The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Albanian Online

Lesson 4: Geg

Brian Joseph, Angelo Costanzo, and Jonathan Slocum

In 1444, Skanderbeg formed an alliance between several northern Albanian noble families to ward off the Ottoman invasion of the area. Among these was the Dukagjini family, of whom Lek Dukagjini became one of the most important figures in Albanian history. Skanderbeg's exploits and devotion to his people in the face of invasion earned him fame throughout Europe. While Lek Dukagjini fought at Skanderbeg's side and led the resistance (with less success than his predecessor) upon Skanderbeg's death, his fame is due to something else entirely.

The Kanun is a set of laws that cover all aspects of life. The most famous and widespread was the Kanun i Lek Dukagjinit. While it is usually attributed to Lek Dukagjini himself, it is more likely that this was the set of rules held in his family's territory (around the modern Albania-Kosovo border). There were other Kanuns (e.g., Kanuni i Sknderbeut, etc.), but the territory in which the laws of the Kanun i Lek Dukagjinit were followed expanded. Generally, the different sets of laws followed in northern Albania were rather similar. The age of the laws of the Kanun is yet to be determined. Many aspects that the Kanun shares with law codes followed by other Indo-European peoples point to this as potentially inherited from Proto-Indo-European.

The Kanun i Lek Dukagjinit covers a wide range of topics in great detail, including rules regarding property (e.g., if your bees escape and go on someone else's property, you have the right to enter their property to retrieve them; however, if no one is pursuing the bees, whoever finds them can keep them), rules regarding marriage and the family (e.g., in addition to the required "wedding ox," a wedding feast is obliged to have certain amounts of coffee, cheese, raki, etc.), rules regarding damages (e.g., if your goat ruins someone else's vineyard, you are required to give them the amount of wine and raki that the destroyed vines would have produced), and various rules of hospitality (e.g., while the master of the house washes his hands before the guest and drinks the first glass of raki, the guest must take the first bite of food, violation of this rule being punishable by fine), as well as controversial rules regarding blood feuds.

The rules of the Kanun were transmitted orally, and were not written down until the 19th century (and then, only in fragments). In the late 19th century, Shtjefn Gjeovi, a priest-folklorist from Kosovo, collected and organized the rules, and the collection was published in 1933 (several years after Gjeovi's death). A bilingual edition was published in 1989, containing Gjeovi's original version along with an English translation by Leonard Fox.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following excerpt from the Kanun i Lek Dukagjinit contains thirteen laws that describe the process of welcoming guests into the home. This excerpt makes up part of the eighth book of Gjeovi's edition, which discusses personal honor, social honor (including hospitality, violation of hospitality, and the consequences of a violation of hospitality), and rules for brotherhood and godparenthood.

Given that the Kanun i Lek Dukagjinit originates from northern Albania, it is written in Geg. As the rules were collected by Gjeovi long before the establishment of any type of standardized Geg (or any standard variety of Albanian), the text contains dialectal characteristics of the area from which the data were collected: the Mirdit district in modern north-central Albania.

"Shpija e Shqyptarit sht e Zotit e e mikut."

  • shpija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <shpi> house -- the house # Std. Alb. shtpi
  • e -- particle; feminine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • shqyptarit -- noun, masculine; genitive singular definite of <shqyptar> Albanian -- of the Albanian # Std. Alb. shqiptar
  • sht -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <jam> be -- is
  • e -- particle; feminine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • Zotit -- noun, masculine; genitive singular definite of <zot> master, lord, God -- of God
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • e -- particle; feminine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • mikut -- noun, masculine; genitive singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- of the guest

Miku nuk mund t hj n shp, p b z n'oborr.

  • miku -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- the guest
  • nuk -- adverb; <nuk> NEGATOR -- not
  • mund -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <mund> can, be able -- can
  • t -- conjunction; <t> SUBORDINATOR -- ...
  • hj -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active of <hj> enter -- enter # Std. Alb. hyj
  • n -- preposition, accusative; <n> in, on, at -- ...
  • shp -- noun, feminine; accusative singular indefinite of <shpi> house -- house
  • p -- preposition, accusative; <pa> without -- without # Std. Alb. pa
  • b -- verb; participle of <bj> do, make -- making # Std. Alb. bj, participle br
  • z -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <z> sound, voice -- noise # Std. Alb. z
  • n'oborr -- preposition, accusative; contraction of <n> in, on, at + noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <oborr> courtyard -- in courtyard

Si t bj z miku, i zoti i shps a kush i shps i pergjegjet e i del perpara.

  • si -- adverb; <si> upon, when -- when
  • t -- conjunction; <t> SUBORDINATOR -- ...
  • bj -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active of <bj> do, make -- makes
  • z -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <z> sound, voice -- noise
  • miku -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- the guest
  • i -- pronoun; masculine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • zoti -- noun, masculine; nominative singular indefinite of <zoti, e> owner, boss, master -- master # This is a nominalized form of the adjective zoti, e meaning 'able, capable'
  • i -- particle; masculine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • shps -- noun, feminine; genitive singular definite of <shpi> house -- of the house
  • a -- conjunction; <a> or -- or
  • kush -- pronoun; nominative of <kush> someone, anyone -- someone else
  • i -- particle; masculine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • shps -- noun, feminine; genitive singular definite of <shpi> house -- of the house
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- him
  • pergjegjet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active of <pergjegjem> answer -- answers # Std. Alb. prgjijem
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- to him
  • del -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <dal> leave, go out, rise, arrive -- goes
  • perpara -- preposition; <perpara> ahead, forward, forth -- out # Std. Alb. prpara

Falet me mik, armen i a mrr, e i prn n shp.

  • falet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active of <falem> be greeted -- he is greeted
  • me -- preposition, accusative; <me> with, by -- by
  • mik -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <mik> friend, guest -- guest
  • armen -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <arm> weapon -- weapon
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- ...
  • a -- pronoun; contraction of accusative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- his # In Standard Albanian, ia is written as a single word. a here is a sandhi variant of e in this position.
  • mrr -- verb, 3rd person singular present indicative active of <mrr> take -- he takes # Std. Alb. marr
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- him
  • prn -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <prj> lead -- leads # Std. Alb. prij
  • n -- preposition, accusative; <n> in, on, at -- into
  • shp -- noun, feminine; accusative singular indefinite of <shpi> house -- house

Armen i a var n krrab, edh e on n krye t vendit ke votra

  • armen -- noun, feminine; accusative singular definite of <arm> weapon -- weapon
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- ...
  • a -- pronoun; contraction of accusative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- his
  • var -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <var> hang -- he hangs # var is actually what is expected for the 3SG present subjunctive, not indicative, form.
  • n -- preposition, accusative; <n> in, on, at -- on
  • krrab -- noun, feminine; accusative singular indefinite of <krrab> hook -- a hook # Std. Alb. krrab
  • edh -- conjunction; <edhe> and -- and
  • e -- pronoun; accusative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- him
  • on -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <oj> lead -- leads
  • n -- preposition, accusative; <n> in, on, at -- to
  • krye -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <krye> head, beginning -- head
  • t -- particle; masculine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • vendit -- noun, masculine; genitive singular definite of <vend> place, seat, country -- the place
  • ke -- preposition, nominative; <ke> at -- near
  • votra -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <votr> hearth -- the hearth

Perpushet zjarmi, lypen edh dr. "Miku don dr."

  • perpushet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active of <perpushem> scratch, twitch, stir -- is stirred
  • zjarmi -- noun, nominative singular definite of <zjarm> fire -- the fire # Std. Alb. zjarr
  • lypen -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <lypej> ask for, request -- he requests
  • edh -- adverb; <edhe> also, yet, still, even -- more
  • dr -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <dr> wood -- wood # Std. Alb. dru.
  • miku -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- the guest
  • don -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active of <due> want -- wants # Std. Alb. dua, 3SG pres. indic. do.
  • dr -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <dr> wood -- wood # This phrase, while literally meaning 'The guest wants wood', is normally understood as 'The guest sees to the fire' (Fox 1989).

Mikut do t'i bhet nder: "Buk e kryp e zmer."

  • mikut -- noun, masculine; dative singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- for the guest
  • do -- marker; <do> FUTURE/CONDITIONAL -- ...
  • t'i -- conjunction; contraction of <t> SUBORDINATOR + pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- ...
  • bhet -- 3rd person singular present subjunctive non-active of <bhem> become -- must be made # Std. Alb. bhem. As discussed in Lesson 4, do t... constructions in Geg usually have more of a connotation of obligation rather than future time reference.
  • nder -- noun, feminine; nominative singular indefinite of <nder> honor -- honor # Std. Alb. nder
  • buk -- noun, feminine; nominative singular indefinite of <buk> bread, food -- bread
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • kryp -- noun, feminine; nominative singular indefinite of <kryp> salt -- salt # Std. Alb. krip
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • zmer -- noun, feminine; nominative singular indefinite of <zmer> heart -- heart # Std. Alb. zemr

Buka e krypa e zmra, zjarmi e trungu e do firi per shtroj do t gjindet gadi per mik n do koh t nats e t dits

  • buka -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <buk> bread, food -- the bread
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- ...
  • krypa -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <kryp> salt -- the salt
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • zmra -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <zmer> heart -- the heart
  • zjarmi -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <zjarm> fire -- the fire
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • trungu -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <trung> log -- the log
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • do -- determiner; <do> some -- some
  • firi -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <fir> fern -- material # This probably is not specifically referring to ferns, but rather some sort of plant material that could be used as bedding.
  • per -- preposition, accusative; <pr> for, about, by, through -- for
  • shtroj -- noun, feminine; accusative singular indefinite of <shtroj> mattress, bed -- a bed
  • do -- marker; <do> FUTURE/CONDITIONAL -- ...
  • t -- conjunction; <t> SUBORDINATOR -- ...
  • gjindet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active <gjindem> be located, be present, exist -- must be present
  • gadi -- adverb; <gadi> ready -- ready # Std. Alb. gati
  • per -- preposition, accusative; <pr> for, about, by, through -- for
  • mik -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <mik> friend, guest -- a guest
  • n -- preposition, accusative; <n> in, on, at -- at
  • do -- adverb; <do> every -- any
  • koh -- noun, feminine; accusative singular indefinite of <koh> time, weather -- time
  • t -- particle; feminine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • nats -- noun, feminine; genitive singular definite of <nat> night -- of the night
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- or
  • t -- particle; feminine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • dits -- noun, feminine; genitive singular definite of <dit> day -- of the day

Mikut t lodhun do t'i vhet rreth me t pritun me nder. Mikut i lahen kambt.

  • mikut -- noun, masculine; dative singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- the guest
  • t -- particle; masculine dative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • lodhun -- adjective; masculine singular of <lodhun, e> tired -- tired # Std. Alb. lodhur, e
  • do -- marker; <do> FUTURE/CONDITIONAL -- ...
  • t'i -- conjunction; contraction of <t> SUBORDINATOR + pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- ...
  • vhet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active of <vhem> be placed -- should be # Std. Alb. vihem
  • rreth -- preposition, ablative; <rreth> surrounded -- surrounded
  • me -- preposition, accusative; <me> with, by -- by
  • t -- particle; masculine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • pritun -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <pritun, e> hospitality -- hospitality # Std. Alb. pritur, e
  • me -- preposition, accusative; <me> with, by -- with
  • nder -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <nder> honor -- honor
  • mikut -- noun, masculine; dative singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- of the guest
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- ...
  • lahen -- verb; 3rd person plural present indicative non-active of <lahem> be washed -- are washed
  • kambt -- noun, feminine; nominative plural definite of <kamb> foot, leg -- the feet # Std. Alb. kmb

Per do mik duhet buka si han vet.

  • per -- preposition, accusative; <pr> for, about, by, through -- for
  • do -- determiner; <do> every -- every
  • mik -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <mik> friend, guest -- guest
  • duhet -- verb; present of <duhet> must, should, be necessary -- is needed # duhet is an impersonal verb. The form is duhet regardless of the subject. This is technically the 3.sg.pres.ind.nonact. of a putative verb duhem.
  • buka -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <buk> bread, food -- the food
  • si -- adverb; <si> in the way that, such as -- that
  • han -- verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active of <ha> eat -- they eat
  • vet -- adverb; <vt> themselves -- themselves

Per mik t mir duhet kafija, rakija e buka e shtrueme me ndo'i send m teper.

  • per -- preposition, accusative; <pr> for, about, by, through -- for
  • mik -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <mik> friend, guest -- a friend
  • t -- particle; masculine accusative singular indefinite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • mir -- adjective; masculine singular of <mir, e> good -- good
  • duhet -- verb; present of <duhet> must, should, be necessary -- are necessary
  • kafija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <kafe> coffee -- coffee
  • rakija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <raki> raki -- raki
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • buka -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <buk> bread, food -- food
  • e -- particle; feminine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • shtrueme -- adjective, feminine singular participle of <shtroj> lay -- laid out
  • me -- preposition, accusative; <me> with, by -- with
  • ndo'i -- determiner; <ndo'i> some, any -- some # This is a shortened form of ndonji (Std. Alb. ndonj)
  • send -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <send> thing, item -- thing
  • m -- adverb; <m> more -- more # Std. Alb. m
  • teper -- adverb; <teper> very, too, excessively -- as well # Std. Alb. tepr

Per mik zmret duhet duhni, kafija e ambel, rakija e buk e mish.

  • per -- preposition, accusative; <pr> for, about, by, through -- for
  • mik -- noun, masculine; accusative singular indefinite of <mik> friend, guest -- a friend
  • zmret -- adjective; masculine singular of <zmret> cherished -- cherished
  • duhet -- verb; present of <duhet> must, should, be necessary -- are necessary
  • duhni -- noun, masculine; nominative singular definite of <duhn> tobacco -- tobacco # Std. Alb. duhan
  • kafija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <kafe> coffee -- coffee
  • e -- particle; feminine nominative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • ambel -- adjective; feminine singular of <ambel, e> sweet -- sweet # Std. Alb. mbl, e
  • rakija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <raki> raki -- raki
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • buk -- noun, feminine; nominative singular indefinite of <buk> bread, food -- bread
  • e -- conjunction; <e> and -- and
  • mish -- noun, masculine; nominative singular indefinite of <mish> meat -- meat

"Mikut t zmres i lshohet shpija."

  • mikut -- noun, masculine; dative singular definite of <mik> friend, guest -- to the guest
  • t -- particle; masculine dative singular definite of <e> NYJE -- ...
  • zmres -- noun, feminine; genitive singular definite of <zmer> heart -- of the heart
  • i -- pronoun; dative weak of <ai, ajo> (s)he, it, that -- ...
  • lshohet -- verb; 3rd person singular present indicative non-active of <lshohem> be given freely -- is given freely # Std. Alb. lshohem
  • shpija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular definite of <shpi> house -- the house

Lesson Text

"Shpija e Shqyptarit sht e Zotit e e mikut." Miku nuk mund t hj n shp, p b z n'oborr. Si t bj z miku, i zoti i shps a kush i shps i pergjegjet e i del perpara. Falet me mik, armen i a mrr, e i prn n shp. Armen i a var n krrab, edh e on n krye t vendit ke votra Perpushet zjarmi, lypen edh dr. "Miku don dr." Mikut do t'i bhet nder: "Buk e kryp e zmer." Buka e krypa e zmra, zjarmi e trungu e do firi per shtroj do t gjindet gadi per mik n do koh t nats e t dits Mikut t lodhun do t'i vhet rreth me t pritun me nder. Mikut i lahen kambt. Per do mik duhet buka si han vet. Per mik t mir duhet kafija, rakija e buka e shtrueme me ndo'i send m teper. Per mik zmret duhet duhni, kafija e ambel, rakija e buk e mish. "Mikut t zmres i lshohet shpija."

Translation

"The house of the Albanian is of God and of the guest." The guest cannot enter the house without making noise in the courtyard. When the guest makes noise, the master of the house or someone else of the house answers him and goes out to him. He is greeted by the guest, he takes his weapon, and leads him into the house. He hangs his weapon on a hook, and leads him to the head place near the hearth. The fire is stirred; he requests more wood. "The guest sees to the fire." For the guest, honor must be made: "Bread and salt and the heart." The bread, the salt and the heart, the fire and the log and some material for a bed must be present, ready for a guest at any time of the day or of the night. The tired guest should be surrounded by hospitality, with honor. The feet of the guest are washed. For every guest, the food that they eat themselve is needed. For a good friend, coffee, raki and food laid out are necessary, with something more as well. For a cherished friend, tobacco, sweet coffee, raki and bread and meat are necessary. "To the guest of the heart, the house is given freely."

Grammar

21. The Past Definite Tense
21.1. Use of the Past Definite Tense

The Albanian past definite tense is the simple, perfective, past tense. It is used to describe completed events that occurred in the past. In modern Albanian, the past definite is losing ground to the present perfect, to which it is nearly identical semantically.

21.2. Formation of the Past Definite Tense

As discussed briefly in Lesson 2, the past definite is formed from the aorist stem. As in several other Indo-European languages, the difficulty in conjugating the simple perfect past tense in Albanian is knowing the correlation between the present stem and the aorist stem. The endings are consistent, and where there are different endings, the choice is phonologically predictable. As with all of the other verb formations besides the present, the past definite indicative and subjunctive are always identical. The following are the basic endings for the Albanian past definite tense.

    singular   plural
1st person   -a   -m/-m/-m
2nd person   -e   -t/-t/-t
3rd person   -i/-u   -n/-n/-n

Notes:

  • Vowel-stem verbs have -v- inserted before the 1st and 2nd person singular endings (e.g., puno-v-a 'I worked', puno-v-e 'you worked', but puno-i 's/he worked')
  • Similar to some of the noun endings seen earlier, the 3rd person singular ending is -u (e.g., la-u 's/he washed'), when immediately following a velar consonant or i, a, or e. Elsewhere, the 3rd person singular ending is -i
  • As shown in the chart above, there is some variation in the plural endings with regard to the presence of the vowel either preceding or following the consonantal ending. This is completely phonologically predictable. Vowel-stems have the plural endings -m,-t,-n. If the preceding syllable is unstressed, the final - is dropped. Consonant-stems have the endings -m,-t,-n.

In most verbs, the aorist stem (from which the past definite is formed) is identical to the present stem. The following are the past definite paradigms of the vowel-stem verb punoj 'work' and the consonant-stem verb hap 'open'

Past definite paradigms of punoj 'work' (aor.stem puno-) and hap 'open' (aor.stem hap-)

    punoj           hap    
    singular   plural       singular   plural
1st person   punova   punuam       hapa   hapm
2nd person   punove   punuat       hape   hapt
3rd person   punoi   punuan       hapi   hapn

There are also many verbs that have some sort of stem change in the past definite. Similar to Latin, some of these stem changes are also seen in the participle (see Lesson 2). Some verbs have a stem extension in the aorist not seen in the present (e.g., br- 'make-PERF' vs. b- 'make-PRES'; dit- 'know-PERF' vs. di- 'know-PRES'). There are other verbs that have some sort of vowel change in the past (e.g., hoq- 'pull-PAST' vs. heq- 'pull-PRES'; dol- 'emerge-PAST', dal- 'emerge-PRES'). There are also some verbs that have a suppletive past tense, including the auxiliary verb kam (cf. PAST pat-), among others (e.g., hngr- 'eat-PAST' vs. ha- 'eat-PRES). In all of these cases, the suffixes are the same as seen above.

Additionally, there is a small class of verbs that take an ending -sh in the 1SG past definite (often along with a suppletive stem). This class includes the irregular/auxiliary verb jam 'be' (1SG past qesh), as well as bie 'fall' (1SG past ra-sh), shoh 'see' (1SG past pa-sh), l 'let' (1SG past la-sh), and them 'say' (1SG past tha-sh).

Past definite paradigms of jam 'be' (aor. stem qe-) and kam 'have' (aor.stem pat-)

    singular   plural       singular   plural
1st person   qesh   qem       pata   patm
2nd person   qe   qet       pate   patt
3rd person   qe   qen       pati   patn
22. Pluperfect and Past Perfect Tenses
22.1. Use of the Pluperfect and the Past Perfect

According to Newmark et al. (1982), these two tenses are essentially identical, semantically. They both refer to an action that occurred in the past before a certain point in time. They also comment that the past perfect is used to a much greater extent than the pluperfect.

22.2. Formation of the Pluperfect and the Past Perfect

The pluperfect and past perfect tenses are formed in the same manner as the present perfect tense, discussed in Lesson 2. As in the present perfect, these tenses are formed using a conjugated form of the auxiliary kam plus the past participle. The only differences are that in the pluperfect, a past definite form of kam is used, and in the past perfect, an imperfect form of kam is used.

Pluperfect paradigm of shkruaj 'to write':

    singular   plural
1st person   pata shkruar   patm shkruar
2nd person   pate shkruar   patt shkruar
3rd person   pati shkruar   patn shkruar

Past perfect paradigm of shkruaj 'to write':

    singular   plural
1st person   kisha shkruar   kishin shkruar
2nd person   kishe shkruar   kishit shkruar
3rd person   kishte shkruar   kishin shkruar
23. Voice

As discussed in lesson 2, Albanian has a distinction between active and non-active voice. The formation of a non-active verb form depends on the verb stem in question. If the form is based on the present stem (e.g., present, imperfect, etc.), the non-active is formed via a suffix and a distinct set of inflectional endings. If the form is any other synthetic formation (e.g., past definite, admirative, optative, etc.), the non-active is formed with a clitic. If it is a compound tense (e.g., present perfect, past perfect), this is done with a change of the auxiliary verb from kam to jam.

23.1. Present stem non-actives

The formation of the non-active present stem is accomplished by the suffixation of -he- to the verb stem (e.g., quaj 'call', stem qu-, non-active stem qu-he-). If the stem in question is consonant-final, this suffix has the form -e- (e.g., hap 'open', stem hap-, non-active stem hap-e-). The present tense of non-active verbs is formed with the stem described above plus the non-active present endings presented in Lesson 2.

Present non-active paradigms of quhem 'to be called' and hapem 'to be opened'

    singular   plural       singular   plural
1st person   qu-he-m   qu-he-mi       hap-e-m   hap-e-mi
2nd person   qu-he-sh   qu-he-ni       hap-e-sh   hap-e-ni
3rd person   qu-he-t   qu-he-n       hap-e-t   hap-e-n

In the imperfect tense, the non-active stem is the same as above. The endings are the normal imperfect endings with -sh- preceding them. The 3SG form would then have an ending -shj- which is not permissible in Albanian, so either the -sh- (e.g., in Standard Albanian) or the -j- (in some non-standard varieties) is dropped.

Imperfect non-active paradigms of quhem 'to be called' and hapem 'to be opened'

    singular   plural       singular   plural
1st person   qu-he-sha   qu-he-shim       hap-e-sha   hap-e-shim
2nd person   qu-he-she   qu-he-shit       hap-e-she   hap-e-shit
3rd person   qu-he-j   qu-he-shin       hap-e-j   hap-e-shin
    qu-he-sh           hap-e-sh    

There are no differences in conjugation between the present/imperfect indicative and the present/imperfect subjunctive in non-active verbs.

23.2. Aorist stem non-actives

In any synthetic verb formation that is not formed from the present tense (e.g., past definite, admirative, optative), the non-active form is simply formed by adding the clitic u before the verb. The only other change is in the 3rd person singular past definite, where the suffix -i (or -u) is lost.

Past definite non-active paradigm of hap 'to open':

    singular       plural
1st person   u hapa       u hapm
2nd person   u hape       u hapt
3rd person   u hap       u hapn

In addition, some verbs that show allomorphy in the past definite, extend the plural stem allomorph into the 3SG in the non-active. For example, for the verb punoj work, the past definite stem is puno- in the singular and punua- in the plural. In the non active, the stem punua- is extended to the 3SG.

In any other verb forms built from the aorist stem (e.g., the admirative and optative, to be discussed in the following lesson), the non-active forms are formed the same way (though there is no issue in the 3SG).

23.3. Compound non-actives

In the preceding two sections we have seen several compound past tenses formed with the verb kam. To form the corresponding non-active forms, the auxiliary verb is simply changed to jam 'be'.

Present perfect non-active paradigms of shkruaj 'to write':

    singular       plural
1st person   jam shkruar       jemi shkruar
2nd person   je shkruar       jeni shkruar
3rd person   sht shkruar       jan shkruar

Past perfect non-active paradigm of shkruaj 'to write':

    singular       plural
1st person   qesh shkruar       qem shkruar
2nd person   qe shkruar       qet shkruar
3rd person   qe shkruar       qen shkruar
24. Participial Formations
24.1. Infinitives in Tosk/Standard Albanian

While this formation in Tosk/Standard Albanian is commonly referred to as the "infinitive," it does not fulfill most typical infinitival properties (unlike the Geg infinitive, or the infinitive in most other Indo-European languages). The Tosk infinitive is mainly used for "in order to..." type statements (though they can also convey a sense of obligation).

The Tosk "infinitive" is built up of pr + t + PARTICIPLE. See the following example (from the text in Lesson 3) meaning "in order to leave it marked for always" contains an Tosk infinitive.

    pr ta ln   t vulosur   pr   gjithmon
    in-order-to-leave-it   marked   for   always

Note that in the above example, that ta is a contraction of the subordinator t with the weak accusative singular pronoun e. As in other participial constructions, the only elements that can immediately precede the main verb are weak pronouns and the negator mos.

24.2. Infinitives in Geg

The Geg infinitive is formed with me + PARTICIPLE. It has a much wider range of use than the Tosk "infinitive." It is commonly used after modal verbs such as mund 'can', dua 'want', etc. For example, the Geg translation of "We want to learn Albanian" would be:

    Duem   me fol   gjuhn   shqipe
    we-want   to-speak   the-langauge   Albanian

In this sentence, me fol is the infinitive of flas 'speak'. Recall that in Tosk, such a construction is not possible, and the infinitive is replaced by a conjugated form of the present subjunctive.

    Duam   t flasim   gjuhn   shqipe
    we-want   that we-speak   the-language   Albanian
24.3. Gerundives

The gerundive is used to express an action that is occurring simultaneously with the verb in the main clause. Though the gerundive has no tense marking (or any inflection of any sort), it can have present, future, or past-time reference, depending on the main verb. This is usually translated as "while VERBing" in English. The Tosk gerundive is formed with the particle duke plus the participle. The Geg gerundive is formed with the particle tue plus the participle. For example, the following phrase from Buzuku's Missal meaning "And our lord blessed them, (while he was) saying," where tue is the gerundive particle and thashun is an old participle of them 'say' (the participle would be thn in Std. Albanian).

    E   ata   bekoi   Zot'yn   tue   thashun
    and   them   blessed   lord-our   while   saying

As with the other participial constructions discussed above, the only elements that can come between the particle duke/tue is a weak pronoun and the negator mos (recall that mos, rather than nuk is used to negate participial constructions) as in the following example meaning "while not saying it to him"

    duke   mos   ia   thn
    while   not   to him-it   saying
24.4. Privative

The privative is essentially a negative gerundive, and these constructions are normally translated into English as "without VERBing." The privative is formed with the particle pa (the preposition meaning 'without') plus the participle. For example, the following phrase from the text above meaning "without making a sound in the courtyard."

    ...p   b   z   n'oborr
    without   making   sound   in-courtyard