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Classical Armenian Online

Lesson 5

Todd B. Krause, John A.C. Greppin, and Jonathan Slocum

Arshak II and the Partitioning of Armenia

Under Constantine, rumblings of division within the Roman empire shifted attention away from the eastern provinces. This left Armenia with little hope of assistance against the onslaughts of the new Sasanid king, Shapur II (309 - 379 A.D.). It was amidst his attacks on Armenia and Syria, and in response to the Zoroastrian proselytizing, that Trdat the Great had chosen to make Armenia a Christian state.

Just who ruled Armenia after Trdat the Great remains veiled in obscurity. The next ruler to emerge, about whom some certain information is known, was Arshak II. It is not clear, however, if his reign began in 338 or 350 A.D. Under his rule, Armenia entered a period of restructuring, which began with the Church. A descendant of Gregory, Nerses I, became the catholicos and forbade the practice of any non-Christian religions. Permitting married men to join the clergy, he established church hierarchy wherein non-celibate clergy were subordinate to the celibate clerics. Arshak, however, was a proponent of the Arian doctrine, and when Nerses would not fall in line with this view, Arshak had him replaced. Such leniency was not granted to other nobles, whom Arshak had killed if they voiced any opposition.

Arshak's position of relative security faltered when Shapur II defeated the emperor Julian and forced his successor Jovian to cede Armenia to Persia in 364 A.D. Arshak and his general Vasak Mamikonian were taken to Persia and blinded, and Arshak's wife was likewise killed. Only his son Pap escaped to Pontus. Armenia was thus subject to Persian domination, and Zoroastrianism was imposed as the state religion.

Rome finally took initiative in 367 A.D., supplying troops to Arshak's son Pap and an Armenian general Mushegh Mamikonian, who managed to re-take Armenia from the Persians. Pap invited Nerses to return as catholicos; but Pap's pro-Arian views, in line with those of the emperor Valens, led to dissent within the Church. Nerses was eventually killed and Mushegh Mamikonian, together with several nobles, turned against Pap. The nobles split the region of Dsopk into five districts, independent and under the protection of Rome. Pap was murdered in 374 A.D., and the nephew who succeeded him was soon replaced by a Mamikonian. The death of Shapur in 379 A.D. and the partition of the Roman empire into the Western and Eastern empires changed the political climate, and the Mamikonians eventually restored Pap's two sons to the throne, marrying them to Mamikonian women.

Pap's younger son, Arshak III, was forced to flee to the western regions in 385 A.D., and the Arshakuni prince Khosrov IV was elevated to king by the pro-Persian nobles. In 387 A.D., the emperor Theodosius and Shapur III decided to partition Armenia, and Arshak III was given reign over the Byzantine-controlled western region. Khosrov IV continued to rule over Greater Armenia subject to Sasanid domination. When Arshak died, no new Armenian king was appointed, and the Arshakuni line came to an end in Byzantine Armenia. In the east, Khosrov was followed by Vramshapuh (389 - 417 A.D.). Under Vramshapuh, Sahak was named catholicos, the last one of the line of Gregory the Illuminator.

The Armenian Alphabet

The partition of Armenia into west and east divisions subject to the dominion of different empires was a force threatening to dissolve the sense of a national Armenian identity. A similar problem plagued the Armenian Church: in much of Armenia the Syrian liturgy was used and threatened the authority of the Armenian Church; Byzantium was rapidly becoming the dominant regional power in church matters; paganism and Zoroastrianism still had a foothold in Armenian territory. This was the situation which faced Vramshapuh and the catholicos Sahak. Their solution was to codify the identity of the Armenian people through their language. For this an alphabet was needed, one distinct from those of the neighboring regions. This was the task which they charged to Mesrop Mashtots, a cleric born in the province of Taron, and who had studied Greek and Syriac.

Sometime between 400 and 407 A.D., having studied other alphabets and having consulted different calligraphers, Mesrop created the Armenian alphabet. The Sasanid rulers of the time were tolerant, and Mesrop's students were able to open schools for teaching the alphabet. The Byzantine emperor Theodosius II allowed them to do the same in Byzantine Armenia. The Armenians then entered into a period of translating works from other languages, beginning with the Bible and other liturgical material. Translations of classical works of philosophy, rhetoric, and grammar soon followed, with manuscripts of Aristotle's works becoming particularly prevalent. Voluminous translation continued from the fifth to seventh centuries, when Arab invasion curbed their efforts. Original works began to be composed after the end of the Arshakuni line, signalled by the death of Vramshapuh's son Artashes IV in 428 A.D.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Yeznik Kolbatsi, that is, Yeznik of Kolb, was probably born in A.D. 400, but the date of his death is not known. The purpose of his writing was to maintain orthodoxy and to repel heresies and other religious systems that opposed Christianity. His work Against the Sects is in four books: (1) Against the Heresy of Sects; (2) Against the Religion of the Persians; (3) Against the Religion of the Greek Philosopher; (4) Against the Marcion Heresy. This passage is from Book 1, Chapter 12.

Արդ եւ զայն եւս հարցանեն։ եթէ չար ինչ չկայր առաջի, ուստի՞ օձն՝ զոր սատանայ կոչէք՝ իմացաւ զհանգամանս չարին :

  • արդ -- adverb; <արդ> now; so, then -- accordingly
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- But
  • զայն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + pronoun; accusative singular of <այն> that, that over there -- this
  • եւս -- adverb; <եւս> also, too -- also
  • հարցանեն -- verb; 3rd plural present of <հարցանեմ> I ask -- they ask
  • եթէ -- conjunction; <եթե> that; if; or -- If
  • չար -- adjective; undeclined form of <չար> bad, evil -- evil
  • ինչ -- noun; nominative singular of <ինչ> thing -- thing
  • չկայր -- negative prefix; <չ՟> not + verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <կամ> I am, exist -- no-... existed
  • առաջի -- adverb; <առաջի> before, earlier -- before
  • ուստի -- interrogative adverb; <ուստի> from where, whence -- whence
  • օձն -- noun; nominative singular of <աւձ> snake, serpent + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- the serpent
  • զոր -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + relative pronoun; accusative singular of <որ> who, what, which -- which
  • սատանայ -- proper noun; accusative singular of <սատանայ> Satan -- Satan
  • կոչէք -- verb; 2nd plural present of <կոչեմ> I call, name -- you call
  • իմացաւ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <իմանամ> I learn, understand -- did... learn
  • զհանգամանս -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative plural of <հանգամանք> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the characteristics
  • չարին -- adjective used as substantive; genitive singular of <չար> bad, evil + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- of Evil

Ասեմք, եթէ սատանայ չար զստունգանելն մարդոյն Աստուծոյ իմացաւ, վասն որոյ զմարդն յայն յօժարեցոյց :

  • ասեմք -- verb; 1st singular present of <ասեմ> I say -- We say
  • եթէ -- conjunction; <եթե> that; if; or -- that
  • սատանայ -- proper noun; nominative singular of <սատանայ> Satan -- Satan
  • չար -- noun; accusative singular of <չար> evil -- (as) evil
  • զստունգանելն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + verb; infinitive accusative singular of <ստունգանեմ> I disobey, am disobedient + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- disobedience
  • մարդոյն -- noun; genitive singular of <մարդ> man + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- man's
  • Աստուծոյ -- proper noun; dative singular of <Աստուած> God -- to God
  • իմացաւ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <իմանամ> I learn, understand -- understood
  • վասն -- preposition; <վասն> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- on account of
  • որոյ -- relative pronoun; genitive singular of <որ> who, what, which -- which
  • զմարդն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative singular of <մարդ> man + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- man
  • յայն -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <այն> that, that over there -- to this
  • յօժարեցոյց -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <յաւժարեցուցանեմ> I incite, drive -- he induced # causative of յաւժարեմ 'I stimulate, prompt; persuade'

Որպէս յորժամ իցէ ոք ուրուք թշնամի, եւ թագուցեալ զթշնամութիւնն՝ գաղտ կամիցի վնասել, եւ չգիտիցէ զհանգամանս վնասակարութեանն, եւ շուրջ եկեալ յածիցի հնարս խնդրել։

  • որպէս -- relative adverb; <որպէս> just as, likewise -- It is like # correlates with Նոյնպէս below
  • յորժամ -- relative adverb; <յորժամ> when -- when
  • իցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <եմ> I am -- would be
  • ոք -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular of <ոք> someone, anyone -- one
  • ուրուք -- indefinite pronoun; genitive singular of <ոք> someone, anyone -- another's
  • թշնամի -- noun; nominative singular of <թշնամի> enemy, adversary -- enemy
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • թագուցեալ -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <թագուցանեմ> I hide, conceal -- having concealed
  • զթշնամութիւնն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative singular of <թշնամութիւն> enmity + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- (his) enmity
  • գաղտ -- adverb; <գաղտ> in secret -- secretly
  • կամիցի -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <կամիմ> I wish -- he would... wish
  • վնասել -- verb; infinitive used as complement <վնասեմ> I harm -- to harm (him)
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- yet
  • չգիտիցէ -- negative prefix <չ՟> not + verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <գիտեմ> I know -- he would not know
  • զհանգամանս -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative plural of <հանգամանք> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the nature
  • վնասակարութեանն -- noun; genitive singular of <վնասակարութիւն> harm, damage + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- of the harm
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • շուրջ -- adverb; <շուրջ> around -- around
  • եկեալ -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <գամ> I come, go -- having come
  • յածիցի -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <յածիմ> I wander, roam -- he would wander
  • հնարս -- noun; accusative plural of <հնարք> means; inventiveness, skill; cure -- means
  • խնդրել -- verb; infinitive used as complement <խնդրեմ> I search, seek -- in search of

ապա գտեալ ժամանակ՝ յորժամ ոք ի բժշկաց թշնամւոյն նորա պատուէր տայցէ յայս ինչ չհպել, եւ յայս նիշ կերակրոց չճաշակել, որով առողջութեանն կարիցէ հասանել, եւ նորա լուեալ՝ վաղվաղակի ի կեղծիս բարեկամութեան կեղծաւորեալ՝ զբժիշկն պարսաւիցէ, եւ զօգտակարսն նմա վնասակարս թելադրեալ կարծեցուցանիցէ, եւ հակառակ պատուէրս հրամանաց բժշկին տայցէ, եւ այնու առնիցէ նմա վնաս։

  • ապա -- conjunction; <ապա> but; then, afterwards, later -- then
  • գտեալ -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <գտանեմ> I find, get, obtain -- having found
  • ժամանակ -- noun; accusative singular of <ժամանակ> time -- the time
  • յորժամ -- relative adverb; <յորժամ> when -- when
  • ոք -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular of <ոք> someone, anyone -- someone
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- among
  • բժշկաց -- noun; ablative plural of <բժշիկ> physician, healer -- the physicians
  • թշնամւոյն -- noun; dative singular of <թշնամի> enemy, adversary -- to... adversary
  • նորա -- pronoun; genitive singular of <նա> he, she, it -- his
  • պատուէր -- noun; accusative singular of <պատուէր> command, order -- an order
  • տայցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <տամ> I give; permit, let -- would give
  • յայս -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + demonstrative adjective; accusative singular of <այս> this, this right here -- this
  • ինչ -- noun; accusative singular of <ինչ> thing -- thing
  • չհպել -- negative prefix <չ՟> not + verb; infinitive accusative singular of <հպեմ> I approach, near, touch -- not to touch
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • յայս նիշ -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + demonstrative adjective; accusative singular of <այս> this, this right here + noun; accusative singular of <նիշ> sign, mark -- such a (type)
  • կերակրոց -- noun; genitive plural of <կերակուր> different dishes; food; meal -- of food # if նիշ is here truly nominal, then կերակրոց is a genitive dependent on նիշ; if այս նիշ is treated together as an adjectival whole, then կերակրոց could be an ablative in a construction with ճաշակել ի + abl. 'to partake of', and այս նիշ would be an undeclined adjective preceding its noun
  • չճաշակել -- negative prefix <չ՟> not + verb; infinitive accusative singular of <ճաշակեմ> I taste -- not to taste
  • որով -- relative pronoun; instrumental singular of <որ> who, what, which -- by which # i.e. 'and by this method of restraint, by not touching... and by not tasting...'
  • առողջութեանն -- noun; dative singular of <առողջուտ\իւն> health + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- to health
  • կարիցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <կարեմ> I can, am able -- he could
  • հասանել -- verb; infinitive used as complement <հասանեմ> I approach, arrive; obtain -- arrive
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • նորա -- pronoun; genitive singular of <նա> he, she, it -- he # genitive subject of participle
  • լուեալ -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <լսեմ> I hear -- having heard (of it)
  • վաղվաղակի -- adverb; <վաղվաղակի> quickly, soon -- soon
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- under
  • կեղծիս -- noun; locative plural of <կեղծիք> (pl.) sham, pretense -- the guise
  • բարեկամութեան -- noun; genitive singular of <բարեկամութիւն> friendship -- of friendship
  • կեղծաւորեալ -- verb; past participle undeclined form of <կեղծաւորեմ> I pretend, feign -- pretending
  • զբժիշկն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative singular of <բժշիկ> physician, healer -- the healer
  • պարսաւիցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <պարսաւեմ> I criticize, blame -- would blame
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • զօգտակարսն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + adjective used as substantive; accusative plural of <աւգտակար> useful + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- useful (things)
  • նմա -- pronoun; dative singular of <նա> he, she, it -- to him
  • վնասակարս -- adjective; accusative plural of <վնասակար> harmful -- (as) harmful
  • թելադրեալ -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <թելադրեմ> I instigate, incite; advise; hint, indicate; keep, store -- labelling
  • կարծեցուցանիցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <կարծեցուցանեմ> I make believe, persuade -- he would persuade (him) # causative verb
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • հակառակ -- adjective; undeclined form of <հակառակ> opposite -- contrary
  • պատուէրս -- noun; accusative plural of <պատուէր> command, order -- directions
  • հրամանաց -- noun; dative plural of <հրաման> command, order -- to the orders
  • բժշկին -- noun; genitive singular of <բժշիկ> physician, healer -- of the physician
  • տայցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <տամ> I give; permit, let -- he would give
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • այնու -- demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular of <այն> that, that over there -- by this
  • առնիցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <առնեմ> I do, make -- do
  • նմա -- pronoun; dative singular of <նա> he, she, it -- him
  • վնաս -- noun; accusative singular of <վնաս> harm -- harm

որ ոչ եթէ յառաջագոյն գիտէր զհանգամանս վնասակարութեանն, այլ ի պատուիրելոյ բժշկին գտեալ հնարս՝ եղեւ վնասակար :

  • որ -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <որ> who, what, which -- and... he
  • ոչ -- adverb; <ոչ> no, not -- not
  • եթէ -- conjunction; <եթե> that; if; or -- if
  • յառաջագոյն -- adverb; <յառաջ> before, earlier + superlative suffix; <՟ագոյն> most, very -- beforehand
  • գիտէր -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <գիտեմ> I know -- did... recognize
  • զհանգամանս -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative plural of <հանգամանք> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the nature
  • վնասակարութեանն -- noun; genitive singular of <վնասակարութիւն> harm, damage + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- of the harm
  • այլ -- conjunction; <այլ> but -- rather
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- in
  • պատուիրելոյ -- verb; infinitive locative singular of <պատուիրեմ> I command, order -- in the... order
  • բժշկին -- noun; genitive singular of <բժշիկ> physician, healer + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- physician's
  • գտեալ -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <գտանեմ> I find, get, obtain -- having found
  • հնարս -- noun; accusative plural of <հնարք> means; inventiveness, skill; cure -- the cure
  • եղեւ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <եղանիմ> I become -- it was
  • վնասակար -- adjective; nominative singular of <վնասակար> harmful -- harmful

Նոյնպէս կարծի եւ զսատանայէ՝ նախանձելն նմա ընդ նախաստեղծ մարդոյ, եւ չգիտել զհանգամանս, վնասակարութեանն։

  • նոյնպէս -- adverb <նոյնպէս> thus, similarly, likewise -- Thus # correlates with որպէս above
  • կարծի -- verb; 3rd singular present mediopassive of <կարծիմ> I believe, think -- it is thought
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- also
  • զսատանայէ -- preposition; <զ՟> during; for; concerning; around, about + proper noun; ablative singular of <սատանայ> Satan -- of Satan
  • նախանձելն -- verb; infinitive nominative singular of <նախանձիմ> I am jealous of + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- envying # 'be jealous' + ընդ 'of'
  • նմա -- pronoun; dative of <նա> he, she, it -- his
  • ընդ -- preposition; <ընդ> through, along, by way of; against; during; instead of, in exchange for; with, in the company of; under -- of
  • նախաստեղծ -- adjective; undeclined form of <նախաստեղծ> first-created -- the first-created
  • մարդոյ -- noun; genitive singular of <մարդ> man -- man
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • չգիտել -- negative prefix <չ՟> not + verb; infinitive nominative singular of <գիտեմ> I know -- (his) not knowing
  • զհանգամանս -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative plural of <հանգամանք> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature -- the nature
  • վնասակարութեանն -- noun; genitive singular of <վնասակարութիւն> harm, damage + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- of the evil-doing

քանզի ոչ եթէ չար ինչ առաջի կայր՝ ուստի զհանգամանսն մարթ էր առնուլ։

  • քանզի -- conjunction; <քանզի> because -- because
  • ոչ -- adverb; <ոչ> no, not -- no
  • եթէ -- conjunction; <եթե> that; if; or -- though
  • չար -- noun; nominative singular of <չար> evil -- evil
  • ինչ -- noun; nominative singular of <ինչ> thing -- ...
  • առաջի -- adverb; <առաջի> before, earlier -- before
  • կայր -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <կամ> I am, exist -- there was
  • ուստի -- relative adverb; <ուստի> from where, whence -- from which
  • զհանգամանսն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + noun; accusative plural of <հանգամանք> (pl.) condition, situation; manner; characteristics, nature + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- (its) nature
  • մարթ -- adjective; nominative of <մարթ> possible -- possible
  • էր -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <եմ> I am -- it was
  • առնուլ -- verb; infinitive of <արնում> I take, accept -- to recognize

ուսեալ յԱստուծոյ պատուիրանէն՝ որ մարդոյն տուաւ արգելուլ զնա ի ճաշակելոյ ի տնկոյ իմեքէ ի մահաբերէ, զայն յառաջադրեաց մարդոյն։ որ ոչ եթէ անպիտան ինչ ի կերակուրս մարդոյ էր, եւ ոչ բնութեամբ տունկն մահաբեր, եւ վասն այնորիկ ինչ արգելաւ մարդն ի ճաշակելոյ ի նմանէ, այլ անսաստութիւնն եղեւ պատճառ մահուան մարդոյն, իբրեւ յանցաւորի՝ որ անցանիցէ զհրամանաւ հրամանատուի՝ որ նմա կարգեալ իցէ :

  • ուսեալ -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <ուսանիմ> I learn -- (nevertheless) having learned
  • յԱստուծոյ -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of + proper noun; genitive singular of <Աստուած> God -- from God's
  • պատուիրանէն -- noun; ablative singular of <պատուիրան> commandment + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- commandment
  • որ -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <որ> who, what, which -- which
  • մարդոյն -- noun; dative singular of <մարդ> man + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- to man
  • տուաւ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <տամ> I give; permit, let -- was given
  • արգելուլ -- verb; infinitive used as complement <արգելում> I hinder, prohibit, deny -- to keep
  • զնա -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + pronoun; accusative singular of <նա> he, she, it -- him
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- from
  • ճաշակելոյ -- verb; infinitive ablative singular of <ճաշակեմ> I taste -- partaking
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • տնկոյ -- noun; genitive singular of <տունկ> shrub, plant -- of the plant # perhaps ablative
  • իմեքէ -- indefinite pronoun; ablative singular of <իմն> something, anything -- some # perhaps adjective modifying an ablative տնկոյ
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- ...
  • մահաբերէ -- adjective; ablative singular of <մահաբեր> death-bearing -- deadly (part) # is the preceding ի redundant, so this just modifies տնկոյ or իմեքէ? or is this a substantive without a demonstrative suffix?
  • զայն -- direct object marker <զ՟>... + demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular of <այն> that, that over there -- that
  • յառաջադրեաց -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <յառաջադրեմ> I propose, offer -- he offered
  • մարդոյն -- noun; dative singular of <մարդ> man -- to man
  • որ -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <որ> who, what, which -- which
  • ոչ -- adverb; <ոչ> no, not -- not
  • եթէ -- conjunction; <եթե> that; if; or -- though
  • անպիտան -- adjective; undeclined form of <անպիտան> futile, useless; base, common -- useless
  • ինչ -- noun; nominative singular of <ինչ> thing -- a... bit
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • կերակուրս -- noun; locative plural of <կերակուր> different dishes; food; meal -- food
  • մարդոյ -- noun; dative singular of <մարդ> man -- for man
  • էր -- verb; 3rd singular imperfect of <եմ> I am -- it was
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- and
  • ոչ -- adverb; <ոչ> no, not -- not
  • բնութեամբ -- noun; instrumental singular of <բնութիւն> nature -- by nature
  • տունկն -- noun; nominative singular of <տունկ> shrub, plant + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- a... plant
  • մահաբեր -- adjective; nominative singular of <մահաբեր> death-bearing -- deadly
  • եւ -- conjunction; <եւ> and; even, also, too -- nevertheless
  • վասն -- preposition; <վասն> because of, on account of, for the sake of -- on... count
  • այնորիկ -- emphatic pronoun; genitive singular of <այն> that, that over there -- this
  • ինչ -- indefinite adjective; undeclined form of <ինչ> some, any -- very # as an adjective following its head, this should be declined, but is not. accusative of a middle verb?
  • արգելաւ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist mediopassive of <արգելում> I hinder, prohibit, deny -- was prohibited
  • մարդն -- noun; nominative singular of <մարդ> man + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- man
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- from
  • ճաշակելոյ -- verb; infinitive ablative singular of <ճաշակեմ> I taste -- partaking
  • ի -- preposition; <ի> to, in(to), upon; at, under; from, out of, away from; from among; by, through the agency of -- of
  • նմանէ -- pronoun; ablative singular of <նա> he, she, it -- this
  • այլ -- conjunction; <այլ> but -- rather
  • անսաստութիւնն -- noun; nominative singular of <անսաստութիւն> disobedience; obstinacy + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- disobedience
  • եղեւ -- verb; 3rd singular aorist of <եղանիմ> I become -- was
  • պատճառ -- noun; nominative singular of <պատճառ> basis, cause, reason -- the basis
  • մահուան -- noun; genitive singular of <մահ> death -- of death
  • մարդոյն -- noun; dative singular of <մարդ> man + demonstrative suffix <՟ն> that, that over there, the -- for man # or genitive
  • իբրեւ -- conjunction; <իբրեւ> when -- as
  • յանցաւորի -- adjective used as substantive; dative singular of <յանցաւոր> guilty, criminal -- for a criminal # or genitive
  • որ -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <որ> who, what, which -- who
  • անցանիցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <անցանեմ> trespass, break; insult -- would disobey
  • զհրամանաւ -- preposition; <զ՟> during; for; concerning; around, about + noun; instrumental singular of <հրաման> command, order -- the dictum
  • հրամանատուի -- adjective used as substantive; genitive singular of <հրամանատու> ordering, commanding; (subst.) commander -- of an authority
  • որ -- relative pronoun; nominative singular of <որ> who, what, which -- that
  • նմա -- pronoun; dative singular of <նա> he, she, it -- him
  • կարգեալ -- verb; past participle nominative singular of <կարգեմ> arrange, order; manage well; apply, prescribe; place, appoint -- restrain
  • իցէ -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <եմ> I am -- would

Lesson Text

Արդ եւ զայն եւս հարցանեն։ եթէ չար ինչ չկայր առաջի, ուստի՞ օձն՝ զոր սատանայ կոչէք՝ իմացաւ զհանգամանս չարին : Ասեմք, եթէ սատանայ չար զստունգանելն մարդոյն Աստուծոյ իմացաւ, վասն որոյ զմարդն յայն յօժարեցոյց : Որպէս յորժամ իցէ ոք ուրուք թշնամի, եւ թագուցեալ զթշնամութիւնն՝ գաղտ կամիցի վնասել, եւ չգիտիցէ զհանգամանս վնասակարութեանն, եւ շուրջ եկեալ յածիցի հնարս խնդրել։ ապա գտեալ ժամանակ՝ յորժամ ոք ի բժշկաց թշնամւոյն նորա պատուէր տայցէ յայս ինչ չհպել, եւ յայս նիշ կերակրոց չճաշակել, որով առողջութեանն կարիցէ հասանել, եւ նորա լուեալ՝ վաղվաղակի ի կեղծիս բարեկամութեան կեղծաւորեալ՝ զբժիշկն պարսաւիցէ, եւ զօգտակարսն նմա վնասակարս թելադրեալ կարծեցուցանիցէ, եւ հակառակ պատուէրս հրամանաց բժշկին տայցէ, եւ այնու առնիցէ նմա վնաս։ որ ոչ եթէ յառաջագոյն գիտէր զհանգամանս վնասակարութեանն, այլ ի պատուիրելոյ բժշկին գտեալ հնարս՝ եղեւ վնասակար : Նոյնպէս կարծի եւ զսատանայէ՝ նախանձելն նմա ընդ նախաստեղծ մարդոյ, եւ չգիտել զհանգամանս, վնասակարութեանն։ քանզի ոչ եթէ չար ինչ առաջի կայր՝ ուստի զհանգամանսն մարթ էր առնուլ։ ուսեալ յԱստուծոյ պատուիրանէն՝ որ մարդոյն տուաւ արգելուլ զնա ի ճաշակելոյ ի տնկոյ իմեքէ ի մահաբերէ, զայն յառաջադրեաց մարդոյն։ որ ոչ եթէ անպիտան ինչ ի կերակուրս մարդոյ էր, եւ ոչ բնութեամբ տունկն մահաբեր, եւ վասն այնորիկ ինչ արգելաւ մարդն ի ճաշակելոյ ի նմանէ, այլ անսաստութիւնն եղեւ պատճառ մահուան մարդոյն, իբրեւ յանցաւորի՝ որ անցանիցէ զհրամանաւ հրամանատուի՝ որ նմա կարգեալ իցէ :

Translation

But accordingly they also ask this: "If nothing evil existed before, whence did the serpent, which you call Satan, learn the characteristics of Evil?" We say that Satan understood as evil man's disobedience to God, on account of which he induced man to this. It is like when one would be another's enemy, and having concealed his enmity, he would secretly wish to harm him; yet he would not know the nature of the harm, and having come he would wander around in search of means; then, having found the time when someone among the physicians would give an order to his adversary not to touch this thing, and not to taste such a type of food, by which he could arrive to health; and having heard of it, soon pretending under the guise of friendship, he would blame the healer; and, labelling the useful things as harmful to him, he would persuade him, and he would give directions contrary to the orders of the physician, and by this do him harm; and, if he did not recognize beforehand the nature of the harm, rather having found the cure in the physician's order, it was harmful. Thus it is thought also of Satan, his envying of the first-created man, and his not knowing the nature of the evil-doing; because, though there was no evil before, from which it was possible to recognize its nature, nevertheless having learned from God's commandment -- which was given to man to keep him from partaking of some deadly part of the plant -- he offered to man that which, though it was not a useless bit of food for man, and not by nature a deadly plant, nevertheless on this very count man was prohibited from partaking of this -- rather disobedience was the basis of death for man, as for a criminal who would disobey the dictum of an authority that would restrain him.

Grammar

21. Interrogatives and Relatives
21.1. Interrogative Adjectives, Prounouns, and Adverbs

The interrogative adjective ո՞ր 'which?' is declined as follows.

    Sing.   Pl.
N   ո՞ր   ո՞րք, ո՞ր
Ac   ո՞ր   ո՞րս, ո՞ր
G   որո՞յ   որո՞ց
D   որու՞մ   որո՞ց
L   որու՞մ   ո՞րս, որու՞մ
Ab   որմէ՞   որո՞ց
I   որո՞վ   որո՞վք

The form ո՞ր of the singular is often used in place of the N Ac plural forms ո՞րք and ո՞րս. Less frequently, the L singular որու՞մ replaces the L plural ո՞րս. The interrogative adjective does not distinguish between animate or inanimate referents. For example, ո՞ր թագաւոր տայցէ պատերազմ 'which king will wage war?'; որո՞վ զաւրութեամբ կամ որո՞վ անուամբ արարէք դուք զայս 'by what power or by what name did you do this?'; յորու՞մ ժամանակի 'at what time?'

Other interrogative adjectives are ո՞րպիսի, G ո՞րպիսեաց 'what sort of?' and քանի՞ 'how many?'

The interrogative pronoun is formed from two stems, ո- for persons and ի- for things. The ի-forms exhibit no plural. The declensions are as follows.

    Persons   Things
    ո-   ի-
         
N Sg.   ո՞վ, ո՞   զի՞, զի՞նչ
Ac   ո՞վ, ո՞   զի՞, զի՞նչ
G   ո՞յր   է՞ր
D   ու՞մ   ի՞մ, հի՞մ
L   ու՞մ   ի՞մ, հի՞մ
Ab   ու՞մէ, ու՞մմէ   ի՞մէ
I   որո՞վ   ի՞ւ
         
N Pl.   ո՞յք   -
Ac   ո՞յս   -
G   ո՞յց   -
D   ո՞յց   -
L   ո՞յս   -
Ab   ո՞յց   -
I   որո՞վք   -

The instrumental forms որո՞վ and որո՞վք are borrowed from the interrogative adjective. The forms զի՞ and զի՞նչ display the accusative marker զ-, which has spread analogically to the nominative. զինչ may also be used as an interrogative adjective for things, e.g. զի՞նչ գործ գործեալ է քո 'what deed have you done?'

The forms զի՞ and հի՞մ may mean 'why?', as well as the form զմէ built from the ablative with զ-. ընդ and վասն may be used with the genitive in the same role: ընդէ՞ր, վասն է՞ր 'why?'

There are several interrogative adverbs, referring to

  • place: յո՞ 'whither?', ու՞ր 'where?', ուստի՞ 'whence?';
  • time: ե՞րբ 'when?', which may be used as either interrogative or relative adverb, e.g. ե՞րբ լինիցի այդ 'when will that happen?', մինչեւ ցե՞րբ իցեմ ընդ ձեզ 'how long shall I be with you?', ե՞րբ գնացին 'when they had gone...';
  • manner: ո՞րպէս and զիա՞րդ 'how?'
21.2. Relative Pronoun

The relative pronoun has no distinct forms; rather the forms of the interrogatives are used in this role. Understanding of their usage, however, requires distinguishing between two types of relative clause: the attributive relative clause and the substantive relative clause. An attributive relative clause is one which serves to describe its antecedent noun, much as an attributive adjective does. Some English examples would be 'the person who is writing the Armenian lessons has brown hair', or 'send all email enquiries to the person by whom the Armenian lessons were written.' In both examples the relative clauses serve an adjectival, or attributive, role modifying 'the person'. By contrast a substantive relative clause is a relative clause which, as a whole, fills the place of a noun. Again, this parallels the substantive use of an adjective. Some English examples would be 'who stole the last cookie is no friend of mine', which in slightly smoother English becomes 'whoever stole the last cookie is no friend of mine'; or 'do what I say.' In the first example, the relative clause in its entirety functions as the subject of the verb 'is'; in the second example, the whole relative clause is the object of the verb 'do'. In either situation the relative clause could be replaced by a single noun, e.g. 'Cicero is no friend of mine' or 'do something.'

Once the distinction is made between types of relative clause, relative pronoun usage becomes straightforward. Namely, in

  • attributive relative clauses one uses որ as relative.
  • substantive relative clauses one uses որ, less often ով, ո, for persons, որ զինչ for things.

The forms are the same as those listed for the interrogative adjective and pronoun, without the question mark ՞.

Examples of attributive relative clauses are վասն բանիցն զոր փաւսեցան հովիւքն 'on account of the words which the shepherds had said'; եւթն ղամբարք... որ են եւթն հոգիքն Աստուծոյ 'seven torches... which are the seven spirits of God'; ընտրեաց երկոտասանս, զորս եւ առաքեալս անուանեաց 'he chose twelve, whom he also called Apostles'; վեց աւր է, յորս արժան է գործել 'there are six days in which working is permitted'. Note in this last example that յորս < ի + որս is locative.

Examples of substantive relative clauses are որ հաւատայ յորդի, ընդունի զկեանսն յաւիտենականս 'who(ever) believes in the Son obtains eternal life'; որ զինչ ասիցէ ձեզ, արասջիք 'do what he tells you'.

21.3. Indefinite Pronoun

As with the interrogative pronouns, the indefinite pronouns exibit a base ո- for persons and a base ի- for things. Two series of pronouns are formed from these, one with an indefinitizing suffix -մն, the other with -ք. Both series may be used in either adjectival or pronominal roles. The declensions are as follows.

    ոմն   իմն   ոք   *իք
    'someone'   'something'   'someone'   'something'
                 
N Sg.   ոմն   իմն   ոք   *իք, ինչ
Ac   ոմն   իմն   ոք   -, ինչ
G   ուրումն   -   ուրուք   իրիք
D   ումեմն   -   ումեք   իմիք
L   ումեմն   -   ումեք   իմիք
Ab   ումեմնէ   իմեմնէ   ումեքէ   իմեք(է)
I   ոմամբ   -   -   իւիք
                 
N Pl.   ոմանք   -   -   -
Ac   ոմանս   -   -   -
G   ոմանց   -   -   -
D   ոմանց   -   -   -
L   ոմանս   -   -   -
Ab   ոմանց   -   -   -
I   ոմամբք   -   -   -

The form *իք is not found alone, but only in combination with the negative չ- in the form չիք 'there is not, there does not exist', e.g ցիք ձեզ կեանք 'there is no life for you', չիք ոք այլ Աստուած 'there is no other God'. In place of *իք the noun ինչ, G ըն՛ի 'thing' is used. This word is also found with a prefixed negative, ոչինչ, G ոչընչի 'nothing', e.g. յոչըչէն արար զնոսա 'He created them from nothing.' As adjective, ինչ remains in the singular even with plural substantive: աւուրս ինչ (Ac Pl.) 'for some days'.

The instrumental singular form ոմամբ from ոմն fills in for the missing instrumental singular of ոք.

The indefinite pronouns are often used to strengthen the interrogatives, e.g. ո՞վ ոք 'who indeed?, who in the world?'; որպիսի ոք կին 'what a woman!' The ոք and *իք series of indefinites, however, are not used in general declarative statements; they only occur in negative, interrogative, conditional, and relative clauses, and with the pronoun իւրաքանչիւր 'each', adverb հազիւ 'hardly' and particle թերեւս 'perhaps'. This does not hold true for the forms ինչ. For example, էր ոմն հիւանդ 'someone was ill', but ոչ ոք է 'it is no one'.

The indefinite adverb of time has two forms parallel to the pronouns: երբեմն and երբեք 'sometime'. The same restrictions of usage apply as to ոք, e.g. ոչ երբրք 'never'.

22. Word Formation

Word formation typically treats the formation of new lexical items from old. In rare instances, such new items may be derived from complete phrases, e.g. երկրպագու 'worshipper' from երկիր պագանեմ 'I kiss the earth, I worship'; զգետնեմ 'I throw down' from զ-գետնի 'to the ground'. Alternately, two lexical items may be compounded to create a new word. When this occurs, the two words are typically connected by the vowel -ա-, unless the second member begins with a vowel: չար-ա-խաւս 'slanderer' < չար 'malicious' + խաւսիմ 'I speak'; լեռն-ա-կողմն 'hill country' < լեառն 'mountain' + կողմն 'side, country'; բարեկամ 'benevolent, friend' < *բարի-ա-կամ < բարի 'good' + կամիմ 'I will, wish'; ծով-եզր 'sea-side'; ձկն-որս 'fisher' < ձուկն 'fish' + որս 'hunter'.

Generally speaking, new lexical items derived from old may be split into two categories: derivatives from verbs and derivatives from nouns. More precisely, words are derived from noun or verb stems. Typically the noun stem is the same as the nominative-accusative form; the verb stem is either the root aorist stem or the -ց aorist stem. In both noun and verb derivation, the stem vowels may be subject to vocalic alternation.

22.1. Derivatives from Verbs

The most common derivatives from verbal stems are listed below.

Causative Verbs: These are usually derived from intransitive verbs, though some transitive verbs are also subject to causative derivation, e.g. բնակեմ 'I dwell' yields բնակեցու'անեմ 'I make to dwell, I establish'. Causatives are built from the aorist stem by addition of the suffix -ոյց- / -ուց-. The form -ուց- occurs word-internally, -ոյց- appearing otherwise. The -ե- found in -եայ aorists drops before the causative suffix is added. Examples are listed below.

    Present   Aorist   Causative Base
    բնակեմ 'I dwell'   բնակեցի   բնակեցոյց-
    մոլորիմ 'I err'   մոլորեցայ   մոլորեցոյց-
    կամ 'I stand'   կացի   կացոյց-
    ուսանիմ 'I study'   ուսայ   ուսոյց-
    դառնամ 'I turn'   դարձայ   դարձոյց-
    փախչիմ 'I flee'   փախեայ   փախոյց-
    յառնեմ 'I rise'   յարեայ   յարոյց-

The present stem of causative verbs has the extension -ան-. The aorist stem is the same as the base. Thus there are the following examples.

    Causative Present   Causative Aorist   Caus. Aor. 3 Sg.
    մոլորեցուցանեմ 'I lead astray'   մոլորեցուցի   մոլորեցոյց
    կացուցանեմ 'I set up, place'   կացուցի   կացոյց
    ուսուցանեմ 'I teach'   ուսուցի   ուսոյց
    փածուցանեմ 'I chase'   փախուցի   փախոյց

The 2 Sg. Imperative of causative verbs shows -ոյց > -ո, e.g. բնակեցո 'establish!', ուսո 'teach!'.

Action Nouns: These are dervied by means of several suffixes. The more frequent suffixes are listed below.

  • -ումն (3-stem (c) decl.) E.g. կատարումն 'accomplishment' from կատարեմ 'I achieve'; կործանումն 'destruction' from կործանեմ 'I destroy'; շարժումն 'motion' from շարժիմ 'I move'.
  • -ութիւն (2-stem (b) decl.) E.g. փորձութիւն 'temptation' from փորձեմ 'I tempt'; մկրտութիւն 'baptism' from մրկտեմ 'I baptize'; յարութիւն 'resurrection' from յառնեմ 'I rise'.
  • -ստ E.g. իմաստ (ի-decl.) 'intelligence' from իմանամ 'I understand'; գովեստ (ի-decl.) 'praise' from գովեմ 'I praise'. Nouns in -իստ and -ուստ follow the declension of սերունդ in the singular, e.g. հանգիստ 'repose', GDL հանգստեան, from հանգչիմ 'I rest'.
  • -իւն (2-stem (b) decl.) E.g. քրթմնջիւն 'grumbling' from քրթմնջեմ 'I grumble'.
  • -ան(ք) (ա-decl.) E.g. պատուիրան 'order' from պատուիրեմ 'I command'.
  • -ուած (ո-decl.) E.g. խնդրուած 'request' from խնդրեմ 'I seek'; յաւելուած 'abundance' from յաւելում 'I increase'; հերձուած 'division' from հերձանեմ 'I cleave'.
  • -ուրդ, -ունդ (declined as սերունդ) E.g. խորհուրդ 'thought' from խորհիմ 'I meditate'; ծնունդ 'birth, progeny' from ծնանիմ 'I produce; I am born'.

Agent Nouns: There are a few suffixes denoting agent nouns which are worthy of mention.

  • -իչ (ա-decl.) E.g. արարիչ 'creator' from առնեմ 'I make'; տուիչ 'giver' from տամ 'I give'; փրկիչ 'saviour' from փրկեմ 'I rescue'; ծնուցիչ 'midwife' from ծնուցանեմ 'I make to give birth, I deliver'.
  • -ող, -աւղ (ա-decl.) E.g. նմանող 'resembling' from նմանիմ 'I resemble'; արբեցող 'drunkard' from արբենամ 'I get drunk'; ծնաւղ 'parent' from ծնանիմ 'I give birth'. This particular form of agent noun is often referred to as a present participle, on the same level in the verbal system as forms in -եալ. In this classification, there is a threefold distinction with a verb such as շինեմ 'build': շինող 'building', շինաւղ 'builder', շինեալ 'built, having built'. In Modern Armenian these forms have indeed come to function as present participles. In Classical Armenian, however, forms in -ող, -աւղ seem to be too infrequent to fill the role of a true participle, occurring less than one-tenth as often as forms in -եալ.

Adjectives: The suffix -ուն is commonly used to derive adjectives from verbs. It follows the ո-declension. Examples are շարժուն 'movable, moving' from շարժիմ 'I move'; զելուն 'running over' from զելում 'I pour, overflow'; փայլուն 'bright' from փայլեմ 'I shine'.

22.2. Derivatives from Nouns

The most common derivatives from nominal stems are listed below.

Denominative Verbs: Nominal stems may form the base for verbs in -եմ and -իմ, more rarely -ամ. Examples are վկայեմ 'I testify' from վկայ 'witness'; բժշկեմ 'I cure' from բժիշկ 'physician'; անուանեմ 'I name' from անուն 'name' (note the stem for the oblique cases is անուան-); նաւեմ 'I sail' from նաւ 'ship'; սրբեմ 'I clean' from սուրբ 'clean, pure'; յուսամ 'I hope' from յոյս 'hope'.

Inchoative Verbs: The suffix -անամ is typically appended to adjectives to derive inchoative verbs. These fall into category (D) in the classification of verbs. Examples are օջանամ 'I recover' from ողջ 'healthy'; չորանամ 'I become dry' from չոր 'dry'. In certain instances such verbs are derived from nouns: քահանայանամ 'I become a priest' from կահանայ 'priest'; վերանամ 'I am extolled', cf. ի վեր 'upwards'.

Nouns of State or Quality: The suffix -ութիւն may also be used to derive nouns denoting quiality. Examples are բազմութիւն 'multitude' from բազում 'many'; ճշմարտութիւն 'truth' from ճշմարիտ 'true'; քահանայութիւն 'priesthood' from քահանայ 'priest'.

Collective Nouns: Collective nouns may be derived by means of the suffixes -իկ (սերունդ-decl.), -տի (տեղի-decl.), -եան. Examples are մարդիկ 'men, people' from մարդ 'man'; մանկտի 'children' from մանուկ 'child'; խոզեան 'pigs' from խոզ 'pig'. Such nouns are declined in the singular only.

Diminutive Nouns: The suffixes -ակ (ա-decl.) and -իկ (սերունդ-decl.) serve to derive diminutive nouns. Examples are ծովակ 'lake' from ծով 'sea'; երամակ 'small herd' from երամ 'herd'; որդեակ 'son' from որդի 'son'; մանկիկ 'little child' from մանուկ 'child'; փոքրիկ 'little' from փոքր 'little'.

Nouns of Place or Containment: Nouns denoting placement are derived by means of the suffixes -(ան)ոց, -աստան, -արան (ա-decl.). Examples are ժողուրդանոց 'place of assembly' from ժողուուրդ 'meeting'; գանձարան 'treasure-house' from գանձ 'treasure'; Հայաստան 'Armenia' from Հայ 'Armenian'; վարդաստան 'rose-garden' from վարդ 'rose'; դպրոց 'school' from դպիր 'teacher'; ամարանոց 'summer quarters' from ամառն 'summer'.

Possessives and Relationals: There are several formations which yield adjectives and nouns denoting possession or relation.

  • -ական (ա-decl.), -ային (ո-decl.), -եայ (ի-decl.), -ին (ո-decl.) These have the connotation 'pertaining to' or 'belonging to'. Examples are յաւիտենական 'eternal' from յաւիտեանք 'eternity'; կորստական 'perishable, ruinous' from կորուստ 'perdition'; մարյական 'motherly' from մայր 'mother'; ամսական 'monthly' from ամիս 'month'; վաճառական 'trader' from վաճառ 'trade'.
  • -ացի (ո-decl.) This suffix forms adjectives denoting origin or possession. They refer only to people and are often used as substantives. Examples are Կողբացի 'coming from Kołb' from Կողբ (place name); Իսրայելացի 'Israelite' from Իսրայէլ 'Israel'; քաղաքացի 'citizen' from քաղաք 'city'; դրացի 'neighbor' from դուռն, Pl. դուրք 'doors'.
  • -աւոր (ա-decl.) This suffix typically connotes 'possessing' or 'related to'. Derivatives stemming from this suffix are often used as substantives. Examples are թագաւոր 'king, the one wearing the crown' from թագ 'crown'; զաւրաւոր 'mighty' from զաւր 'strength'; մեղաւոր 'sinner' from մեղ 'sin'; դատաւոր 'judge' from դատ 'judgement'; մարմնաւոր 'bodily' from մարմին 'body'.
  • -եայ (ի-decl.), -եղեն (ա-decl.) These suffixes generally have the sense 'made of' or 'consisting of'. Examples are արծաթեայ 'of silver' from արծաթ 'silver'; տասնաւրեայ 'consisting of ten days' from տասն 'ten' + աւր 'day'; սեւաչեայ 'having black eye' from սեաւ 'black' + ակն, Pl. աչք 'eye'; գարեղէն նկանակ 'barley loaf'.
  • -եան (ա-decl.) In addition to rather general relational derivatives such as արեւելեան 'eastern' from արեւելք (Pl.) 'East', this suffix is often used to form patronymics. Examples are պղատոնեան 'platonic' from Պղատոն 'Plato'; Արամեան 'son/progeny of Aram'; Մամկիոնեան 'son/progeny of Mamikon'.
  • -ենի (տեղի-decl.) This is a possessive suffix often used in names of fruit-bearing trees. Examples are մայրենի 'motherly' from մայր 'mother'; խոզենի 'of pigs' from խոզ 'pig'; ձիթենի 'olive tree' from ձէթ 'olive'; թզենի 'fig tree' from թուզ 'fig'; վարդենի 'rosebush' from վարդ 'rose'.
  • -ի (տեղի-decl.) This suffix has a general possessive or relational sense. Examples are աղի 'salty' from աղ 'salt'; երկաթի 'of iron' from երկաթ 'iron'; արամբի 'living with a man' from այր, I Sg. արամբ 'man'; բազմաչի 'having many eyes' from բազում 'much' + ակն, Pl. աչք 'eye'; մեծազգի 'noble' from մեծ 'big' + ազգ 'family'.
  • -որդ (ա-decl.) This is an unspecialized relational suffix. Examples are որսորդ 'hunter' from որս 'game'; առաջնորդ 'leader' from առաձին 'first'.

General: The following derivatives do not fit into the other categories listed above.

  • -ագոյն (ի-decl.) This is an intensifying suffix, meaning 'more' or 'very'. Examples are դիւրագոյն 'easier, very easy' from դիւր 'easy'; քաղցրագոյն 'sweeter, very sweet' from քաղցր 'sweet'.
  • -կից This means 'associate, fellow, co-', as in the verb կցեմ 'I add, join'. Examples are որսակից 'fellow hunter'; ուղեկից 'fellow traveller' from ուղի 'way'.
22.3. Iteration

Iteration is a process which may be used to derive new words from old. It applies equally to verbs, nouns, and adjectives. For example one finds the verbs հոտ-ոտ-իմ 'I smell' from հոտ 'scent' and կազ-կազ-եմ 'I run back and forth'. There are substantives խոր-խոր-ատ 'pit' from խոր 'deep', լեռն-լեռն-այն 'hill country' from լեառն 'hill', հեղ-եղ 'current' from հեղանիմ 'I flow'. There are adjectives մեծ-ա-մեծ 'very big', ջերմ-ա-ջերմ 'very warm', արագ-արագ 'very quick'. In most instances the reduplication serves as intensification, as many of the above examples illustrate. The same effect may be achieved merely by doubling a word in context, without deriving a new combined word. For example one finds լուռ լուռ 'totally quiet' and ծանր ծանր 'very tough'.

In contrast to the notion of intensification, although in some sense allied to it, is the use of iteration in a distributive function. Examples are գունդ-ա-գունդ 'in swarms' (also գունդ գունդ); գոյն-ա-գոյն 'multicolored'; ամի ամի 'throughout the year'; աւուր աւուր 'day by day' (also աւր աւուր).

At times the doubling occurs with մ- preceding the second member, as in աղխ-ա-մաղխ 'goods' from աղխ 'equipment', and in սուտ մուտ 'completely wrong' from *սուտ սուտ.

23. Case Syntax

The most common uses of the nominal cases are outlined below. For the use of cases with simple or compound prepositions, see Section 5 of Lesson 1.

23.1. The Nominative Case

The nominative case is the case of the grammatical subject, e.g. կոյրք տեսանեն 'the blind regain their sight', աստեղք անկցին յերկնից 'stars will fall from heaven'. When the verb is a copula, the nominative is also the case of the predicate: եին արդարք երկոքին 'they were both just'. The nominative, with or without ով, may be used in forms of address: պատանի դու, արի 'get up, young man!' The nominative is also used when quoting a person's name, even if the noun representing the person so named is in another case: առ կոմսի ումեմն Լիկիանէս անուն կոչեցելոյ 'with an earl, called Likianos by name'. Here կոմսի is in the locative case, modified by կոչեցելոյ, but the name quoted, Լիկիանէս, remains in the nominative form.

The nominativus pendens is a usage whereby a word, which in its own clause should grammatically be in another case, is placed at the head of the statement in the nominative, and then taken up again by a pronoun in the correct oblique case. For example, ծառայ որ ընդ ունկն ոչ լսէ, ընդ մկանունս տան լսել նմա 'the servant, who does not listen with the ear, they make him listen with the back.' Here ծառայ is in the nominative, marked in the main clause by the pronoun նմա.

23.2. The Accusative Case

The accusative case is the case of the direct object, e.g. որ ոչ բերէ պտուղ 'which does not bear fruit'. Rarely a verb may take an internal object: երկեան երկիւղ մեծ 'they had a great fear', lit. 'they feared a great fear.' Some verbs take a double accusative, such as հարցանեմ 'I ask': հարցից ինչ զքեզ 'I ask you (something)'. The accusative may be predicate: Ստոյիկեանքն... զամենայն ինչ մարմին կարծեցին 'the Stoics held everything (to be) body.' The accusative may denote an extent of space or time. From this use come such adverbs as այնաւր '(during) this day', hence 'today'. An accusative of respect is found in the use of զայն աւրինակ 'by this means, thus', and in the use of անուն in the accusative to mean 'by name, in respect of name': առ կոմսի ումեմն Լիկիանէս անուն կոչեցելոյ 'with an earl, called Likianos by name'. The accusative form of adjectives may be used adverbially: բարւոք մարգարէացաւ 'they prophesied well'.

The accusative is often marked with the preposition զ-. This is generally used with demonstrative pronouns, relatives, personal pronouns, proper names, and nouns with a demonstrative suffix. Examples are զնա 'this', զոր 'which', զիս 'me', զհայրն 'the father', զԱբրահամ 'Abraham'. The marker զ- is not an inherent feature of the accusative case. It is often employed simply to distinguish the accusative form from the nominative or locative forms, e.g. յորժամ դուստր զմայր անտրգիցէ, եւ նու զկեսուր իւր, եւ կին զայր, եւ ծառայ զտէր, եւ եղբայր զեղբայր 'as the daughter reviled her mother, and the daughter-in-law her mother-in-law, and the wife her husband, and the servant his master, and the brother his brother.' The particles քան 'than', իբրեւ 'like, as', and որպէս 'like, as' are often followed by զ- plus the accusative of the point of comparison, e.g. ոչ Սողոմովն... զգեցաւ իբրեւ զմի ի նոցանէ 'Solomon... did not dress as one of them.'

23.3. The Genitive Case

The genitive case is the possessive case. More generally, it is a relational case, covering a wide range of nuanced meaning, usually delimiting or specifying the sphere of validity of its referent. In Classical Armenian, the genitive case is distinguished morphologically from the dative only by personal pronouns and demonstratives. The genitive may qualify a substantive, e.g. անուն նորա 'her name' or աւուր միոյ ճանապարհ 'a day's journey'. The genitive may be used as a predicate: երկու պարտապանք եին ուրումն փոխատուի 'two debtors were of a certain lender', i.e. 'there were two debtors of a certain lender', 'a certain lender had two debtors.' A genitive modifying an infinitive used as a substantive may indicate the logical subject of the action: դիւրին իցէ երկնից եւ երկրի անցանել, քան յաւրինացն միոյ նշանախեցի անկանել 'it is easier for heaven and earth to perish than for one stroke of the law to fall away.' The partitive genitive is more often expressed by the preposition ի with the ablative, in the sense 'from among'.

Perhaps the most idiosyncratic use of the genitive in Classical Armenian is with the participle in -եալ. When the subject of a clause is modified by the past participle, this subject may be in either the nominative or the genitive case, e.g. նորա առեալ զնա տարաւ 'he, having seized (him), led him'; մատուցեալ աշակերտացն նորա ասեն ցնա 'his disciples, having come, say to him...'. This usage is extended to impersonal constructions involving the participle, where the genitive denotes the logical subject: զպայն իսկ իմ աչաւք տեսեալ է 'I have seen the fairy with my own eyes'; առ եկեղեցեաւն, զոր շինեալ էր առաջնոյն մեծին Գրիգորի 'at the church which the first great Grigor had built.'

23.4. The Dative Case

The dative case is the case of the indirect object, or, more generally, the case of the party interested in, but not directly affected by, the actions of the statement. The dative is used frequently with verbs. Examples are ցուցէք ինձ զդահեկան 'show me the money'; կին քո ծնչի քեզ որդի 'your woman bore you a son.' Several verbs take their object in the dative, such as տիրեմ 'I rule', իշխեմ 'I have power', առաջնորդեմ 'I lead', սաստեմ 'I command', թագաւորեմ 'I rule as king', յաղթեմ 'I overwhelm'; հնազանդիմ 'I comply', ծառայեմ 'I serve', անսամ 'I conform'; հաւատամ 'I believe', ողորմիմ 'I have compassion', սպասեմ 'I tend', ներեմ 'I forgive'; կարաւտիմ and կարաւտանամ 'I use'; ցանկանամ 'I wish'; վնասեմ 'I harm', բարկանամ 'I become angry', սպառնամ 'I threaten'; տեղեկանամ 'I learn of'. Examples are ապա թե ոչ տիրեսցեն ինձ 'if they not have power over me'; ինձ սպասեցին մեղաւորք 'sinners served me'; տեղեկացաւ հայրենի գործոցն 'he learned of his father's deeds.' The dative may serve as a predicate when the verb is a copula, e.g. եղեւ նմա չար եւ ոչ ինչ 'no evil befell him.'

The dative is also used with adjectives. These may denote similarity, e.g. նման 'similar, like', հասարակ 'common, public', համեմատ 'proportional, commensurate'; or they may denote knowledge, e.g. գիտակ 'knowing', տեղեակ 'well-informed, instructed, skilled-in', հմուտ 'knowledgeable, skilled, learned', խելամուտ 'taught, informed, learned'; or usefulness, e.g. պիտանի, պիտոյ 'helpful', անպիտան 'useless', հաճոյ 'pleasing', վնասակար 'harmful', պատրաստ 'prepared', պարտական 'guilty'. Examples are երկրորդն նման սմին 'the second similar to this one'; մեռեալք ոչ են գիտակ եւ ոչ իմիք 'the dead know nothing'; չէ այնմ պարտական Աստուած 'God is not to blame for this.'

In clauses with the infinitive, the dative may often be considered to be related to one word in particular, usually the infinitive itself. In these situations the dative often supplies the subject of the action denoted by the infinitive, e.g. եղեւ շաբաթու... անչանել նմա ընդ արտորայսն 'it happened on the sabbath... that he went through the fields'; պարտ է ինձ աւետարանել 'it is necessary for me to preach.' Such constructions occur where Latin and Greek might employ an accusative and infinitive.

23.5. The Locative Case

The locative case denotes static position in space or time, generally equivalent to the English 'in', 'on', or 'at'. In Classical Armenian the locative is only found with prepositions. By far the most common preposition is ի, e.g. յայնմ կղզւոջ ոչ գտանէր ոչ ջուր... եւ ոչ... 'on this island was found neither water nor...'. It is also used with առ 'beside', e.g. նստէր առ դուրս 'he sat by the door'; with ընդ 'with', e.g. խաւսել ընդ նոսա 'to speak with them'; seldom with զ-, e.g. զգետնի հարկանել 'to cast on the ground'; with ըստ 'after', e.g. հատուցանես իւրաքանչիւր ըստ գործս իւր 'you shall repay each according to his deeds.'

23.6. The Ablative Case

The ablative case denotes the source or origin, and separation therefrom. The ablative is used without a preposition only in certain fixed situations, generally in conjunction with a monosyllabic substantive in the accusative, often marked by ի. Examples are զ'ամէ ի ժամ 'from time to time'; ամ յամէ 'each year'; տանէ ի տուն 'from house to house'; ազգէ յազգ 'from people to people'; մինչեւ ի նաւասարդէ նաւասարդ 'from new year to new year', that is, 'till the new year'; ի քաղաքէ ի քաղաք 'from city to city'. The ablative forms of personal pronoun, such as ինձէն and քեզըն, may be used without propositions, typically with the meaning 'self': ես ինձէն աս՛աւք տեսի 'I have seen it with my own eyes.'

23.7. The Instrumental Case

The instrumental case denotes the means or instrument of an action, whether physical or other. It roughly takes the place of the English preposition 'with'. Examples are ոչ ոք գայ առ հայր, եթե ոչ իմեւ 'no one approaches the father, except though me'; ելեալ... ի գերեզմանէ անտի ահիւ եւ խնդութեամբ բազմաւ 'having gone... from the grave with awe and great joy'; լի խնկով 'filled with incense'. The instrumental may be used predicatively: որեարն այն խաղաղութեամբ են ընդ մեզ 'these men are peaceful with us'; մեր կեանքս չեն յուսահատութեամբ 'our life is not (fallen) into despair.' The instrumental is used in the sense of accompaniment, usually in conjunction with following հանդերձ 'with, together with': անդ նստէր աշակերտաւքն հանդերձ 'he sat there with his disciples'; Յիսուս աշակերտաւքն իւրովք գնաց 'Jesus withdrew with his disciples.'

24. Future Expression and the Subjunctive

Classical Armenian lacks a morphologically distinct future tense. Inasmuch as the subjunctive expresses purpose, wish, demand, or prospect, its sense is linked to the expression of future events. It is therefore common to find the Greek future translated by the aorist subjunctive. Within native treatments of Armenian grammar it has thus been common to find the aorist subjunctive called the future tense. Since there is also a present subjunctive, some treatments refer to two future tenses. The subjunctive is not, however, the only means of relating future time in Classical Armenian. When particular emphasis or clarity is required, the present tense may express future action, e.g. ոչ հաւատամ 'I will not believe'. When there is an attendant sense of necessity, the verbal adjective in -լոց is often employed in periphrastic constructions: դու ես որ գալոցն ես 'Art thou He who is to come?'.

25. Adverbial Clauses

The term adverbial clauses is here used as a catch-all term for several types of clauses which modify a statement as a whole. This is in contrast to, say, relative clauses, which usually modify a substantive within a given statement. Typically in such clauses the subjunctive and indicative moods of the verb stand in free contrast. That is to say, the indicative is generally used for actual action, otherwise the subjunctive. Some of the more important types of clauses are listed below with general comments on construction.

Final Clauses: The verb of final clauses is always subjunctive. The beginning of such clauses is typically signalled by զի, less often by թե, եթե, or որպէս զի. Examples are այլ այս ամենայն եղեւ, զի լցցի որ ասացաւն ի տեառնէ 'this all happened so that what the Lord had said be fulfilled'; ...եթե գաւրավարին հաճոյ լինիցի '... so that he be pleasing to the one enlisting'; որպէս զի տեսցեն զգործս ձեր բարիս 'so that they may know your good deeds'. If the subject or object is the same as in the main clause, the final clause is typically expressed by an infinitive: տարան զնա ի խաչ հանել 'they led him out to crucify (him)'. A final clause with a subject different from that of the main clause may be expressed with a dative plus infinitive construction: խնայեցի ես ի քեզ, չմեղանճել քեզ յիս 'I look after you that you not sin against me.'

Consecutive Clauses: Also termed resultative clauses, these are introduced by որպէս զի, իբրեւ զի 'so that'; or simply զի 'that' or զի եւ (when the preceding clause contains a word meaning 'so' or 'in such a way'). Less frequently եթե or մինչեւ introduce these clauses. Examples are չարաչարք յոյժ, որպէս զի չեր հնար անցանել ումեք ընդ այն ճանապարհ 'exceedingly harsh, so that it was not possible for any one to proceed by that path'; այնչափ եմք ողորմելի իբրեւ զի առանց ձորձոյ մի աւր չկարեմք համբերել 'we are so dejected that we cannot go one day without a coat'; Աստուած այնպէս պատուել զմարդն կամեցաւ, զի գանձնիչխանութիւնն պարգեւեաց նմա 'God wanted to so honor man that He granted him free will.' An extended example of the use of եթե is the following: քանզի ոչ եթե անմիտ ինչ ոք եղեւ նա ձԱստուծոյ, եթե չգիտէր, եթե որ ինչ ըստ Աստուծոյ կամացն լինի, բարի է 'since there was none created by God so ignorant that he knew not that whatever happened by the will of God is good.'

Temporal Clauses: These have been treated separately in Lesson 4, Section 20.

Causal Clauses: These are usually introduced by զի, քանզի, վասն զի, թե or եթե, որովհետեւ 'since, because'; մանաւանդ զի 'especially since'. If the causal clause treats a factual occurrence, the verb is conjugated in the indicative; if the clause treats an assumed occurrence or one which is denied or refuted, the verb may be either indicative or subjunctive. Examples are զիա՞րդ լինիցի ինձ այդ, քանզի զայր ոչ գիտեմ 'how will this be, since I do not know a man'; ընդէ՞ր զխաւսս իմ ոչ գիտէք դուք, վասն զի ոչ կարէք լսել զբանն իմ 'on what account do you not know my speech? since you are not able to hear my word'; մանաւանդ զի գտանեմք 'especially since we find'. զի may be strengthened by the demonstrative այս or its instrumental form այնու, e.g. այնու զի ըստ չարեաց գործոչն վրէժս պահանջիցէ, յայտ է եթե... 'since he imposes penalties according to the wicked deeds, so it is clear that...'.

Concessive Clauses: These are introduced by թէպէտ, թեպէտ 'though, although', usually followed by եւ; թե եւ 'even though'; թեպէտ... թեպէտ 'be it that... be it that'; եթե... (եւ) եթե 'either... or'. Examples are թէպէտ եւ որդի է, ուսաւ զհնազանդութիւն 'though being the son, he learned obedience'; եւ չեմ թեպէտ արժանի 'though I am not worthy'; թե եւ տրտմեցուցի զձեզ թղթովն ոչ զղջանամ 'even if I pained you in the letter, I am not sorry'; արդ, ըտե ուտիցէք, եթե ըմպիցէք 'therefore, either eat or drink!'

Local Clauses: These are introduced either by relative adverbs ձո 'to where, whither', ուր 'where, to where', ուստի 'from where, whence' or by prepositional constructions involving relative adverbs. Examples are ուր գանձք ձեր են անդ եւ սիրտք ձեր եղիցին 'where your treasures are, there too will be your heart'; յոր տուն մտանիցէք, անդէն աւթեւանս կալջիք 'in whichever house you enter, take accomodations there.'

Comparative Clauses: These have been treated in Lesson 4, Section 19.

Exceptional Clauses: Under this heading are grouped clauses often beginning in English with 'unless, except that..., save that..., save to...'. In some instances Classical Armenian uses a construction with infinitive and preposition, or with a negative participle: ոչինչ գործեալ... մատնեցայ 'but had I done something,... I was betrayed'. Elsewhere clauses with finite verb forms are employed. բայց եթե often serves as English 'unless', usually followed by the subjunctive: ո՞վ է սկիզբն այնպիսի անպատեհից, բայց եթե իցէ ինչ չար զաւրութիւն 'who is the origin of such inconsistencies, unless it is an evil force.' փոխանակ զի, and sometimes քան, renders English 'rather than that': փոխանակ զի պարտ եր ձեզ լինել վարդապետս, պիտոյ է ձեզ ուսանել 'rather than that you should become teacher, it is proper that you learn.'

Conditional Clauses: The subordinate clause (protasis) is introduced by the conjunction եթե, less often թե, and only rarely with զի. Use of զի in particular gives the sense 'when, in the case that': զի առանց կամացն Աստուծոյ գործին իրք ինչ, լինին չար 'in the case that things are done contrary to the will of God, they are bad.' The conjunction need not be the first word of the clause. ոչ is always used for negation. The main clause (apodosis) is signalled by ապա, եւ, or ապա եւ when it follows the protasis. There are three basic constructions:

  • Protasis: present indicative; Apodosis: indicative, subjunctive (as future), or imperative. These are the components of real conditions. Examples are եթե ոչ լսեն, եւ ոչ հաւատասցեն 'if they do not hear, they will not believe'; եթե հոգի բնակեալ է ի ձեզ, ապա կենդանացուսցէ 'if the spirit dwells in you, it will give life'; եթե մեռեալք ոչ յառնեն, ապա եւ Քրիստոս չէ յարուցեալ 'for if the dead do not rise, neither has Christ risen.'
  • Protasis: subjunctive; Apodosis: indicative, subjunctive (as future), or imperative. These are the components of conditions signifying assumption, possibility, uncertainty, or generalization. Examples are զայս ամենայն քեզ տաց, եթե երկիրպագանիցես ինձ 'all these things I will give you, if you bow before me'; եթե ի մեռելոց ոք երթիցէ առ նոսա, եւ ապաշխարեսցեն 'if one of the dead journey to them, they will repent'; եթե ոչ ոք ծնցի վերստին, ոչ կարէ տեսանել զարքայութիւն Աստուծոյ 'if one be not born from above, he is unable to behold the kingdom of God.'
  • Protasis: past indicative; Apodosis: past indicative. These describe unreal conditions. Unreal conditions concerning the present employ the imperfect indicative in both clauses: սա թե մարգարէ ոք էր, ապա գիտէր... 'if this one were prophet, he would know...'; եթե Աստուած էր հայր ձեր, սիրեիք արդեաւք զիս 'if God were your father, you would love me.' Unreal conditions concerning the past typically employ a periphrastic pluperfect in either the protasis or apodosis, with a suitable past tense in the complementary clause. Examples are ըտե աստ լեալ եիր, եղբայրն իմ չէր մեռեալ 'if you had been here, my brother would not have died'; իմ եթե չէր եկեալ, եւ խաւսեցեալ ընդ նոսա, մեղ ինչ ոչ գոյր նոցա 'if I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have possessed sin.'