In the year 376, the Goths sent a request to cross the Danube into Roman territory. The clearest source for events of the Gothic crossing into Roman territory is Ammianus Marcellinus. According to his account, in 376 the Tervingi under Fritigern and Alaviv were allowed to cross the Danube into Roman territory and settle in Thrace. They may have been ordered to disarm as a condition of entry, but if so, the Roman officials in charge seemed to ignore this. They were not allowed to settle as a separate group with their own territory, and they had no autonomous status within the empire. The mass move strained Roman resources in terms of manpower and equipment to ferry the Goths across the Danube; it likewise caused shortages of food.
Lupinicus, a Roman commander in Thrace, was dispatched with some troops to provide an escort to the Goths, weakening Roman forces along the Danube. As a result, other tribes subsequently forced their way across the Danube: Greuthungi under Alatheus and Safrax; Greuthungi under Farnobius; Taifali from the region of Walachia. The Taifali and Greuthungi under Farnobius coalesced into one group; those under Alatheus and Safrax joined with Fritigern. Lupicinus invited the mutually antagonistic Fritigern and Alaviv to a feast, but a quarrel ensued in which Roman soldiers killed the Gothic escorts of Fritigern and Alaviv. Fritigern escaped, but Alaviv's name is no longer mentioned by Ammianus; likewise the name Tervingi is no longer mentioned, only Goths.
The Goths began to ravage the land. Lupicinus went to put down the revolt, but he was killed and his forces were wiped out. Other Goths in Roman employ joined in the revolt, leading to an unsuccessful Gothic siege of Adrianople, led by Fritigern. Emperor Valens in the Eastern Empire sent troops led by Traianus and Profuturus to meet the Goths in Thrace; coemperor Gratian of the Western Empire sent troops under Frigeridus and together they tried to starve the Tervingi under Fritigern. Meanwhile Frigeridus suffered an attack of gout and command fell to Richomeres. Both Gothic and imperial forces could finally wait no longer and attacked one another, but the outcome was inconclusive.
Fritigern subsequently convinced Alatheus and Safrax to join him, adding Greuthungi, Alanic, and Hunnic cavalry to his troops. Frigeridus returned to Thrace in 377 and killed Farnobius in a battle against Greuthungi and Taifali troops. Fritigern called a general retreat; later in 378 he sent a priest to Valens demanding all of Thrace, but simultaneously sent a secret letter offering himself as a Roman ally. Valens, sensing Fritigern's weakness, attacked the Goths, leading his troops along with the commander Sebastianus, who had replaced Traianus. The Roman troops left from Adrianople. Fritigern's cavalry quickly routed the Roman cavalry, and shortly afterward the infantry, with the result that the battle ended in a Gothic victory. Valens was seriously wounded in the fight and subsequently died.
Bolstered by their victory, the Goths continued to pillage the surrounding areas. But ironically the newfound success led to a concomitant sense of self-satisfaction among the Goths, with the result that Fritigern lost some of his troop's cohesion. To drive off the Gothic plunderers, the emperor Theodosius enlisted the help of the Goth Modares-Modaharius and later Athanaric to fight Fritigern's forces. With their aid they overcame the latter and struck a treaty with Fritigern's former subjects in 382.
As part of the treaty, the Goths were settled in Dacia and Thrace. They received land for their own use and were considered autonomous, but did not own property according to imperial law. They were obliged to enter Roman military service, but could only receive subordinate commands. They were exempt from taxation.
Soon the empire was again in turmoil. Out of the destabilization caused by the would-be usurper Maximus, a Goth from Moesia by the name of Alaric headed an uprising in 391. His forces were eventually defeated, but Alaric was released on the orders of Theodosius, a scenario which was to happen four more times between 392 and 402. Eventually Alaric returned to serve Theodosius in putting down another attempted usurpation by Eugenius in 394. After Theodosius died in 395, the Gothic troops were discharged, but lack of supplies led to plundering on their trip home.
In 394-395 the Huns finally pushed across the Danube and drove the major part of the Gothic forces to seek a safe haven. This majority, under Alaric, pushed to Constantinople and reached an agreement with the top imperial advior Rufinus in which Alaric was allowed a high military post and his Gothic followers granted entrance into eastern Illyricum. They eventually forced their way south as far as Larissa, then fought and plundered until they reached the Peloponnesus. The Romans were eventually pressured into a treaty in 397, granting the Goths land in central Macedonia between the Haliacmon and Axius rivers, and granting Alaric a high military post with Illyrian troops under his command, integrating him into the Roman military hierarchy once again.
In this position Alaric consolidated his power: he became the ward of Gothic ethnic identity, and had the authority to punish acts of desertion by opportunistic Gothic chiefs. It is not clear if Alaric was elevated to a true king, a thiudans, but his status as reiks reached a new height, with monarchic overtones.
In 399 the Goth Tribigild led an uprising in Phrygia, his forces consisting in large part of Greuthungi who had formerly been loyal to Odotheus. They ravaged Asia Minor until they met with defeat in Pisidia. Tribigild escaped with 300 men. Gainas was eventually sent with Roman forces to stamp out the rebellion, but sometime around 400 he changed sides and helped the Goths cross the Bosporus. Tribigild was killed shortly thereafter, but Gainas soon occupied Constantinople itself. The imperial palace was burned, and the populace rallied against the numerically inferior Goths. Seven hundred sought refuge in an Orthodox church, but were killed by order of the emperor Arcadius.
Gainas escaped and tried to cross back into Asia Minor, but a fellow tribesman, Fravitta, led a Roman fleet to destroy their makeshift rafts. Gainas evidently turned north seeking to lead his remaining Goths back to their homeland across the Danube. They met with the Huns and suffered defeat; the Hunnic commander Uldin sent the head of Gainas to Constantinople. The emperor received it on January 3, 401.
The following passage is Mark 16.1-12. The first section, Mark 16:1-8, recounts how two of the women in Jesus' entourage were preparing to enter the borrowed tomb in which the Savior was buried, remove the death shroud, and anoint his body with the customary burial spices; but they found the tomb empty. Verses 9-20, of which 9-12a are included here, seem to constitute an addition to Mark's gospel; this ending, written in another style, was supplied by a much later writer, as it exists in none of the best Greek manuscripts. It is nevertheless already present in the 4th century manuscript used to produce the Gothic Bible.
In the first verse we find an example of a genitive absolute: inwisandins sabbate dagis 'when the day of the sabbath was past' (Mark 16.1). These genitive constructions are relatively rare in Gothic, this being an imitation of the Greek diagenome'nou tou sabba'tou. Unfortunately such slavish adherence to the morphologically more robust Greek original creates awkard sense in the Gothic, since the Greek aorist participle denotes a completed action, while the Gothic present participle ostensibly has the sense of an on-going action.
In Mark 16.5 we find the term tai'hswa'i 'right (side)'. This derives from the adjective *tai'hswa 'right'. The phrase tai'hswo: handus 'right hand (side)' has been shortened simply to the weak feminine adjective alone: tai'hswo:, as encountered in Matthew 6.3 in Lesson 5; or less frequently to a strong feminine adjective as here. The same process has left the Greek cognate adjective he: deksi'a 'the right (hand)' with the same denotation. Latin similarly uses the feminine adjective to denote the right side: dextra (manus) 'right (hand)', so ad dextram 'to the right', and hence Modern Spanish derecha 'to the right' -- but derecho 'straight'. The suffix -w- is the same as that found in Greek, i.e. *deksiwos > deksios (compare Mycenaean de-ki-si-wo). The suffix is absent in the Latin cognate, though present in laevus 'left'.
Mark 16.6 provides an interesting grammatical gem: sai thana stath 'behold the place'. The particle sai generally functions as a weak exclamatory, equivalent to 'lo!'. Such a function commends one scholarly theory as to the origin of the interjection, namely that it derives from a compound of the Gothic demonstrative sa with the PIE deictic particle i, as found in, e.g., Greek houtos-i' 'this one here' or vuv-i' 'just now'. Another theory suggests that the form is in fact the locative of the sa- pronoun. The above phrase, however, contains sai followed by an accusative, which is difficult to construe according to the above theories. A third possibility exists, namely that sai is an apocopated form of the 2nd person singular imperative of sai'hwan, thus sai'hw 'look (at)!', with loss of the final consonant -hw. Although not without its problems, this interpretation makes good sense of the accusative -- now the direct object of a verb -- in this phrase.
Another interesting construction is found in Mark 16.8: dizuh-than-sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, literally 'and then a trembling beset them, and amazement'. Note here the interpolation of -uh and than between the prefix and root of the verb dis-sitan 'settle upon'. In intervocalic position, the -s of the prefix voices to -z-. Such insertion of conjunctions between verb and preverb is not uncommon in Gothic, and may even include nominal elements such as hwa 'anything'. See also the discussion of the ga-prefix in Lesson 8, Section 40.1.
16:1 - jah inwisandins sabbate dagis Marja so Magdalene jah Marja so Iakobis jah Salome usbauhtedun aromata, ei atgaggandeins gasalbodedeina ina.
2 - jah filu air this dagis afarsabbate atiddjedun du thamma hlaiwa at urrinnandin sunnin.
3 - jah qethun du sis misso: hwas afwalwjai unsis thana stain af daurom this hlaiwis?
4 - jah insaihwandeins gaumidedun thammei afwalwiths ist sa stains; was auk mikils abraba.
5 - jah atgaggandeins in thata hlaiw gasehwun juggalauth sitandan in taihswai biwaibidana wastjai hweitai; jah usgeisnodedun.
6 - tharuh qath du im: ni faurhteith izwis, Iesu sokeith Nazoraiu thana ushramidan; nist her, urrais, sai thana stath tharei galagidedun ina.
7 - akei gaggith qithiduh du siponjam is jah du Paitrau thatei faurbigaggith izwis in Galeilaian; tharuh ina gasaihwith, swaswe qath izwis.
8 - jah usgaggandeins af thamma hlaiwa gathlauhun; dizuh-than-sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, jah ni qethun mannhun waiht; ohtedun sis auk.
9 - usstandands than in maurgin frumin sabbato ataugida sik frumist Marjin thizai Magdalene, af thizaiei uswarp sibun unhulthons.
10 - soh gaggandei gataih thaim mith imma wisandam, qainondam jah gretandam.
11 - jah eis hausjandans thatei libaith jah gasaihwans warth fram izai, ni galaubidebun.
12 - afaruh than thata ...
16:1 jah inwisandins sabbate dagis Marja so Magdalene jah Marja so Iakobis jah Salome usbauhtedun aromata, ei atgaggandeins gasalbodedeina ina. 2 jah filu air this dagis afarsabbate atiddjedun du thamma hlaiwa at urrinnandin sunnin. 3 jah qethun du sis misso: hwas afwalwjai unsis thana stain af daurom this hlaiwis? 4 jah insaihwandeins gaumidedun thammei afwalwiths ist sa stains; was auk mikils abraba. 5 jah atgaggandeins in thata hlaiw gasehwun juggalauth sitandan in taihswai biwaibidana wastjai hweitai; jah usgeisnodedun. 6 tharuh qath du im: ni faurhteith izwis, Iesu sokeith Nazoraiu thana ushramidan; nist her, urrais, sai thana stath tharei galagidedun ina. 7 akei gaggith qithiduh du siponjam is jah du Paitrau thatei faurbigaggith izwis in Galeilaian; tharuh ina gasaihwith, swaswe qath izwis. 8 jah usgaggandeins af thamma hlaiwa gathlauhun; dizuh-than-sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, jah ni qethun mannhun waiht; ohtedun sis auk.
9 usstandands than in maurgin frumin sabbato ataugida sik frumist Marjin thizai Magdalene, af thizaiei uswarp sibun unhulthons. 10 soh gaggandei gataih thaim mith imma wisandam, qainondam jah gretandam. 11 jah eis hausjandans thatei libaith jah gasaihwans warth fram izai, ni galaubidebun.
12 afaruh than thata ...
From the King James version:
16:1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. 2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. 3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? 4 And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. 5 And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. 6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. 7 But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. 8 And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.
9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 10 And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11 And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
12 After that ...
The third weak conjugation is characterized by the suffix PIE *-oi- > PGmc *-ai- added to the verbal root. The verbs of this class are typically not derived from other sources, and are generally durative or stative (see Section 40). For example, Gothic thula'ith 'puts up with, endures' (compare also Old High German dole:t), Gothic sila'ith 'is silent', Gothic thaha'ith 'is silent' (compare Old High German dage:t).
The verb haban 'to have' serves to illustrate the forms of class iii weak verbs. The forms are as follows.
The origin of the present forms is unclear. Some scholars propose PIE *kape:ti or *kape:je'ti, though this is less likely than proposing a PIE middle ending *kap-oi. This was then extended by the third singular ending *-ti: *kap-oi > *kap-oi-ti > Gothic haba'ith. Such a middle construction is also consonant with the stativity of many of the verbs of this class.
The fourth weak conjugation is characterized by the suffix PIE *-na:- > PGmc *-no:- added to the verbal root. The verbs of this class are typically denominative or deverbative. Consider the following examples:
|Nominative||Stem||Meaning||Weak iv Infin.||Meaning|
|Strong Infin.||Past Part.|
|wakan||*wakans||'be awake'||gawaknan||'keep awake'|
The verb fullnan 'to become full' serves to illustrate the forms of class iv weak verbs. The forms are as follows.
In the past tense, the forms of class iv weak verbs are thus the same as those of class ii, except for the insertion of the -n- suffix. Mediopassive forms are lacking in Gothic for this class of verbs (not unexpectedly, given the intransitive nature of the verbs and their possible origin in the PIE middle voice). There are also no extant forms of past participles.
Preterite-present verbs derive their name from the fact that they are in origin preterites of strong verbs, whose present forms fell out of the paradigm, and whose forms were reanalyzed with present sense. The present tense forms are built on what was the second principal part in the singular, and on what was the third principal part in the plural. Frequently infinitive forms and past participles are lacking. These verbs often acquired new finite past tense forms through the mechanism of the dental suffix found in the weak verbs.
Because of their origin in the strong verbs, there are six original classes or gradations of preterite-present verbs.
The First Class or First Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb wa'it 'I know'. Its evolution was as follows:
|Class I||1 Sg. Pres.||1 Pl. Pres.||1 Sg. Past||1 Pl. Past||Meaning|
|PGmc.||*wait||*witum||*wisso: (EG -a)||*wissum||'know'|
The forms of first gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:
|'I know'||'I know|
The Second Class or Second Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb da'ug 'it is good for, profits'. Its evolution was as follows:
|Class II||1 Sg. Pres.||1 Pl. Pres.||1 Sg. Past||1 Pl. Past||Meaning|
|PGmc.||*daugh||*dughum||*doxto: (EG *dohta)||*duxtum (EG *dohtum)||'be valid'|
Only one form from the second gradation survives in the Gothic documents:
The Third Class or Third Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb kann 'I know (how to)'. Its evolution was as follows:
|Class III||1 Sg. Pres.||1 Pl. Pres.||1 Sg. Past||1 Pl. Past||Meaning|
|PGmc.||*kann||*kunnum||*kuntho: (EG -a)||*kundum||'can'|
The forms of third gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:
|'I know'||'I need'||'I dare'|
The Fourth Class or Fourth Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb skal 'I shall, owe'. Its evolution was as follows:
|Class IV||1 Sg. Pres.||1 Pl. Pres.||1 Sg. Past||1 Pl. Past||Meaning|
|PGmc.||*skal||*skulum||*skultho: (EG -a)||*skuldhum||'shall'|
The forms of fourth gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:
|'I shall'||'I think'||'it is permitted'||'it suffices'|
The Fifth Class or Fifth Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb mag 'I am able, can, may'. Its evolution was as follows:
|Class V||1 Sg. Pres.||1 Pl. Pres.||1 Sg. Past||1 Pl. Past||Meaning|
|PGmc.||*magh||*maghum||*maxto: (EG *mahta)||*maxtum (EG *mahtum)||'may'|
This is the only verb of the fifth gradation in Gothic. Its forms are as follows:
The Sixth Class or Sixth Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb ga-mo:t 'I find room'. Its evolution was as follows:
|Class VI||1 Sg. Pres.||1 Pl. Pres.||1 Sg. Past||1 Pl. Past||Meaning|
|PGmc.||*mo:t||*mo:tum||*mo:sso: (EG -a)||*mo:ssum||'must'|
The forms of sixth gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:
|'I find room'||'I fear'||'I have'|
|1 Sg.||o:g||a'ih, a'ig|
|1 Pl.||a'ihum, a'igum|
|Pres. Part.||o:gands||a'ihands, a'igands|
The present participle of o:gs also survives in the compound adjective un-agands 'fearless'. The verb -a'ihan 'to have' may have originally been a verb of class VII. Its infinitive appears only in the compound form fai'r-a'ihan 'to partake of'.
The so-called anomalous verbs are actually the remnants of athematic verbs. The only two such verbs are im 'I am' and wilja'u 'I will'. The verb im 'I am' is athematic in the present indicative and subjunctive, but forms a suppletive system with the verb wisan 'to be', whose forms supply the infintive and the remaining elements of the paradigm. The paradigm is therefore as follows:
The optative forms are used for the imperative, apart from the possible form sa'i. There are also forms sium and siuth alternating with sijum and sijuth, respectively. The initial vowel of ist combines with a preceding vowel in a few common phrases: ni ist > nist; thata ist > thatist; kara ist > karist.
The verb wilja'u 'I will' does not retain any present indicative forms in Gothic. Only preterite subjunctive forms remain (though in Old English only the present subjunctive), which are used in place of the present indicative. From these were built a new infinitive and weak past tense. The forms are therefore as follows:
Words in Gothic are generally simple, derivative, or compound. Simple words have no discernable internal parts with meaning of their own. Take for example the nouns atta 'father', a'ihs 'oath', dags 'day', fo'tus 'foot', sta'ins 'stone', wau'rd 'word'. Nouns may be derived from other words, such as adjectives and verbs, by means of various suffixes and prefixes. For example suffixation converts the adjective laggs 'long' into the noun laggei 'length', manags 'much' into managei 'multitude', milds 'mild' into milditha 'mildness'. Examples of nouns derived from verbs are the following: dragk 'a drink' from drigkan 'to drink', saggws 'song' from siggwan 'to sing', giba 'gift' from giban 'to give', un-witi 'ignorance' from *witan 'to know'. Compound nouns are formed by the conjoining of two or more words to form a noun. In Gothic, the second element is always a noun, though the first element can be a noun, adjective, or particle. When the first element is an a-stem noun or adjective, the -a- of the stem usually remains: a'ihwa-tundi 'thornbush', dwala-wau'rdei 'foolish talk', weina-triu 'vine'. The -a- remains in short ja-stems, but not in long ja-stems: midja-sweipa'ins 'the flood', niuja-satiths 'novice'; but arbi-numja 'heir', agla'iti-wau'rdei 'indecent language'. The o:-, jo:-, i-, and u-stems generally retain their stem vowels when they form the first element of compounds: mo:ta-staths 'toll-place', thu:sundi-faths 'leader of a thousand men', mari-sa'iws 'sea', fo:tu-bau'rd 'footboard'. The n-stem nouns employ -a- in compounds: a'uga-dau'ro: 'window', staua-sto:ls 'judgement seat'. When consonant stems form the first member of a compound, they sometimes employ the vowel -a- by analogy with the a-stems, e.g. bro:thra-lubo: 'brotherly love' and nahta-mats 'supper'.
Examples of simple adjectives are bai'rhts 'bright', fagrs 'fair', ha'ils 'whole', siuks 'sick'. Adjectives, like nouns, could be derived by means of prefixes: ana-siuns 'visible', fram-aldrs 'very old', un-fagrs 'unfit'. They could likewise be derived through suffixes: the noun sta'ins 'stone' yields the adjective sta'inahs 'stony', wau'rd 'word' yields wau'rdahs 'verbal'. Nominal composition might even result in an adjective, the so-called bahuvri:hi or exocentric compound, which describes a person or thing related to the elements of the compound. Modern English is replete with examples: a blackbelt is not a belt, but a martial artist possessing a belt which is black; Blackbeard is not a beard, but a pirate whose beard is black; well-intentioned descibes a person with good intentions. Examples in Gothic are manag-falths 'having many parts, manifold', la'us-handus 'empty-handed'.
Examples of some simple verbs are the following: gaggan 'go', le:tan 'let', lisan 'gather', niman 'take', wai'rthan 'become'. Verbs were often derived from nouns and adjectives by means of prefixes and suffixes. For example, the noun a'igin 'property' gives ga-a'igin-o:n 'take possession of'; skalks 'servant' gives skalkino:n 'serve'. Many members of the weak verb classes are examples of just such a process, though at times it is difficult to discern which is primary, the nominal item or the verbal. For example, fisks 'a fish' vs. fisko:n 'to fish'; namo: 'a name' vs. namnjan 'to name'; weihs 'holy' vs. weihnan 'become holy'.
The following sections provide charts listing the most common prefixes and suffixes employed in noun, adjective, and verb derivation.
Nouns and adjectives employ the same prefixes in the process of derivation. The following chart gives many of the more important prefixes, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.
|afar||after, next||*afar||*a'po- + -ero||afar-dags||the next day|
|afar-sabbatus||the first day after the Sabbath|
|dis||apart, asunder||Lat. dis-?||*d(w)is?||dis-wiss||dissolution|
|ga||near, at, with||*gha||*kom||ga-bau'rths||birth|
|in-gardja||one of the same household|
|inna||within||*inna||*eni-no?||inna-kunds||of the same household|
|mith||with, under, between||*mith||*me-ta||mith-gardi-waddjus||partition wall|
|uf||up, under||*uv||*upo'||uf-a'itheis||under an oath|
|us||out of, utterly||*u:z||*u:s||us-filh||burial|
|withra||against||*withra||*wi- + -tero||withra-wai'rths||opposite|
Some suffixes were employed solely to derive nouns. The following chart gives many of the more important suffixes used to derive nouns, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.
|arja||agent noun||Lat. a:rius||bo:kareis||scribe|
|assu, inassu||abstract noun||*(Vn)ass||*(Vn)-ad-t||ibnassus||evenness|
|n||abstract noun||*Vn||*Vn||da'upeins||baptizing, baptism|
|ubni, ufni||abstract noun||*uvnja||*mnjo||fastubni||observance|
Other suffixes were employed specifically to derive adjectives from other elements. The following chart gives many of the more important suffixes used in deriving adjectives, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.
|aga, aha||relation||*aga, aha||*oko||a'udags||blessed|
|la'iseigs||apt to teach|
Many of the prefixes listed above are also used in forming verbs. There are, however, a few which are proper only to verbs within Gothic. The following chart gives the more important prefixes applied to verbs, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.
|afar||after, next||*afar||*a'po- + -ero||afar-gaggan||follow|
|ana||on, upon||*ana||*an(u)||ana-a'ukan||add to|
|dis||apart, asunder||Lat. dis-||*d(w)is?||dis-da'iljan||share|
|du||to, at||*to:?||?||du-at-gaggan||go to|
|ga||near, at, with||*gha||*kom||ga-bai'ran||bring forth|
|in||in||*in||*eni||in-brannjan||put in the fire|
|twis||two, separate, apart||*twis||*dwis||twis-standan||depart from one, diverge|
|uf||up, under||*uv||*upo'||uf-ble:san||blow up|
|us||out of, utterly||*u:z||*u:s||us-anan||expire|
|withra||against||*withra||*wi- + -tero||withra-gaggan||go to meet|
|withra-mo:tjan||go to meet|
The most common suffixes employed in deriving verbs have actually been dealt with separately. These are in fact the suffixes of most of the weak verb classes. In many instances, however, such derivation had taken place long before Gothic became a separate language in the Germanic family. There are, however, a few additional suffixes used to derive verbs; but they are not sufficiently numerous to form separate verb classes as such. The following chart lists these suffixes, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.
|ino:n||*in-o:n||gudjino:n||be a priest|
|ga-a'igino:n||take possession of|