The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Albanian Online

Tosk: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum, Brian Joseph, and Angelo Costanzo

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Unicode 2 and Unicode 3) in the left margin.
<aeroport>   airport   --   [Pokorny 1. uer-, also suer- :: to bind, attach; strive]   --
2.29
<ai, ajo>   (s)he, it, that   --   [Pokorny so(s), sa :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --
1.28, 1.76, 2.39, 2.74, 2.90, 2.165, 2.198, 2.237, 2.240, 2.258, 2.259, 3.79, 3.176, 3.207
<armė>   weapon   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base aru-, re-, and i-base (a)ri-, rei- :: to fit, suit]   --
3.77
<asfalt>   asphalt   --
2.47
<ata, ato>   they, those   --
3.152
<atdhe>   fatherland   --   [Pokorny atos, atta :: daddy, mommy (nursery word)]   --
3.135
<barabartė, e>   equal   --
1.195
<barazi>   equality   --
1.140, 1.183
<bashkė>   together   --   [Pokorny 2. bhedh- :: to flex, bend, crook]   --
2.14
<bazohem>   be based   --
1.133
<besnikėri>   fidelity, loyalty, honesty   --
3.96
<beton>   concrete   --
2.25
<bie>   fall   --
2.9
<bisedim>   talk   --
2.121
<boshnjak>   Bosnian   --
1.26
<botėror>   world   --
2.113
<breg>   bank, hill   --
2.43
<bukur, e>   beautiful   --
3.55
<cili, e>   that, which   --
1.71, 3.151
<cilido>   whichever   --
1.46
<ēdo>   every   --
2.66
<demokraci>   democracy   --   [Pokorny da : du-, and dai- : dui-, di- :: to share, divide]   --
1.139
<demokratik>   democratic   --   [Pokorny da : du-, and dai- : dui-, di- :: to share, divide]   --
1.190
<dėborė>   snow   --
2.12
<di>   know   --
2.166, 2.199
<diēka>   something   --
2.185
<diell>   sun   --   [Pokorny 1. dei-, deiu-, di-, dia- :: to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity]   --
2.233
<do>   FUTURE/CONDITIONAL   --
1.39, 2.73, 2.239, 3.206
<drejtė, e>   right   --
1.144, 1.155, 3.63
<drejtėsi>   justice   --
1.161
<duhem>   must, should   --
3.125, 3.145
<dukem>   look, seem   --
2.75, 2.241, 2.261
<dy>   two   --   [Pokorny duo(u) :: two, duo]   --
2.123
<dhe>   and   --
1.14, 1.27, 1.61, 1.88, 1.92, 1.111, 1.145, 1.149, 1.168, 1.200, 1.208, 2.11, 2.42, 2.44, 2.158, 2.207, 2.234, 2.254, 3.39, 3.184
<e>   NYJE   --
1.9, 1.32, 1.66, 1.68, 1.70, 1.75, 1.86, 1.90, 1.93, 1.95, 1.109, 1.112, 1.114, 1.129, 1.131, 1.136, 1.142, 1.143, 1.147, 1.151, 1.154, 1.156, 1.159, 1.165, 1.170, 1.180, 1.191, 1.194, 1.198, 1.211, 1.213, 2.7, 2.26, 2.28, 2.48, 2.50, 2.64, 2.71, 2.81, 2.98, 2.102, 2.104, 2.106, 2.111, 2.138, 2.146, 2.162, 2.182, 2.188, 2.205, 2.235, 2.244, 2.265, 3.6, 3.12, 3.15, 3.31, 3.37, 3.42, 3.54, 3.62, 3.81, 3.94, 3.121, 3.134, 3.150, 3.160, 3.180, 3.188, 3.191
<e>   and   --
3.14, 3.157
<edhe>   also, yet, still, even   --
2.184, 2.218, 3.98, 3.101
<ekonomi>   economy   --   [Pokorny 1. nem- :: to nim, take, give, count, apportion]   --
1.169
<ekonomik>   economic   --   [Pokorny 1. nem- :: to nim, take, give, count, apportion]   --
1.205
<Epir>   Epirus   --
3.104, 3.212
<eshtėr>   bone   --
2.103
<fat>   fate   --   [Pokorny 2. bha- :: to speak]   --
3.190
<femėr>   female   --
1.199
<fillim>   beginning   --
2.63
<filloj>   start, begin   --
2.126, 2.144, 3.208
<fitore>   victory   --   [Pokorny 2. ueik- :: force, energy (in battle, victory, etc.)]   --
3.118
<flaktė, e>   burning, passionate   --
3.38
<flamur>   flag   --
1.59, 1.91
<fund>   end   --
2.137
<fundit, e>   last   --
2.112
<fushė>   field, area   --
1.210, 2.41
<gusht>   August   --
2.139
<gjeneral>   general   --
2.70, 2.164, 2.197
<gjer>   up to, until   --
3.112
<gjinor>   gender   --   [Pokorny 1. gen-, genu-, gne-, gno- :: to bear, produce, generate]   --
1.184
<gjithmonė>   always   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
2.262, 3.84
<gjuhė>   language   --
1.5, 1.12, 1.15, 1.24, 1.33
<himn>   anthem   --
1.62
<huaj, e>   foreign   --   [Pokorny ghosti-s :: guest, stranger]   --
2.8, 2.99
<hyrje>   entry   --
3.210
<im>   my   --   [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)]   --
3.166
<jam>   be   --   [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   --
1.11, 1.41, 1.63, 2.62, 2.156, 2.204, 2.231, 2.256, 2.260, 3.5
<jap>   give   --
3.18, 3.34, 3.66
<jetė>   life   --
1.203, 1.214
<ju>   you (pl.)   --   [Pokorny 1. iu- :: you (plural)]   --
3.17, 3.19, 3.64, 3.124, 3.144, 3.195, 3.205
<juaj>   your (pl.)   --   [Pokorny 1. iu- :: you (plural)]   --
3.97
<kam>   have   --   [Pokorny kap- :: to cop, grab, grasp; have?]   --
1.30, 2.23, 2.125, 2.160, 2.179, 2.223, 3.65, 3.115, 3.153
<karakter>   character   --   [Pokorny 2. gher- :: to gash, slit, scrape, scratch]   --
1.73
<kėtu>   here   --
2.108
<klimė>   climate   --   [Pokorny klei- :: to lean, incline, tip (over)]   --
2.187
<kohė>   time, weather   --   [Pokorny 1. kuei(-t)- :: to observe with respect, pay attention to]   --
2.142, 2.161
<koicidencė>   coincidence   --
2.80
<kombėtar>   national   --
1.116
<komunė>   province   --   [Pokorny 2. mei- :: to change, mutate, exchange]   --
1.37
<kontratė>   contract   --   [Pokorny tragh-, trogh-, and tregh- :: to drag, train, pull, move]   --
2.131
<Kosovė>   Kosovo   --
1.10, 1.69, 1.132, 1.181
<kryej>   carry out, perform   --
3.161
<kryhem>   be accomplished   --
2.269
<kthen>   turn, return, regain health   --
3.177
<kulturor>   cultural   --   [Pokorny 1. kuel-, kuelu- :: to turn; wheel; neck?]   --
1.207
<kundrejt>   opposite, towards   --
3.99, 3.102
<kur>   when   --   [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. kua, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
2.143
<kushtetues>   constitutional   --
1.128
<ky, kjo>   this   --   [Pokorny so(s), sa :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --
2.76, 2.167, 2.242, 3.58, 3.192
<lag>   make wet   --
2.40
<lagėt, e>   rainy, humid   --
2.206
<lart, e>   high, loud   --
3.95
<lavde>   praise   --   [Pokorny 3. leu-, or lau- :: (onomatopoeic: to bark, howl, etc.)]   --
3.149
<lexoj>   read   --
2.224
<>   leave   --   [Pokorny 3. le(i)- :: to weaken, leave behind; feeble]   --
3.80
<libėr>   book   --
2.221
<ligj>   law   --
1.51, 1.100, 1.119, 1.152
<liri>   liberty, freedom   --
1.137, 1.146, 3.131
<luftė>   war   --
2.110, 3.159
<luftoj>   fight   --
3.116, 3.127
<madh, e>   big, large, great   --
3.13, 3.181, 3.189
<mashkull>   male   --
1.201
<mbarė>   all, the entire   --
3.103
<mbi>   on, onto   --   [Pokorny ambhi, mbhi :: around, at both sides]   --
2.5, 2.46
<mbretėri>   kingdom   --
3.122
<mbrojtje>   defense, protection   --
1.89, 1.113, 1.158
<me>   with, by   --
1.50, 1.99, 1.118, 2.208, 2.232, 3.60, 3.92, 3.162
<meritoj>   deserve   --   [Pokorny (s)mer- :: to mourn, remember, think of, care for]   --
3.154
<>   more   --
3.30, 3.53, 3.187
<mėnyrė>   manner   --
1.85, 1.108
<mėsoj>   learn   --
2.180
<midis>   between, among   --
2.122, 2.181
<mirė, e>   good   --   [Pokorny 7. mei- : moi- : mi- :: mild, soft]   --
3.32
<mision>   mission   --   [Pokorny smeit-, smit- :: to throw]   --
2.264
<mjedis>   environment   --
1.160
<monoton>   monotonous   --
2.78
<mos>   NEGATOR   --   [Pokorny 1. me- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   --
2.61, 3.175
<mosdiskriminim>   nondiscrimination   --   [Pokorny 1. me- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   --
1.153
<mund>   can, may   --   [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   --
2.267
<mundėsi>   possibility   --   [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   --
1.193
<mur>   wall   --   [Pokorny 1. mei- :: to mure, repair, strengthen; pole]   --
3.133
<Murat>   Murad   --
3.209
<ndarje>   separation   --
1.164
<nder>   honor   --
3.120
<ndėrsė>   building   --
2.30
<ne>   we   --   [Pokorny 3. ne-, no-, plural nes-, nos- :: we]   --
3.114
<>   in, on, at   --
1.7, 1.35, 1.42, 1.45, 1.48, 1.134, 1.202, 1.209, 2.93, 2.109, 2.128, 2.136, 2.141, 2.201, 2.220, 2.228, 2.271, 3.155, 3.178, 3.185
<nėn>   under   --
3.164
<nėnshkruaj>   sign   --
2.134
<nga>   from, through   --
2.95, 3.182, 3.194, 3.204
<nisem>   set out   --
2.178
<nivel>   level   --
1.36, 1.47
<nuk>   NEGATOR   --
2.238
<njeri>   human, person   --   [Pokorny 1. ner(-t)-, aner-, uner-? :: vital force; man]   --
1.148, 2.67
<njė>   a, one   --
2.79, 2.96, 3.28, 3.51
<o>   VOCATIVE   --   [Pokorny 2. o :: O (vocative particle)]   --
3.8
<ose>   or   --
1.38
<pajtim>   accordance   --
1.49
<pamje>   appearance   --
1.84
<pamundur, e>   impossible   --
3.7
<papritur, e>   unexpected, sudden   --
2.245
<paqe>   peace   --
1.138
<para>   before   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
2.175
<parė, e>   first   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
2.147
<parim>   principle   --
1.135
<pasqyroj>   reflect   --
1.72
<pėkundrazi>   quite the opposite   --
2.253
<pėr>   for, about   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
1.188, 1.196, 2.100, 2.186, 3.35, 3.40, 3.78, 3.83, 3.117, 3.119, 3.128, 3.130, 3.132
<pėr nė>   into, towards   --
3.211
<pėrdorim>   use   --
1.43, 1.87, 1.110
<pėrfundimtar>   final   --
2.132
<pėrpjek>   try, strive   --
3.147
<pėrveē>   except   --
2.69
<pėrziej>   mix   --
2.13
<pistė>   runway   --
2.27
<pjesė>   part, section, share   --
3.186
<pjesėmarrje>   participation   --
1.197
<plogėshti>   sloth, lethargy   --   [Pokorny 2. leg- :: to worry]   --
3.183
<plot>   fully, completely, quite   --   [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelu-, ple- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   --
3.61
<pluralizm>   pluralism   --
1.163
<po>   PROGRESSIVE   --
2.91
<politik>   political   --   [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelu-, ple- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   --
1.204
<por>   but, however   --
2.130, 2.217
<porsaardhur, e>   newly arrived   --
2.72
<pra>   so, therefore   --
2.155
<pranvėre>   spring   --
2.129
<pronė>   property   --
1.157
<pushtet>   power   --
1.166
<qeveri>   government   --
2.124
<>   since, from, beyond   --
2.127, 3.148
<>   that, which   --
2.200, 2.222, 3.10, 3.59
<qull>   drench   --
2.24
<rast>   case, opportunity   --
3.29, 3.52
<rend>   order   --
1.127
<republikė>   republic   --
1.8, 1.67, 1.130, 1.179
<respektim>   respect   --   [Pokorny spek- :: to watch, inspect, spy on]   --
1.141
<rojė>   garrison, guard   --
2.31
<rom>   Romani   --
1.29
<rregullohem>   be regulated   --
1.98, 1.117
<rrėmbej>   grab, seize   --
3.75
<sa>   as   --
3.57
<sa>   as many as, as soon as, as long as, so much   --
3.156, 3.158
<se>   that, than, because   --
2.176, 2.227, 2.257, 2.263, 3.56
<sepse>   because   --
3.203
<serb>   Serbian   --
1.16
<si>   as   --   [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. kua, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
1.185
<siguroj>   ensure   --
1.182
<sikur>   as if, as though   --
2.59, 2.219
<simbol>   symbol   --   [Pokorny 2. guel-, guelu-, gule- :: to flow, drip down; throw]   --
1.64, 1.94, 1.115
<social>   social   --   [Pokorny 1. seku- :: to segue, follow]   --
1.162, 1.206
<sot>   today   --
3.20
<sqotė>   sleet   --
2.22
<status>   status   --
1.31
<stemė>   seal   --
1.60
<sukses>   success   --   [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   --
3.163
<sundim>   rule   --
1.150
<svetigradas>   inhabitant of Svetigrad   --   [Pokorny gherdh-, and gherdh- :: to gird, enclose, encompass]   --
3.9
<shetėror>   state   --
1.167
<shėmbėllė>   example   --
3.93
<shi>   rain   --   [Pokorny 1. seu-, seuu- : su- :: sop, soup, juice, liquid]   --
2.10, 2.77, 2.159, 2.209, 2.243, 2.272
<shkak>   reason   --
2.255
<shkėlqej>   shine   --
2.45
<shkruhem>   be written   --
2.226
<shoqėri>   society   --
1.192
<shoqėror>   social   --
1.215
<shpėtim>   rescue, salvation   --
3.129
<shqip>   Albanian   --
1.13
<Shqipėri>   Albania   --
2.94, 2.189, 2.202, 2.229
<shtet>   state   --   [Pokorny sta- : stu- :: to stand]   --
2.97
<shtetėror>   state   --   [Pokorny sta- : stu- :: to stand]   --
1.65, 1.97
<shumetnik>   multiethnic   --
1.74
<taman>   precisely   --
2.140
<tani>   now   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, ta-, tio- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
3.76, 3.113, 3.123, 3.143
<>   SUBORDINATOR   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, ta-, tio- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
1.40, 2.60, 2.74, 2.177, 2.225, 2.240, 2.268, 3.17, 3.33, 3.74, 3.79, 3.126, 3.146, 3.174, 3.207
<tėrheqje>   pull, attraction, withdrawal   --
2.101
<tij, e>   his, its   --
2.163, 2.266
<tjetėr, e>   other   --
1.96, 1.212, 2.68, 2.183
<tokė>   soil, land   --
2.6
<treg>   market   --
1.171
<trishtuar, e>   sad   --
2.82
<turk>   Turkish   --
1.25
<turp>   shame, disgrace   --
3.179
<thatė, e>   arid   --
2.236
<themelor>   basic   --
1.187
<u>   NON-ACTIVE   --
2.133
<udhėheqje>   leadership   --
3.165
<unė>   I   --
3.100
<ushtar>   soldier   --
2.105, 3.41
<varem>   hang, depend   --
3.193
<vetėm>   alone, only   --
2.135, 2.270
<vėrtetė>   true   --
3.16
<vij>   come   --
2.92
<vjeshtė>   autumn   --
2.65, 2.157, 2.203, 2.230
<vlerė>   value   --
1.186
<vranėsirė>   cloudy sky   --
2.145
<vras>   kill   --
2.107
<vulos>   seal, mark   --
3.82
<xhade>   highway   --
2.51
<zėmėr>   heart   --
3.36
<zi, e>   black   --   [Pokorny guou-, guu- :: dirt, dung]   --
2.49
<zjarrtė, e>   fiery, passionate   --   [Pokorny guher- :: warm, hot]   --
3.43
<zot>   master, lord, god   --
3.11
<zyrtar>   official   --
1.6, 1.34, 1.44
<zhvillim>   development   --
1.189