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Albanian Online

Geg: English Meaning Index

Jonathan Slocum, Brian Joseph, and Angelo Costanzo

This English Index lists, in alphabetical order, seemingly significant words used in the "general meaning" glosses of Base Forms underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each English word, base forms having that word in their general meanings are shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms sharing a general English meaning word. In order to reduce clutter in this index, certain high-frequency English "function" words are ignored unless there are no "content" words in the meaning.

This index was created by software, not by human hand, using lesson materials authored with very few constraints on the expression of "meaning" other than it being in English. Selecting significant words from free-form text via software is a notoriously difficult task. For example, while most meanings in these lessons are expressed as "glosses," some or parts may be comments directed toward the human reader, who is expected to discern the difference. Computer software cannot yet make such subtle linguistic distinctions, so all words in a meaning are treated alike. With few exceptions, then, all words are indexed. The results are neither produced nor presented with any claims to superior linguistic sensitivity, but at least the full meaning texts are shown for your inspection and judgment. Modest effort was invested in tuning the software to ignore [apparently] superfluous, high-frequency words (e.g., the preposition "of") that, in the presence of [apparently] more important words, contribute little or no useful information to an index; unfortunately this may result in some words, in some contexts, being unfairly omitted.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to post-medieval Albanian. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Romanized and Unicode 2) in the left margin.
ABLE :   <mund>   can, be able   --
4.23
ABOUT :   <për>   for, about, by, through   --
4.150, 4.156, 4.196, 4.211, 4.234, 5.120, 5.149, 5.202
ABOUT :   <për-ënbī>   on top of, over, about   --
5.33, 5.44, 5.157
AHEAD :   <perpara>   ahead, forward, forth   --
4.57
ALBANIAN :   <shqyptar>   Albanian   --
4.7
ALSO :   <edhe>   also, yet, still, even   --
4.110
AND :   <e>   and   --
4.11, 4.54, 4.72, 4.128, 4.130, 4.140, 4.142, 4.145, 4.147, 4.163, 4.218, 4.243, 4.245, 5.13, 5.22, 5.27, 5.30, 5.38, 5.53, 5.59, 5.70, 5.78, 5.91, 5.96, 5.99, 5.103, 5.113, 5.123, 5.139, 5.144, 5.153, 5.160, 5.171, 5.177, 5.181, 5.196, 5.208, 5.212, 5.222, 5.228, 5.235
AND :   <edhe>   and   --
4.90
ANSWER :   <pergjegjem>   answer   --
4.53
ANY :   <ndo'i>   some, any   --
4.223
ANYONE :   <kush>   someone, anyone   --
4.49
APPEAR :   <dukem>   appear   --
5.210
ARRIVE :   <dal>   leave, go out, rise, arrive   --
4.56, 5.104, 5.182
ASK :   <lypej>   ask for, request   --
4.109
AT :   <ke>   at   --
4.98
AT :   <>   in, on, at   --
4.26, 4.31, 4.75, 4.88, 4.94, 4.158
AT :   <ënbë>   at   --
5.205
BARREN :   <pāfrujt>   fruitless, barren   --
5.26
BE :   <jam>   be   --
4.8, 5.24, 5.32, 5.56, 5.75, 5.116, 5.148, 5.156, 5.185, 5.214, 5.239
BECOME :   <bâhem>   become   --
4.125
BED :   <shtrojë>   mattress, bed   --
4.151
BEGINNING :   <krye>   head, beginning   --
4.95
BEGINNING :   <zanë, e>   beginning, start   --
5.7
BOSS :   <zoti, e>   owner, boss, master   --
4.45
BREAD :   <bukë>   bread, food   --
4.127, 4.139, 4.200, 4.219, 4.244
BY :   <me>   with, by   --
4.66, 4.180, 4.183, 4.222
BY :   <për>   for, about, by, through   --
4.150, 4.156, 4.196, 4.211, 4.234, 5.120, 5.149, 5.202
BY :   <ën>   from, by, with   --
5.82, 5.130
CALL :   <gërshas>   call   --
5.92, 5.172, 5.223, 5.233
CAN :   <mund>   can, be able   --
4.23
CENTURY :   <shekull>   century, time   --
5.9
CHERISHED :   <zêmret>   cherished   --
4.236
COFFEE :   <kafe>   coffee   --
4.216, 4.239
CONDITIONAL :   <do>   FUTURE/CONDITIONAL   --
4.123, 4.152, 4.176
COUNTRY :   <vend>   place, seat, country   --
4.97, 5.207
COURTYARD :   <oborr>   courtyard   --
4.31
DARKNESS :   <erët, e>   darkness   --
5.31, 5.83, 5.97
DAY :   <ditë>   day   --
4.165, 5.95, 5.188
DEEP :   <fond>   pool, deep   --
5.36
DO :   <bâj>   do, make   --
4.29, 4.41, 5.10, 5.57, 5.61, 5.101, 5.117, 5.140, 5.163, 5.179
DRY :   <thatë, e>   dry ground   --
5.211, 5.226
EARTH :   <dhe>   land, earth   --
5.14, 5.23, 5.227
EAT :   <ha>   eat   --
4.202
EMPTY :   <shprazëtë, e>   empty   --
5.29
ENTER :   <hîj>   enter   --
4.25
EVEN :   <edhe>   also, yet, still, even   --
4.110
EVERY :   <çdo>   every   --
4.159, 4.197
EXCESSIVELY :   <teper>   very, too, excessively   --
4.226
EXIST :   <gjindem>   be located, be present, exist   --
4.154
FACE :   <faqe>   page, face, surface   --
5.34
FERN :   <fir>   fern   --
4.149
FIRE :   <zjarm>   fire   --
4.108, 4.144
FOOD :   <bukë>   bread, food   --
4.127, 4.139, 4.200, 4.219, 4.244
FOOT :   <kambë>   foot, leg   --
4.188
FORTH :   <perpara>   ahead, forward, forth   --
4.57
FORWARD :   <perpara>   ahead, forward, forth   --
4.57
FREELY :   <lshohem>   be given freely   --
4.258
FRIEND :   <mik>   friend, guest   --
4.13, 4.21, 4.43, 4.67, 4.112, 4.122, 4.157, 4.173, 4.185, 4.198, 4.212, 4.235, 4.254
FRUITLESS :   <pāfrujt>   fruitless, barren   --
5.26
FUTURE :   <do>   FUTURE/CONDITIONAL   --
4.123, 4.152, 4.176
GATHER :   <ënbëledh>   gather   --
5.200, 5.230
GIVEN :   <lshohem>   be given freely   --
4.258
GO :   <dal>   leave, go out, rise, arrive   --
4.56, 5.104, 5.182
GOD :   <zot>   master, lord, God   --
4.10, 5.11, 5.42, 5.55, 5.72, 5.80, 5.93, 5.115, 5.141, 5.173, 5.198, 5.224, 5.237
GOOD :   <mirë, e>   good   --
4.214, 5.77
GREETED :   <falem>   be greeted   --
4.65
GROUND :   <thatë, e>   dry ground   --
5.211, 5.226
GUEST :   <mik>   friend, guest   --
4.13, 4.21, 4.43, 4.67, 4.112, 4.122, 4.157, 4.173, 4.185, 4.198, 4.212, 4.235, 4.254
HANG :   <var>   hang   --
4.87
HE :   <ai, ajo>   (s)he, it, that   --
4.52, 4.55, 4.69, 4.70, 4.73, 4.85, 4.86, 4.92, 4.124, 4.177, 4.186, 4.257
HEAD :   <krye>   head, beginning   --
4.95
HEART :   <zêmer>   heart   --
4.131, 4.143, 4.256
HEARTH :   <votër>   hearth   --
4.99
HEAVEN :   <qiell>   sky, heaven   --
5.12, 5.176, 5.204
HONOR :   <nderë>   honor   --
4.126, 4.184
HOOK :   <krrabë>   hook   --
4.89
HOSPITALITY :   <pritun, e>   hospitality   --
4.182
HOUSE :   <shpi>   house   --
4.5, 4.27, 4.47, 4.51, 4.76, 4.259
IN :   <>   in, on, at   --
4.26, 4.31, 4.75, 4.88, 4.94, 4.158
IN :   <ëndë>   in   --
5.5
IT :   <ai, ajo>   (s)he, it, that   --
4.52, 4.55, 4.69, 4.70, 4.73, 4.85, 4.86, 4.92, 4.124, 4.177, 4.186, 4.257
ITEM :   <send>   thing, item   --
4.224
LAND :   <dhe>   land, earth   --
5.14, 5.23, 5.227
LAY :   <shtroj>   lay   --
4.221
LEAD :   <prîj>   lead   --
4.74
LEAD :   <çoj>   lead   --
4.93
LEAVE :   <dal>   leave, go out, rise, arrive   --
4.56, 5.104, 5.182
LEG :   <kambë>   foot, leg   --
4.188
LIGHT :   <dritë>   light   --
5.58, 5.62, 5.74, 5.81, 5.94, 5.105, 5.183
LOCATED :   <gjindem>   be located, be present, exist   --
4.154
LOG :   <trung>   log   --
4.146
LORD :   <zot>   master, lord, God   --
4.10, 5.11, 5.42, 5.55, 5.72, 5.80, 5.93, 5.115, 5.141, 5.173, 5.198, 5.224, 5.237
LOUDLY :   <fort>   very, loudly, strongly   --
5.240
MAKE :   <bâj>   do, make   --
4.29, 4.41, 5.10, 5.57, 5.61, 5.101, 5.117, 5.140, 5.163, 5.179
MASTER :   <zot>   master, lord, God   --
4.10, 5.11, 5.42, 5.55, 5.72, 5.80, 5.93, 5.115, 5.141, 5.173, 5.198, 5.224, 5.237
MASTER :   <zoti, e>   owner, boss, master   --
4.45
MATTRESS :   <shtrojë>   mattress, bed   --
4.151
MEAT :   <mish>   meat   --
4.246
MIDST :   <viedmi>   midst   --
5.121
MORE :   <>   more   --
4.225
MOVE :   <vëliz>   move   --
5.43
MUST :   <duhet>   must, should, be necessary   --
4.199, 4.215, 4.237
NECESSARY :   <duhet>   must, should, be necessary   --
4.199, 4.215, 4.237
NEGATOR :   <nuk>   NEGATOR   --
4.22
NIGHT :   <natë>   night   --
4.162, 5.98, 5.102, 5.180
NON-ACTIVE :   <u>   NON-ACTIVE   --
5.60, 5.100, 5.162, 5.178, 5.199, 5.209
NYJE :   <e>   NYJE   --
4.6, 4.9, 4.12, 4.44, 4.46, 4.50, 4.96, 4.161, 4.164, 4.174, 4.181, 4.213, 4.220, 4.240, 4.255, 5.6, 5.8, 5.25, 5.28, 5.31, 5.35, 5.40, 5.76, 5.83, 5.97, 5.118, 5.125, 5.142, 5.151, 5.158, 5.174, 5.186, 5.225, 5.229, 5.231
ON :   <>   in, on, at   --
4.26, 4.31, 4.75, 4.88, 4.94, 4.158
ONE :   <një>   a, one   --
5.206
OR :   <a>   or   --
4.48
OUR :   <ynë>   our   --
5.11, 5.41, 5.55, 5.72, 5.80, 5.93, 5.115, 5.141, 5.173, 5.198, 5.224, 5.237
OVER :   <për-ënbī>   on top of, over, about   --
5.33, 5.44, 5.157
OWNER :   <zoti, e>   owner, boss, master   --
4.45
PAGE :   <faqe>   page, face, surface   --
5.34
PLACE :   <vend>   place, seat, country   --
4.97, 5.207
PLACED :   <vîhem>   be placed   --
4.178
POOL :   <fond>   pool, deep   --
5.36
PRESENT :   <gjindem>   be located, be present, exist   --
4.154
RAKI :   <raki>   raki   --
4.217, 4.242
READY :   <gadi>   ready   --
4.155
REQUEST :   <lypej>   ask for, request   --
4.109
RISE :   <dal>   leave, go out, rise, arrive   --
4.56, 5.104, 5.182
SALT :   <krypë>   salt   --
4.129, 4.141
SAY :   <them>   say, speak   --
5.54, 5.114, 5.197
SCRATCH :   <perpushem>   scratch, twitch, stir   --
4.107
SEA :   <det>   sea   --
5.234
SEAT :   <vend>   place, seat, country   --
4.97, 5.207
SECOND :   <dytë, e>   second   --
5.187
SEE :   <shoh>   see   --
5.71, 5.236
SEPARATE :   <daj>   separate   --
5.79, 5.128, 5.145
SHOULD :   <duhet>   must, should, be necessary   --
4.199, 4.215, 4.237
SKY :   <qiell>   sky, heaven   --
5.12, 5.176, 5.204
SO :   <ashtu>   so, thus   --
5.161, 5.213
SOME :   <do>   some   --
4.148
SOME :   <ndo'i>   some, any   --
4.223
SOMEONE :   <kush>   someone, anyone   --
4.49
SOUND :   <>   sound, voice   --
4.30, 4.42
SPEAK :   <them>   say, speak   --
5.54, 5.114, 5.197
SPIRIT :   <shpirt>   spirit   --
5.39
START :   <zanë, e>   beginning, start   --
5.7
STILL :   <edhe>   also, yet, still, even   --
4.110
STIR :   <perpushem>   scratch, twitch, stir   --
4.107
STRONGLY :   <fort>   very, loudly, strongly   --
5.240
SUBORDINATOR :   <>   SUBORDINATOR   --
4.24, 4.40, 4.124, 4.153, 4.177, 5.127
SUCH :   <si>   in the way that, such as   --
4.201
SURFACE :   <faqe>   page, face, surface   --
5.34
SURROUNDED :   <rreth>   surrounded   --
4.179
SWEET :   <ambel, e>   sweet   --
4.241
TAKE :   <mârr>   take   --
4.71
THAT :   <ai, ajo>   (s)he, it, that   --
4.52, 4.55, 4.69, 4.70, 4.73, 4.85, 4.86, 4.92, 4.124, 4.177, 4.186, 4.257
THAT :   <qi>   that, which   --
5.147, 5.155, 5.184
THAT :   <se>   that   --
5.73, 5.238
THAT :   <si>   in the way that, such as   --
4.201
THEMSELVES :   <vëtë>   themselves   --
4.203
THEY :   <ata, ato>   they, those   --
5.124, 5.154
THING :   <send>   thing, item   --
4.224
THOSE :   <ata, ato>   they, those   --
5.124, 5.154
THROUGH :   <për>   for, about, by, through   --
4.150, 4.156, 4.196, 4.211, 4.234, 5.120, 5.149, 5.202
THUS :   <ashtu>   so, thus   --
5.161, 5.213
TIME :   <kohë>   time, weather   --
4.160
TIME :   <shekull>   century, time   --
5.9
TIRED :   <lodhun, e>   tired   --
4.175
TOBACCO :   <duhân>   tobacco   --
4.238
TOO :   <teper>   very, too, excessively   --
4.226
TOP :   <për-ënbī>   on top of, over, about   --
5.33, 5.44, 5.157
TWITCH :   <perpushem>   scratch, twitch, stir   --
4.107
UNDER :   <ëndënë>   under   --
5.150, 5.203
UPON :   <si>   upon, when   --
4.39
VAULT :   <firmuom, e>   vault   --
5.119, 5.126, 5.143, 5.152, 5.159, 5.175
VERY :   <fort>   very, loudly, strongly   --
5.240
VERY :   <teper>   very, too, excessively   --
4.226
VOICE :   <>   sound, voice   --
4.30, 4.42
WANT :   <due>   want   --
4.113
WASHED :   <lahem>   be washed   --
4.187
WATER :   <ujë>   water   --
5.37, 5.45, 5.122, 5.129, 5.131, 5.146, 5.201, 5.232
WAY :   <si>   in the way that, such as   --
4.201
WEAPON :   <armë>   weapon   --
4.68, 4.84
WEATHER :   <kohë>   time, weather   --
4.160
WELL :   <mirë>   well   --
5.241
WHEN :   <si>   upon, when   --
4.39
WHICH :   <qi>   that, which   --
5.147, 5.155, 5.184
WITHOUT :   <pa>   without   --
4.28
WOOD :   <drû>   wood   --
4.111, 4.114
YET :   <edhe>   also, yet, still, even   --
4.110