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Albanian Online

Lesson 3: Tosk

Brian Joseph, Angelo Costanzo, and Jonathan Slocum

Gjergj Kastrioti Skėnderbeu (commonly known as "Skanderbeg") was born to a noble Albanian family in the early 15th century. As a child, he was forced to serve in the Ottoman Army. After great success as an Ottoman general, Skanderbeg left the army to lead the Albanians against the Ottoman forces. In 1444 he formed the League of Lezhė, an alliance of Albanian nobles who agreed to resist the Ottoman conquest of Albania. Skanderbeg fought the Ottomans in Albania and abroad until his death two decades later. Though the Ottoman advances were held off by Skanderbeg's efforts, all of modern Albania was under Ottoman control by the turn of the century.

While Albania and Kosovo remained under Ottoman rule until 1912, efforts were started to revive Albanian identity in the 19th century. Among other efforts, Skanderbeg was adopted as a national hero. Skanderbeg remains the most visible symbol of Albanian cultural identity, with his family's symbol (a double-headed eagle) on the flag of Albania and a prominent statue of Skanderbeg present in every major Albanian city's main square.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Marin Barleti, a native of Shkodėr in northern Albania, near the modern Montenegrin border, lived through the loss of Albania to the Ottoman Empire in the late 15th century. He later went on to write a biography of Skanderbeg, which was first published in Latin as Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi epirotarum principis (The history of the life and deeds of Skanderbeg, prince of the Epirots).

The following text is from the 1960 Albanian translation of Barleti's biography of Skanderbeg. After abandoning the Ottoman army in 1443, Skanderbeg led Albanian forces to drive the invading Ottoman army out of what is now northern Albania. The final step of this process was to capture the last Ottoman stronghold in the area, the town of Svetigrad (now known as Kodzhadzhik, a town in what is now western Macedonia). Several years later, the Ottomans embarked on another attempt to take Albania, an early and essential part of which involved retaking Svetigrad, then under Albanian control. To motivate the troops, Skanderbeg arrived in Svetigrad and gave the following speech.

Ishte e pamundur, o sfetigradas, qė Zoti i madh e i vėrtetė t'ju jepte juve sot

  • ishte -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active of <jam> be -- it was
  • e -- particle; feminine nominative singular of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • pamundur -- adjective; feminine singular of <pamundur, e> impossible -- impossible
  • o -- interjection; <o> VOCATIVE -- O
  • sfetigradas -- noun, masculine; nominative plural indefinite of <svetigradas> inhabitant of Svetigrad -- men of Svetigrad
  • -- conjunction; <> that, which -- that
  • Zoti -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <zot> master, lord, god -- god
  • i -- particle; masculine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • madh -- adjective; masculine singular of <madh, e> big, large, great -- great
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • i -- particle; masculine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • vėrtetė -- adjective; masculine singular of <vėrtetė> true -- true
  • t'ju -- conjunction; contraction of <> SUBORDINATOR + pronoun; dative weak of <ju> you (pl.) -- you all
  • jepte -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive active of <jap> give -- would give
  • juve -- pronoun; dative of <ju> you (pl.) -- ...
  • sot -- adverb; <sot> today -- today

njė rast mė tė mirė, tė jepte pėr zėmrat e flakta dhe pėr ushtarėt e zjarrtė

  • njė -- determiner; <njė> a, one -- a
  • rast -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <rast> case, opportunity -- opportunity
  • -- adverb; <> more -- ...
  • -- particle; masculine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • mirė -- adjective; masculine singular of <mirė, e> good -- better
  • -- conjunction; <> SUBORDINATOR -- that
  • jepte -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active of <jap> give -- he would give
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- to
  • zėmrat -- noun, feminine; accusative plural definite of <zėmėr> heart -- hearts # Std. Alb. zemėr
  • e -- particle; feminine accusative plural definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • flakta -- adjective; feminine plural of <flaktė, e> burning, passionate -- burning
  • dhe -- conjunction; <dhe> and -- and
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- ...
  • ushtarėt -- noun, masculine; accusative plural definite of <ushtar> soldier -- soldiers
  • e -- particle; masculine accusative plural definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • zjarrtė -- adjective; masculine plural of <zjarrtė, e> fiery, passionate -- passionate

njė rast mė tė bukur se sa ky qė me plot tė drejtė ju ka dhėnė,

  • njė -- determiner; <njė> a, one -- a
  • rast -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <rast> case, opportunity -- opportunity
  • -- adverb; <> more -- more
  • -- particle; masculine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • bukur -- adjective; masculine singular of <bukur, e> beautiful -- beautiful
  • se -- conjunction; <se> that, than, because -- than
  • sa -- adverb; <sa> as -- ...
  • ky -- pronoun; masculine nominative of <ky, kjo> this -- this
  • -- conjunction; <> that, which -- that
  • me -- preposition, accusative; <me> with, by -- ...
  • plot -- adverb; <plot> fully, completely, quite -- fully
  • -- particle; feminine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • drejtė -- noun, feminine; accusative singular indefinite of <drejtė, e> right -- right
  • ju -- pronoun; dative weak of <ju> you (pl.) -- you all
  • ka -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <kam> have -- ...
  • dhėnė -- verb; past definite participle of <jap> give -- he has given

tė rrėmbeni tani armėt pėr ta lėnė tė vulosur pėr gjithėmonė

  • -- conjunction; <> SUBORDINATOR -- ...
  • rrėmbeni -- verb; 2nd person plural present subjunctive active of <rrėmbej> grab, seize -- to seize
  • tani -- adverb; <tani> now -- ...
  • armėt -- noun, feminine; accusative plural definite of <armė> weapon -- your weapons
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- in order that
  • ta -- conjunction; contraction of <> SUBORDINATOR + contraction of accusative singular weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- it
  • lėnė -- verb; participle of <> leave -- be # pėr tė lėnė is an example of the Tosk 'infinitive'.
  • -- particle; masculine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • vulosur -- adjective; masculine singular participle of <vulos> seal, mark -- marked
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- for
  • gjithėmonė -- adverb; <gjithmonė> always -- ever

me shėmbėllėn e lartė besnikėrinė tuaj edhe kundrejt meje, edhe kundrejt mbarė Epirit.

  • me -- preposition, accusative; <me> with, by -- with
  • shėmbėllėn -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <shėmbėllė> example -- the example # Std. Alb. shembull
  • e -- particle; feminine accusative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • lartė -- adjective; feminine singular of <lart, e> high, loud -- high
  • besnikėrinė -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <besnikėri> fidelity, loyalty, honesty -- of loyalty
  • tuaj -- pronoun; accusative singular of <juaj> your (pl.) -- your
  • edhe -- adverb; <edhe> also, yet, still, even -- ...
  • kundrejt -- preposition, ablative; <kundrejt> opposite, towards -- towards
  • meje -- pronoun; ablative of <unė> I -- me
  • edhe -- adverb; <edhe> also, yet, still, even -- as well as
  • kundrejt -- preposition, ablative; <kundrejt> opposite, towards -- towards
  • mbarė -- determiner; <mbarė> all, the entire -- all (of)
  • Epirit -- noun, masculine; ablative singular definite of <Epir> Epirus -- Eprius

Gjer tani ne kemi luftuar pėr fitoren, pėr nderin e mbretėrisė; tani ju duhet tė luftoni pėr shpėtimin, pėr lirinė, pėr muret e atdheut.

  • gjer -- preposition, accusative; <gjer> up to, until -- up to
  • tani -- adverb; <tani> now -- now
  • ne -- pronoun; nominative of <ne> we -- we
  • kemi -- verb; 1st person plural present indicative active of <kam> have -- have
  • luftuar -- verb; participle of <luftoj> fight -- fought
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- for
  • fitoren -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <fitore> victory -- victory
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- ...
  • nderin -- noun, masculine; accusative singular definite of <nder> honor -- the honor
  • e -- particle; masculine accusative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • mbretėrisė -- noun, feminine; genitive singular definite of <mbretėri> kingdom -- of the kingdom
  • tani -- adverb; <tani> now -- now
  • ju -- pronoun; nominative of <ju> you (pl.) -- you all
  • duhet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active impersonal of <duhem> must, should -- must
  • -- conjunction; <> SUBORDINATOR -- ...
  • luftoni -- verb; 2nd person plural subjunctive indicative active of <luftoj> fight -- fight
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- for
  • shpėtimin -- noun, masculine; accusative singular definite of <shpėtim> rescue, salvation -- salvation
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- for
  • lirinė -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <liri> liberty, freedom -- freedom
  • pėr -- preposition, accusative; <pėr> for, about -- for
  • muret -- noun, masculine; accusative plural definite of <mur> wall -- the walls
  • e -- particle; masculine accusative plural definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • atdheut -- noun, masculine; genitive singular definite of <atdhe> fatherland -- of the fatherland

Tani ju duhet tė pėrpiqeni qė lavdet, tė cilat i kini merituar nė sa e sa luftra tė kryera me sukses nėn udhėheqjen time

  • tani -- adverb; <tani> now -- now
  • ju -- pronoun; nominative of <ju> you (pl.) -- you
  • duhet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active impersonal of <duhem> must, should -- should # duhet is an impersonal form and is normally in the 3SG, regardless of the subject.
  • -- conjunction; <> SUBORDINATOR -- ...
  • pėrpiqeni -- verb; 2nd person plural present subjunctive non-active of <pėrpjek> try, strive -- strive
  • -- preposition, accusative; <> since, from, beyond -- beyond
  • lavdet -- noun, feminine; accusative plural definite of <lavde> praise -- the praises
  • -- particle; feminine accusative plural definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • cilat -- pronoun; feminine plural of <cili, e> that, which -- that
  • i -- pronoun; accusative weak of <ata, ato> they, those -- ...
  • kini -- verb; 2nd person plural present indicative active of <kam> have -- have # As discussed in Lesson 1, kini is a variant of Standard keni.
  • merituar -- verb; participle of <meritoj> deserve -- you earned
  • -- preposition, accusative; <> in, on, at -- in
  • sa -- conjunction; <sa> as many as, as soon as, as long as, so much -- many
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- ...
  • sa -- conjunction; <sa> as many as, as soon as, as long as, so much -- many # sa e sa is a fixed expression that means 'many a, many many' when before a plural noun
  • luftra -- noun, feminine; accusative plural indefinite of <luftė> war -- wars
  • -- particle; feminine accusative plural indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • kryera -- adjective; feminine plural participle of <kryej> carry out, perform -- carried out
  • me -- preposition, accusative; <me> with, by -- with
  • sukses -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <sukses> success -- success
  • nėn -- preposition, accusative; <nėn> under -- under
  • udhėheqjen -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <udhėheqje> leadership -- leadership
  • time -- pronoun; feminine accusative singular of <im> my -- my

tė mos i ktheni nė turp tė madh nga plogėshtia dhe nė pjesėn mė tė madhe fati i kėsaj varet nga ju,

  • -- conjunction; <> SUBORDINATOR -- ...
  • mos -- particle; <mos> NEGATOR -- lest
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- ...
  • ktheni -- verb; 2nd person plural present subjunctive active of <kthen> turn, return, regain health -- you return
  • -- preposition, accusative; <> in, on, at -- in
  • turp -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <turp> shame, disgrace -- shame
  • -- particle; masculine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • madh -- adjective; masculine singular of <madh, e> big, large, great -- great
  • nga -- preposition, nominative; <nga> from, through -- from
  • plogėshtia -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <plogėshti> sloth, lethargy -- lethargy
  • dhe -- conjunction; <dhe> and -- and
  • -- preposition, accusative; <> in, on, at -- in
  • pjesėn -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <pjesė> part, section, share -- the part
  • -- adverb; <> more -- ...
  • -- particle; feminine accusative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • madhe -- adjective; feminine singular of <madh, e> big, large, great -- larger
  • fati -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <fat> fate -- the fate
  • i -- particle; masculine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • kėsaj -- pronoun; feminine genitive of <ky, kjo> this -- of this
  • varet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active of <varem> hang, depend -- depends
  • nga -- preposition, nominative; <nga> from, through -- on
  • ju -- pronoun; nominative of <ju> you (pl.) -- you all

sepse nga ju do t'ia fillojė Murati hyrjes pėr nė Epir.

  • sepse -- conjunction; <sepse> because -- because
  • nga -- preposition, nominative; <nga> from, through -- through
  • ju -- pronoun; nominative of <ju> you (pl.) -- you all
  • do -- marker; <do> FUTURE/CONDITIONAL -- ...
  • t'ia -- conjunction; contraction of <> SUBORDINATOR + pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that + pronoun; contraction of accusative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- it
  • fillojė -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active of <filloj> start, begin -- will begin
  • Murati -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <Murat> Murad -- Murad
  • hyrjes -- noun, feminine; dative singular definite of <hyrje> entry -- (as far as) the entrance (is concerned) # This is an "ethical dative," and literally, this phrase could be translated as "Murat will begin it as far as the entrance is concerned."
  • pėr nė -- preposition, accusative; <pėr nė> into, towards -- into
  • Epir -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <Epir> Epirus -- Epirus

Lesson Text

Ishte e pamundur, o sfetigradas, qė Zoti i madh e i vėrtetė t'ju jepte juve sot njė rast mė tė mirė, tė jepte pėr zėmrat e flakta dhe pėr ushtarėt e zjarrtė njė rast mė tė bukur se sa ky qė me plot tė drejtė ju ka dhėnė, tė rrėmbeni tani armėt pėr ta lėnė tė vulosur pėr gjithėmonė me shėmbėllėn e lartė besnikėrinė tuaj edhe kundrejt meje, edhe kundrejt mbarė Epirit. Gjer tani ne kemi luftuar pėr fitoren, pėr nderin e mbretėrisė; tani ju duhet tė luftoni pėr shpėtimin, pėr lirinė, pėr muret e atdheut. Tani ju duhet tė pėrpiqeni qė lavdet, tė cilat i kini merituar nė sa e sa luftra tė kryera me sukses nėn udhėheqjen time tė mos i ktheni nė turp tė madh nga plogėshtia dhe nė pjesėn mė tė madhe fati i kėsaj varet nga ju, sepse nga ju do t'ia fillojė Murati hyrjes pėr nė Epir.

Translation

It was impossible, O men of Svetigrad, that the great and true God would give you all today a better opportunity, that he would give to burning hearts and passionate soldiers a more beautiful opportunity than this that he has rightfully given you all to seize your weapons in order that it be marked forever with the high example of your loyalty towards me, as well as towards all of Epirus. Up to now we have fought for victory and the honor of the kingdom. Now you all must fight for salvation, for freedom, for the walls of the fatherland. Now you should strive beyond the praises that you have earned with success in many many wars carried out under my leadership, lest you return in great shame from lethargy; and in the larger part, the fate of this depends on you all because, through you all, Murad will begin it as far as the entrance into Epirus is concerned.

Grammar

13. Negation

Like several other Indo-European languages, in particular Indo-Iranian, Armenian and Greek, Albanian has different negators depending on whether or not the verb is in the indicative mood. When the verb is in the indicative mood, either nuk or s' is used in negating the verb. Nuk and s' are synonymous, e.g. nuk ha = s'ha 'I do not eat'. The negator mos is used with subjunctives, imperatives, optatives, and any participial formation, e.g., mos ha! 'don't eat!', pėr tė mos ngrėnė 'in order not to eat', etc.

14. Subordination
14.1. Indicative Subordination

The most common subordinators in indicative clauses are se or , which have the same meaning and function (both translate to 'that'). Camaj (1984) claims that se originally held this function, but (originally used with subjunctives and as a relative pronoun) has become used under these conditions as well.

Consider the following examples from Lesson 2's text. The first, "...it was written that in Albania autumn is...," uses the subordinator se, while the second, "The general knew that in Albania autumn is...," uses the subordinator .

    tė shkruhej   SE     Shqipėri   vjeshta   ėshtė
    it-was-written   that   in   Albania   the-autumn   is
    Gjenerali   e   dinte       Shqipėri   vjeshta   ėshtė
    the-general   it   knew   that   in   Albania   the-autumn   is
14.2. Subjunctive Subordination

As discussed in Lesson 1, the subjunctive always occurs preceded by the subordinator . Clearly, is the subordinator for subjunctive clauses. Recall that Tosk Albanian, like many of the other languages of the Balkan Sprachbund, does not have an infinitival form that can be the complement of a verb. For example, in a sentence like 'I want to learn Albanian," an infinitival form of "to learn" would be used in English, Russian, French and most other European languages (even Geg Albanian, see below). However, in Tosk/Standard Albanian, a structure would have to be used that would roughly translate to "I want that I learn Albanian," with the second verb in the subjunctive.

    Dua   TĖ mesoj   gjuhėn   shqipe
    I-want   (that) I-learn   the-language   Albanian

In saying something like "It is not difficult to learn Albanian," a similar construction is used. Instead of an infinitive, a finite verb is used.

    nuk   ėshtė   e veshtirė   TĖ mesojė   gjuhėn   shqipe
    not   it-is   difficult   that learn   the-language   Albanian

In some cases, a construction + SUBJECT + + VERB is used. This would be roughly equivalent to a construction like "for SUBJECT INFINITIVE" in English. For example, "It is not difficult for John to learn Albanian" would be expressed as the following:

    Nuk   ėshtė   e veshtirė     Gjoni   TĖ mesojė   gjuhėn   shqipe
    not   it-is   difficult   that   John   learns   the-language   Albanian

Note that the constructions above, while representative of Tosk and Standard Albanian, are rare in Geg. In these situations, an infinitival form would be used in Geg. For example, the Geg equivalent of Standard Albanian Dua tė flas gjuhėn shqipe. 'I want to speak Albanian' would be Due me folė gjuhėn shqipe, where me folė is the infinitive of flas 'speak'. More information about the Geg infinitive (along with other participial constructions) is given in Lesson 4.

14.3. Relative Clauses

In Standard Albanian, the relative pronoun is declined. The following are the forms of the relative pronoun; the genitive forms must take an additional nyje particle.

    masculine           feminine    
    singular   plural       singular   plural
nominative   i cili   tė cilėt       e cila   tė cilat
accusative   tė cilin   tė cilėt       tė cilėn   tė cilat
gen/dat.   tė cilit   tė cilėve       sė cilės   tė cilave
ablative   tė cilit   tė cilėve       sė cilės   tė cilave

The relative pronoun appears in first position in the relative clause, and has the case that is appropriate to its use in the relative clause, but with the gender and number determined by the head noun (the noun that is modified by the relative clause). For example, from the text in Lesson 1, "The flag, the seal, and the anthem are... symbols... that reflect..."

    Flamuri,   stema   dhe   himni   janė   simbolet,   tė cilat   pasqyrojnė...
    the-flag   the-seal   and   the-anthem   are   symbols   that   reflect...

In this example the form of the relative pronoun is tė cilat, and is feminine nominative plural. It modifies the noun simbolet, which is the nominative plural form of the ambigeneric noun simbol (which, being ambigeneric and plural, has feminine agreement).

Note that, in spoken Albanian, it is more common to use invariant (Geg qi) instead of the relative pronoun cili, e. This is much more common in the texts presented in these lessons, for example in the following phrase from Lesson 2:

      librin     kishte lexuar
    in   the-book   that   he-had read
15. Demonstrative Adjectives/Pronouns

When the object being described is not specified for gender, the default form of the pronouns is the feminine form. Thus, in an impersonal construction in which there is an adjective predicated of an understood (unexpressed) expletive subject along with a clausal complement (thus equivalent to English "extraposed" sentential subject), the adjective takes the feminine form, e.g. ėshtė e veshtirė tė mesoni shqip '(it)-is difficult/FEM that you-learn Albanian' (that veshtirė is feminine is shown by the nyje e rather than masculine i -- see Lesson 1).

15.1. Distal Demonstratives

Forms of ai, ajo 'that' are used when the object being described is not near the speaker. These are also used as the third person personal pronouns.

    masculine           feminine    
    singular   plural       singular   plural
nominative   ai   ata       ajo   ato
accusative   atė   ata       atė   ato
gen/dat.   atij   atyre       asaj   atyre
ablative   atij   atyre       asaj   atyre
15.2. Proximal Demonstratives

When the object discussed is near the speaker, forms of ky, kjo 'this' are used.

    masculine           feminine    
    singular   plural       singular   plural
nominative   ky   kėta       kjo   kėto
accusative   kėtė   kėta       kėtė   kėto
gen/dat.   kėtij   kėtyre       kėsaj   kėtyre
ablative   kėtij   kėtyre       kėsaj   kėtyre
16. Personal Pronouns

As discussed above, the function of the 3rd person personal pronouns is filled by the distal demonstrative pronouns. Unlike 3rd person pronouns, the rest of the personal pronouns are not marked for gender.

    1st person           2nd person    
    singular   plural       singular   plural
nominative   unė   ne       ti   ju
accusative   mua   ne       ty   ju
gen/dat.   mua   neve       ty   juve
ablative   meje   nesh       teje   jesh
17. Weak Pronouns
17.1. Forms of Weak Pronouns

The following are the forms of the Albanian weak pronouns (also commonly called "clitic pronouns"):

    singular   plural
1st person     na
2nd person     ju
3rd person   e (acc.)   i (acc.)
    i (dat.)   u (dat.)
reflexive   u    
17.2. Position of weak pronouns

With the exception of imperatives (on which see below), weak pronouns always come before the verb, regardless of mood, tense, etc. For example, in the following examples meaning "I eat it" and "I have eaten it," the weak pronoun e comes directly before the verb.

    Unė   e   ha.               Unė   e   kam ngrėnė.
    I   it   eat               I   it   have-eaten

When using a verb form obligatorily preceded by a particle of some sort, such as in the subjunctive or do tė in the future and conditional, the clitics still occur directly before the verb (i.e., between the particle and the verb). For example, in the sentence "I will eat it," the clitic e is positioned between the subordinator and the verb ha. The combination of and e actually gives a contraction ta (on such contractions, see below).

    Unė   do   ta   ha
    I   FUT   +it   eat

Weak pronoun placement is more complicated in the imperative, where there is some variability as to where they appear. In negative imperatives, weak pronouns still come directly before the verb (i.e., between the negator and the verb). In positive imperatives, weak pronouns can come either before or after the verb: if they come before the verb, they are written as separate words; if they come after the verb, the clitics are attached to the verb. If clitics come after a plural imperative, they are placed between the stem and the 2nd person plural imperative ending -ni. In the following examples meaning "Open the door for me!" from Newmark et al. (1982), where the weak pronouns are capitalized, the example on the left has the clitic combination ma (dative plus accusative e) as a separate word placed before the verb, while the example on the right has the clitic combination ma attached to the end of the verb.

    MA   hap   derėn       OR       hapMA   derėn
    for me-it   open!   the-door               open!-for me-it   the-door

In the following examples meaning "Write to me!" the clitic either comes before the verb (as in the example on the left) or between the stem and the 2PL imperative ending -ni (as in the example on the right).

      shkruani       OR       shkruaMĖni
    to me   write!               write!-to me
17.3. Use of clitic pronouns

Direct object weak pronouns are not obligatory, but optional when the direct object is overtly expressed. For example, both of the following are acceptable for "I saw the dog."

    Unė   pashė   qenin       OR       Unė   e   pashė   qenin
    I   saw   the-dog               I   it   saw   the-dog

If the direct object is not overtly expressed, then the weak pronoun is obligatory. For example, if saying "I saw it" (where 'it' is 'the dog'), the clitic must be present.

    Unė   e   pashė
    I   it   saw

Indirect object weak pronouns are obligatory when there is an indirect object, even if it is overtly expressed. For example, in the sentence "I wrote to John," the indirect object weak pronoun is required.

    Unė   i   shkrova   Gjonit
    I   to-him   wrote   to-John

Where the indirect object is a pronoun, an overt form of the pronoun is optional but not obligatory. For example, in the sentence "I wrote to you all," both of the following are acceptable:

    Unė   ju   shkrova       OR       Unė   ju   shkrova   juve
    I   to-you (pl.)   wrote               I   to-you (pl.)   wrote   to-you (pl.)
17.4. Weak Pronoun Combinations, Combinations With

When a dative and an accusative weak pronoun are used together, they often combine. The dative weak pronoun always comes before the accusative weak pronoun. The following chart shows the different possible combinations.

                Acc.    
            e   i   u
    Dat.                
          ma   m'i   m'u
          ta   t'i   t'u
    i       ia   ia   iu
    na       na e   na i   na u
    ju       jua   jua   ju
    u       ua   ua   ju

In addition to weak pronouns combining to give special forms, weak pronouns (or combinations thereof) can combine with the subordinator :

  • plus accusative e gives ta
  • If the weak pronoun (or the combination of pronouns) begins with a vowel or j, the vowel of the subordinator is lost and it becomes t', e.g. + i gives t'i, + jua gives t'jua, etc.
  • If the weak pronoun (or the combination of pronouns) begins with any other sound, there is no special combination, e.g., + m'i gives tė m'i, + na gives tė na
18. Possessive Pronouns
18.1. Forms of Possessive Pronouns

These forms are originally the combination of a nyje particle and a pronoun. In most instances they have combined to form a single word, but in others they have not. The following are the forms for the 1st and 2nd person possessive pronouns. Note that e preceding some forms signals that an appropriate nyje particle is required: in some instances it will actually be e, in others it will not.

            1SG   1PL   2SG   2PL
Masc.   Sg.   nom.   im   ynė   yt   juaj
        acc.   tim   tonė   tėt   tuaj
        gen/dat/abl.   tim   tonė   tėt   tuaj
    Pl.   nom.   e mi   tanė   e tu   tuaj
        acc.   e mi   tanė   e tu   tuaj
        gen/dat/abl.   e mi   tanė   e tu   tuaj
                         
Fem.   Sg.   nom.   mie   jonė   jote   juaj
        acc.   time   tonė   tėnde   juaj
        gen/dat/abl.   sime   sonė   sate   suaj
    Pl.   nom.   e mia   tona   e tua   tuaja
        acc.   e mia   tona   e tua   tuaja
        gen/dat/abl.   e mia   tona   e tua   tuaja

The third person possessive adjectives tij, e 'his', saj, e 'her', tyre, e 'their' are treated like typical adjectives.

18.2. Placement of Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns nearly always follow the noun they modify, e.g. gjuha jonė 'our language', miku im 'my friend', etc. The only cases where the possessive pronouns can precede the noun they modify is with a small group of kinship terms (e.g., vella 'brother', motėr 'sister', and several others). When the possessive pronoun follows the noun, the noun is always in the definite form (e.g., vėllai im 'my brother', motra jotė 'your (pl.) sister'). In the rare cases where it can precede the noun, the noun is in the indefinite form (e.g., im vėlla, jotė motėr). The 3rd person possessive pronouns never precede the noun.

19. The Future Tense
19.1. Future

As briefly discussed in Lesson 1, the Albanian future tense is formed from the particle do followed by the subordinator and a present subjunctive form of the verb.

Future paradigm of shkruaj 'write':

    singular   plural
1st person   do tė shkruaj   do tė shkruajmė
2nd person   do tė shkruash   do tė shkruani
3rd person   do tė shkruajė   do tė shkruajnė
19.2. Future Perfect

The future perfect is formed with the invariant particle do followed by the subordinator and a present perfect subjunctive form of the verb. The future perfect is used to describe events that will occur in the future before another specified point in the future. For example, it would be used in a phrase like ai do tė ketė shkruar librin... "he will have written the book..."

Future perfect paradigm of shkruaj 'write':

    singular   plural
1st person   do tė kem shkruar   do tė kemi shkruar
2nd person   do tė kesh shkruar   do tė keni shkruar
3rd person   do tė ketė shkruar   do tė kenė shkruar
19.3. The Future Tense in Geg

Note that there is substantial variation across Albanian dialects in the formation of the future tense. In other (non-standard) Tosk dialects, the subordinator is often omitted, and even in the standard language it can be omitted in colloquial usage or fast speech. Constructions with the future marker do are seen in Geg dialects. They are used to show obligation, rather than future time reference (as seen in the texts presented in Lessons 4 and 5). Geg dialects have a completely different future tense construction, which is composed of a conjugated present tense form of kam 'have' followed by the infinitive, which is formed from the preposition me followed by the participle (note that the Geg infinitive is a distinct formation from the Tosk/Standard Albanian "infinitive," discussed in Lesson 4). The equivalent of do tė jenė in Geg would be kanė me qenė, where kanė is the 3rd person plural present form of kam 'have' and me qenė is the infinitive of jam 'be'. The Geg future perfect is formed with a present perfect form of kam plus the infinitive.

20. The Conditional Mood
20.1. The Present Conditional

The conditional is formed in the same way as the future, except that an imperfect subjunctive form of the verb is used. The present conditional is also often referred to as the "Future Imperfect" due to the fact that its formation is similar to that of the future. The conditional is used to describe a potential or hypothetical event, and verbs in the conditional mood are often translated into English as 'would VERB', e.g. 'I would read the book' would be Do tė lexuaja librin.

Present conditional paradigm of shkruaj 'write':

    singular   plural
1st person   do tė shkruaja   do tė shkruanim
2nd person   do tė shkruaje   do tė shkruanit
3rd person   do tė shkruante   do tė shkruanin
20.2. The Past Conditional

The Albanian past conditional is formed with do plus the subordinator plus a past perfect subjunctive verb form. The past conditional is translated into English as 'would have VERBed', e.g. 'I would have read the book' would be Do tė kisha lexuar librin.

Past conditional paradigm of shkruaj 'write':

    singular   plural
1st person   do tė kisha shkruar   do tė kishim shkruar
2nd person   do tė kishe shkruar   do tė kishit shkruar
3rd person   do tė kishte shkruar   do tė kishin shkruar
20.3. The Conditional Mood in Geg

Similar to the Geg future tense, the Geg conditional is formed from a conjugated imperfect form of kam plus the infinitive. For example, the Geg equivalent of do tė lexoja librin 'I would read' would be kisha me lexuė librin (where me lexuė is the infinitive of lexoj).