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Old Iranian Online

Avestan: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum and Scott L. Harvey

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Romanized and Unicode 3) in the left margin.
<(hapax) krd>   'send' (?)   --
1.134
<-aya>   '...'   --
4.34
<-ista->   indicates superlative   --
1.130, 3.5, 3.151, 3.427, 4.48, 4.156, 4.160, 4.174, 4.185, 4.187, 4.230, 5.82, 5.133
<-tara->   'more, better'   --   [Pokorny 4. ter-, terə- : tr̥̄-, trā-, teru- :: to cross, get over, etc.]   --
6.111
<-vat->   '...'   --
2.172, 3.191
<a>   'no, none'   --
4.354, 5.180
<a->   'he, this'   --
2.6, 4.115
<a->   (privative)   --   [Pokorny 1. , , nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   --
1.104
<aipi>   'toward, approaching'   --   [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   --
1.160, 4.450
<aiwi>   'toward, with respect to'   --   [Pokorny ebhi? : obhi : bhi :: from, around, (up) to, etc.]   --
5.81, 5.91, 5.103
<aurvaθana->   'adversary'   --
5.206
<aurvant->   'swift, runner, steed'   --   [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   --
6.68, 6.177, 6.183
<aēnah->   'sin'   --   [Pokorny 2. ai- :: to drive, close in; harm, overwhelm]   --
4.299
<aēva->   'one, alone'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   --
2.21, 2.98
<aēšasa->   'wild'   --
3.450
<aēšəma->   'anger, fury, wrath'   --   [Pokorny 1. eis- :: to move rapidly/violently]   --
1.24, 1.91, 4.240
<aēšma->   'anger, fury, wrath'   --
6.160
<aogah->   'power, strength'   --   [Pokorny au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug- :: to augment, increase, magnify]   --
2.184, 6.23
<aorā>   'down'   --   [Pokorny 3. au-, au̯e, u̯ē̆- :: down, away from]   --
3.354
<aka->   'bad, evil, wicked'   --   [Pokorny 2. ank-, ang- :: to flex, bend, angle]   --
4.107, 4.156, 4.174, 4.230
<aŋhu->   'existence, life'   --   [Pokorny ansu-, ṇsu- :: ghost, spirit, demon]   --
3.242, 4.148, 4.244
<ajyaiti->   'death'   --
4.144
<aṯ>   'then, but, and, so, thus'   --   [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   --
1.184, 2.5, 2.35, 2.136, 2.228, 3.57, 3.178, 3.327, 3.370, 4.5, 4.87, 4.128, 4.158, 4.239, 4.266, 4.294, 4.307, 4.336, 4.392, 4.449
<aθā>   'so, thus, likewise'   --   [Pokorny ant-s :: brow, front, anterior]   --
1.42, 1.171, 3.146, 3.274, 6.106
<aθra>   'here, there'   --
6.201, 6.215
<adā>   'then, thereupon, thus'   --
1.54, 4.378
<ana->   'him'   --
3.315, 3.383
<anaēša->   'powerless'   --
2.141
<anya->   'other'   --   [Pokorny 2. an- :: there, other side]   --
1.41, 3.255, 3.256, 6.158
<ans>   'attain'   --
3.304
<apə̄məm>   'last'   --
3.374, 4.147
<amavant->   'strong, powerful, vigorous'   --   [Pokorny omə- :: to suffer; firm up, proceed energetically]   --
5.129
<ayah->   'metal, iron'   --
4.284
<ayə̄m->   'this, that'   --   [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   --
1.100, 2.81, 2.92, 2.182, 2.210, 3.229, 3.241, 3.271, 3.298, 3.331, 3.410, 3.422, 3.464, 4.75, 4.169, 4.211, 4.217, 4.253, 4.279, 4.296, 4.321, 4.341
<ar>   'rise'   --   [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   --
3.421
<Armaiti->   name of a goddess = 'righteousness, devotion, piety'   --
3.152
<ava>   'away, down'   --   [Pokorny 3. au-, au̯e, u̯ē̆- :: down, away from]   --
4.380, 4.382
<ava->   'this, that'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   --
1.114, 2.195
<avant->   'as much, so much, so long, such'   --
5.21, 5.23, 5.46
<avar>   'down'   --
2.254
<avah->   'help, helping'   --   [Pokorny 7. au̯-, au̯ē-, au̯ēi- :: to like, help]   --
2.173
<asan->   'stone, heaven'   --
4.188
<asišta->   'fastest'   --
4.393
<asura->   'weak'   --
2.153
<aspa->   'horse'   --   [Pokorny ek̑u̯o-s :: horse]   --
5.194
<aspāna->   patronymic form of aspa- 'horse'   --   [Pokorny ek̑u̯o-s :: horse]   --
3.112
<aspi->   'mare'   --   [Pokorny ek̑u̯o-s :: horse]   --
5.73
<aša->   'truth'   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   --
1.58, 1.101, 2.26, 2.54, 2.114, 2.186, 2.224, 3.28, 3.134, 3.253, 3.314, 3.451, 4.33, 4.183, 4.258, 4.325, 4.355, 4.407, 6.168
<ašavan->   '(in accordance with) Truth'   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   --
3.187, 3.188, 3.461, 4.159, 6.62
<ašavant->   'follower of the Truth'   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   --
4.448, 5.47, 5.59, 5.65, 5.92
<azi->   'fertile'   --   [Pokorny ag̑h- :: animal that may bear young]   --
1.202
<azəm->   'I'   --   [Pokorny eg̑-, eg̑(h)om, eg̑ō :: ego, I (pronoun)]   --
1.10, 1.13, 1.23, 1.38, 1.43, 1.172, 2.93, 2.97, 2.111, 2.209, 2.229, 2.253, 2.255, 4.338, 4.354, 5.16, 5.26, 6.85, 6.107
<ah>   'energy, zest, zeal'   --
1.187
<ah->   'be, become'   --
1.128, 1.173, 2.168, 3.262, 3.330, 3.373, 3.387, 3.429, 4.146, 4.282, 4.339, 4.369, 4.452, 5.62, 6.123
<ahu->   'existence, life, breath'   --
3.318, 4.344, 6.12
<ahu->   'lord'   --
2.22
<ahura->   'lord'   --   [Pokorny ansu-, ṇsu- :: ghost, spirit, demon]   --
1.88, 1.170, 1.190, 2.8, 2.51, 2.183, 2.251, 3.30, 3.99, 3.203, 3.462, 4.21, 4.199, 4.323, 4.353, 5.6, 5.28, 5.87
<ahe>   'indeed, certainly'   --
5.111
<ahmaṯ>   'henceforth'   --
6.135
<ā>   '(up) to, toward, etc.'   --   [Pokorny 1. ē̆, ō̆ :: (particle: he, this, etc.)]   --
1.22, 1.27, 1.191, 2.155, 2.242, 3.33, 3.72, 3.207, 3.316, 3.384, 4.49, 4.218, 4.281, 4.354, 4.395, 6.222
<ā>   (conveys sense of reversal with verbs of motion)   --
3.297
<āaṯ>   'then, thereupon, therefore, and, but'   --   [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   --
5.10, 5.18, 6.163, 6.199, 6.214
<ātar->   'fire'   --
5.85
<ādāna->   'portion, forging together, retaliation'   --
4.285
<ādra->   'lowly'   --
1.119
<āyapta->   'riches, bounty, boon, spoils'   --
3.20
<ārmaiti->   'devotion, piety'   --
4.270
<āvarəna->   'invitation, choice'   --
4.59
<āsu->   'swift'   --   [Pokorny ōk̑ú-s :: quick(ly)]   --
5.73
<āsna->   'successful, effective'   --   [Pokorny sē[i]dh- : sī̆dh-, and sədh- :: to aim at, strive for]   --
5.98
<āzuiti->   'fat, butter'   --
2.50
<āzhuš->   'propulsion implement'   --
3.341
<āhiti->   'defilement, pollution   --
6.138
<iθā>   'thus'   --   [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   --
3.270
<idā>   'here'   --   [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. ī- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   --
2.94
<>   'strive, desire, arrive'   --   [Pokorny 1. ais- :: to wish, desire, ask/search for]   --
4.8
<īšā-xšaθri>   'powerful'   --
2.157
<īšti->   'sacrifice'   --   [Pokorny ēik- :: to own, possess, be capable]   --
3.6
<uxδa->   'word, saying'   --   [Pokorny ghous- :: to sound, hear]   --
3.48, 3.61
<uγra->   'strong'   --
1.130
<uta>   'and'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   --
6.70
<utayūiti->   'fresh, lasting, enduring'   --
4.268
<upa>   'near, up on/to, etc.'   --   [Pokorny upo, up, eup, (e)up-s- :: under, (from) below, etc.]   --
3.398, 4.227, 6.9, 6.18, 6.141, 6.144
<uparəm>   'above'   --
6.14
<uruša->   'emaciated'   --
2.67
<urvan->   'soul, self'   --
1.7, 1.200, 2.138
<urvāta->   'rule, order, commandment'   --   [Pokorny 6. u̯er- :: to speak, talk formally]   --
4.421
<urvāza->   'joy, bliss'   --
4.38
<uvaya->   'both'   --
5.60
<ustana->   'stretched forth'   --   [Pokorny 1. ten-, tend- :: to span, stretch, extend]   --
1.186
<erezu->   'straight, just'   --   [Pokorny 1. reg̑- :: to regulate, make just/right; king, reign]   --
3.95
<ərəš->   'right, correct, true'   --
4.117, 4.213, 5.160, 5.172
<ərəšva->   'lofty'   --
1.120
<ərəzu->   'straight'   --   [Pokorny 1. reg̑- :: to regulate, make just/right; king, reign]   --
5.82
<ərəžəji->   'living justly'   --
1.215, 3.480
<ə̄əāvā>   'down'   --
2.83
<ə̄nəiti->   'ill-being, lack of freedom'   --
4.435
<ąnman->   'spirit, breath'   --
4.271
<ka->   'who, what'   --   [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
1.9, 1.12, 1.85, 2.77
<kainya->   'maiden, girl'   --
3.217
<kaēnā->   'atonement, punishment'   --   [Pokorny 1. kei(-t)- :: to observe with respect, pay attention to]   --
4.297
<kaθā>   'how, in what way'   --
1.59
<kadā>   'when'   --   [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   --
2.165
<kayaδa->   category of evil deed   --
5.45
<kar>   'do, make'   --
4.343, 6.134
<ku>   'where'   --   [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
3.460
<kudā>   'where'   --   [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
2.223
<kəvi->   'title: adherent to the daevic religion' (?)   --
3.82
<kəhrp->   'form, body, outward appearance'   --   [Pokorny 1. (s)kel- :: to cut, halve]   --
4.267, 6.35
<xratu->   'will, intention, vision'   --
6.10, 6.19
<xraθwa->   'power, will, insight'   --
3.150
<xruš>   'scream, howl'   --
3.397
<xrūnar->   'man-defiling'   --
3.408
<xrūždra->   'hard, firm'   --   [Pokorny 1. kreu-, kreuə- : krū-, kreus-, krus- :: raw flesh, thick/clotting blood; ice, crust]   --
4.187
<xrvi->   'bloody'   --
6.162
<xsnu>   'satisfy'   --
4.198
<xšaθra->   'power'   --
2.187, 2.227, 3.478, 4.254, 4.310
<xšam>   'accept'   --
2.142
<xšaya>   'ruling'   --
1.73
<xšnā>   'know'   --
2.243
<xšnā->   'recognition' (?)   --
3.70
<xšvid->   'milk'   --   [Pokorny su̯ēid- :: milk]   --
2.65
<xva>   'good, worthy'   --
5.58
<xva->   'self'   --   [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   --
4.63
<xvaētu->   'belonging to the family'   --   [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   --
3.179
<xvathra->   'good breathing, ease, comfort'   --   [Pokorny ēter- :: intestines]   --
3.305
<xvapah->   'dream-like'   --
6.182, 6.188
<xvafna->   'sleep, dream'   --   [Pokorny 1. su̯ep-, sup- :: to sleep]   --
4.93, 5.180
<xvareiti->   'nourishment'   --
6.121
<xvarətha->   'food'   --
3.303
<xvarənah->   'glory'   --   [Pokorny sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- :: Sol, sun]   --
5.113
<xviti->   'well-being, freedom of movement'   --
4.434
<gairi->   'mountain'   --   [Pokorny 3. ger-, gor- :: mountain]   --
6.39, 6.41, 6.75
<gao->   'cow'   --
1.6, 1.56, 1.61, 1.76, 1.105, 1.201, 2.64, 2.137, 5.14, 5.77, 5.119, 5.146, 5.149, 5.152, 5.170
<gaona->   'hair'   --   [Pokorny gēu-, gəu-, gū- :: to bend, curl; cup, vessel]   --
6.221
<gaoman->   'possessed of milk'   --
6.220
<gaoša->   'ear'   --   [Pokorny ghous- :: to sound, hear]   --
5.174
<gad>   'ask, entreat, supplicate'   --
5.196
<gan>   'smite, strike'   --
6.21
<gan->   'slayer'   --
5.47, 6.111
<ganya->   'slaying, killing, destroying'   --
6.122
<gam>   'go'   --
1.133, 4.133, 4.227, 4.255, 4.298, 5.138
<gaya->   'life'   --   [Pokorny gā-, gem- :: to come, go]   --
4.143
<gar>   'be awake'   --
5.181
<guš>   'hear'   --
2.100
<gərəz->   'lament, complain'   --
1.8
<gə̄uša->   'ear'   --
4.47
<ca>   'and'   --   [Pokorny 1. ke :: (enclitic) and]   --
1.25, 1.28, 1.29, 1.156, 1.157, 1.158, 1.201, 2.38, 2.39, 2.65, 2.114, 2.136, 2.187, 2.200, 2.225, 2.227, 3.42, 3.45, 3.49, 3.57, 3.62, 3.74, 3.82, 3.86, 3.109, 3.135, 3.176, 3.178, 3.226, 3.228, 3.241, 3.327, 3.352, 3.354, 3.395, 3.406, 3.407, 3.408, 3.409, 3.428, 3.467, 4.20, 4.22, 4.34, 4.102, 4.103, 4.107, 4.128, 4.143, 4.144, 4.145, 4.197, 4.253, 4.258, 4.294, 4.336, 4.352, 4.355, 4.407, 4.434, 4.436, 4.447, 5.64, 5.65, 5.113, 5.139, 5.140, 5.156, 5.157, 5.158, 5.159, 5.160, 6.32, 6.33, 6.87, 6.90, 6.93
<carana->   'moving, feet, support'   --   [Pokorny 1. kel-, kelə- :: to turn; wheel; neck?]   --
6.69
<carəkərəθra->   '(hymns of) praise'   --
2.122
<cašman->   'eye'   --   [Pokorny kek̑-, kōk̑-, kek̑-s- :: to see, show, appear]   --
5.176
<ci>   'discriminate, tell apart'   --
4.118, 4.214
<ciṯ>   gives indefinite or emphatic sense   --   [Pokorny 1. ke :: (enclitic) and]   --
5.26, 5.47, 6.5, 6.14, 6.113, 6.116, 6.119
<ciθ>   indefinite marker   --
1.148, 1.160
<ciθrəm>   'manifest, clear, visible, plain'   --
6.147
<cinā>   '...'   --   [Pokorny kene :: (particle: uncertainty, generalization)]   --
4.215
<cisti->   'knowledge, thought'   --   [Pokorny 1. kei(-t)- :: to observe with respect, pay attention to]   --
4.368
<cīṯ>   '...'   --   [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
4.11
<cīṯ>   'indeed, verily, etc.'   --   [Pokorny ko-, ke-, fem. kā, kei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
2.26, 2.209
<jaiti->   'going'   --
5.202
<jan>   'smite, slay, destroy'   --
1.103, 5.50
<jə̄naya->   'woman'   --
3.275
<jə̄nar->   'man-killing'   --
3.407
<jyātu->   'life'   --
3.465
<ṯbiš>   'hate, despise'   --   [Pokorny du̯ei- :: to fear]   --
5.201, 5.207
<ta->   'he, that, this'   --
3.258, 3.369, 3.440, 3.475
<tanu->   'body'   --
3.300, 3.452, 4.64, 5.199
<tas>   'carve, create, fashion, shape'   --
1.14, 2.41, 2.53, 5.175, 6.181
<tašar->   'carver, fashioner, shaper, creator'   --
1.55
<>   '...'   --
3.110
<təvis->   'violence'   --
1.29
<tvə̄m->   'you'   --   [Pokorny tū̆ :: thou, you]   --
3.136, 4.280, 4.309, 6.6, 6.15, 6.34, 6.60, 6.178, 6.184, 6.200, 6.222
<θwa>   'you'   --   [Pokorny tū̆ :: thou, you]   --
2.37, 2.212, 3.149
<θwaxša->   'zeal, care, nurture'   --
1.77
<θwarōz>   'carve, fashion, shape, create'   --
1.11
<θwōrəšṯar>   'Fashioner'   --   [Pokorny tu̯erk̑- :: to cut]   --
2.40
<daēnā->   'attitude, intention, insight'   --   [Pokorny dhei̯ə- : dhi̯ā- : dhī- :: to look, see, show]   --
3.46, 3.98, 3.204, 3.240, 5.58
<daēva->   'divine being'   --   [Pokorny 1. dei-, dei̯ə-, dī-, di̯ā- :: to shine, glitter; day, sun; god, deity]   --
1.156, 4.215, 6.124
<dan̨hah->   'skillful'   --   [Pokorny 1. dens- :: to learn; mental power]   --
5.155
<dafšnya->   'powerless'   --
3.386
<dab>   'fit together' (?)   --
3.44
<darəga->   'long'   --   [Pokorny 5. del- :: long]   --
4.437
<darəs->   'wantoness, rage, fury'   --
1.28
<darəsata->   'visible, beautiful to see'   --
4.37
<dah->   'gift'   --
3.94
<dahyav->   'country, region, realm'   --
5.39
<dā->   'give, put'   --
1.72, 1.76, 1.205, 2.82, 2.127, 2.171, 2.185, 2.201, 3.19, 3.101, 3.137, 3.202, 3.231, 3.411, 3.481, 4.135, 4.269, 4.326, 4.425, 5.15, 5.20, 5.74, 5.84, 5.97, 6.179, 6.185, 6.187
<dāman->   'dwelling, creation, creatures (pl.)'   --
5.132
<dāmi->   'creation'   --
6.179, 6.185
<dugədar->   'daughter'   --   [Pokorny dhug(h)əter- :: daughter]   --
3.122
<duš->   'bad, evil'   --   [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   --
3.303, 5.203
<duždā->   'of bad gifts, maleficent'   --   [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   --
4.120
<dužvarena->   'choosing badly'   --   [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   --
3.437
<dužvarešnah->   'wrong-doers'   --   [Pokorny dus- :: bad, foul, evil]   --
3.385
<dəjit->   'violation' (?)   --
3.314, 3.451
<dəbaoman->   'beguilement, deception'   --
4.218
<dərəz->   'shackle'   --   [Pokorny 2. dher-, dherə- :: to hold, support]   --
3.425
<draoga->   'lie, deceive'   --   [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   --
5.81, 5.91, 5.103
<drav->   'wood'   --
6.162
<drigu->   'needy, poor'   --
3.482
<drug->   'false'   --
5.41
<druj->   'deceit'   --   [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   --
3.283, 3.296, 4.328, 4.381
<drəgvant->   'possessor of the Lie'   --
1.90, 1.219, 3.313, 3.357, 4.157, 4.173, 4.438, 5.54, 5.64
<drvatāt->   'health, vitality'   --
5.198
<dvaesa->   'hatred'   --   [Pokorny du̯ei- :: to fear]   --
1.104
<dvafša->   'distress, ruin, pain, anguish'   --
3.423
<dvar>   'rush together'   --
4.241
<naēda>   'not, nor'   --
2.24
<naman->   'reverence'   --
5.140
<nar->   'man'   --   [Pokorny 1. ner(-t)-, aner-, əner-? :: vital force; man]   --
2.152, 3.273, 4.61, 4.62, 6.22
<narəpi->   'reduction, absence'   --
3.441
<nas>   'be lost, disappear'   --   [Pokorny nek̑- :: death, dying, necrosis; corpse]   --
3.304, 3.358, 6.132
<ni>   'down'   --   [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   --
6.21, 6.187
<nitəma->   'lowest'   --   [Pokorny 1. en :: in]   --
6.113, 6.116, 6.119
<nivāiti->   'striking down'   --
5.204
<>   '...'   --
3.165
<>   'now'   --   [Pokorny nū̆- :: now]   --
2.252
<nōiṯ>   'no, none'   --   [Pokorny 1. , , nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   --
1.37, 1.102, 1.115, 1.214, 1.217, 2.20, 4.119, 4.212, 5.80, 5.90, 5.102
<nmāna->   'abode, house'   --   [Pokorny dem-, demə- :: to build, timber; house, domicile]   --
6.137
<paiti>   'near, toward, with respect to'   --
1.106, 2.243, 4.79, 5.193, 5.202, 6.38, 6.76, 6.88, 6.91, 6.94, 6.190
<paiti->   'husband, master'   --   [Pokorny poti-s :: host, husband, lord, master, owner]   --
3.176
<paityāstī->   'firm foundation'   --
3.132
<pairi>   'around, among'   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
1.148, 1.220, 5.138
<paurvat->   'mountain'   --
6.216
<paouruya->   'first, original'   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
2.214, 4.90, 4.134, 4.286
<paθ->   'path, road'   --   [Pokorny pent- :: to go, walk, pad, tread; way, path]   --
3.96, 5.83
<paθana->   'spacious'   --   [Pokorny 1. pet-, pet-, petə- :: to stretch out (esp. arms)]   --
6.56
<param>   'far, away, opposite, across'   --
6.58
<parā>   'before, beyond, away'   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
3.301, 3.352, 3.359, 4.72
<pitar->   'father'   --   [Pokorny pətḗ(r), genitive pətr-és :: father]   --
3.167
<piθa->   'defense'   --
3.299
<peša->   'brought to an end'   --
3.452
<pouru->   'many'   --   [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelə-, plē- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   --
6.217
<pouru->   'wide'   --
5.200
<Pourucistā->   'Pouruchista' (?)   --
3.111
<pərəθu->   'wide, broad'   --   [Pokorny plā̆t-, plā̆d-, plē̆t-, plō̆t-, plət- :: flat, wide, broad; spread out]   --
5.178, 6.55
<pərəs->   'ask'   --
1.57, 4.226
<Ferašaoštra->   'Frashaostra'   --
3.86
<fəraša->   'shining'   --
4.342
<fra>   'forward, toward'   --
5.15, 6.134
<fraorəṯ>   'readily'   --
3.73, 4.202
<frajyāiṯi>   'life's possibility'   --
1.216
<fratarəm>   'opposite'   --
6.5
<fradaxštā->   'guiding, instructive'   --
6.203
<fravaši->   the immortal element in a person, personified as a class of deity   --
5.96
<fravāxš->   'stalk, branch, penis'   --
6.95
<fras>   'inquire, discuss'   --
3.148, 5.55
<frasā->   'question, inquiry'   --   [Pokorny 4. perk̑-, prek̑-, pr̥k̑- :: to request, ask/pray for]   --
1.206
<frasparak->   'sprout'   --
6.92
<frazanti->   'progeny, offspring'   --
5.99
<frāidi->   'growth, prosperity'   --
3.288
<frāxšnəna->   'concern'   --
2.240
<frī>   'devote'   --
1.189
<fsuya->   'breed (esp. cattle)'   --
1.218, 2.38
<baēvara->   'ten-thousand'   --
5.176
<baēšaza->   'remedy, poison'   --
6.148, 6.223
<baēšazya->   'generative, curative'   --
6.146
<baoiδi->   'smell'   --
6.67
<baγa->   'god, deity'   --
6.180, 6.186
<banaya->   'poison, make ill'   --
4.243
<band->   'shine' (?)   --
3.193
<bar>   'bear, carry'   --   [Pokorny ati, ato- :: over, beyond]   --
6.206
<barana->   'carriage, support'   --
4.354
<barəθri->   'mother, womb'   --   [Pokorny 1. bher- :: to bear, bring, carry]   --
6.59
<barəsman->   grass bundle used in the Indo-Iranian sacrifice   --   [Pokorny 3. bhel-, bhlē- :: to grow, spread, swell, inflate]   --
5.153
<barəša->   'neck, back'   --
5.192
<barəz>   'high, exalted, loud'   --
6.191
<baršnu->   'high point, peak'   --
6.37
<bāδa>   'true, reliable'   --   [Pokorny 2. bhē̆, bhō̆ :: (emphatic particle)]   --
6.140, 6.143
<bu>   'be, become'   --
4.366, 4.382, 6.112
<bud>   'be attentive, aware'   --
4.78
<būna->   'ground, base'   --
3.343
<bərət>   'cry' (?)   --
3.302
<bərəz->   'be high, elevated'   --   [Pokorny bhereg̑h-, bherg̑hos- :: high, noble; barrow, mountain]   --
6.42
<bərəzant->   'high, elevated, lofty, big, great, clear'   --   [Pokorny bhereg̑h-, bherg̑hos- :: high, noble; barrow, mountain]   --
5.177
<ma->   'my'   --   [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)]   --
1.199
<maiδyah->   'madness-inducing'   --
6.159
<mainyu->   'spirit'   --
3.356, 4.89, 4.132, 4.170, 4.184, 5.203
<mairišṯa->   'knowing/remembering best'   --
1.144
<mairya->   'false, malicious'   --   [Pokorny 2. mel- :: to deceive]   --
5.40
<maēγa->   'cloud'   --   [Pokorny meigh-, also meik- :: to flicker, twinkle; mist]   --
6.32
<maēδa->   'changing, false'   --
4.370
<maga->   'gift'   --
2.242, 3.332, 3.368
<maθra->   'mantra, magic formula'   --
2.52
<maδa->   'intoxication'   --   [Pokorny mad- :: to drip; wet; fat, glossy, well-fed]   --
6.167
<man>   'know, think'   --
2.213
<manah->   'mind'   --   [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   --
2.79, 2.197, 2.226, 3.60, 3.133, 3.189, 3.193, 3.228, 3.230, 3.245, 4.24, 4.51, 4.102, 4.161, 4.231, 4.256, 4.312, 4.365, 4.398, 6.226
<manahya->   'spiritual'   --
3.317
<marək->   'kill, destroy, bring ruin'   --
5.37
<marəta->   'mortal'   --   [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   --
2.84, 4.245
<mašya->   'human being'   --
1.157, 2.230, 4.426
<maz->   'large, great'   --   [Pokorny meg̑(h)- : meg̑(h)- :: big, much, great, major, mega-]   --
2.241, 3.427, 4.73
<mazda->   'wise one'   --   [Pokorny mendh- :: to direct attention to; vivacious]   --
1.142, 1.204, 2.9, 3.31, 3.71, 3.135, 3.201, 3.476, 4.203, 4.308, 4.352, 4.406, 4.424, 5.7, 5.29, 5.86, 6.71
<mazdā->   'wise'   --   [Pokorny mendh- :: to direct attention to; vivacious]   --
2.63, 2.112, 2.211, 2.239
<mazdāδa->   'thing to be considered'   --   [Pokorny mendh- :: to direct attention to; vivacious]   --
4.10
<>   used to express prohibition   --   [Pokorny 1. mē- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   --
5.49, 5.52, 5.56
<miθ>   'rob of'   --
3.466
<Miθra->   'Mithra'   --
5.12, 5.75, 5.118, 5.134, 5.145, 5.148, 5.169
<miθra->   'contract, agreement, pact'   --   [Pokorny 4. mei- :: to tie, bind]   --
5.41, 5.48, 5.63, 5.79, 5.89, 5.101
<mīzda->   'wages, prize'   --   [Pokorny mizdhó- :: fee, pay, meed, reward]   --
3.329
<mošu>   'soon'   --   [Pokorny mok̑s, Indo-Iranian *mok̑sū̆ :: soon]   --
3.428
<mərəγa->   'forest animal, bird'   --
6.204
<mərəthyu->   'death'   --   [Pokorny 4. mer-, merə- :: to die]   --
3.426
<mąθra->   'formulaic verse, spell, poetic intention'   --
5.156
<mru>   'drive, plunge, beat'   --
3.353
<mrū>   'speak, say'   --
1.106, 3.218, 5.5
<mrc>   'destroy'   --
3.319
<ya->   'who, what, which'   --
1.89, 1.117, 1.131, 1.145, 1.158, 2.80, 2.96, 2.140, 2.154, 2.169, 2.198, 3.42, 3.97, 3.166, 3.243, 3.286, 3.463, 3.479, 4.9, 4.35, 4.91, 4.172, 4.186, 4.197, 4.242, 4.324, 4.340, 4.408, 4.423, 5.13, 5.27, 5.53, 5.57, 5.76, 5.78, 5.88, 5.100, 5.189, 6.11, 6.20, 6.34, 6.108, 6.165
<yaoti->   'pasture'   --
5.14, 5.77, 5.119, 5.146, 5.149, 5.170
<yaṯ>   'when'   --
5.11
<yaθa>   'just as, like'   --
1.174, 4.145, 4.283, 5.25, 5.43
<yaθra>   'where, in order to'   --
3.355, 4.367, 6.43, 6.65, 6.139, 6.142
<yadā>   'when'   --   [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   --
4.295
<yam>   'offer'   --   [Pokorny i̯em- :: to hold, match, defeat, geminate; twin]   --
3.297
<yav->   'duration, period, time of life'   --   [Pokorny 2. i̯eu-, i̯eu̯ə-, i̯eu-g- :: to yoke, join, tie together]   --
3.32, 3.206
<yavaṯ>   'how long, as long as'   --
3.340
<yavan->   'during life'   --   [Pokorny 3. i̯eu- :: young]   --
2.166
<yasna->   'sacrifice, offering, hymn'   --   [Pokorny i̯ag- :: to worship, venerate]   --
3.74, 5.117, 5.144
<yaz>   'sacrifice, offer'   --
5.115, 5.130, 5.135, 5.142, 5.150, 5.171, 5.190
<yazu->   'youngest'   --
3.121
<yāh->   'pilgrimage, retribution'   --
4.74
<yuj>   'join, unite, yoke'   --   [Pokorny 2. i̯eu-, i̯eu̯ə-, i̯eu-g- :: to yoke, join, tie together]   --
4.394
<yūžəm->   'you'   --   [Pokorny 1. i̯u- :: you (plural)]   --
1.5, 1.40, 2.181, 2.238, 2.256, 3.163, 3.226, 3.254, 3.328, 3.371, 3.477
<yesnya->   'sacrifice, worship'   --   [Pokorny i̯ag- :: to worship, venerate]   --
4.22, 5.22
<yezī>   'as, because, when'   --
3.17
<yə̄ma->   'twin'   --   [Pokorny i̯em- :: to hold, match, defeat, geminate; twin]   --
4.92
<rai->   'radiance, wealth, splendor'   --
5.112
<raēθa->   'rush upon, mix with'   --
6.224
<raocah->   'light'   --   [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   --
4.36
<raod>   'grow, sprout'   --
6.45, 6.66, 6.74, 6.218
<rajī->   'darkness'   --
3.442
<ratu->   'judgement, model, plan'   --
1.62, 2.25
<raθa->   'chariot'   --   [Pokorny ret(h)- :: to run, roll, rotate]   --
5.191
<rašah->   'harm, damage'   --   [Pokorny rek̑þh- :: to harm, injure]   --
4.439
<rāta->   'gift'   --
2.255
<rāthəma->   'adhering to'   --
3.285
<rāθ>   'adhere'   --
3.439
<rāda->   'provider'   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi- :: to fit, suit]   --
2.143
<rāman->   'peace, tranquility'   --   [Pokorny rem-, remə- :: to rest; to support]   --
2.200, 3.409
<ru>   'flow'   --
6.13
<ruθma->   'growth, increase'   --
6.72
<rud>   'howl, cry out, lament'   --
2.139
<rəma->   'bloodlust, violence, chains'   --
1.26
<vaēda->   'provider'   --
2.215
<vaēδayana->   'attainment, discovery, acquisition'   --
5.178
<vaēna->   'see, observe, look'   --
4.49
<vaēm->   'we'   --   [Pokorny 1. u̯ē̆-, u̯ei- :: we two (dual), we (plural)]   --
4.76
<vaēšah->   'poison'   --   [Pokorny 3. u̯eis- :: to flow (away); ooze, virus, poison]   --
3.438
<vak>   'say, speak, declare'   --   [Pokorny u̯ek- :: to voice, speak, evoke]   --
2.7, 4.7, 5.160
<vaxəδra->   'speech organ'   --
2.128
<vaxš>   'grow'   --
6.104
<vaxšaya->   'cause to grow'   --
6.36
<vacah->   'speech, word'   --   [Pokorny u̯ek- :: to voice, speak, evoke]   --
3.375, 4.103, 5.157, 5.161, 5.172, 6.8, 6.17, 6.86
<vat->   'like'   --
2.256
<vadman->   (?) 'possessed of speech'   --
3.227
<van>   'surpass, overcome'   --
3.257
<vanta->   'praise, homage'   --
5.139
<vafu->   'prophecy, teaching, solemn words'   --
2.11
<vayu->   'air, wind' (?)   --
3.302
<vayoi>   'woe'   --   [Pokorny u̯ai :: woe; wolf]   --
3.372
<vaȳxana->   'assembly-speaking, rhetorically skilled'   --
5.173
<var>   'choose'   --   [Pokorny 2. u̯el-, u̯lei-, u̯lē(i)- :: to will, want, wish, choose]   --
3.165, 4.171
<varav->   'wide, broad'   --
5.14, 5.77, 5.119, 5.146, 5.149, 5.170
<varəz->   'work, perform'   --   [Pokorny 2. u̯erg̑-, u̯reg̑- :: to do, work, be effective]   --
3.153
<varšak->   'root, tree'   --
6.89
<vas>   'be clothed, swathed'   --
4.189
<vas>   'desire, wish'   --
1.87, 1.176, 2.113, 2.156, 4.453
<vasəiti->   'liberty, prosperity'   --
3.467
<vaz>   'marry'   --
3.216
<vahma->   'glorification, praise'   --
3.72
<vahmaya->   'worthy of praise'   --
5.24
<vahya->   'better'   --   [Pokorny u̯ē̆su- :: good]   --
3.483, 4.106
<>   'indeed, for, etc.'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o- :: other; that (one)]   --
1.185
<vāc->   'voice'   --
2.151
<vādāya->   'destroy'   --   [Pokorny 1. u̯edh- :: to hit, push]   --
1.92
<vāra->   'rain'   --
6.33
<vāstar->   'herdsman'   --
1.39
<vāstrya->   'herdsman; pasture'   --
1.46, 1.75, 2.39, 3.177
<vi>   'wide, apart'   --   [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   --
3.367, 4.118, 4.214, 6.206, 6.218
<vid>   'see, know, obtain'   --   [Pokorny 2. u̯(e)id- :: to vide, see, wit, know]   --
1.116, 2.10, 3.168, 3.239, 4.12, 4.313
<vis>   'find'   --
2.23, 2.95
<vispa->   'everyone/thing, all'   --   [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   --
3.396
<viž->   'clan'   --
3.413
<vīciδa->   'decision, judgement'   --
4.60
<vīcira->   'discerning'   --
1.169
<vīspa->   'all, every'   --   [Pokorny 1. u̯ī̆- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   --
3.33, 3.207, 5.38, 6.87, 6.90, 6.93, 6.156
<Vīštāspa->   'Vishtaspa'   --
3.83
<vīzxvanca>   'in every direction' (?)   --
6.205
<verəz->   'perform an action'   --
4.175
<vohu->   'good'   --   [Pokorny u̯ē̆su- :: good]   --
1.45, 2.78, 2.196, 2.225, 3.5, 3.47, 3.131, 3.190, 3.205, 3.244, 4.23, 4.48, 4.160, 4.257, 4.311, 4.397, 4.410, 5.93, 6.225
<vərəθra->   'attack, victory'   --   [Pokorny 5. u̯er- :: to shut, close, cover; guard, warn, save]   --
6.111
<vərən->   'choose'   --
4.229
<vərəz>   'do, make, perform'   --
1.147, 1.159, 6.84
<vərəzyah->   'working, productive'   --
6.57
<vyāna->   'insight, perception'   --   [Pokorny 3. u̯ei-, u̯eiə- : u̯ī- :: to wish, pursue, go for, reach towards; strong, violent]   --
2.12
<saošyant->   'giving power; savior (?)'   --
3.100
<saxvār->   'invocation, poetically formulated vow'   --
1.143
<saŋh>   'announce, proclaim'   --
4.77, 4.322
<sac>   'learn, understand'   --
3.45, 4.422
<sata->   'hundred'   --
5.44
<sand>   'show, seem'   --
1.44
<sar->   'protection, alliance'   --   [Pokorny k̑erə-, k̑rā- :: to cook]   --
1.103, 3.138
<sareδa->   'kind, sort, species'   --   [Pokorny k̑erdho-, k̑erdhā :: line, row, herd]   --
6.217
<sava->   'benefit, salvation'   --
4.447
<sāxvan->   'doctrine, teaching, instruction'   --   [Pokorny k̑ās-, k̑əs- :: to teach, show the way]   --
3.215
<sāsnā->   'teaching'   --   [Pokorny k̑ās-, k̑əs- :: to teach, show the way]   --
2.69, 2.99
<sūca->   'light, pure, clear'   --
4.50
<sūra->   'strong, powerful'   --   [Pokorny 1. k̑eu-, k̑eu̯ə- : k̑ū-, k̑u̯ā- :: to swell]   --
5.94, 5.131, 5.133, 5.179
<skənda->   'destruction'   --   [Pokorny (s)k(h)ed-, (s)k(h)e-n-d- :: to crush, shatter, split to pieces]   --
4.383
<staota->   'hymn, song of praise'   --
4.20
<stavana->   'praising, being praised'   --
6.105
<stā>   'stand, stay, remain'   --
5.191
<stu>   'praise, laud, extol, celebrate'   --
6.9, 6.18, 6.31, 6.40, 6.53, 6.63, 6.110, 6.144
<stūiti->   'song of praise, prayer'   --   [Pokorny 2. steu- :: to praise (aloud)]   --
6.118
<stra->   'spread-out' (?)   --
4.354
<spaxšti->   'vision'   --
5.200
<spayaθra->   'atonement, prosperity'   --
4.384
<spas-̨ spašu->   (?) 'perceive'   --   [Pokorny spek̑- :: to watch, inspect, spy on]   --
3.287
<Spitāma->   'Spitama' (clan name of Zarathustra)   --
2.109, 3.16, 3.85, 3.120, 5.8, 5.17, 5.42, 5.51
<spənta->   'beneficent, holy, sacred'   --   [Pokorny k̑u̯en- :: to celebrate; saint]   --
2.68, 3.151, 4.185, 5.95, 6.202
<spərəd->   'zeal'   --   [Pokorny sp(h)erd(h)-, (s)p(h)red(h)-, nasalized sp(h)rend(h)- :: to rush, sprint, spring; running]   --
3.164
<sravas->   'fame'   --
4.411
<srāvay->   'cause to be heard'   --
2.123
<sru>   'give'   --
3.7
<sru>   'hear, listen'   --
4.46, 4.94, 5.116, 5.143
<šava->   'drive forth, set in motion'   --
1.118
<ši>   'dwell'   --
3.412
<šyaoθana->   'act, deed'   --   [Pokorny kēi- :: to move, set in motion]   --
3.49, 3.62, 4.104, 4.201, 5.158
<zairi->   'yellow'   --
6.221
<zaoθra->   'libations'   --   [Pokorny 1. g̑heu- :: to gush, pour, found]   --
5.120, 5.136, 5.147, 5.159
<zan>   'bear, give birth'   --
6.141
<zam->   'earth, ground'   --   [Pokorny g̑hðem-, g̑hðom-, genitive-ablative g̑h(ð)m-és :: earth, ground, soil, humus]   --
6.54, 6.64
<Zaraθuštra->   'Zarathustra'   --   [Pokorny 3. u̯es- :: to ooze, dampen; wet]   --
2.108, 3.8, 3.123, 5.9
<zaraθuštri->   'descendent of Zarathustra' (?)   --   [Pokorny 3. u̯es- :: to ooze, dampen; wet]   --
3.84
<zava->   'call, request'   --
1.132
<zasta->   'hand'   --   [Pokorny g̑hesto- :: arm, hand]   --
1.188, 2.172, 4.327
<zahya->   'weakened'   --
3.395
<>   'abandon, relinquish'   --
3.367
<>   'conquer, win, come in first'   --
4.409
<zāvar->   'strength, vitality, vigor'   --   [Pokorny g̑eu-, g̑eu̯ə-, also geu̯ə- :: to hurry, promote]   --
5.195
<zi>   'for, indeed'   --   [Pokorny ghe-, gho- :: (enclitic (emphatic?) particle)]   --
1.146, 2.36, 3.162, 3.259, 4.379, 5.61, 6.157
<zrazdišta->   'most believing'   --
3.342
<ha->   '(s)he, this'   --   [Pokorny so(s), :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --
1.71, 1.86, 1.129, 1.168, 1.175, 2.49, 2.66, 2.110, 2.125, 2.167, 2.170, 3.18, 3.43, 3.58, 3.109, 3.161, 3.260, 3.298, 3.424, 4.6, 4.88, 4.130, 4.337, 4.420, 4.451, 5.19, 5.114, 5.128, 5.137, 5.141, 6.109, 6.164
<ha->   'you'   --
1.60
<haiθya->   'true, real'   --   [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   --
3.272, 4.200
<haēcaṯ->   '...'   --
3.112
<haoma->   plant whose juice was used as a ritual intoxicant   --
5.151, 6.44, 6.61, 6.73, 6.103, 6.114, 6.117, 6.120, 6.145, 6.166, 6.219
<hak>   'instigate, strive for' -- with instrumental 'go after, follow, partake of'   --
6.161, 6.169
<haxti->   'thigh'   --   [Pokorny (s)keng- :: to hobble; lame, slanted]   --
3.344
<haŋhuš->   'profit, harvest'   --
3.192
<haca->   'follow, accompany' (?)   --
3.59
<hacā>   'from, out of'   --   [Pokorny 1. sek- :: to segue, follow]   --
2.27, 3.29, 3.284, 6.136
<haθra>   'together, at the same place/time'   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
4.364, 5.204, 6.133
<hadā>   'together with'   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
1.74
<ham>   'together'   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
6.13
<hamərəθa>   'enemy'   --   [Pokorny 3. er- : or- : r- :: to move, set in motion]   --
5.205
<haraitī->   name of a mountain   --   [Pokorny 2. ser- :: to serve, guard, protect, shelter]   --
6.189
<havana->   'pressing stone'   --
6.7, 6.16
<haza->   'power, violence, oppression'   --
1.25
<hazaoša->   'like-minded'   --
2.55
<hazara->   'thousand'   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
5.174, 6.122
<hi>   'indeed'   --
4.105
<hita->   'team of horses'   --
5.197
<hišāy->   'bind, tie up'   --
1.27
<hizu->   'tongue'   --   [Pokorny dn̥g̑hū, dn̥g̑hu̯ā :: tongue]   --
5.154
<hu>   'well, good, beautiful'   --   [Pokorny su-, sū- :: good, well]   --
5.175, 6.10, 6.19, 6.58, 6.67, 6.72
<huxšaθra->   'good rule'   --
3.406
<hudah->   'of good gifts, beneficent'   --
4.116
<hudānu->   'blessed'   --
3.153
<hudəma->   'sweetness'   --
2.126
<humązdra->   'careful, good to see'   --
4.32
<hušiti->   'good dwelling, comfort, safety'   --
2.199, 4.396
<hušə̄na->   'profitable'   --
3.261
<hūiti->   'pressure'   --
6.115
<həm>   '...'   --
3.466, 4.241
<hə̄m>   'together, with'   --
3.147, 4.131
<hyaṯ>   'if, so, when'   --
1.70, 1.203, 2.124, 4.11, 4.419, 4.436
<hyat>   'as, since, because'   --
4.129, 4.216, 4.228, 4.363
<hva->   'this'   --   [Pokorny se- :: self, one's own]   --
6.216
<hvaŋhaoya->   'good existence'   --
3.34
<hvar->   'sun'   --
3.191