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Albanian Online

Geg: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum, Brian Joseph, and Angelo Costanzo

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Unicode 2 and Unicode 3) in the left margin.
<a>   or   --
4.48
<ai, ajo>   (s)he, it, that   --   [Pokorny so(s), sa :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --
4.52, 4.55, 4.69, 4.70, 4.73, 4.85, 4.86, 4.92, 4.124, 4.177, 4.186, 4.257
<ambel, e>   sweet   --   [Pokorny om- :: raw, coarse, bitter]   --
4.241
<armė>   weapon   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base aru-, re-, and i-base (a)ri-, rei- :: to fit, suit]   --
4.68, 4.84
<ashtu>   so, thus   --
5.161, 5.213
<ata, ato>   they, those   --
5.124, 5.154
<bāhem>   become   --
4.125
<bāj>   do, make   --   [Pokorny 1. bha-, bho-, bhu- :: to shine, glisten]   --
4.29, 4.41, 5.10, 5.57, 5.61, 5.101, 5.117, 5.140, 5.163, 5.179
<bukė>   bread, food   --
4.127, 4.139, 4.200, 4.219, 4.244
<ēdo>   every   --
4.159, 4.197
<ēoj>   lead   --   [Pokorny kei- :: to move, set in motion]   --
4.93
<daj>   separate   --
5.79, 5.128, 5.145
<dal>   leave, go out, rise, arrive   --   [Pokorny dhal- :: to bloom, be green]   --
4.56, 5.104, 5.182
<det>   sea   --
5.234
<ditė>   day   --
4.165, 5.95, 5.188
<do>   FUTURE/CONDITIONAL   --
4.123, 4.152, 4.176
<do>   some   --
4.148
<dritė>   light   --   [Pokorny derk- :: to look]   --
5.58, 5.62, 5.74, 5.81, 5.94, 5.105, 5.183
<drū>   wood   --   [Pokorny deru-, doru-, dr(e)u-, drou-, dreuu- : dru- :: firm, solid; tree, wood]   --
4.111, 4.114
<due>   want   --
4.113
<duhān>   tobacco   --
4.238
<duhet>   must, should, be necessary   --
4.199, 4.215, 4.237
<dukem>   appear   --
5.210
<dytė, e>   second   --   [Pokorny duo(u) :: two, duo]   --
5.187
<dhe>   land, earth   --   [Pokorny ghðem-, ghðom-, genitive-ablative gh(ð)m-és :: earth, ground, soil, humus]   --
5.14, 5.23, 5.227
<e>   NYJE   --
4.6, 4.9, 4.12, 4.44, 4.46, 4.50, 4.96, 4.161, 4.164, 4.174, 4.181, 4.213, 4.220, 4.240, 4.255, 5.6, 5.8, 5.25, 5.28, 5.31, 5.35, 5.40, 5.76, 5.83, 5.97, 5.118, 5.125, 5.142, 5.151, 5.158, 5.174, 5.186, 5.225, 5.229, 5.231
<e>   and   --
4.11, 4.54, 4.72, 4.128, 4.130, 4.140, 4.142, 4.145, 4.147, 4.163, 4.218, 4.243, 4.245, 5.13, 5.22, 5.27, 5.30, 5.38, 5.53, 5.59, 5.70, 5.78, 5.91, 5.96, 5.99, 5.103, 5.113, 5.123, 5.139, 5.144, 5.153, 5.160, 5.171, 5.177, 5.181, 5.196, 5.208, 5.212, 5.222, 5.228, 5.235
<edhe>   also, yet, still, even   --
4.110
<edhe>   and   --
4.90
<erėt, e>   darkness   --
5.31, 5.83, 5.97
<ėn>   from, by, with   --
5.82, 5.130
<ėnbė>   at   --
5.205
<ėnbėledh>   gather   --
5.200, 5.230
<ėndė>   in   --
5.5
<ėndėnė>   under   --
5.150, 5.203
<falem>   be greeted   --
4.65
<faqe>   page, face, surface   --
5.34
<fir>   fern   --
4.149
<firmuom, e>   vault   --
5.119, 5.126, 5.143, 5.152, 5.159, 5.175
<fond>   pool, deep   --
5.36
<fort>   very, loudly, strongly   --
5.240
<gadi>   ready   --
4.155
<gėrshas>   call   --   [Pokorny 4. guer(u)- :: to praise, congratulate, raise one's voice]   --
5.92, 5.172, 5.223, 5.233
<gjindem>   be located, be present, exist   --
4.154
<ha>   eat   --
4.202
<hīj>   enter   --
4.25
<jam>   be   --   [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   --
4.8, 5.24, 5.32, 5.56, 5.75, 5.116, 5.148, 5.156, 5.185, 5.214, 5.239
<kafe>   coffee   --
4.216, 4.239
<kambė>   foot, leg   --
4.188
<ke>   at   --
4.98
<kohė>   time, weather   --   [Pokorny 1. kuei(-t)- :: to observe with respect, pay attention to]   --
4.160
<krye>   head, beginning   --
4.95
<krypė>   salt   --
4.129, 4.141
<krrabė>   hook   --
4.89
<kush>   someone, anyone   --   [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. kua, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
4.49
<lahem>   be washed   --
4.187
<lodhun, e>   tired   --
4.175
<lshohem>   be given freely   --
4.258
<lypej>   ask for, request   --
4.109
<>   more   --
4.225
<mārr>   take   --   [Pokorny mu-r, genitive mu-n-és, mntós :: hand]   --
4.71
<me>   with, by   --
4.66, 4.180, 4.183, 4.222
<mik>   friend, guest   --
4.13, 4.21, 4.43, 4.67, 4.112, 4.122, 4.157, 4.173, 4.185, 4.198, 4.212, 4.235, 4.254
<mirė>   well   --   [Pokorny 7. mei- : moi- : mi- :: mild, soft]   --
5.241
<mirė, e>   good   --   [Pokorny 7. mei- : moi- : mi- :: mild, soft]   --
4.214, 5.77
<mish>   meat   --   [Pokorny memso-, me(m)s-ro- :: meat, flesh]   --
4.246
<mund>   can, be able   --   [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   --
4.23
<natė>   night   --   [Pokorny neku-(t-), noku-t-s :: night]   --
4.162, 5.98, 5.102, 5.180
<nderė>   honor   --
4.126, 4.184
<ndo'i>   some, any   --
4.223
<>   in, on, at   --
4.26, 4.31, 4.75, 4.88, 4.94, 4.158
<nuk>   NEGATOR   --
4.22
<njė>   a, one   --
5.206
<oborr>   courtyard   --
4.31
<pa>   without   --   [Pokorny apo-, po, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   --
4.28
<pa:frujt>   fruitless, barren   --   [Pokorny bhrug- :: fruit; to brook, enjoy]   --
5.26
<pergjegjem>   answer   --
4.53
<perpara>   ahead, forward, forth   --
4.57
<perpushem>   scratch, twitch, stir   --
4.107
<pėr>   for, about, by, through   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
4.150, 4.156, 4.196, 4.211, 4.234, 5.120, 5.149, 5.202
<pėr-ėnbi:>   on top of, over, about   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
5.33, 5.44, 5.157
<prīj>   lead   --
4.74
<pritun, e>   hospitality   --
4.182
<qi>   that, which   --
5.147, 5.155, 5.184
<qiell>   sky, heaven   --
5.12, 5.176, 5.204
<raki>   raki   --
4.217, 4.242
<rreth>   surrounded   --
4.179
<se>   that   --
5.73, 5.238
<send>   thing, item   --
4.224
<si>   in the way that, such as   --   [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. kua, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
4.201
<si>   upon, when   --   [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. kua, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
4.39
<shekull>   century, time   --
5.9
<shoh>   see   --
5.71, 5.236
<shpi>   house   --
4.5, 4.27, 4.47, 4.51, 4.76, 4.259
<shpirt>   spirit   --
5.39
<shprazėtė, e>   empty   --
5.29
<shqyptar>   Albanian   --
4.7
<shtroj>   lay   --
4.221
<shtrojė>   mattress, bed   --
4.151
<teper>   very, too, excessively   --
4.226
<>   SUBORDINATOR   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, ta-, tio- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
4.24, 4.40, 4.124, 4.153, 4.177, 5.127
<trung>   log   --
4.146
<thatė, e>   dry ground   --
5.211, 5.226
<them>   say, speak   --
5.54, 5.114, 5.197
<u>   NON-ACTIVE   --
5.60, 5.100, 5.162, 5.178, 5.199, 5.209
<ujė>   water   --   [Pokorny 9. au(e)-, aued-, auer- :: to wet, flow, sprinkle; water, river, etc.]   --
5.37, 5.45, 5.122, 5.129, 5.131, 5.146, 5.201, 5.232
<var>   hang   --
4.87
<vend>   place, seat, country   --
4.97, 5.207
<vėliz>   move   --
5.43
<vėtė>   themselves   --
4.203
<viedmi>   midst   --
5.121
<vīhem>   be placed   --
4.178
<votėr>   hearth   --   [Pokorny at(e)r- :: fire]   --
4.99
<ynė>   our   --
5.11, 5.41, 5.55, 5.72, 5.80, 5.93, 5.115, 5.141, 5.173, 5.198, 5.224, 5.237
<>   sound, voice   --   [Pokorny ghuen- :: to sound]   --
4.30, 4.42
<zanė, e>   beginning, start   --
5.7
<zźmer>   heart   --
4.131, 4.143, 4.256
<zźmret>   cherished   --
4.236
<zjarm>   fire   --   [Pokorny guher- :: warm, hot]   --
4.108, 4.144
<zot>   master, lord, God   --
4.10, 5.11, 5.42, 5.55, 5.72, 5.80, 5.93, 5.115, 5.141, 5.173, 5.198, 5.224, 5.237
<zoti, e>   owner, boss, master   --
4.45