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Albanian Online

Tosk: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum, Brian Joseph, and Angelo Costanzo

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to post-medieval Albanian. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Romanized and Unicode 2) in the left margin.
<aeroport>   airport   --   [Pokorny 1. u̯er-, also su̯er- :: to bind, attach; strive]   --
2.29
<ai, ajo>   (s)he, it, that   --   [Pokorny so(s), :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --
1.28, 1.76, 2.39, 2.74, 2.90, 2.165, 2.198, 2.237, 2.240, 2.258, 2.259, 3.79, 3.176, 3.207
<armë>   weapon   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   --
3.77
<asfalt>   asphalt   --
2.47
<ata, ato>   they, those   --
3.152
<atdhe>   fatherland   --   [Pokorny ā̆tos, atta :: daddy, mommy (nursery word)]   --
3.135
<barabartë, e>   equal   --
1.195
<barazi>   equality   --
1.140, 1.183
<bashkë>   together   --   [Pokorny 2. bhedh- :: to flex, bend, crook]   --
2.14
<bazohem>   be based   --
1.133
<besnikëri>   fidelity, loyalty, honesty   --
3.96
<beton>   concrete   --
2.25
<bie>   fall   --
2.9
<bisedim>   talk   --
2.121
<boshnjak>   Bosnian   --
1.26
<botëror>   world   --
2.113
<breg>   bank, hill   --
2.43
<bukur, e>   beautiful   --
3.55
<cili, e>   that, which   --
1.71, 3.151
<cilido>   whichever   --
1.46
<çdo>   every   --
2.66
<demokraci>   democracy   --   [Pokorny : də-, and dāi- : dəi-, dī̆- :: to share, divide]   --
1.139
<demokratik>   democratic   --   [Pokorny : də-, and dāi- : dəi-, dī̆- :: to share, divide]   --
1.190
<dëborë>   snow   --
2.12
<di>   know   --
2.166, 2.199
<diçka>   something   --
2.185
<diell>   sun   --   [Pokorny 1. dei-, dei̯ə-, dī-, di̯ā- :: to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity]   --
2.233
<do>   FUTURE/CONDITIONAL   --
1.39, 2.73, 2.239, 3.206
<drejtë, e>   right   --
1.144, 1.155, 3.63
<drejtësi>   justice   --
1.161
<duhem>   must, should   --
3.125, 3.145
<dukem>   look, seem   --
2.75, 2.241, 2.261
<dy>   two   --   [Pokorny du̯ō(u) :: two, duo]   --
2.123
<dhe>   and   --
1.14, 1.27, 1.61, 1.88, 1.92, 1.111, 1.145, 1.149, 1.168, 1.200, 1.208, 2.11, 2.42, 2.44, 2.158, 2.207, 2.234, 2.254, 3.39, 3.184
<e>   NYJE   --
1.9, 1.32, 1.66, 1.68, 1.70, 1.75, 1.86, 1.90, 1.93, 1.95, 1.109, 1.112, 1.114, 1.129, 1.131, 1.136, 1.142, 1.143, 1.147, 1.151, 1.154, 1.156, 1.159, 1.165, 1.170, 1.180, 1.191, 1.194, 1.198, 1.211, 1.213, 2.7, 2.26, 2.28, 2.48, 2.50, 2.64, 2.71, 2.81, 2.98, 2.102, 2.104, 2.106, 2.111, 2.138, 2.146, 2.162, 2.182, 2.188, 2.205, 2.235, 2.244, 2.265, 3.6, 3.12, 3.15, 3.31, 3.37, 3.42, 3.54, 3.62, 3.81, 3.94, 3.121, 3.134, 3.150, 3.160, 3.180, 3.188, 3.191
<e>   and   --
3.14, 3.157
<edhe>   also, yet, still, even   --
2.184, 2.218, 3.98, 3.101
<ekonomi>   economy   --   [Pokorny 1. nem- :: to nim, take, give, count, apportion]   --
1.169
<ekonomik>   economic   --   [Pokorny 1. nem- :: to nim, take, give, count, apportion]   --
1.205
<Epir>   Epirus   --
3.104, 3.212
<eshtër>   bone   --
2.103
<fat>   fate   --   [Pokorny 2. bhā- :: to speak]   --
3.190
<femër>   female   --
1.199
<fillim>   beginning   --
2.63
<filloj>   start, begin   --
2.126, 2.144, 3.208
<fitore>   victory   --   [Pokorny 2. u̯eik- :: force, energy (in battle, victory, etc.)]   --
3.118
<flaktë, e>   burning, passionate   --
3.38
<flamur>   flag   --
1.59, 1.91
<fund>   end   --
2.137
<fundit, e>   last   --
2.112
<fushë>   field, area   --
1.210, 2.41
<gusht>   August   --
2.139
<gjeneral>   general   --
2.70, 2.164, 2.197
<gjer>   up to, until   --
3.112
<gjinor>   gender   --   [Pokorny 1. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō- :: to bear, produce, generate]   --
1.184
<gjithmonë>   always   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
2.262, 3.84
<gjuhë>   language   --
1.5, 1.12, 1.15, 1.24, 1.33
<himn>   anthem   --
1.62
<huaj, e>   foreign   --   [Pokorny ghosti-s :: guest, stranger]   --
2.8, 2.99
<hyrje>   entry   --
3.210
<im>   my   --   [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)]   --
3.166
<jam>   be   --   [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   --
1.11, 1.41, 1.63, 2.62, 2.156, 2.204, 2.231, 2.256, 2.260, 3.5
<jap>   give   --
3.18, 3.34, 3.66
<jetë>   life   --
1.203, 1.214
<ju>   you (pl.)   --   [Pokorny 1. i̯u- :: you (plural)]   --
3.17, 3.19, 3.64, 3.124, 3.144, 3.195, 3.205
<juaj>   your (pl.)   --   [Pokorny 1. i̯u- :: you (plural)]   --
3.97
<kam>   have   --   [Pokorny kap- :: to cop, grab, grasp; have?]   --
1.30, 2.23, 2.125, 2.160, 2.179, 2.223, 3.65, 3.115, 3.153
<karakter>   character   --   [Pokorny 2. g̑her- :: to gash, slit, scrape, scratch]   --
1.73
<këtu>   here   --
2.108
<klimë>   climate   --   [Pokorny k̑lei- :: to lean, incline, tip (over)]   --
2.187
<kohë>   time, weather   --   [Pokorny 1. kei(-t)- :: to observe with respect, pay attention to]   --
2.142, 2.161
<koicidencë>   coincidence   --
2.80
<kombëtar>   national   --
1.116
<komunë>   province   --   [Pokorny 2. mei- :: to change, mutate, exchange]   --
1.37
<kontratë>   contract   --   [Pokorny trāgh-, trō̆gh-, and trē̆gh- :: to drag, train, pull, move]   --
2.131
<Kosovë>   Kosovo   --
1.10, 1.69, 1.132, 1.181
<kryej>   carry out, perform   --
3.161
<kryhem>   be accomplished   --
2.269
<kthen>   turn, return, regain health   --
3.177
<kulturor>   cultural   --   [Pokorny 1. kel-, kelə- :: to turn; wheel; neck?]   --
1.207
<kundrejt>   opposite, towards   --
3.99, 3.102
<kur>   when   --   [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
2.143
<kushtetues>   constitutional   --
1.128
<ky, kjo>   this   --   [Pokorny so(s), :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --
2.76, 2.167, 2.242, 3.58, 3.192
<lag>   make wet   --
2.40
<lagët, e>   rainy, humid   --
2.206
<lart, e>   high, loud   --
3.95
<lavde>   praise   --   [Pokorny 3. lēu-, or lāu- :: (onomatopoeic: to bark, howl, etc.)]   --
3.149
<lexoj>   read   --
2.224
<>   leave   --   [Pokorny 3. lē(i)- :: to weaken, leave behind; feeble]   --
3.80
<libër>   book   --
2.221
<ligj>   law   --
1.51, 1.100, 1.119, 1.152
<liri>   liberty, freedom   --
1.137, 1.146, 3.131
<luftë>   war   --
2.110, 3.159
<luftoj>   fight   --
3.116, 3.127
<madh, e>   big, large, great   --
3.13, 3.181, 3.189
<mashkull>   male   --
1.201
<mbarë>   all, the entire   --
3.103
<mbi>   on, onto   --   [Pokorny ambhi, m̥bhi :: around, at both sides]   --
2.5, 2.46
<mbretëri>   kingdom   --
3.122
<mbrojtje>   defense, protection   --
1.89, 1.113, 1.158
<me>   with, by   --
1.50, 1.99, 1.118, 2.208, 2.232, 3.60, 3.92, 3.162
<meritoj>   deserve   --   [Pokorny (s)mer- :: to mourn, remember, think of, care for]   --
3.154
<>   more   --
3.30, 3.53, 3.187
<mënyrë>   manner   --
1.85, 1.108
<mësoj>   learn   --
2.180
<midis>   between, among   --
2.122, 2.181
<mirë, e>   good   --   [Pokorny 7. mēi- : mōi- : mī- :: mild, soft]   --
3.32
<mision>   mission   --   [Pokorny smeit-, smit- :: to throw]   --
2.264
<mjedis>   environment   --
1.160
<monoton>   monotonous   --
2.78
<mos>   NEGATOR   --   [Pokorny 1. mē- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   --
2.61, 3.175
<mosdiskriminim>   nondiscrimination   --   [Pokorny 1. mē- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   --
1.153
<mund>   can, may   --   [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   --
2.267
<mundësi>   possibility   --   [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   --
1.193
<mur>   wall   --   [Pokorny 1. mei- :: to mure, repair, strengthen; pole]   --
3.133
<Murat>   Murad   --
3.209
<ndarje>   separation   --
1.164
<nder>   honor   --
3.120
<ndërsë>   building   --
2.30
<ne>   we   --   [Pokorny 3. ne-, nō-, plural nē̆s-, nō̆s- :: we]   --
3.114
<>   in, on, at   --
1.7, 1.35, 1.42, 1.45, 1.48, 1.134, 1.202, 1.209, 2.93, 2.109, 2.128, 2.136, 2.141, 2.201, 2.220, 2.228, 2.271, 3.155, 3.178, 3.185
<nën>   under   --
3.164
<nënshkruaj>   sign   --
2.134
<nga>   from, through   --
2.95, 3.182, 3.194, 3.204
<nisem>   set out   --
2.178
<nivel>   level   --
1.36, 1.47
<nuk>   NEGATOR   --
2.238
<njeri>   human, person   --   [Pokorny 1. ner(-t)-, aner-, əner-? :: vital force; man]   --
1.148, 2.67
<një>   a, one   --
2.79, 2.96, 3.28, 3.51
<o>   VOCATIVE   --   [Pokorny 2. ō :: O (vocative particle)]   --
3.8
<ose>   or   --
1.38
<pajtim>   accordance   --
1.49
<pamje>   appearance   --
1.84
<pamundur, e>   impossible   --
3.7
<papritur, e>   unexpected, sudden   --
2.245
<paqe>   peace   --
1.138
<para>   before   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
2.175
<parë, e>   first   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
2.147
<parim>   principle   --
1.135
<pasqyroj>   reflect   --
1.72
<pëkundrazi>   quite the opposite   --
2.253
<për>   for, about   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
1.188, 1.196, 2.100, 2.186, 3.35, 3.40, 3.78, 3.83, 3.117, 3.119, 3.128, 3.130, 3.132
<për në>   into, towards   --
3.211
<përdorim>   use   --
1.43, 1.87, 1.110
<përfundimtar>   final   --
2.132
<përpjek>   try, strive   --
3.147
<përveç>   except   --
2.69
<përziej>   mix   --
2.13
<pistë>   runway   --
2.27
<pjesë>   part, section, share   --
3.186
<pjesëmarrje>   participation   --
1.197
<plogështi>   sloth, lethargy   --   [Pokorny 2. leg- :: to worry]   --
3.183
<plot>   fully, completely, quite   --   [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   --
3.61
<pluralizm>   pluralism   --
1.163
<po>   PROGRESSIVE   --
2.91
<politik>   political   --   [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   --
1.204
<por>   but, however   --
2.130, 2.217
<porsaardhur, e>   newly arrived   --
2.72
<pra>   so, therefore   --
2.155
<pranvëre>   spring   --
2.129
<pronë>   property   --
1.157
<pushtet>   power   --
1.166
<qeveri>   government   --
2.124
<>   since, from, beyond   --
2.127, 3.148
<>   that, which   --
2.200, 2.222, 3.10, 3.59
<qull>   drench   --
2.24
<rast>   case, opportunity   --
3.29, 3.52
<rend>   order   --
1.127
<republikë>   republic   --
1.8, 1.67, 1.130, 1.179
<respektim>   respect   --   [Pokorny spek̑- :: to watch, inspect, spy on]   --
1.141
<rojë>   garrison, guard   --
2.31
<rom>   Romani   --
1.29
<rregullohem>   be regulated   --
1.98, 1.117
<rrëmbej>   grab, seize   --
3.75
<sa>   as   --
3.57
<sa>   as many as, as soon as, as long as, so much   --
3.156, 3.158
<se>   that, than, because   --
2.176, 2.227, 2.257, 2.263, 3.56
<sepse>   because   --
3.203
<serb>   Serbian   --
1.16
<si>   as   --   [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
1.185
<siguroj>   ensure   --
1.182
<sikur>   as if, as though   --
2.59, 2.219
<simbol>   symbol   --   [Pokorny 2. gel-, gelə-, glē- :: to flow, drip down; throw]   --
1.64, 1.94, 1.115
<social>   social   --   [Pokorny 1. sek- :: to segue, follow]   --
1.162, 1.206
<sot>   today   --
3.20
<sqotë>   sleet   --
2.22
<status>   status   --
1.31
<stemë>   seal   --
1.60
<sukses>   success   --   [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   --
3.163
<sundim>   rule   --
1.150
<svetigradas>   inhabitant of Svetigrad   --   [Pokorny g̑herdh-, and gherdh- :: to gird, enclose, encompass]   --
3.9
<shetëror>   state   --
1.167
<shëmbëllë>   example   --
3.93
<shi>   rain   --   [Pokorny 1. seu-, seə- : sū- :: sop, soup, juice, liquid]   --
2.10, 2.77, 2.159, 2.209, 2.243, 2.272
<shkak>   reason   --
2.255
<shkëlqej>   shine   --
2.45
<shkruhem>   be written   --
2.226
<shoqëri>   society   --
1.192
<shoqëror>   social   --
1.215
<shpëtim>   rescue, salvation   --
3.129
<shqip>   Albanian   --
1.13
<Shqipëri>   Albania   --
2.94, 2.189, 2.202, 2.229
<shtet>   state   --   [Pokorny stā- : stə- :: to stand]   --
2.97
<shtetëror>   state   --   [Pokorny stā- : stə- :: to stand]   --
1.65, 1.97
<shumetnik>   multiethnic   --
1.74
<taman>   precisely   --
2.140
<tani>   now   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
3.76, 3.113, 3.123, 3.143
<>   SUBORDINATOR   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, tā-, ti̯o- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
1.40, 2.60, 2.74, 2.177, 2.225, 2.240, 2.268, 3.17, 3.33, 3.74, 3.79, 3.126, 3.146, 3.174, 3.207
<tërheqje>   pull, attraction, withdrawal   --
2.101
<tij, e>   his, its   --
2.163, 2.266
<tjetër, e>   other   --
1.96, 1.212, 2.68, 2.183
<tokë>   soil, land   --
2.6
<treg>   market   --
1.171
<trishtuar, e>   sad   --
2.82
<turk>   Turkish   --
1.25
<turp>   shame, disgrace   --
3.179
<thatë, e>   arid   --
2.236
<themelor>   basic   --
1.187
<u>   NON-ACTIVE   --
2.133
<udhëheqje>   leadership   --
3.165
<unë>   I   --
3.100
<ushtar>   soldier   --
2.105, 3.41
<varem>   hang, depend   --
3.193
<vetëm>   alone, only   --
2.135, 2.270
<vërtetë>   true   --
3.16
<vij>   come   --
2.92
<vjeshtë>   autumn   --
2.65, 2.157, 2.203, 2.230
<vlerë>   value   --
1.186
<vranësirë>   cloudy sky   --
2.145
<vras>   kill   --
2.107
<vulos>   seal, mark   --
3.82
<xhade>   highway   --
2.51
<zëmër>   heart   --
3.36
<zi, e>   black   --   [Pokorny gōu-, gū- :: dirt, dung]   --
2.49
<zjarrtë, e>   fiery, passionate   --   [Pokorny gher- :: warm, hot]   --
3.43
<zot>   master, lord, god   --
3.11
<zyrtar>   official   --
1.6, 1.34, 1.44
<zhvillim>   development   --
1.189