. 538, 12.

nýd, nýhst. v. níd, níhst.

nyhtness, e; f. Abundance :-- Of nyhtnisse ex abundantia, Mt. Kmbl. Rush. 12, 34. v. ge-nyhtsum.

nyllan = ne willan :-- Nylle ic út wítan, Met. 24, 52. Ic nelle nolo, ðú nelt non vis, hé nele non vult, wé nellaþ nolumus ... nelle ðu noli, nelle gé nolite, . . . nellan nolle, Ælfc. Gr. 32; Som. 36, 16-19. Ðú nelt, Exon. Th. 250, 12; Jul. 126. Nyle hé, Ps. Th. 74, 8. Nán eówer nele nemo vestrum vult, Coll. Monast. Th. 28, 1. Nellaþ nolunt, 29, 3. Nyllaþ, Past. 5; Swt. 45, 18. Nolde, Jn. Skt. 7, 1. Nalde, Ps. Surt. 35, 4. Noldon, Mt. Kmbl. 22, 3. Gif ðæt wíf nele si noluerit mulier, Gen. 24, 5. Sam wé willan, sam wé nyllan, Bt. 35, 12; Fox 154, 7. Nyllan gé nolite, Ps. Th. 61, 11. Nellaþ, 61, 10. Bútan nellendes andsware, R. Ben. 20, 19.

nymne, nymþe, nýr, nyrwan, nyrwian, nyrwet, nyt. v. nefne, nimþe, neáh (adv.), nirwan, nirwet, nett, nytt.

nytan = ne witan :-- Ic nát nescio, Jn. Skt. 9, 25. Nát ic hwile wundorlíc þing, Shrn. 36, 18. Gif ðú nást if you do not know, Ælfc. Gr. 50, 17; Som. 51, 34. Gyt nyton hwæt gyt biddaþ, Mk. Skt. 10, 38. Wé witon ðæt God spæc wið Moyses; nyte wé hwanon ðes is, Jn. Skt. 9, 29. Wé nyton (nutu wé, Lind. : niton wé, Rush.), Mt. Kmbl. 21, 27. Gé neton, Exon. Th. 282, 9; Jul. 660. Ic wiste ðæt ðú út áfaren wǽre, ac ic nyste hú feor, Bt. 5, 1; Fox 8, 33. Ðæt ðæt ic ǽr sǽde ðæt ic nyste (Cott. MS. nesse) ... Ðú sǽdest ðæt ðú nystest (Cott. MS. nesse), 34, 12; Fox 154, 12-13. Ðú nysstest (Cott. MS. nesse) . . . ic nyste (Cott. MS. nysse), 35, 2; Fox 156, 33-34. Ðú nestest, 5, 3; Fox 12, 34. Hé nyste, Past. 15; Swt. 91, 13. Hí nysðon (nyston, MS. A.), Mt. Kmbl. 24, 39, Wé neston, Blickl. Homl. 17, 12. Wénst ðú ðæt ic nyte, Bt. 5, 3; Fox 12, 17. Ðæt hé nán ryht andwyrde nyte, 35, 1; Fox 156, 8. Nyte ðín wynstre hwæt dó ðín swýðre, Mt. Kmbl. 6, 3. Nytende, Lchdm. i. 164, 5, Him nytendum, 228, 1. Nytendum weardmannum clam custodibus, Ælfc. Gr. 47; Som. 47, 58. v. nát-.

nyten; adj. Ignorant :-- Ðæt ðás nytenan menn ðíne mihta oncnáwon, Homl. Th. i. 62, 14. v. nytenness.

nýten. v. níten.

nytenness, e; f. I. ignorance :-- Hwæt getácnaþ seó midniht bútan seó deópe nytennys, Homl. Th. ii. 568, 5. Ðæt men for nytennysse misfaran ne sceolon, 314. 5. Ðú cniht ne cúðest manna Hǽlend ... Nú ic for ðínre nytennysse geornlíce bæd, i. 66, 30. Se ðe tódrǽfde ealle nytennysse ðære ealdan nihte, 36, 29. Crist mæg ðíne nytennysse (MSS. C. V. nyte-) onlíhtan, Homl. Skt. 5, 200. Gif folces man syngaþ þurh nytenysse per ignorantiam, Lev. 4, 27. Ðæt hyra nán þurh nytennesse hine beládian ne mǽge, R. Ben. 127, 10. II. laziness, disgrace, ignominy :-- Netenes ðam se ðe forlét ignominia ei qui deserit, Kent. Gl. 454. On his netenesse in ignominia sua, 615. For módes mínes nytenysse propter mentis meae ignaviam, Coll. Monast. Th. 25, 7.

nyt-líc; adj. Useful, profitable, beneficial :-- Ǽghwæðer (the male and female pennyroyal) ys nytlíc (MS. H. netlíc) . . . and hí on him habbaþ wundorlíce mihte, Lchdm. i. 204, 11. Móna se feórþæ wercu onginnan nytlíc ys the fourth day of the moon is advantageous for beginning works, iii. 184, 28. Mǽden (a girl born on the eighth day of the moon) is nytlíce, 188, 6. Is eallum mannum nytlíc, ðæt hié heora fulwihthádas wel gehealdan, Blickl. Homl. 109, 26. Ic ne gýmde ðara nytlícra geþeahta mínra freónda utilia consilia spreveram amicorum, Nar. 6, 26. Monig nytlíco þing multa utilia, Bd. 5, 20; S. 642, 19. [O. H. Ger. nuz-líh utilis.] v. un-nytlíc.

nytlícness, e; f. Usefulness, utility, useful property :-- Ic bidde ðé vica pervica manegum nytlícnyssum tó hæbenne te precor vica pervica multis utilitatibus habenda, Lchdm. i. 314, 8.

nytness, e; f. Use, utility, advantage, profit :-- Hwylc nytnys on blóde mínum quae utilitas in sanguine meo, Ps. Spl. 29, 11. Náwiht nytnesse (nihil utilitatis) hafeþ seó ǽfæstnys ðe wé óþ ðis hæfdon, Bd. 2, 13; S. 516, 3. Mid micelre nytnysse (magna utilitate) ǽghwæðeres folces, 3, 24; S. 557, 13 : 5, 10; S. 623, 38. Tó líchoman nyttnesse for the advantage of the body, Blickl. Homl. 57, 8. Mid allum ðǽm nytnessum ge on fixnoþum ge on médwum ðe ðǽrtó belympaþ, Cod. Dip. Kmbl. v. 186, 5, 9.

nyt[t], e; f. I. use, advantage, profit :-- Nyt commodum, Wrt. Voc. ii. 24, 63. Hundteóntig hí him sylfum tó nytte dydon centum in suos usus habebant, Bd. 4, 13; S. 583, 3 : Ors. 2, 4; Swt. 72, 6. Niþum tó nytte, Exon. Th. 409, 10; Rä. 27, 27. Nebb biþ hyre æt nytte it has a face for use, 416, 23; Rä. 35, 3. Tó nyttum ad pensas, Wrt. ii. 4, 40 : ad expensas, 7, 30 : ad penses, 99, 23. II. office, duty :-- Ðegn nytte beheóld, se ðe on handa bær hroden ealowǽge, Beo. Th. 993; B.494 : 6228; B. 3118. [Bruttes neoren noht to nuttes, Laym. 13428 : Icel. nyt; gen. nytjar; f. use, enjoyment : O. H. Ger. nuzzi.] v. cyric-, sund-, sundor-nytt.

nyt[t]; adj. Useful, profitable, advantageous, beneficial :-- Hé monegum nyt wæs multis utilis fuit, Bd. 3, 23; S. 555, 33. Ic nát, hú nyt ic ða hwíle beó, ðe ic ðás word sprece, bútan ðæt ic mín geswinc ámirre, Ors. 4, 13; Swt. 212, 25. Wé næfdon ða gesélþa, ðæt seó scipfyrd nytt wǽre ðisum earde, Chr. 1009; Erl. 141, 26. Tó náhte nyt, Blickl. Homl. 57. 5. Hú nyt biþ ðæm men, ðéh hé geornlíce gehýre ða word ðæs hálgan godspelles, gif hé ða nel on his heortan habban, 55, 6 : Bt. 38, 5; Fox 206, 10 note. Nyttre fóre, Exon. Th. 393, 4; Rä. 12, 5. Ðæt hí hæfdon nyt ǽrend and nytne intingan sumne (aliquid legationis et causae utilis), Bd. 5, 10; S. 624, 21. Ðysne nyttan cræft ðéh hé árlíc nǽre hanc utilem magis quam nobilem victoriam, Ors. 2, 8; Swt. 92, 2. Ne gehýrde nǽnig man on his múþe óht elles nefne nytte sprǽce, Blickl. Homl. 225, 1. Hé ðone gódan cræft dó nytne óðrum mannum, Ælfc. Gr. pref.; Som. 1, 29. Ðæt land hyre nytt gedóe, Chart. Th. 470, 8 : 472, 10. Nǽron Metode wíd lond ne wegas nytte, Cd. Th. 10, 13; Gen. 156 : Beo. Th. 1592; B. 794. Nis nǽnig mǽre mægen, ðisse menniscan tydernesse nyttre, Blickl. Homl. 31, 30. Hé cwæþ, ðæt nyttre wǽre ðæt hié man gesealde, 75, 22. Wé mágon beón nyttran æt him, Past. 32; Swt. 211, 21. Rǽd biþ nyttost, Exon. Th. 341, 1; Gn. Ex. 119. [Is þe man nut þe sæhtnesse wurcheþ, Laym. 9470 : Goth. [un-]nutis : Icel. nytr : O. H. Ger. nuzzi utilis.] v. un-nytt.

nytte. v. nette.

nyttian; p. ode; with gen. To make use of, enjoy :-- Ic nyttige fungor, utor, perago, Wrt. Voc. ii. 152, 22. Wuda and wætres nyttaþ, Exon. Th. 340, 12; Gn. Ex. 110. Sume ðæs seáwes ánlípiges nyttiaþ some make of the juice only, Lchdm. ii. 30, 16. Nyttade Noe sídan ríces, Cd. Th. 96, 21; Gen. 1598. Ðises ðú nytta ge on ǽfenne ge on underne, Lchdm. ii. 184, 25 : 28, 16 : 32, 25. Nyttigen baþes, 240, 24. Gehwæðeres (both methods of cure) sceal mon nyttian, 22, 7. [A. R. O. E. Homl. Marh. nutten : Orm. Havel. nitten : O. H. Ger. nuzzan.]

nyttol; adj. Useful, advantageous, beneficial :-- Ðæt ilce (the same treatment) biþ nyttol wið hundes slite, Lchdm. ii. 86, 2.

nyttung, e; f. Profit, advantage :-- Nittung usus, Wrt. Voc, i. 21, 39.

nyt-weorð, -wirðe; adj. Useful, advantageous, profitable :-- Eálá ðú mín wyln beó nytwyrðe O mea ancilla, esto utilis, Ælfc. Gr. 15; Zup. 101, 4. Hú se láreów sceal beón nytwierðe (MS. Hatt. -wyrðe) on his wordum ut sit rector utilis in verbo, Past. 15; Swt. 88, 3. Ðá stód ðǽr sum nytwyrðe hús, Blickl. Homl. 221, 7. Se biþ on eallum þingum nytwurðe, Lchdm. iii. 158, 6. Nytwyrðe, 188, 14. Se nytwyrða bróðor, R. Ben. 24, 18. Fleóþ ðonne ða nytwierðan (nyttwyrðan, Hatt. MS.) hiérsumnesse ðære láre, and nyllaþ ðæs þencean hú hié mǽgen nytwierðuste (nyttweorðuste, Hatt. MS.) bión hiera níhstum, Past. 5, 3; Swt. 44, 17-19. Ic gehýrde fela nytwurðe (wyrðe, -werðe, -wyrða) þing (multa utilia), Ælfc. Gr. 15; Zup. 95, 18. Seó wiðerwearde wyrd byþ ǽlcum men nytwyrðre ðonne seó orsorge plus hominibus reor adversam, quam prosperam prodesse fortunam, Bt. 20; Fox 70, 29. Ða scipu nǽron on Fresisc gescæpene, búte swá him selfum þúhte ðæt hié nytwyrðoste beón meahten, Chr. 897; Erl. 95, 16.

nytweorð (-wirð) -líc; adj. Useful :-- Nytwurðlíc (-wyrð-,-weorð-) utilis, Ælfc. Gr. 9, 28; Zup. 55, 5. Tó ðæs munstres nitwurðlícre þearfe for the useful requirements of the monastery, Chart. Th. 369, 28.

nytweorð (-wirð) -líce; adv. Usefully :-- Nytwurðlíce (-wyrð-, -wirð-) utiliter, Ælfc. Gr. 38; Zup. 238, 15. Ða ðonne sint tó manianne ðe nytwyrðlíce (nyttweorðlíce, Hatt. MS.) lǽran meahton (qui praedicare utiliter possent), Past. 49, 1; Swt. 374, 21. Nytwierðlecust (nyttwyrðlícost, Hatt. MS.), 15; Swt. 91, 22.

nytweorþ (-wirð) -ness, e; f. Usefulness, utility :-- Nytweorðnes commoditas i. utilitas, Wrt. Voc. ii. 132, 5. Hwæt wyrcst ðú ús nytwyrðnesse quid operaris tu nobis utilitatis, Coll. Monast. Th. 27, 25.

nywol, nýxt. v. neowol, neáh.