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Gothic Online

Lesson 9

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

Gothic Wanderings, 376-401

In the year 376, the Goths sent a request to cross the Danube into Roman territory. The clearest source for events of the Gothic crossing into Roman territory is Ammianus Marcellinus. According to his account, in 376 the Tervingi under Fritigern and Alaviv were allowed to cross the Danube into Roman territory and settle in Thrace. They may have been ordered to disarm as a condition of entry, but if so, the Roman officials in charge seemed to ignore this. They were not allowed to settle as a separate group with their own territory, and they had no autonomous status within the empire. The mass move strained Roman resources in terms of manpower and equipment to ferry the Goths across the Danube; it likewise caused shortages of food.

Lupinicus, a Roman commander in Thrace, was dispatched with some troops to provide an escort to the Goths, weakening Roman forces along the Danube. As a result, other tribes subsequently forced their way across the Danube: Greuthungi under Alatheus and Safrax; Greuthungi under Farnobius; Taifali from the region of Walachia. The Taifali and Greuthungi under Farnobius coalesced into one group; those under Alatheus and Safrax joined with Fritigern. Lupicinus invited the mutually antagonistic Fritigern and Alaviv to a feast, but a quarrel ensued in which Roman soldiers killed the Gothic escorts of Fritigern and Alaviv. Fritigern escaped, but Alaviv's name is no longer mentioned by Ammianus; likewise the name Tervingi is no longer mentioned, only Goths.

The Goths began to ravage the land. Lupicinus went to put down the revolt, but he was killed and his forces were wiped out. Other Goths in Roman employ joined in the revolt, leading to an unsuccessful Gothic siege of Adrianople, led by Fritigern. Emperor Valens in the Eastern Empire sent troops led by Traianus and Profuturus to meet the Goths in Thrace; coemperor Gratian of the Western Empire sent troops under Frigeridus and together they tried to starve the Tervingi under Fritigern. Meanwhile Frigeridus suffered an attack of gout and command fell to Richomeres. Both Gothic and imperial forces could finally wait no longer and attacked one another, but the outcome was inconclusive.

Fritigern subsequently convinced Alatheus and Safrax to join him, adding Greuthungi, Alanic, and Hunnic cavalry to his troops. Frigeridus returned to Thrace in 377 and killed Farnobius in a battle against Greuthungi and Taifali troops. Fritigern called a general retreat; later in 378 he sent a priest to Valens demanding all of Thrace, but simultaneously sent a secret letter offering himself as a Roman ally. Valens, sensing Fritigern's weakness, attacked the Goths, leading his troops along with the commander Sebastianus, who had replaced Traianus. The Roman troops left from Adrianople. Fritigern's cavalry quickly routed the Roman cavalry, and shortly afterward the infantry, with the result that the battle ended in a Gothic victory. Valens was seriously wounded in the fight and subsequently died.

Bolstered by their victory, the Goths continued to pillage the surrounding areas. But ironically the newfound success led to a concomitant sense of self-satisfaction among the Goths, with the result that Fritigern lost some of his troop's cohesion. To drive off the Gothic plunderers, the emperor Theodosius enlisted the help of the Goth Modares-Modaharius and later Athanaric to fight Fritigern's forces. With their aid they overcame the latter and struck a treaty with Fritigern's former subjects in 382.

As part of the treaty, the Goths were settled in Dacia and Thrace. They received land for their own use and were considered autonomous, but did not own property according to imperial law. They were obliged to enter Roman military service, but could only receive subordinate commands. They were exempt from taxation.

Soon the empire was again in turmoil. Out of the destabilization caused by the would-be usurper Maximus, a Goth from Moesia by the name of Alaric headed an uprising in 391. His forces were eventually defeated, but Alaric was released on the orders of Theodosius, a scenario which was to happen four more times between 392 and 402. Eventually Alaric returned to serve Theodosius in putting down another attempted usurpation by Eugenius in 394. After Theodosius died in 395, the Gothic troops were discharged, but lack of supplies led to plundering on their trip home.

In 394-395 the Huns finally pushed across the Danube and drove the major part of the Gothic forces to seek a safe haven. This majority, under Alaric, pushed to Constantinople and reached an agreement with the top imperial advior Rufinus in which Alaric was allowed a high military post and his Gothic followers granted entrance into eastern Illyricum. They eventually forced their way south as far as Larissa, then fought and plundered until they reached the Peloponnesus. The Romans were eventually pressured into a treaty in 397, granting the Goths land in central Macedonia between the Haliacmon and Axius rivers, and granting Alaric a high military post with Illyrian troops under his command, integrating him into the Roman military hierarchy once again.

In this position Alaric consolidated his power: he became the ward of Gothic ethnic identity, and had the authority to punish acts of desertion by opportunistic Gothic chiefs. It is not clear if Alaric was elevated to a true king, a þiudans, but his status as reiks reached a new height, with monarchic overtones.

In 399 the Goth Tribigild led an uprising in Phrygia, his forces consisting in large part of Greuthungi who had formerly been loyal to Odotheus. They ravaged Asia Minor until they met with defeat in Pisidia. Tribigild escaped with 300 men. Gainas was eventually sent with Roman forces to stamp out the rebellion, but sometime around 400 he changed sides and helped the Goths cross the Bosporus. Tribigild was killed shortly thereafter, but Gainas soon occupied Constantinople itself. The imperial palace was burned, and the populace rallied against the numerically inferior Goths. Seven hundred sought refuge in an Orthodox church, but were killed by order of the emperor Arcadius.

Gainas escaped and tried to cross back into Asia Minor, but a fellow tribesman, Fravitta, led a Roman fleet to destroy their makeshift rafts. Gainas evidently turned north seeking to lead his remaining Goths back to their homeland across the Danube. They met with the Huns and suffered defeat; the Hunnic commander Uldin sent the head of Gainas to Constantinople. The emperor received it on January 3, 401.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following passage is Mark 16.1-12. The first section, Mark 16:1-8, recounts how two of the women in Jesus' entourage were preparing to enter the borrowed tomb in which the Savior was buried, remove the death shroud, and anoint his body with the customary burial spices; but they found the tomb empty. Verses 9-20, of which 9-12a are included here, seem to constitute an addition to Mark's gospel; this ending, written in another style, was supplied by a much later writer, as it exists in none of the best Greek manuscripts. It is nevertheless already present in the 4th century manuscript used to produce the Gothic Bible.

In the first verse we find an example of a genitive absolute: inwisandins sabbate dagis 'when the day of the sabbath was past' (Mark 16.1). These genitive constructions are relatively rare in Gothic, this being an imitation of the Greek diagenoménou tou sabbátou. Unfortunately such slavish adherence to the morphologically more robust Greek original creates awkard sense in the Gothic, since the Greek aorist participle denotes a completed action, while the Gothic present participle ostensibly has the sense of an on-going action.

In Mark 16.5 we find the term taíhswái 'right (side)'. This derives from the adjective *taíhswa 'right'. The phrase taíhswō handus 'right hand (side)' has been shortened simply to the weak feminine adjective alone: taíhswō, as encountered in Matthew 6.3 in Lesson 5; or less frequently to a strong feminine adjective as here. The same process has left the Greek cognate adjective hē deksía 'the right (hand)' with the same denotation. Latin similarly uses the feminine adjective to denote the right side: dextra (manus) 'right (hand)', so ad dextram 'to the right', and hence Modern Spanish derecha 'to the right' -- but derecho 'straight'. The suffix -w- is the same as that found in Greek, i.e. *deksiwos > deksios (compare Mycenaean de-ki-si-wo). The suffix is absent in the Latin cognate, though present in laevus 'left'.

Mark 16.6 provides an interesting grammatical gem: sai þana staþ 'behold the place'. The particle sai generally functions as a weak exclamatory, equivalent to 'lo!'. Such a function commends one scholarly theory as to the origin of the interjection, namely that it derives from a compound of the Gothic demonstrative sa with the PIE deictic particle i, as found in, e.g., Greek houtos-í 'this one here' or vuv-í 'just now'. Another theory suggests that the form is in fact the locative of the sa- pronoun. The above phrase, however, contains sai followed by an accusative, which is difficult to construe according to the above theories. A third possibility exists, namely that sai is an apocopated form of the 2nd person singular imperative of saíƕan, thus saíƕ 'look (at)!', with loss of the final consonant . Although not without its problems, this interpretation makes good sense of the accusative -- now the direct object of a verb -- in this phrase.

Another interesting construction is found in Mark 16.8: dizuh-þan-sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, literally 'and then a trembling beset them, and amazement'. Note here the interpolation of -uh and þan between the prefix and root of the verb dis-sitan 'settle upon'. In intervocalic position, the -s of the prefix voices to -z-. Such insertion of conjunctions between verb and preverb is not uncommon in Gothic, and may even include nominal elements such as ƕa 'anything'. See also the discussion of the ga-prefix in Lesson 8, Section 40.1.

16:1 - jah inwisandins sabbate dagis Marja so Magdalene jah Marja so Iakobis jah Salome usbauhtedun aromata, ei atgaggandeins gasalbodedeina ina.

  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • inwisandins -- strong verb class 5; genitive singular masculine of present participle of <inwisan> to be present, near at hand -- when... was past # inwisandins... dagis genitive absolute
  • sabbate -- strong noun, masculine; genitive plural of <sabbatus> Sabbath -- the sabbath
  • dagis -- strong noun, masculine; genitive singular of <dags> day -- ...
  • Marja -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Marja> Mary -- Mary
  • so -- demonstrative used as article; nominative singular feminine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- ...
  • Magdalene -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Magdalēnē> Magdalene -- Magdalene
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • Marja -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Marja> Mary -- Mary
  • so -- demonstrative used as article; nominative singular feminine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the (mother)
  • Iakobis -- strong proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Iakōb> Jacob, James -- of James
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • Salome -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Salōmē> Salome -- Salome
  • usbauhtedun -- weak verb class 1; third person plural preterite of <usbugjan> to buy -- had bought
  • aromata -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <aromata> (pl.) spices -- (sweet) spices # Greek borrowing; this is the only occurrence of this word in Gothic
  • ei -- conjunction; <ei> that, so that; whether; (relative particle) -- that
  • atgaggandeins -- strong verb class 7; nominative plural feminine of present participle of <atgaggan> to come, go -- they might come and
  • gasalbodedeina -- weak verb class 2; third person plural preterite subjunctive of <gasalbōn> annoint -- annoint
  • ina -- personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <is> he, she, it -- him

2 - jah filu air þis dagis afarsabbate atiddjedun du þamma hlaiwa at urrinnandin sunnin.

  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • filu -- strong noun, neuter; used as adverb; accusative singular of <filu> much, many -- very
  • air -- adverb; <áir> soon, early -- early (in the morning)
  • þis -- demonstrative used as article; genitive singular masculine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the
  • dagis -- strong noun, masculine; genitive singular of <dags> day -- day
  • afarsabbate -- strong noun, masculine; genitive plural of <afarsabbatus> day after the Sabbath, Sunday -- first... of the week # this is the only occurrence of this word
  • atiddjedun -- strong verb class 7; third person plural suppletive preterite of <atgaggan> to come, go -- they came
  • du -- preposition; <du> to, towards; against; in -- unto
  • þamma -- demonstrative used as article; dative singular neuter of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the
  • hlaiwa -- strong noun, neuter; dative singular of <hláiw> grave, tomb -- sepulchre
  • at -- preposition; <at> at, by, to, with, of -- at
  • urrinnandin -- strong verb class 3; dative singular neuter of present participle of <urrinnan> to rise, come from, go forth -- the rising of
  • sunnin -- weak noun, feminine/neuter; dative singular of <sunnō> sun -- the sun

3 - jah qeþun du sis misso: ƕas afwalwjai unsis þana stain af daurom þis hlaiwis?

  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • qeþun -- strong verb class 5; third person plural preterite of <qiþan> to say, speak -- they said
  • du -- preposition; <du> to, towards; against; in -- among
  • sis -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> himself, herself, oneself -- themselves
  • misso -- adverb; <missō> reciprocally, the one the other, one to another -- ...
  • ƕas -- interrogative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ƕas> who, what -- who
  • afwalwjai -- weak verb class 1; third person singular present subjunctive of <afwalwjan> to roll away -- shall roll... away
  • unsis -- personal pronoun; dative plural of <ik> I -- us
  • þana -- demonstrative used as article; accusative singular masculine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the
  • stain -- strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <stáins> stone -- stone
  • af -- preposition; <af> from, of -- from
  • daurom -- strong noun, feminine; dative plural <daúr> doorway -- the door
  • þis -- demonstrative used as article; genitive singular neuter of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- of the
  • hlaiwis -- strong noun, neuter; genitive singular of <hláiw> grave, tomb -- sepulchre

4 - jah insaiƕandeins gaumidedun þammei afwalwiþs ist sa stains; was auk mikils abraba.

  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • insaiƕandeins -- strong verb class 5; nominative plural feminine of present participle of <insaíƕan> to look upon, regard -- when they looked
  • gaumidedun -- weak verb class 1; third person plural preterite of <gáumjan> to observe, perceive, see -- they saw
  • þammei -- relative pronoun; dative singular neuter of <saei> who, he who, which -- that
  • afwalwiþs -- weak verb class 1; nominative singular masculine of preterite participle of <afwalwjan> to roll away -- rolled away
  • ist -- strong verb class 5; athematic third person singular present of <wisan> to be -- was
  • sa -- demonstrative used as article; nominative singular masculine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the
  • stains -- strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <stáins> stone -- stone
  • was -- strong verb class 5; third person singular preterite of <wisan> to be -- it was
  • auk -- conjunction; <áuk> for, because; but, also -- for
  • mikils -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <mikils> great -- great
  • abraba -- adverb; <abraba> strongly, excessively, very, very much -- very

5 - jah atgaggandeins in þata hlaiw gaseƕun juggalauþ sitandan in taihswai biwaibidana wastjai ƕeitai; jah usgeisnodedun.

  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • atgaggandeins -- strong verb class 7; nominative plural feminine of present participle of <atgaggan> to come, go -- entering
  • in -- preposition; <in> into, towards; on account of; in, among, by -- into
  • þata -- demonstrative used as article; accusative singular neuter of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the
  • hlaiw -- strong noun, neuter; accusative singular of <hláiw> grave, tomb -- sepulchre
  • gaseƕun -- strong verb class 5; third person plural preterite of <gasaíƕan> to see -- they saw
  • juggalauþ -- strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <juggaláuþs> young man -- a young man
  • sitandan -- strong verb class 5; accusative singular masculine of present participle of <sitan> to sit -- sitting
  • in -- preposition; <in> into, towards; on account of; in, among, by -- on
  • taihswai -- adjective used as substantive; dative singular feminine of <taíhswa> right; (fem. subst.) right hand, right side -- right hand
  • biwaibidana -- weak verb class 1; accusative singular masculine of preterite participle of <biwáibjan> to clothe, to wrap -- clothed
  • wastjai -- strong noun, feminine; dative singular of <wasti> garment -- in a (long)... garment
  • ƕeitai -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <ƕeits> white -- white
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • usgeisnodedun -- weak verb class 4; third person plural preterite of <usgeisnan> to be amazed, astonished -- they were affrighted

6 - þaruh qaþ du im: ni faurhteiþ izwis, Iesu sokeiþ Nazoraiu þana ushramidan; nist her, urrais, sai þana staþ þarei galagidedun ina.

  • þaruh -- conjunction; <þaruh> therefore, but, and; there; now -- but
  • qaþ -- strong verb class 5; third person singular preterite of <qiþan> to say, speak -- he saith
  • du -- preposition; <du> to, towards; against; in -- unto
  • im -- personal pronoun; dative plural feminine of <is> he, she, it -- them
  • ni -- adverb; <ni> not -- not
  • faurhteiþ -- weak verb class 1; second person plural imperative of <faurhtjan> to fear, to be afraid -- be... affrighted
  • izwis -- personal pronoun; dative plural of <þu> thou, you -- ...
  • Iesu -- strong proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Iēsus> Jesus -- Jesus
  • sokeiþ -- weak verb class 1; second person plural of <sōkjan> to seek, ask -- ye seek
  • Nazoraiu -- proper adjective; accusative singular masculine of <Nazaraíus> Nazarene, of Nazareth -- of Nazareth
  • þana -- demonstrative used as relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- which
  • ushramidan -- weak verb class 1; accusative singular masculine of preterite participle of <ushramjan> to crucify -- was crucified
  • nist -- adverb; <ni> not + strong verb class 5; athematic third person singular present of <wisan> to be -- he is not
  • her -- adverb; <her\> here -- here
  • urrais -- strong verb class 1; third person singular preterite of <urreisan> to arise -- he is risen
  • sai -- interjection; <sái> lo, behold -- behold
  • þana -- demonstrative used as article; accusative singular masculine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the
  • staþ -- strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <staþs> place; land -- place
  • þarei -- adverb; <þar> there + relative particle; <ei> that, so that; whether; (relative particle) -- where
  • galagidedun -- weak verb class 1; third person plural preterite of <galagjan> to lay, put -- they laid
  • ina -- personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <is> he, she, it -- him

7 - akei gaggiþ qiþiduh du siponjam is jah du Paitrau þatei faurbigaggiþ izwis in Galeilaian; þaruh ina gasaiƕiþ, swaswe qaþ izwis.

  • akei -- conjunction; <akei> but, yet, still, nevertheless -- but
  • gaggiþ -- strong verb class 7; second person plural imperative of <gaggan> to come, go -- go (your way)
  • qiþiduh -- strong verb class 5; second person plural imperative of <qiþan> to say, speak + enclitic conjunction; <-uh> but, and, now, therefore -- tell # final of qiþiþ voiced between vowels and written as -d- = [ð]
  • du -- preposition; <du> to, towards; against; in -- to
  • siponjam -- strong noun, masculine; dative plural of <sipōneis> disciple -- disciples
  • is -- personal pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <is> he, she, it -- his
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • du -- preposition; <du> to, towards; against; in -- ...
  • Paitrau -- strong proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Paítrus> Peter -- Peter
  • þatei -- conjunction; <þatei> that, because, if -- that
  • faurbigaggiþ -- strong verb class 7; third person singular of <faurbigaggan> to go before -- he goeth before
  • izwis -- personal pronoun; dative plural of <þu> thou, you -- you
  • in -- preposition; <in> into, towards; on account of; in, among, by -- into
  • Galeilaian -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Galeilaia> Galilee -- Galilee
  • þaruh -- adverb; <þar> there + enclitic conjunction; <-uh> but, and, now, therefore -- there
  • ina -- personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <is> he, she, it -- him
  • gasaiƕiþ -- strong verb class 5; third person singular of <gasaíƕan> to see -- shall ye see
  • swaswe -- adverb; <swaswē> as, just as; so as; so as to, so that -- as
  • qaþ -- strong verb class 5; third person singular preterite of <qiþan> to say, speak -- he said
  • izwis -- personal pronoun; dative plural of <þu> thou, you -- unto you

8 - jah usgaggandeins af þamma hlaiwa gaþlauhun; dizuh-þan-sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, jah ni qeþun mannhun waiht; ohtedun sis auk.

  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • usgaggandeins -- strong verb class 7; nominative plural feminine of present participle of <usgaggan> to go out -- they went out (quickly) and
  • af -- preposition; <af> from, of -- from
  • þamma -- demonstrative used as article; dative singular neuter of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- the
  • hlaiwa -- strong noun, neuter; dative singular of <hláiw> grave, tomb -- sepulchre
  • gaþlauhun -- strong verb class 2; third person plural preterite of <gaþliuhan> to flee -- fled
  • dizuh-þan-sat -- strong verb class 5; third person singular preterite of <dissitan> to seize upon + enclitic conjunction; <-uh> but, and, now, therefore + conjunction; <þan> when, as (long as); then, at that time; but, and, however -- ...
  • ijos -- demonstrative used as person pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- they
  • reiro -- weak noun, feminine; nominative singular of <reirō> trembling -- trembled # subject of diz-...-sat, literally 'and then a trembling beset them, and amazement'
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • usfilmei -- weak noun, feminine; nominative singular of <usfilmei> amazement -- were amazed # subject of diz-...-sat
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- -either
  • ni -- adverb; <ni> not -- n-
  • qeþun -- strong verb class 5; third person plural preterite of <qiþan> to say, speak -- said they
  • mannhun -- indefinite pronoun; dative singular masculine of <mannahun> (always with negative) (no) one, (n)one -- to any man
  • waiht -- strong noun, feminine; accusative singular of <waíhts> thing -- any thing
  • ohtedun -- preterite present verb; third person plural preterite of <ōgan> to be afraid -- they were afraid
  • sis -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> himself, herself, oneself -- ...
  • auk -- conjunction; <áuk> for, because; but, also -- for

9 - usstandands þan in maurgin frumin sabbato ataugida sik frumist Marjin þizai Magdalene, af þizaiei uswarp sibun unhulþons.

  • usstandands -- strong verb class 6; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <usstandan> to stand up, rise -- when... was risen
  • þan -- conjunction; <þan> when, as (long as); then, at that time; but, and, however -- now
  • in -- preposition; <in> into, towards; on account of; in, among, by -- ...
  • maurgin -- strong noun, masculine; dative singular of <maúrgins> morning -- early... day
  • frumin -- intensive adjective; dative singular masculine of <fruma> former, first -- the first
  • sabbato -- indeclinable noun; <sabbatō> Sabbath -- of the week
  • ataugida -- weak verb class 1; third person singular preterite of <atáugjan> to show, to appear -- he appeared
  • sik -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sik> himself, herself, oneself -- ...
  • frumist -- intensive adjective used as adverb; accusative singular neuter of superlative of <fruma> former, first -- first
  • Marjin -- proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Marja> Mary -- to Mary
  • þizai -- demonstrative used as article; dative singular feminine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- ...
  • Magdalene -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Magdalēnē> Magdalene -- Magdalene
  • af -- preposition; <af> from, of -- out of
  • þizaiei -- relative pronoun; dative singular feminine of <saei> who, he who, which -- whom
  • uswarp -- strong verb class 3; third person singular preterite of <uswaírpan> to cast out, to reject -- he had cast
  • sibun -- numeral; <sibun> seven -- seven
  • unhulþons -- weak noun, feminine; accusative plural of <unhulþō> unclean spirit, evil spirit -- devils

10 - soh gaggandei gataih þaim miþ imma wisandam, qainondam jah gretandam.

  • soh -- demonstrative used as person pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <sa, so, þata> this, that + enclitic conjunction; <-uh> but, and, now, therefore -- and she
  • gaggandei -- strong verb class 7; nominative singular feminine of present participle of <gaggan> to come, go -- went and
  • gataih -- strong verb class 1; third person singular preterite of <gateihan> to tell -- told
  • þaim -- demonstrative used as person pronoun; dative plural masculine of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- them
  • miþ -- preposition; <miþ> with, among, together with, through, by, near -- with
  • imma -- personal pronoun; dative singular masculine of <is> he, she, it -- him
  • wisandam -- strong verb class 5; dative plural masculine of present participle of <wisan> to be -- that had been
  • qainondam -- weak verb class 2; dative plural masculine of present participle of <qáinōn> to lament -- as they mourned
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • gretandam -- strong verb class 7; dative plural masculine of present participle of <grētan> to weep -- wept

11 - jah eis hausjandans þatei libaiþ jah gasaiƕans warþ fram izai, ni galaubidebun.

  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • eis -- personal pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <is> he, she, it -- they
  • hausjandans -- weak verb class 1; nominative plural masculine of participle of <háusjan> to hear, listen -- when they had heard
  • þatei -- conjunction; <þatei> that, because, if -- that
  • libaiþ -- weak verb class 3; third person singular present of <liban> to live -- he was alive
  • jah -- conjunction; <jah> and, also -- and
  • gasaiƕans -- strong verb class 5; nominative singular masculine of preterite participle of <gasaíƕan> to see -- seen
  • warþ -- strong verb class 3; third person singular preterite of <waírþan> to become, to happen -- had been
  • fram -- preposition; <fram> from, by, since, on account of -- of
  • izai -- personal pronoun; dative singular feminine of <is> he, she, it -- her
  • ni -- adverb; <ni> not -- not
  • galaubidebun -- weak verb class 1; third person plural preterite of <galáubjan> to believe -- believed

12 - afaruh þan þata ...

  • afaruh -- adverb; <afar> after, according to + enclitic conjunction; <-uh> but, and, now, therefore -- after
  • þan -- conjunction; <þan> when, as (long as); then, at that time; but, and, however -- ...
  • þata -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sa, so, þata> this, that -- that

Lesson Text

16:1 jah inwisandins sabbate dagis Marja so Magdalene jah Marja so Iakobis jah Salome usbauhtedun aromata, ei atgaggandeins gasalbodedeina ina. 2 jah filu air þis dagis afarsabbate atiddjedun du þamma hlaiwa at urrinnandin sunnin. 3 jah qeþun du sis misso: ƕas afwalwjai unsis þana stain af daurom þis hlaiwis? 4 jah insaiƕandeins gaumidedun þammei afwalwiþs ist sa stains; was auk mikils abraba. 5 jah atgaggandeins in þata hlaiw gaseƕun juggalauþ sitandan in taihswai biwaibidana wastjai ƕeitai; jah usgeisnodedun. 6 þaruh qaþ du im: ni faurhteiþ izwis, Iesu sokeiþ Nazoraiu þana ushramidan; nist her, urrais, sai þana staþ þarei galagidedun ina. 7 akei gaggiþ qiþiduh du siponjam is jah du Paitrau þatei faurbigaggiþ izwis in Galeilaian; þaruh ina gasaiƕiþ, swaswe qaþ izwis. 8 jah usgaggandeins af þamma hlaiwa gaþlauhun; dizuh-þan-sat ijos reiro jah usfilmei, jah ni qeþun mannhun waiht; ohtedun sis auk.

9 usstandands þan in maurgin frumin sabbato ataugida sik frumist Marjin þizai Magdalene, af þizaiei uswarp sibun unhulþons. 10 soh gaggandei gataih þaim miþ imma wisandam, qainondam jah gretandam. 11 jah eis hausjandans þatei libaiþ jah gasaiƕans warþ fram izai, ni galaubidebun.

12 afaruh þan þata ...

Translation

From the King James version:
16:1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. 2 And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun. 3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? 4 And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great. 5 And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted. 6 And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified: he is risen; he is not here: behold the place where they laid him. 7 But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you. 8 And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre; for they trembled and were amazed: neither said they any thing to any man; for they were afraid.
9 Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven devils. 10 And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11 And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.
12 After that ...

Grammar

41. The Third Weak Conjugation

The third weak conjugation is characterized by the suffix PIE *-oi- > PGmc *-ai- added to the verbal root. The verbs of this class are typically not derived from other sources, and are generally durative or stative (see Section 40). For example, Gothic þuláiþ 'puts up with, endures' (compare also Old High German dolēt), Gothic siláiþ 'is silent', Gothic þaháiþ 'is silent' (compare Old High German dagēt).

The verb haban 'to have' serves to illustrate the forms of class iii weak verbs. The forms are as follows.

Class iii   Active           Mediopassive    
                     
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Imperative   Indicative   Subjunctive
Present                    
1 Sg.   haba   habáu       habada   habáidáu
2   habáis   habáis   habái   habaza   habáizáu
3   habáiþ   habái   habadáu   habada   habáidáu
                     
1 Du.   habōs   habáiwa            
2   habats   habáits   habats        
                     
1 Pl.   habam   habáima   habam   habanda   habáindáu
2   habáiþ   habáiþ   habáiþ   habanda   habáindáu
3   haband   habáina   habandáu   habanda   habáindáu
                     
Past                    
1 Sg.   habáida   habáidēdjáu            
2   habáidēs   habáidēdeis            
3   habáida   habáidēdi            
                     
1 Du.   habáidēdu   habáidēdeiwa            
2   habáidēduts   habáidēdeits            
                     
1 Pl.   habáidēdum   habáidēdeima            
2   habáidēduþ   habáidēdeiþ            
3   habáidēdun   habáidēdeina            
                     
Infinitive   haban                
                     
Pres. Ptc.   habands                
                     
Past Ptc.               habáiþs    

The origin of the present forms is unclear. Some scholars propose PIE *kapēti or *kapējéti, though this is less likely than proposing a PIE middle ending *kap-oi. This was then extended by the third singular ending *-ti: *kap-oi > *kap-oi-ti > Gothic habáiþ. Such a middle construction is also consonant with the stativity of many of the verbs of this class.

42. The Fourth Weak Conjugation

The fourth weak conjugation is characterized by the suffix PIE *-nā- > PGmc *-nō- added to the verbal root. The verbs of this class are typically denominative or deverbative. Consider the following examples:

    Nominative   Stem   Meaning       Weak iv Infin.   Meaning
Denominative                        
    fulls   fulla-   'full'       fullnan   'become full'
    háuhs   háuha-   'high'       us-háuhnan   'be glorified'
    weihs   weiha-   'holy'       weihnan   'be hallowed'
                         
    Strong Infin.   Past Part.                
Deverbative                        
    andbindan   andbundans   'unbind'       andbundnan   'become unbound'
    fraliusan   fralusans   'lose'       fralusnan   'be lost'
    wakan   *wakans   'be awake'       gawaknan   'keep awake'
                         

The verb fullnan 'to become full' serves to illustrate the forms of class iv weak verbs. The forms are as follows.

Class iv   Active           Mediopassive    
                     
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Imperative   Indicative   Subjunctive
Present                    
1 Sg.   fullna   fullnáu       -   -
2   fullnis   fullnáis   fulln   -   -
3   fullniþ   fullnái   fullnadáu   -   -
                     
1 Du.   fullnōs   fullnáiwa            
2   fullnats   fullnáits   fullnats        
                     
1 Pl.   fullnam   fullnáima   fullnam   -   -
2   fullniþ   fullnáiþ   fullniþ   -   -
3   fullnand   fullnáina   fullnandáu   -   -
                     
Past                    
1 Sg.   fullnōda   fullnōdēdjáu            
2   fullnōdēs   fullnōdēdeis            
3   fullnōda   fullnōdēdi            
                     
1 Du.   fullnōdēdu   fullnōdēdeiwa            
2   fullnōdēduts   fullnōdēdeits            
                     
1 Pl.   fullnōdēdum   fullnōdēdeima            
2   fullnōdēduþ   fullnōdēdeiþ            
3   fullnōdēdun   fullnōdēdeina            
                     
Infinitive   fullnan                
                     
Pres. Ptc.   fullnands                
                     
Past Ptc.               -    

In the past tense, the forms of class iv weak verbs are thus the same as those of class ii, except for the insertion of the -n- suffix. Mediopassive forms are lacking in Gothic for this class of verbs (not unexpectedly, given the intransitive nature of the verbs and their possible origin in the PIE middle voice). There are also no extant forms of past participles.

43. Preterite-Present Verbs

Preterite-present verbs derive their name from the fact that they are in origin preterites of strong verbs, whose present forms fell out of the paradigm, and whose forms were reanalyzed with present sense. The present tense forms are built on what was the second principal part in the singular, and on what was the third principal part in the plural. Frequently infinitive forms and past participles are lacking. These verbs often acquired new finite past tense forms through the mechanism of the dental suffix found in the weak verbs.

Because of their origin in the strong verbs, there are six original classes or gradations of preterite-present verbs.

The First Class or First Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb wáit 'I know'. Its evolution was as follows:

Class I   1 Sg. Pres.   1 Pl. Pres.   1 Sg. Past   1 Pl. Past   Meaning
                     
PIE   *wóida   *widmé   *wíssōm   *wissmé   'know'
PGmc.   *wait   *witum   *wissō (EG -a)   *wissum   'know'
                     

The forms of first gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:

1st Gradation        
    wáit   láis
    'I know'   'I know
Present Indic.        
1 Sg.   wáit   láis
2   wáist    
3   wáit    
         
2 Du.   wituts    
3        
         
1 Pl.   witum    
2   wituþ    
3   witun    
         
Present Subj.        
1 Sg.   witjáu    
2   witeis    
3   witi    
         
2 Pl.   witeiþ    
         
Past Indic.        
1 Sg.   wissa    
2   wisseis    
3   wissa    
         
2 Pl.   wissēduþ    
3   wissēdun    
         
Past Subj.        
1 Sg.   wissēdjáu    
2   wissēdeis    
3   wissēdi    
         
3 Pl.   wissēdeina    
         
Infinitive   witan    
         
Pres. Part.   witands    
         

The Second Class or Second Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb dáug 'it is good for, profits'. Its evolution was as follows:

Class II   1 Sg. Pres.   1 Pl. Pres.   1 Sg. Past   1 Pl. Past   Meaning
                     
PIE   *dhóugha   *dhughmé   *dhúktōm   *dhuktmé   'be valid'
PGmc.   *dauḡ   *duḡum   *doxtō (EG *dohta)   *duxtum (EG *dohtum)   'be valid'
                     

Only one form from the second gradation survives in the Gothic documents:

2nd Gradation    
    dáug
    'profits'
Present Indic.    
3 Sg.   dáug
     

The Third Class or Third Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb kann 'I know (how to)'. Its evolution was as follows:

Class III   1 Sg. Pres.   1 Pl. Pres.   1 Sg. Past   1 Pl. Past   Meaning
                     
PIE   *gónna   *gnnmé   *gnntōm   *gnntmé   'can'
PGmc.   *kann   *kunnum   *kunþō (EG -a)   *kundum   'can'
                     

The forms of third gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:

3rd Gradation            
    kann   þarf   ga-dars
    'I know'   'I need'   'I dare'
Present Indic.            
1 Sg.   kann   þarf   gadars
2   kan(n)t   þarft    
3   kann       ga-dars
             
1 Pl.   kunnum   þaúrbum   ga-daúrsum
2   kunnuþ   þaúrbuþ    
3   kunnun   þaúrbun    
             
Present Subj.            
1 Sg.   kunnjáu       ga-daúrsjáu
2   kunneis        
3   kunnei        
             
1 Pl.       þaúrbeima    
2   kunneiþ   þaúrbeiþ    
3   kunneina        
             
Past Indic.            
1 Sg.   kunþa   þaúrfta   ga-daúrsta
2   kunþēs        
3   kunþa        
             
1 Pl.   kunþēdum        
3   kunþēdun       ga-daúrstēdun
             
Past Subj.            
1 Sg.   kunþēdjáu        
3   uf-kunþēdi        
             
2 Pl.   kunþēdeiþ        
             
Infinitive   kunnan       ga-daúrsan
             
Pres. Part.   kunnands   þaúrbands    
             
Past Part.   kunþs   þaúrfts    
             

The Fourth Class or Fourth Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb skal 'I shall, owe'. Its evolution was as follows:

Class IV   1 Sg. Pres.   1 Pl. Pres.   1 Sg. Past   1 Pl. Past   Meaning
                     
PIE   *skóla   *sklmé   *skltōm   *skltmé   'shall'
PGmc.   *skal   *skulum   *skulþō (EG -a)   *skulðum   'shall'
                     

The forms of fourth gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:

4th Gradation                
    skal   man   bi-nah   ga-nah
    'I shall'   'I think'   'it is permitted'   'it suffices'
Present Indic.                
1 Sg.   skal   man        
2   skalt            
3   skal       bi-nah   ga-nah
                 
1 Pl.   skulum            
2   skuluþ   ga-munuþ        
3   skulun            
                 
Present Subj.                
1 Sg.   skuljáu            
2       ga-muneis        
3   skuli   muni        
                 
1 Pl.       ga-muneima        
2   skuleiþ   ga-muneiþ        
                 
Past Indic.                
1 Sg.       munda        
3   skulda   ga-munda        
                 
1 Pl.   skuldēdum   ga-mundēdum        
3   skuldēdun   mundēdun        
                 
Past Subj.                
3 Sg.   skuldēdi            
                 
2 Pl.   skuldēdeiþ            
                 
Infinitive       ga-munan        
                 
Pres. Part.       munands        
                 
Past Part.   skulds   munds   bi-naúhts    
                 

The Fifth Class or Fifth Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb mag 'I am able, can, may'. Its evolution was as follows:

Class V   1 Sg. Pres.   1 Pl. Pres.   1 Sg. Past   1 Pl. Past   Meaning
                     
PIE   *mógha   *moghmé   *móktōm   *moktmé   'may'
PGmc.   *maḡ   *maḡum   *maxtō (EG *mahta)   *maxtum (EG *mahtum)   'may'
                     

This is the only verb of the fifth gradation in Gothic. Its forms are as follows:

5th Gradation    
    mag
    'I may'
Present Indic.    
1 Sg.   mag
2   magt
3   mag
     
1 Du.   magu
2   maguts
     
1 Pl.   magum
2   maguþ
3   magun
     
Present Subj.    
1 Sg.   magjáu
2   mageis
3   magi
     
1 Pl.   mageima
2   mageiþ
     
Past Indic.    
3 Sg.   mahta
     
1 Pl.   mahtēdum
3   mahtēdun
     
Past Subj.    
3 Sg.   mahtēdi
     
3 Pl.   mahtēdeina
     
Pres. Part.   magands
     
Past Part.   mahts
     

The Sixth Class or Sixth Gradation of preterite-present verbs is typified by the verb ga-mōt 'I find room'. Its evolution was as follows:

Class VI   1 Sg. Pres.   1 Pl. Pres.   1 Sg. Past   1 Pl. Past   Meaning
                     
PIE   *mōda   *mōdmé   *mōssōm   *mōssmé   'must'
PGmc.   *mōt   *mōtum   *mōssō (EG -a)   *mōssum   'must'
                     

The forms of sixth gradation verbs in Gothic are as follows:

6th Gradation            
    ga-mōt   ōg   áih
    'I find room'   'I fear'   'I have'
Present Indic.            
1 Sg.       ōg   áih, áig
3   ga-mōt       áih, áig
             
1 Pl.           áihum, áigum
2           áihuþ
3           áigun
             
Present Subj.            
2 Sg.       ōgjeis    
3   ga-mōteima       áigi
             
2 Pl.           áigeiþ
3           áigeina
             
Imperative            
2 Sg.       ōgs    
             
2 Pl.       ōgeiþ    
             
Past Indic.            
1 Sg.       ōhta    
3       ōhta   áihta
             
3 Pl.   ga-mostēdun   ōhtēdun   áihtēdun
             
Past Subj.            
2 Sg.           áihtēdeis
             
Infinitive           faír-áihan
             
Pres. Part.       ōgands   áihands, áigands
             

The present participle of ōgs also survives in the compound adjective un-agands 'fearless'. The verb -áihan 'to have' may have originally been a verb of class VII. Its infinitive appears only in the compound form faír-áihan 'to partake of'.

44. Anomalous Verbs

The so-called anomalous verbs are actually the remnants of athematic verbs. The only two such verbs are im 'I am' and wiljáu 'I will'. The verb im 'I am' is athematic in the present indicative and subjunctive, but forms a suppletive system with the verb wisan 'to be', whose forms supply the infintive and the remaining elements of the paradigm. The paradigm is therefore as follows:

wisan 'be'   Indicative   Subjunctive   Imperative
             
Present            
1 Sg.   im   sijáu    
2   is   sijáis   sái, sijáis
3   ist   sijái   sijái
             
1 Du.   siju   *sijáiwa    
2   *sijuts   *sijáits   *sijáits
             
1 Pl.   sijum   sijáima   sijáima
2   sijuþ   sijáiþ   sijáiþ
3   sind   sijáina   sijáina
             
Past            
1 Sg.   was   wēsjáu    
2   wast   wēseis    
3   was   wēsi    
             
1 Du.   wēsu   wēseiwa    
2   wēsuts   wēseits    
             
1 Pl.   wēsum   wēseima    
2   wēsuþ   wēseiþ    
3   wēsun   wēseina    
             
Infinitive   wisan        
             
Pres. Ptc.   wisands        
             
Past Ptc.            

The optative forms are used for the imperative, apart from the possible form sái. There are also forms sium and siuþ alternating with sijum and sijuþ, respectively. The initial vowel of ist combines with a preceding vowel in a few common phrases: ni ist > nist; þata ist > þatist; kara ist > karist.

The verb wiljáu 'I will' does not retain any present indicative forms in Gothic. Only preterite subjunctive forms remain (though in Old English only the present subjunctive), which are used in place of the present indicative. From these were built a new infinitive and weak past tense. The forms are therefore as follows:

wiljan 'will'        
         
Present        
1 Sg.   wiljáu    
2   wileis    
3   wili    
         
1 Du.        
2   wileits    
         
1 Pl.   wileima    
2   wileiþ    
3   wileina    
         
    Indicative   Subjunctive
Past        
1 Sg.   wilda   wildēdjáu
2   wildēs   wildēdeis
3   wilda   wildēdi
         
1 Du.   wildēdu   wildēdeiwa
2   wildēduts   wildēdeits
         
1 Pl.   wildēdum   wildēdeima
2   wildēduþ   wildēdeiþ
3   wildēdun   wildēdeina
         
Infinitive   wiljan    
         
Pres. Ptc.   wiljands    
         
Past Ptc.        
45. Word Derivation

Words in Gothic are generally simple, derivative, or compound. Simple words have no discernable internal parts with meaning of their own. Take for example the nouns atta 'father', áihs 'oath', dags 'day', fótus 'foot', stáins 'stone', waúrd 'word'. Nouns may be derived from other words, such as adjectives and verbs, by means of various suffixes and prefixes. For example suffixation converts the adjective laggs 'long' into the noun laggei 'length', manags 'much' into managei 'multitude', milds 'mild' into mildiþa 'mildness'. Examples of nouns derived from verbs are the following: dragk 'a drink' from drigkan 'to drink', saggws 'song' from siggwan 'to sing', giba 'gift' from giban 'to give', un-witi 'ignorance' from *witan 'to know'. Compound nouns are formed by the conjoining of two or more words to form a noun. In Gothic, the second element is always a noun, though the first element can be a noun, adjective, or particle. When the first element is an a-stem noun or adjective, the -a- of the stem usually remains: áiƕa-tundi 'thornbush', dwala-waúrdei 'foolish talk', weina-triu 'vine'. The -a- remains in short ja-stems, but not in long ja-stems: midja-sweipáins 'the flood', niuja-satiþs 'novice'; but arbi-numja 'heir', agláiti-waúrdei 'indecent language'. The ō-, jō-, i-, and u-stems generally retain their stem vowels when they form the first element of compounds: mōta-staþs 'toll-place', þūsundi-faþs 'leader of a thousand men', mari-sáiws 'sea', fōtu-baúrd 'footboard'. The n-stem nouns employ -a- in compounds: áuga-daúrō 'window', staua-stōls 'judgement seat'. When consonant stems form the first member of a compound, they sometimes employ the vowel -a- by analogy with the a-stems, e.g. brōþra-lubō 'brotherly love' and nahta-mats 'supper'.

Examples of simple adjectives are baírhts 'bright', fagrs 'fair', háils 'whole', siuks 'sick'. Adjectives, like nouns, could be derived by means of prefixes: ana-siuns 'visible', fram-aldrs 'very old', un-fagrs 'unfit'. They could likewise be derived through suffixes: the noun stáins 'stone' yields the adjective stáinahs 'stony', waúrd 'word' yields waúrdahs 'verbal'. Nominal composition might even result in an adjective, the so-called bahuvrīhi or exocentric compound, which describes a person or thing related to the elements of the compound. Modern English is replete with examples: a blackbelt is not a belt, but a martial artist possessing a belt which is black; Blackbeard is not a beard, but a pirate whose beard is black; well-intentioned descibes a person with good intentions. Examples in Gothic are manag-falþs 'having many parts, manifold', láus-handus 'empty-handed'.

Examples of some simple verbs are the following: gaggan 'go', lētan 'let', lisan 'gather', niman 'take', waírþan 'become'. Verbs were often derived from nouns and adjectives by means of prefixes and suffixes. For example, the noun áigin 'property' gives ga-áigin-ōn 'take possession of'; skalks 'servant' gives skalkinōn 'serve'. Many members of the weak verb classes are examples of just such a process, though at times it is difficult to discern which is primary, the nominal item or the verbal. For example, fisks 'a fish' vs. fiskōn 'to fish'; namō 'a name' vs. namnjan 'to name'; weihs 'holy' vs. weihnan 'become holy'.

The following sections provide charts listing the most common prefixes and suffixes employed in noun, adjective, and verb derivation.

45.1. Nominal and Adjectival Prefixes

Nouns and adjectives employ the same prefixes in the process of derivation. The following chart gives many of the more important prefixes, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.

Prefix   Meaning   PGmc   PIE   Example   Meaning
                     
af   from, off   *av   *apó   af-drugkja   drunkard
                af-guþs   godless
                af-lēts   forgiveness
                     
afar   after, next   *afar   *ápo- + -ero   afar-dags   the next day
                afar-sabbatus   the first day after the Sabbath
                     
ana   on, upon   *ana   *an(u)   ana-busns   command
                ana-minds   supposition
                ana-qiss   blasphemy
                ana-siuns   visible
                ana-waírþs   future
                     
and(a)   against, toward   *andV   *antV   and-áugi   face
                anda-hafts   answer
                anda-nahti   evening
                anda-þahts   circumspect
                     
at   at, to   *ad   *ad   at-aþni   year
                at-witáins   observation
                     
bi   by   *bi   *bhi   bi-háit   strife
                bi-sitands   neighbor
                     
dis   apart, asunder   Lat. dis-?   *d(w)is?   dis-wiss   dissolution
                     
faír   around, through   *fer(i)   *per(i)   faír-weiti   spectacle
                     
faúr(a)   before, for   *fur(a/i)   *pr(o/i)   faúr-hāh   curtain
                faúr-stasseis   chief ruler
                faúra-daúri   street
                faúra-gagga   steward
                faúra-hāh   curtain
                     
fra   before   *fra   *pro   fra-gifts   gift, promise
                fra-waúrhts   sin
                fra-weit   revenge
                     
fram   from   *fram   *pro-mo   fram-aldrs   very old
                fram-gāhts   progress
                     
ga   near, at, with   *ḡa   *kom   ga-baúrþs   birth
                ga-bruka   fragment
                ga-dōfs   becoming, fit
                ga-guþs   pious
                ga-hugds   thought
                ga-juk   pair
                ga-munds   remembrance
                ga-skafts   creation
                ga-waúrstwa   fellow worker
                     
hindar   behind   *hindar   *ki-n-d-ero?   hindar-weis   deceitful
                     
id   again   *eð   *eti   id-weit   reproach
                     
in   in   *in   *eni   in-ahs   sober
                in-gardja   one of the same household
                in-ilō   excuse
                in-kunja   countryman
                     
inna   within   *inna   *eni-no?   inna-kunds   of the same household
                     
miss(a)   various, false   *missa   *mit-tā?   missa-dēþs   misdeed
                missa-leiks   various
                missa-qiss   discord
                     
miþ   with, under, between   *miþ   *me-ta   miþ-gardi-waddjus   partition wall
                miþ-ga-sinþa   travelling companion
                miþ-wissei   conscience
                     
uf   up, under   *uv   *upó   uf-áiþeis   under an oath
                uf-háuseins   obedience
                uf-kunþi   knowledge
                     
ufar   over, above   *uvar   *uper(i)   ufar-fulls   overfull
                ufar-gudja   chief priest
                     
un   not, un-   *un   *n   un-agei   fearlessness
                un-baírands   barren
                un-frōdei   without understanding
                un-háili   disease
                un-mahts   infirmity
                     
us   out of, utterly   *ūz   *ūs   us-filh   burial
                us-kunþs   well-known
                us-qiss   accusation
                us-stass   resurrection
                     
wiþra   against   *wiþra   *wi- + -tero   wiþra-waírþs   opposite
                     
45.2. Nominal Suffixes

Some suffixes were employed solely to derive nouns. The following chart gives many of the more important suffixes used to derive nouns, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.

Suffix   Use   PGmc   PIE   Example   Meaning
                     
and   agent noun   *Vnd   *Vnt   bisitands   neighbor
                frijōnds   friend
                fijands   enemy
                nasjands   savior
                     
arja   agent noun   Lat. ārius       bōkareis   scribe
                láisareis   teacher
                sōkareis   disputer
                     
assu, inassu   abstract noun   *(Vn)ass   *(Vn)-ad-t   ibnassus   evenness
                ufarassus   overflow
                blōtinassus   worship
                hōrinassus   adultery
                     
dūþi   abstract noun   *dūþi   *tūti   ajukdūþs   eternity
                managdūþs   abundance
                gamáindūþs   communion
                     
ein   abstract noun   *īn   *īn   áudagei   blessedness
                diupei   depth
                laggei   length
                     
iþa   abstract noun   *iþ   *it   aggwiþa   anguish
                dáubiþa   deafness
                swēiþa   honor
                     
n   abstract noun   *Vn   *Vn   dáupeins   baptizing, baptism
                laþōns   calling, invitation
                libáins   living, life
                     
ōþu   abstract noun   *ōþ   *āt   gáunōþus   mourning
                gabaúrjōþus   pleasure
                     
ubni, ufni   abstract noun   *uvnja   *mnjo   fastubni   observance
                fráistubni   temptation
                waldufni   power
                wundufni   wound
                     
þwa   abstract noun   *þwa   *two   fijaþwa   hatred
                frijaþwa   love
                saliþwōs (pl.)   dwelling
                     
45.3. Adjectival Suffixes

Other suffixes were employed specifically to derive adjectives from other elements. The following chart gives many of the more important suffixes used in deriving adjectives, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.

Suffix   Use   PGmc   PIE   Example   Meaning
                     
aga, aha   relation   *aga, aha   *oko   áudags   blessed
                grēdags   hungry
                áinaha   only
                stáinahs   stony
                     
eiga   relation   *īga   *īko   hrōþeigs   victorious
                láiseigs   apt to teach
                mahteigs   mighty
                waúrstweigs   effective
                     
eina   material   *īna   *īno   aírþeins   earthen
                áiweins   eternal
                barizeins   of barley
                gulþeins   golden
                gumeins   male
                     
iska   quality   *isko   *isko   barnisks   childish
                funisks   fiery
                gudisks   godly
                mannisks   human
                iudaíwisks   Jewish
                     
45.4. Verbal Prefixes

Many of the prefixes listed above are also used in forming verbs. There are, however, a few which are proper only to verbs within Gothic. The following chart gives the more important prefixes applied to verbs, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.

Prefix   Meaning   PGmc   PIE   Example   Meaning
                     
af   from, off   *av   *apó   af-áikan   deny
                af-gaggan   go away
                af-lētan   dismiss
                     
afar   after, next   *afar   *ápo- + -ero   afar-gaggan   follow
                     
ana   on, upon   *ana   *an(u)   ana-áukan   add to
                ana-háitan   call on
                ana-hneiwan   stoop down
                     
and   against, toward   *and   *ant   and-bindan   unbind
                and-niman   receive
                and-standan   withstand
                     
at   at, to   *ad   *ad   at-áugjan   show
                at-giban   give up
                at-saíƕan   take heed
                at-tēkan   touch
                     
bi   by   *bi   *bhi   bi-áukan   add to
                bi-leiban   remain
                bi-rinnan   run about
                     
dis   apart, asunder   Lat. dis-   *d(w)is?   dis-dáiljan   share
                dis-sitan   settle upon
                dis-taíran   tear asunder
                     
du   to, at   *tō?   ?   du-at-gaggan   go to
                du-ginnan   begin
                du-rinnan   run to
                     
faúr(a)   before, for   *fur(a/i)   *pr(o/i)   faúr-biudan   forbid
                faúr-gaggan   pass by
                faúr-qiþan   excuse
                faúra-gaggan   go before
                faúra-standan   govern
                     
fra   before   *fra   *pro   fra-giban   give
                fra-itan   devour
                fra-lētan   liberate
                     
ga   near, at, with   *ḡa   *kom   ga-baíran   bring forth
                ga-háitan   call together
                ga-kiusan   approve
                ga-taíran   destroy
                     
hindar   behind   *hindar   *ki-n-d-ero?   hindar-leiþan   go behind
                     
in   in   *in   *eni   in-brannjan   put in the fire
                in-saíƕan   look at
                     
tus   (pejorative)   *tuz   *dus   tuz-wērjan   doubt
                     
twis   two, separate, apart   *twis   *dwis   twis-standan   depart from one, diverge
                     
þaírh   through   *þerx   *ter-kwe   þaírh-baíran   carry through
                þaírh-gaggan   go through
                þaírh-wisan   remain
                     
uf   up, under   *uv   *upó   uf-blēsan   blow up
                uf-brikan   reject
                uf-dáupjan   baptize
                uf-háusjan   submit
                uf-ligan   lie under
                     
ufar   over, above   *uvar   *uper(i)   ufar-gaggan   trangress
                ufar-munnōn   forget
                ufar-steigan   mount up
                     
und   to, toward   *unþ   *nt   und-greipan   seize
                und-rinnan   run to
                     
unþa   away from   *unþa   *nto   unþa-þliuhan   escape
                     
us   out of, utterly   *ūz   *ūs   us-anan   expire
                us-dreiban   drive out
                us-láubjan   permit
                us-qiþan   proclaim
                     
wiþra   against   *wiþra   *wi- + -tero   wiþra-gaggan   go to meet
                wiþra-mōtjan   go to meet
                     
45.5. Verbal Suffixes

The most common suffixes employed in deriving verbs have actually been dealt with separately. These are in fact the suffixes of most of the weak verb classes. In many instances, however, such derivation had taken place long before Gothic became a separate language in the Germanic family. There are, however, a few additional suffixes used to derive verbs; but they are not sufficiently numerous to form separate verb classes as such. The following chart lists these suffixes, together with their antecedents in the proto-languages, as well as some examples of their use within Gothic.

Suffix   Use   PGmc   PIE   Example   Meaning
                     
atjan   intensive   *at-jan   *ad-jan   laúhatjan   lighten
                káupatjan   buffet, beat
                swōgatjan   sigh, groan
                     
inōn       *in-ōn       gudjinōn   be a priest
                ga-áiginōn   take possession of
                skalkinōn   serve
                hōrinōn   commit adultery