Yervanduni is the name given to a family whose members were appointed by the Medes and Persians as governors in Armenia over the period 585 - 200 B.C. At least four of these governors were named Yervand. Their ethnic background is not clear. Most now believe the Urartuan and Armenian ethnicities to have been distinct, and it is not certain from which culture the Yervandunis originated. The Yervandunis were related somehow to the Persians, if not by blood, at least through bonds of marriage.
By roughly 610 B.C., the Medes and Babylonians had divided the remnants of the Assyrian empire, and the Medes began to consolidate their power in the north. Having captured portions of Urartu and Mesopotamia, by 585 B.C. the Medes were a dominant force in the region. They appointed a Yervanduni family member to administer the Urartuan province.
Median hegemony did not last long. A number of the subjugated states rose in rebellion under the leadership of the Persian Cyrus. Among those rebelling were the Yervandunis. By 550 B.C. Cyrus had overthrown the Medes and established the beginnings of the Achaemenid dynasty, one which would greatly expand Persian influence through the exploits of Cyrus' son Cambyses, and later those of Darius I.
The reasons are not clear, but somehow, after the fall of the Urartuan kingdom, Armenian culture gained in prestige and was eventually recognized as one of the important satrapies listed by Darius I on the Behistun rock (ca. 520 B.C.). This is the first record of the name Armenia. Darius had apparently campaigned against the Armenians when they rose in revolt against his taxes. To quell such rebellious tendencies, Darius may have installed a governor from another family, since there is no mention of the Yervandunis until the next century.
Under Achaemenid rule, the Armenians were free to live according to their own cultural dictates, as long as they paid tribute to the Persian empire. Most of our knowledge of Armenia during this period comes from the Anabasis of Xenophon, who travelled through the region with Greek troops in 401 - 400 B.C. Xenophon tells of a ruler Yervand, who was son-in-law to the Persian king Artaxerxes I. The Armenian satrapy evidently consisted of a non-Armenian enclave in the highlands, perhaps remnants of the Urartuan culture, and whom some believe to be the ancestors of the modern Kurds. Xenophon mentions underground winter quarters in some towns, an abundance of food, and a type of beer drunk through a reed straw.
Persian culture left an indelible imprint in Armenia. Although Aramaic seems to have been the language of administration during this period, Armenian is infused with several words borrowed from Persian. Armenians also seem to have adopted many Persian social practices, as well as something of the Zoroastrian pantheon. The Armenians dedicated several temples and festivals to Anahit, goddess of fertility and wisdom.
By the middle of the fourth century B.C., the Achaemenid dynasty had fallen into decline, allowing the Yervandunis to consolidate their power and create a nearly autonomous Armenian province. Darius III, supported in battle by another Armenian satrap named Yervand, finally fell before the onslaught of Alexander the Great in roughly 330 B.C. Under Alexander, and, after his death in 323 B.C., under Seleucid reign, Greek culture began to impose itself on the region.
Alexander's conquests did not take him through Armenian territory, however, and so the fall of the Persian empire left the Yervandunis an opportunity for consolidating a completely independent rule over the Armenian region. Initially Alexander appointed governors over Armenia, but the Yervandunis led a revolt and refused taxation. They reasserted their autonomy later in the face of the Seleucids. In the end, three distinct regions opened up in the Armenian region. There was a western region, Lesser Armenia, which periodically fell under Seleucid rule and was never completely annexed by the Yervandunis. To the east of this was the region of Dsopk, which acted as a buffer region between Lesser Armenia and the third region, Greater Armenia, in which the Yervanduni foothold was firm. Yervanduni rule finally came to an end in roughly 200 B.C., when they were overthrown by the Armenian noble Artashes, incited to revolt by the Seleucids.
Moses Khorenatsi (that is, Moses of Khoren) is the father of Armenian history and is traditionally believed to have written in the fifth century A.D. Other scholars have suggested the seventh century. Some of his work is based on a mythological history, which he describes with the same belief as the later true historical renderings of the Persian era up to the establishment of Christianity. This reading is taken from his History, Book II, Chapter 30.
Ənd ayn žamanaks ekacʿ i gorc hazarapetutʿean kayser i veray Pʿiwnikecʿwocʿ ew Pałestinacʿwocʿ, Asorwocʿ ew Miǰagetacʿ, Maṙinos ordi Storgeay:
aṙ or aṙakʿeacʿ Abgaros erkus i glxaworacʿ iwrocʿ, zMarihab bdešxn Ałjneacʿ, ew zŠamšagram nahapet Apahuneacʿ tohmin, ew zAnan hawatarim iwr` i kʿałakʿn Betʿkʿubin, zgacʿucʿanel nma zpatčaṙs ertʿaloyn iwroy yarewels, cʿucʿanelov nma zgir uxtin` or ənd Artašēs ew ənd ełbars iwr, ew aṙnel zna tʿikuns ōgnakanutʿean :
Orocʿ ekeal gtin zna yElewtʿeroypōlis :
Ew nora ənkaleal znosa xałałutʿeamb ew mecaranōkʿ, aṙnē patasxani Abgaru: Mi kaskacēr i kayserē saks aynr, miayn zi harkeln liov pʿutʿascʿis :
Ew nocʿa darjeal anti, elin yErusałēm tesanel zPʿrkičʿn mer Kʿristos vasn lroy hambawocʿ skʿančʿelagorcutʿeancʿn: orum ew akanates ełeal patmecʿin Abgaru :
Ənd or zarmacʿeal Abgaru, hawatacʿ čšmartapēs ibr ardarew ordi Astucoy, ew asē: Ayn zōrutʿiwnkʿ očʿ mardoy en, ayl Astucoy: zi čʿikʿ okʿ i mardkanē or karē zmeṙeals yarucʿanel, baycʿ miayn Astuac :
Ew kʿanzi apakaneal ēr marminn iwr i čʿaračʿar cʿawocʿ, or patahecʿin nma i Parsicʿ ašxarhin yaṙaǰ kʿan zeawtʿn am, or i mardkanē očʿ ełew nma hnar bžškutʿean, et tanel nma tʿułtʿ ałačʿanacʿ, gal ew bžškel zna i cʿawocʿn
Ənd ayn žamanaks ekacʿ i gorc hazarapetutʿean kayser i veray Pʿiwnikecʿwocʿ ew Pałestinacʿwocʿ, Asorwocʿ ew Miǰagetacʿ, Maṙinos ordi Storgeay: aṙ or aṙakʿeacʿ Abgaros erkus i glxaworacʿ iwrocʿ, zMarihab bdešxn Ałjneacʿ, ew zŠamšagram nahapet Apahuneacʿ tohmin, ew zAnan hawatarim iwr` i kʿałakʿn Betʿkʿubin, zgacʿucʿanel nma zpatčaṙs ertʿaloyn iwroy yarewels, cʿucʿanelov nma zgir uxtin` or ənd Artašēs ew ənd ełbars iwr, ew aṙnel zna tʿikuns ōgnakanutʿean : Orocʿ ekeal gtin zna yElewtʿeroypōlis : Ew nora ənkaleal znosa xałałutʿeamb ew mecaranōkʿ, aṙnē patasxani Abgaru: Mi kaskacēr i kayserē saks aynr, miayn zi harkeln liov pʿutʿascʿis : Ew nocʿa darjeal anti, elin yErusałēm tesanel zPʿrkičʿn mer Kʿristos vasn lroy hambawocʿ skʿančʿelagorcutʿeancʿn: orum ew akanates ełeal patmecʿin Abgaru : Ənd or zarmacʿeal Abgaru, hawatacʿ čšmartapēs ibr ardarew ordi Astucoy, ew asē: Ayn zōrutʿiwnkʿ očʿ mardoy en, ayl Astucoy: zi čʿikʿ okʿ i mardkanē or karē zmeṙeals yarucʿanel, baycʿ miayn Astuac : Ew kʿanzi apakaneal ēr marminn iwr i čʿaračʿar cʿawocʿ, or patahecʿin nma i Parsicʿ ašxarhin yaṙaǰ kʿan zeawtʿn am, or i mardkanē očʿ ełew nma hnar bžškutʿean, et tanel nma tʿułtʿ ałačʿanacʿ, gal ew bžškel zna i cʿawocʿn
At that time Marinus, son of Storgius, took the post of the emperor's chiliarch over the Phoenicians and Palestinians, the Syrians and Mesopotamians. And to him Abgar sent two from among his notables, Mar Ihab, the consul of Aghjnik', and Shamshagram, a senior prince of the dynasty of the Apahunis, as well as Anan his confidant, to the city of Bet-Kubin, to inform him of the reasons of his going to the East by showing him the text of the agreement which was between Artashes and his brothers, and to make him an aid of his support. And they, upon arriving, found him in Eleutheropolis. And he, having received them with peace and honor, gave an answer to Abgar: Do not doubt the emperor on account of this, merely that you hasten to pay his tribute off in full. And they, having returned from there, went up to Jerusalem to see our Savior Christ on account of hearing the news of the miracles; and being witness to this, they recounted this to Abgar. Astonished at this, Abgar recognized him truly as son of God, and said: "These marvels are not of man but of God, for there is no one among men who is able to raise the dead, save God alone." And because his own body was corrupted by terrible pains, which had befallen him in the land of the Persians seven years before, and which among men there was not for him a means of curing, he granted to be taken to him a letter of entreaty to come and cure him of his pains....
The remaining declensions of nouns and adjectives have variable stems. For the most part these stems end in the resonants r, ł, n. Some substantives retain the resonant throughout the paradigm, while others do not. Of those that do, one finds changes in the stem-vowel preceding the resonant.
An important distinction must be made between the concepts of stem variation and vocalic alternation. Vocalic alternation occurs whenever a morpheme is added which changes the stress of a word. It is an automatic process and occurs according to the rules described in the first lesson. It therefore plays no functional role in declension. Thus words such as aṙaǰin 'first' (GDAb aṙaǰnoy), surb 'holy' (GDAb srboy), loys 'light' (GDAb lusoy), mēǰ 'middle' (GDAb miǰoy) all show regular vocalic alternation as a result of addition of the morpheme -oy, which entails a change in stress. These are therefore all invariable-stem substantives, just as e.g. Astuac 'God' (GDAb Astuacoy), beran 'mouth' (GDAb beranoy), get 'river' (GDAb getoy). Stem variation, by contrast, is bound to declension; it is not the result of automatic stress shift and, as such, is in and of itself indicative of the case of a given noun. Thus azn 'kind, race' displays forms NAc Sg. azn and GDL Sg. azin; the variation is not conditioned by any stress shift due to addition of a morpheme. It may happen, however, that in some words both stem variation and vocalic alternation take place: jukn 'fish', GDL *jukan > jkan; dustr 'daughter', GDL *duster > dster; leaṙn 'mountain', GDL *learin > lerin.
In general the declensions of variable stem substantives may be distinguished on the basis of whether the noun uses two or three stem variants within a paradigm. The following chart shows some possibilities of the two-stem declensions. The term 'obliques' specifies any case not explicitly mentioned under one stem or another.
|Stem 1: N Ac sg.||Stem 2: obliques, N Ac L pl.|
|Nouns in -r, -ł|
|Nouns in -n|
|Stem 1: N Ac sg./pl., L pl.||Stem 2: obliques|
|Nouns in -n|
|Most nouns in -iwn|
On the other hand there are three-stem declensions. These may be broken down as follows.
|Stem 1: N Ac sg.||Stem 2: obliques||Stem 3: N Ac L pl.|
|Most nouns in -n|
|Action nouns in -umn|
|Words lacking -n in N Ac sg.|
|Stem 1: N Ac sg.||Stem 2: G D L (Ab) sg., N Ac L pl.||Stem 3: obliques|
|azn 'nation, race'||azin-||azan-|
The ablative singular is usually built from Stem 2, sometimes with loss of the vowel preceding -n; occasionally the ablative singular is built from Stem 3.
Certainly other classification systems are possible, and indeed, each grammar of Classical Armenian tends to have its own idiosyncratic declensional scheme. Notable among these is the system used by Schmitt in Grammatik des Klassisch-Armenischen. Schmitt sets out declensions according to theme: e.g. a-, i-, etc. declension, r-, l-, n-stem; he then divides some of these into Primary Type (Haupttypus, here Ht) and Secondary Type (Nebentypus, here Nt). These types may be further divided into subclasses A and B, and these further into 1 and 2. In the following, where easily discernible, Schmitt's classification will be noted among the paradigms in order to facilitate the transition to previous work in the field. When necessary, the theme will be explicitly mentioned with the abbreviation T, so that T-u refers to the u-declension.
All nouns ending in ł and most ending in r retain these consonants in the oblique cases; in cases other than the N and Ac the vowel -e- intercedes between the base and -ł/-r. Still other nouns show a diphthong, e.g. ew, in the N and Ac singular which is shortened to e in the remaining forms. The nouns oskr 'bone', ałbewr 'source, fountain', and astł 'star', illustrate the declensions.
|T-r, Ht||T-r, Nt-A||T-ł|
Nouns whose stem ends in -n are quite common in Classical Armenian. Many of these display two stems in their declension. Nouns of this sort fall into two categories according to which cases display different stems. In particular, one finds the types
Again, the term 'oblique' refers to any case not explicitly mentioned. Examples of type-(a) are given by the nouns kołmn 'side', stems kołmn-/kołman-; and anun 'name', stems anun-/anuan-. Examples of type-(b) are given by the nouns tun 'house', stems tun-/tan-; and gerutʿiwn 'imprisonment', stems gerutʿiwn-/gerutʿean-.
|Ht B||Ht B||Nt B2||Nt B1|
Some n-stem nouns display three stems throughout their declension. These also may be divided into two categories based on which stem appears in each case.
In nouns of type-(d), the ablative is typically built from stem 2, but occasionally from stem 3. Type-(c) is illustrated by the nouns duṙn 'door', stems duṙn-/dran-/drun-; šaržumn 'imprisonment', stems šaržumn-/šaržman-/šaržmun-; manuk 'child', stems manuk-/mankan-/mankun-; ałǰik 'maiden', stems ałǰik-/ałǰkan-/ałǰkun-. Type-(d) is illustrated by the nouns azn 'race, kind', stems azn-/azin-/azan-; gaṙn 'lamb', stems gaṙn-/gaṙin-/gaṙan-.
|Ht B||Ht B||Ht B||Ht B||Ht A||Ht A|
Notice the forms aznē and gaṙnē, shortened from azinē and gaṙinē respectively.
Some nouns exhibit features of both the (c) and (d) declension types. Examples are the nouns tʿoṙn 'grandchild' and harsn 'bride'.
|Nt A||Nt A|
Classical Armenian has three demonstrative suffixes which are attached to the end of nouns. These are
These correlate roughly to the use of Latin hic, iste, and ille, respectively. These particles, however, are indeclinable. Since Classical Armenian has no articles as such, an unqualified noun may be either definite or indefinite; these demonstrative suffixes are often used for marking a noun as definite (and in that sense overlap with z-, which is pre-posed on definite nouns in the accusative). In this role -n is by far the most commonly used; -s and -d are reserved for particular emphasis or change of subject. Note the possibility of overlap, e.g. ajss could be either ays 'evil spirit' plus the accusative plural ending -s, or the same noun in the singular but with the deictic suffix -s. Moreover, one may find aysss, that is, ajs + Ac Pl. -s + suffix -s.
There are a few tendencies in the usage of the demonstrative suffixes. Proper names rarely take demonstrative suffixes, e.g. tʿagawor-n Parsicʿ 'the king of the Persians', where English inserts before 'Persians' an article which is not present in the Armenian. Another example is Aršak arkʿay 'Arshak the king'. When an adjective modifies a noun, typically only the noun receives a demonstrative suffix, e.g. vkayn surb 'the holy martyr'. If a noun in the genitive qualifies a definite noun, typically the last word of the collocation receives the demonstrative suffix, e.g. barekan tʿagawori-n 'the king's friend, the friend of the king'. Vocatives use the suffix -d, e.g. Kʿristos-d 'O Christ'. Adjectives used as substantives may take demonstrative suffixes, as in čʿarn 'the evil one, Satan'; aṙakʿealkʿn 'the ones sent, the apostles', built from the participle aṙakʿeal 'sent'; gełecʿikd 'O beautiful one'.
Relative clauses may also take a demonstrative suffix. The suffix -s, -d, or -n is added to the first stressed word of the relative clause.
The same threefold distinction as in the suffixes -s, -d, -n is found in the demonstrative adjectives ajs 'this here', ayd 'that', ayn 'that over there'. These adjectives also have a long form which is used as an emphatic. The threefold distinction is also made in the demonstrative pronouns sa, da, na, which may also function as the third person pronoun. Likewise the distinction is made in the pronoun and adjective soyn 'this same', doyn 'that same', noyn 'that same there'. The paradigms of the -n series are given below to illustrate the declensions.
|ay-s, -d, -n||ay- (emph.)||s-, d-, n-a||s-, d-, n-oyn|
|N Pl.||aynkʿ||aynokʿik||nokʿa||nokʿin, noynkʿ|
|Ab||ayncʿ, ayncʿanē||aynocʿik||nocʿa, nocʿanē||nocʿin, nocʿuncʿ|
Classical Armenian has a two-stem verbal system, wherein each verb form pertains either to a present or to an aorist stem of a given root. Generally, one or both of the stems will contain a suffix inserted directly after the root, thus preceding the thematic vowel in present forms and preceding the endings in aorist forms. There are several such suffixes in the present system (-an-, -n-, -čʿ-, -nčʿ-), but only one type, namely -(V)cʿ-, in the aorist system. There are five basic distinctions in the two-stem system:
(a) Aorist stem extended:
(b) Present stem extended:
(c) Both stems extended:
|l-n-um||'I fill'||l-cʿ-i (3rd Sg. elicʿ, from root li-)|
(d) Neither stem extended:
|nst-im||'I sit down'||nst-ay (root nist-)|
(e) Suppletive system:
Aorists without suffixes are termed root aorists. Other terms are strong or second aorists. Aorists with the -(V)cʿ suffix are sometimes known as weak or first aorists.
The distinction between present and aorist is not one of tense, but of aspect. Both imperfect and aorist indicative are past tenses; both present and aorist subjunctive lack tense altogether. Verbal forms built from the present stem denote a continuous, ongoing action -- an action in its development. By contrast, verbs forms built from the aorist stem refer to the completion of the action. These distinctions are without regard to the actual point on a timeline at which an action occurs; they point to the nature of the action described. In principle, then, one could find "present aorist" forms, "past present" forms, and so on. "Past present" forms, in this sense denoting past actions with continuous aspect, are essentially what the imperfect tense represents. There are no specifically "present aorist", that is, present completive forms; however the occasional use of the aorist subjunctive in the role of a future displays how the aorist may be used in reference to completive actions in the "non-past".
The aorist system also distinguishes two voices, active (A) and mediopassive (MP), by different sets of endings. The distinctions are discussed in the next lesson.
The endings of the aorist indicative are as follows.
|2||-ēkʿ, -ikʿ||-aykʿ, -arukʿ|
The verbs argelum 'I hinder' and nstim 'I sit' illustrate root aorist paradigms. The verbs orsam 'I hunt' and hayim 'I look' illustrate aorists with the suffix -(V)cʿ.
|root, A||-Vcʿ, A||root, MP||-Vcʿ, MP|
|2||argelēkʿ, argelikʿ||orsacʿēkʿ, orsacʿikʿ||nstaykʿ, nstarukʿ||hayecʿaykʿ, hayecʿarukʿ|
The ending -arukʿ of the second person plural sometimes shows up as -erukʿ in certain verbs. For example, čanačʿem 'I know' has aorist caneay 'I knew', with 2nd Pl. canerukʿ.
A given root may take endings of both active and mediopassive voices, such as sirem 'I love' and berem 'I carry'.
|-Vcʿ, A||-Vcʿ, MP||root, A||root, MP|
|'love'||'be loved'||'carry'||'be carried'|
|2||sirecʿēkʿ, sirecʿikʿ||sirecʿaykʿ||berēkʿ, berikʿ||beraykʿ|
Note that forms which would otherwise be monosyllabic take an augment e, hence eber. The augment does not appear when the monosyllable begins with a vowel, e.g. 3 Sg. A ac from the verb acem 'I lead'. In the post-classical period, such forms also gained an augment: ēac. Note also the alternation ea/e, with ea showing in positions where the syllable carries stress, hence sireacʿ. In general, when the stem is subject to vowel alternation, the full grade is displayed in the 3rd Sg.; examples are the following.
|1st Sg.||2nd Sg.||3rd Sg.|
|kl-i 'I swallowed'||kl-er||ekul|
|lcʿ-i 'I filled'||lcʿ-er||elicʿ|
|iǰ-i 'I came down'||iǰ-er||ēǰ|
|anic-i 'I cursed'||anic-er||anēc|
|luc-i 'I loosened'||luc-er||eloyc|
|pʿaxucʿ-i 'I chased'||pʿaxucʿ-er||pʿaxoycʿ|
|kecʿ-i 'I lived'||kecʿ-er||ekeacʿ|
|atecʿ-i 'I hated'||atecʿ-er||ateacʿ|
The last two forms are not examples of the -(V)cʿ aorist suffix, but rather of regular vowel alternation in the verbal root itself: present indicative keam, ateam.
Root aorists in -eay are built on i-stems, e.g. pʿaxeay 'I fled' < *pʿaxi-ay and sarteay 'I startled' < *sarti-ay. Such aorists at times have modified endings in other portions of the aorist system.
The marker of the aorist subjunctive is -icʿ-, becoming -ycʿ- after a. In unstressed syllables, the i drops. Only the second person plural breaks this pattern, showing -ǰikʿ instead. Thus the aorist subjunctive endings are as follows.
These endings are added to the aorist stem. Note that extended polysyllabic aorist stems change cʿ to s before a consonant. Thus we have the following example paradigms.
|root, A||-Vcʿ, A||root, MP||-Vcʿ, MP|
Monosyllabic stems do not display such dissimilation, e.g. lacʿicʿ, lacʿcʿes, etc.
The alternate mediopassive endings are found for some anomalous verbs and for i-stem aorists. For example, pʿaxeay 'I fled' shows subjunctive forms pʿaxeaycʿ, pʿaxicʿes, pʿaxicʿē, 3rd Pl. pʿaxicʿen.
The aorist imperative has only second person forms. The endings are as follows.
|2 Sg.||-||-ir, -|
|2 Pl.||-ēkʿ, -ikʿ||-arukʿ, -aykʿ|
Note that the second person plural forms are the same as those of the aorist indicative. Sample paradigms are given for the verbs berem 'I carry' and sirem 'I love'.
|2 Sg.||ber||berir, ber||sirea||sireacʿ|
|2 Pl.||berēkʿ, berikʿ||berarukʿ||sirecʿēkʿ, sirecʿikʿ||sirecʿarukʿ|
The mediopassive ending -ir always occurs in verbs with extended present stems:
|Present||Aorist||Imper. Sg.||Imper. Pl.|
|hecanim 'I ride'||hecay||hecir||hecarukʿ|
|daṙnam 'I turn'||darjay||darjir||darjarukʿ|
|pʿaxčʿim 'I flee'||pʿaxeay||pʿaxir||pʿaxerukʿ|
|zgenum 'I dress'||zgecʿay||zgecʿir||zgecʿarukʿ|
and occasionally in verbs with present in -anam, aorist -acʿay:
|Present||Aorist||Imper. Sg.||Imper. Pl.|
|imanam 'I understand'||imacʿay||imacʿir, ima||imacʿarukʿ|
|moṙanam 'I forget'||moṙacʿay||moṙacʿir, moṙa||moṙacʿarukʿ|
Otherwise, the second person singular is generally identical to the bare aorist stem. Polysyllabic aorists in -cʿ-, however, have the following tendencies:
(a) -acʿ reduces to -a:
|Present||Aorist||Imper. Sg.||Imper. Pl.|
|asem 'I say'||asacʿi||asa||asacʿēkʿ|
|hawatam 'I believe'||hawatacʿi||hawata||hawatacʿēkʿ|
|yusam 'I hope'||yusacʿay||yusa||yusacʿarukʿ|
(b) -ecʿ changes to -ea in the active, to -eacʿ in the mediopassive:
|Present||Aorist||Imper. Sg.||Imper. Pl.|
|grem 'I write'||grecʿi||grea||grecʿēkʿ|
|hayim 'I look'||hayecʿay||hayeacʿ||hayecʿarukʿ|
Monosyllabic stems in -cʿ do not undergo such changes:
|Present||Aorist||Imper. Sg.||Imper. Pl.|
|lam 'I cry'||lacʿi||lacʿ||lacʿēkʿ|
|keam 'I live'||kecʿi||keacʿ||kecʿēkʿ|
|banam 'I open'||bacʿi||bacʿ||bacʿēkʿ|
|lnum 'I fill'||lcʿi||licʿ||lcʿēkʿ|
Root aorist stems remain unaltered:
|Present||Aorist||Imper. Sg.||Imper. Pl.|
|argelum 'I hinder'||argeli||argel||argelēkʿ|
|baṙnam 'I lift'||barji||barj||barjēkʿ|
|arkanem 'I throw'||arki||ark||arkēkʿ|
|nstim 'I sit'||nstay||nist||nstarukʿ|
Also noteworthy are the second person endings -ǰir (Sg.) and -ǰikʿ added to aorist stems to form the so-called cohortative. These parallel the present endings -iǰir and -iǰikʿ added to -em and -im presents. The cohortative forms play a role essentially like an imperative. The verb argelum 'I hinder' illustrates the forms.
The difference is perhaps akin to that of Latin imperative as against second person subjunctive: prohibe (imp.) 'hinder!' vs. prohibeas (coh.) 'let you hinder'.
There are some general tendencies in the formation of adverbs in Classical Armenian. Adverbs generally derive from two souces: (1) frozen use of oblique cases; (2) special endings. The most common formations are discussed below.
Adverbs of Mode are often formed from
Adverbs of Time are often derived from frozen case forms. Examples are aysawr 'today', the accusative of ays awr 'this day'; ayžm 'now', accusative of ays žam 'this time'; vałiw (also i vałiw or i vałiw andr) 'tomorrow', instrumental of vał 'soon'; erek 'yesterday', locative of erek 'evening'; aysu hetew 'from now onward; consequently', instrumental of ays het 'this track, this trail'; orov hetew 'since; because', instrumental of or het 'which track'.
Adverbs of Place generally have the same threefold distinction as the demonstratives (-s, -d, -n), and answer to questions of y⁰o 'to where?', ⁰ur 'where?', and ust⁰i 'from where?'. The following table summarizes the distinction.
|from||asti, astust||ayti||anti, andust|
There are emphatic forms with the ending -ēn: astēn, aydrēn, andēn 'in the same place'.
One may construct a similar table based upon the distinction 'in', 'out', 'above'.
|to||i nerkʿs||artakʿs||i ver|
|at||i nerkʿoy||artakʿoy||i veroy, i veray|
|from||i nerkʿust||artakʿust||i verust|
The phrase i vayr 'down', from the word vayr 'field', is often used in opposition to i ver 'above'.
Classical Armenian makes use of several particles. The most common are listed below for convenience.
aha 'lo! behold!'. Interjection.
ayl 'but, rather', typically contrasting opposites, e.g. očʿ eki lucanel , ayl lnul 'I have not come to destroy, but to fulfil'. The form is A Sg. of ayl 'other, another'.
apa 'then, afterwards, later', marking the sequence of events. apa (uremn) 'therefore' may signify logical conclusion, e.g. apa uremn azat en ordikʿn 'therefore the sons are free'. apa 'or' may signify the second of two alternatives. apa 'then' may mark the apodosis ('then'-clause) of a conditional statement.
ard 'now; so, then'. The basic meaning is 'now', but may be used in the continuation of a thought.
baycʿ 'except, but'. The basic sense is 'except': očʿ okʿ i nocʿanē koreaw baycʿ ordin korstean 'no one among them perished, save the son of ruin'. baycʿ 'but' may be used in a limiting sense: hogis yawžar ē baycʿ marmins tkar 'the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak'.
ew 'also, too, and'. Conjunction linking words or clauses. Also found in extended form ews 'also, still, moreover, besides'.
zi 'that, because' with indicative verb, introducing causal statements; 'so that, so as to' with verbs in the subjunctive, introducing result clauses. The form z-i is A Sg. of the relative-interrogative pronoun. It is often closely allied with other adverbs: kʿanzi 'because'; vasn zi 'since'; orpēs zi 'so that', with subjunctive; minčʿ zi 'until, up to'; pʿoxanak zi 'in place of'.
tʿe, etʿe '(quote)', introducing direct speech or a direct question; 'whether, whether...or' introducing dependent or indirect questions, or twofold questions; 'that' with subjunctive, introducing result clauses; 'if' with indicative or subjunctive verb, introducing different types of conditional statements. This particle has a very broad range, with many nuances beyond those mentioned here.
tʿepēt 'although'. It may be followed by a verb in the indicative or subjunctive, according to sense.
ibr, ibrew 'like, as', used for comparison with z and the accusative of the object of comparison, e.g. linicʿikʿ ibrew zastyacs 'you will be as gods'; 'about, approximately' used in apposition with numbers; 'as, as soon as, while, after' with temporal clauses.
isk 'truly, indeed, but'. isk ew isk is used in the sense of 'immediately': ew isk ew isk etes i tesleann 'and immediately he saw in the dream'.
kam 'or', kam...kam 'either...or'. Disjunctive particle. Originally meaning 'as one wants, as you like, as you will'.
minčʿ, minčʿew 'until, up to, as far as, as, during, while, as long as' with finite verb or infinitive, introducing temporal or consecutive statements. It may also be used with i before nouns. The collocation minčʿ čʿew is used in the sense 'before'. minčʿ deṙ is used in the sense 'while, as'.
na 'then'. One also finds na ew 'and also'.
sakayn 'but, however', often used in the sense 'under such conditions'.
kʿan 'than'. Comparative particle, used with z and the accusative of the object of comparison: sirecʿin mardik zxawar aṙawel kʿan zloys 'the men loved the shadow more than the light'; hzawragoyn kʿan zna 'someone stronger than he'.