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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 4

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Herodotus, often referred to as the father of history, provided no information about himself. He is said to have been born about 484 B.C. in Caria, Asia Minor, and died about 430 B.C. in southern Italy. The aim of his history is stated in the first sentence, which is considered one of the greatest ever written; it is broken up here for ease of treatment. In my view, this sentence provided the pattern of the first sentence of Luke's Gospel. In the course of setting out to provide a history of the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians he not only describes the rise of the Persian Empire but also that of Egypt and Greece. His description is based on wide travels that took him throughout the countries on the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea and also into Scythia, the area north of the Black Sea. That area he visited before his travels in Egypt, where he went as far south as Assuan. The nine books of his History include highly interesting accounts such as that of Solon with the Lydian ruler, Croesus, which was formerly included in elementary grade school readers. Recalling Solon's accounts of fortunate men, Croesus repeated Solon's name when he was to be burned at the stake by his Persian conqueror, Cyrus; on his explanation for recalling Solon he was freed. While some of these are considered mythical, his unparalleled accounts provide information about Greece, Asia Minor, and Persia that is not recorded elsewhere.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Section 3 of Book I ascribes the initial enmity between the Greeks and the Persians to the rape of Helen by Paris. The previous section tells of other rapes, including that of Medea by the Greeks, which by his account led Paris to abduct Helen. In a sense then, Herodotus begins his history from the epics of Homer.

Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνησσέος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ἥδε, # History I.1

  • Ἡροδότου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἡερόδοτος> Herodotus -- of Herodotus
  • Ἁλικαρνησσέος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἁλικαρνησεύς> Halicarnassian -- the Halicarnassian
  • ἱστορίης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ἱστορία> inquiry, history -- of the history
  • ἀπόδεξις -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <ἀπόδεξις> exposition, publication -- exposition
  • ἥδε -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <ὅδε> this -- this

ὡς μήτε τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων τῷ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται,

  • ὡς -- conjunction; <ὡς> as, thus -- so that
  • μήτε -- adverb; <μήτε> and not, neither -- neither
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • γενόμενα -- participle used as substantive; nominative plural neuter of present participle middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- events
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- by
  • ἀνθρώπων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- by humans
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • χρόνῳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <χρόνος> time -- in time
  • ἐξίτηλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ἐξίτηλος> fading, forgotten -- forgotten
  • γένηται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- become

μήτε ἔργα μεγάλα τε καὶ θωμαστά, τὰ μὲν Ἕλλησι τὰ δὲ βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα, ἀκλεᾶ γένηται,

  • μήτε -- adverb; <μήτε> and not, neither -- nor
  • ἔργα -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ἔργον> work, deed -- deeds
  • μεγάλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <μεγάλος> great -- great
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • θωμαστά -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <θωμαστός> wonderful -- wonderful
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <> the -- those
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- on the one hand
  • Ἕλλησι -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <Ἕλλην> Greek -- by Greeks
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <> the -- those
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- on the other hand
  • βαρβάροισι -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <βάρβαρος> foreigner, non-Greek -- others than Greeks
  • ἀποδεχθέντα -- verb; nominative plural neuter of aorist participle passive of <ἀποδείκνυμι> propose -- performed
  • ἀκλεᾶ -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ἀκλεός> without fame -- without fame
  • γένηται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- may be

τά τε ἄλλα καὶ δι' ἣν αἰτίην ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι.

  • τά -- article; nominative plural neuter of <> the -- and
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • ἄλλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ἄλλος> other -- other
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • δι' -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- because
  • ἣν -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <ὅς> his -- the
  • αἰτίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <αἰτία> cause, reason -- reason
  • ἐπολέμησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <πολεμέω> fight, be at war -- they fought
  • ἀλλήλοισι -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <ἀλλήλων> one another -- with one another

Δευτέρῃ δὲ λέγουσι γενεῇ μετὰ ταῦτα Ἀλέξανδρον τὸν Πριάμου, ἀκηκοότα ταῦτα, ἐθελῆσαί οἱ ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος δι' ἁρπαγῆς γενέσθαι γυναῖκα, # History I.3

  • δευτέρῃ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <δεύτερος> second -- in the second
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- then
  • λέγουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <λέγω> say -- they say
  • γενεῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <γενεή> family, generation, race -- generation
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- after
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these things
  • Ἀλέξανδρον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἀλέξανδρος> Alexandros -- Alexandros = Paris
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- the (son)
  • Πριάμου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Πρίαμος> Priam -- of Priam
  • ἀκηκοότα -- verb; nominative plural neuter of perfect participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having been heard
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these things
  • ἐθελῆσαί -- verb; infinitive aorist of <ἐθέλω> wish, want -- wanted
  • οἱ -- reflexive pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- for himself
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • Ἑλλάδος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἑλλάς> Greece -- Greece
  • δι' -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- through
  • ἁρπαγῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abduction
  • γενέσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- become
  • γυναῖκα -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γυνή> woman -- wife

ἐπιστάμενον πάντως ὅτι οὐ δώσει δίκας.

  • ἐπιστάμενον -- deponent verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle of <ἐπίσταμαι> know -- knowing
  • πάντως -- adverb; <πάντως> altogether -- fully well
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δώσει -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <δίδωμι> give -- he would...make
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- amends

οὔτω δὴ ἁρπάσαντος αὐτοῦ Ἑλένην.

  • οὔτω -- adverb; <οὔτω> thus -- and so
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • ἁρπάσαντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of <ἁρπάζω> carry off -- carried off
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- he
  • Ἑλένην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἑλένη> Helen -- Helen

τοῖσι Ἕλλησι δόξαι πρῶτὸν πέμψαντας ἀγγέλους ἀπαιτέειν τε Ἑλένην καὶ δίκας τῆς ἁρπαγῆς αἰτέειν.

  • τοῖσι -- article; dative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • Ἕλλησι -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <Ἕλλην> Greek -- Greeks
  • δόξαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <δοκέω> seem, think -- it was resolved
  • πρῶτὸν -- adverb; <πρῶτον> first -- first
  • πέμψαντας -- verb; accusative plural masculine of aorist participle of <πέμπω> send -- sent
  • ἀγγέλους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ἄγγελος> messenger -- messengers
  • ἀπαιτέειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἀπαιτέω> request -- to demand back
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • Ἑλένην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἑλένη> Helen -- Helen
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- reparations
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • ἁρπαγῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abduction
  • αἰτέειν -- verb; infinitive present, of <αἰτέω> request -- to request

τοὺς δέ, προισομένων ταῦτα, προφέρειν σφι Μηδείης τὴν ἁρπαγήν.

  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- these
  • δέ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • προισομένων -- verb; genitive plural neuter of aorist participle of <προφέρω> bring forth -- when they proposed
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these things
  • προφέρειν -- verb; infinitive of <προφέρω> bring forth -- (the Trojans) brought up
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- they
  • Μηδείης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Μηδεία> Medea -- of Medea
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • ἁρπαγήν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abduction

ὡς οὐ δόντες αὐτοὶ δίκας οὐδὲ ἐκδόντες ἀπαιτεόντων βουλοίατό σφι παρ' ἄλλων δίκας γίνεσθαι.

  • ὡς -- conjunction; <ὡς> as, thus -- so that
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <δίδωμι> give -- (they had...) given
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- themselves
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- satisfaction
  • οὐδὲ -- particle; <οὐδέ> not -- and...not
  • ἐκδόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἐκδιδώμι> give up -- having given up
  • ἀπαιτεόντων -- verb; genitive plural neuter of present participle of <ἀπαιτέω> request -- (what was) requested
  • βουλοίατό -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist optative of <βούλομαι> wish, request -- they wished (that)
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- for themselves
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- by
  • ἄλλων -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <ἄλλος> other -- others
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- reparations
  • γίνεσθαι -- deponent verb; aorist infinitive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be provided

Μέχρι μὲν ὦν τούτου ἁρπαγὰς μούνας εἶναι παρ' ἀλλήλων. # History I.4

  • μέχρι -- preposition; <μέχρι> until -- up to
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- indeed
  • ὦν -- verb; present participle nominative singular masculine of <εἰμί> I am -- being
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οὗτος> this -- this point
  • ἁρπαγὰς -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abductions
  • μούνας -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <μοῦνος> alone -- only
  • εἶναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- (there) were
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- by
  • ἀλλήλων -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἀλλήλων> one another -- one another

τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου Ἕλληνας δὴ μεγάλως αἰτίους γενέσθαι.

  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- in regard to this
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οὗτος> this -- this point
  • Ἕλληνας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <Ἕλλην> Greek -- the Greeks
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • μεγάλως -- adverb; <μεγάλως> greatly -- greatly
  • αἰτίους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <αἴτιος> blameworthy -- blameworthy
  • γενέσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became

προτέρους γὰρ ἄρξαι στρατεύεσθαι ἐς τὴν Ἀσίην ἤ σφέας ἐς τὴν Εὐρώπην.

  • προτέρους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <πρότερος> first, before -- before
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἄρξαι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <ἄρχω> begin -- (they) began
  • στρατεύεσθαι -- verb; infinitive middle of <στρατεύω> take the field, attack -- make war
  • ἐς -- preposition; <ἐς> towards -- against
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • Ἀσίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἀσία> Asia -- Asia
  • -- conjunction; <> or, than -- than
  • σφέας -- reflexive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- they
  • ἐς -- preposition; <ἐς> towards -- against
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • Εὐρώπην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Εὐρώπη> Europe -- Europe

Ἕλληνας δὲ Λακεδαιμονίης εἵνεκεν γυναικὸς στόλον μέγαν συναγεῖραι καὶ ἔπειτα ἐλθόντας ἐς τὴν Ἀσίην τὴν Πριάμου δύναμιν κατελεῖν.

  • Ἕλληνας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <Ἕλλην> Greek -- the Greeks
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • Λακεδαιμονίης -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <Λακεδαιμόνιος> Lacedemonian, Spartan -- Lacedemonian
  • εἵνεκεν -- preposition; <εἵνεκεν> because of -- because of
  • γυναικὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γυνή> woman -- woman
  • στόλον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <στόλος> army -- army
  • μέγαν -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <μέγας> great -- great
  • συναγεῖραι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <συναγείρω> assemble -- assembled
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔπειτα -- adverb; <ἔπειτα> thereupon -- thereupon
  • ἐλθόντας -- verb; accusative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- went
  • ἐς -- preposition; <ἐς> towards -- to
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • Ἀσίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἀσία> Asia -- Asia
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • Πριάμου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Πρίαμος> Priam -- of Priam
  • δύναμιν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <δύναμις> power -- power
  • κατελεῖν -- verb; infinitive aorist of <καθαιρέω> take down, destroy -- destroyed

ἀπὸ τούτου αἰεὶ ἡγήσασθαι τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν σφίσι εἶναι πολέμιον,

  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οὗτος> this -- this (time)
  • αἰεὶ -- adverb; <αἰεί> always -- always
  • ἡγήσασθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <ἡγέομαι> lead, regard, rule -- (we have) regarded
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • Ἑλληνικὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <Ἑλληνικός> Greek -- Greeks
  • σφίσι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- to us
  • εἶναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- to be
  • πολέμιον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πολέμιος> hostile, inimical -- hostile

τὴν γὰρ Ἀσίην καὶ τὰ ἐνοικέοντα ἔθνεα βάρβαρα οἰκηιεῦνται οἱ Πέρσαι, τὴν δὲ Εὐρώπην καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν ἥγηνται κεχωρίσθαι.

  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • Ἀσίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ἀσία> Asia -- Asia
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • ἐνοικέοντα -- verb; accusative plural neuter of present participle of <ἐνοικέω> dwelling in -- inhabiting
  • ἔθνεα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ἔθνος> nation, people, tribe -- nations
  • βάρβαρα -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <βάρβαρος> foreign, not Greek -- foreign
  • οἰκηιεῦνται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <οἰκηιεύω> claim -- claim (for themselves)
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • Πέρσαι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Πέρσης> Persian -- Persians
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • Εὐρώπην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Εὐρώπη> Europe -- Europe
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • Ἑλληνικὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <Ἑλληνικός> Greek -- Greeks
  • ἥγηνται -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἡγέομαι> lead, regard, rule -- they consider
  • κεχωρίσθαι -- verb; infinitive perfect passive of <χωρίζω> separate -- to be separate

Lesson Text

Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνησσέος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ἥδε, ὡς μήτε τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων τῷ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται, μήτε ἔργα μεγάλα τε καὶ θωμαστά, τὰ μὲν Ἕλλησι τὰ δὲ βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα, ἀκλεᾶ γένηται, τά τε ἄλλα καὶ δι' ἣν αἰτίην ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι. Δευτέρῃ δὲ λέγουσι γενεῇ μετὰ ταῦτα Ἀλέξανδρον τὸν Πριάμου, ἀκηκοότα ταῦτα, ἐθελῆσαί οἱ ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος δι' ἁρπαγῆς γενέσθαι γυναῖκα, ἐπιστάμενον πάντως ὅτι οὐ δώσει δίκας. οὔτω δὴ ἁρπάσαντος αὐτοῦ Ἑλένην. τοῖσι Ἕλλησι δόξαι πρῶτὸν πέμψαντας ἀγγέλους ἀπαιτέειν τε Ἑλένην καὶ δίκας τῆς ἁρπαγῆς αἰτέειν. τοὺς δέ, προισομένων ταῦτα, προφέρειν σφι Μηδείης τὴν ἁρπαγήν. ὡς οὐ δόντες αὐτοὶ δίκας οὐδὲ ἐκδόντες ἀπαιτεόντων βουλοίατό σφι παρ' ἄλλων δίκας γίνεσθαι. Μέχρι μὲν ὦν τούτου ἁρπαγὰς μούνας εἶναι παρ' ἀλλήλων. τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου Ἕλληνας δὴ μεγάλως αἰτίους γενέσθαι. προτέρους γὰρ ἄρξαι στρατεύεσθαι ἐς τὴν Ἀσίην ἤ σφέας ἐς τὴν Εὐρώπην. Ἕλληνας δὲ Λακεδαιμονίης εἵνεκεν γυναικὸς στόλον μέγαν συναγεῖραι καὶ ἔπειτα ἐλθόντας ἐς τὴν Ἀσίην τὴν Πριάμου δύναμιν κατελεῖν. ἀπὸ τούτου αἰεὶ ἡγήσασθαι τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν σφίσι εἶναι πολέμιον, τὴν γὰρ Ἀσίην καὶ τὰ ἐνοικέοντα ἔθνεα βάρβαρα οἰκηιεῦνται οἱ Πέρσαι, τὴν δὲ Εὐρώπην καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν ἥγηνται κεχωρίσθαι.

Translation

This is the exposition of the history of Herodotus, the Halicarnassian, (produced) so that neither the events be forgotten by humans in time, nor the great and wonderful deeds done by Greeks and foreigners may be without fame, and especially the reason why they fought with one another.
Then in the second generation after these things, they say that Paris, the son of Priam, having heard these things, wanted to get for himself a wife out of Greece through rapine, believing full well that he would not make amends. And so indeed he carried off Helen. It was resolved first by the Greeks that messengers that were sent should demand back Helen and request reparations. When they proposed these things, the Trojans brought up the rape of Medea, and they reminded the Greeks that they had not given satisfaction nor given what was requested but asked that reparations be given to them by others. Up to this point there were only robberies from one another. But after this (the Persians say) the Greeks became greatly blameworthy. For they began to make war against Asia before they themselves did against Europe. --- The Greeks for the sake of a Lacedaemonian woman brought together a great army and then coming to Asia destroyed the power of Priam. From this time on we have always regarded the Greeks as hostile us. The Persians claim Asia and the foreign nations living there for themselves and consider Europe and the Greeks to be separate.

Grammar

16. Nouns ending in -ηρ.

The basic relationship terms, among other nouns, end in -ηρ, and have no -ε- in the genitive and dative singular, and the dative plural. The following are examples.

    father   daughter   man
Nom. sg.   ὁ πατήρ   ἡ θυγάτηρ   ὀ ἀνήρ
Gen. sg.   τοῦ πατρός   τῆς θυγατρός   τοῦ ἀνδρός
Dat. sg.   τῷ πατρί   τῇ θυγατρί   τῷ ανδρί
Acc. sg.   τὸν πατέρα   τῆν θυγατέρα   τὸν ἄνδρα
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ πατέρες   αἱ θυγατέρες   οἱ ἄνδρες
Gen. pl.   τῶν πατέρων   τῶν θυγατέρων   τῶν ἀνδρῶν
Dat. pl.   τοῖς πατράσι   ταῖς θυγατράσι   τοῖς ἀνδράσι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς πατέρας   τὰς θυγατέρας   τοὺς ἄνδρας
17. Irregular nouns.

Some of the more frequent nouns are irregular in inflection; four of them are given here.

    woman   ship   fire   Zeus
Nom. sg.   ἡ γυνή   ἡ ναῦς   τὸ πῦρ   Ζεύς
Gen. sg.   τῆς γυναικός   τῆς νεώς   τοῦ πυρός   Διός
Dat. sg.   τῇ γυναικί   τῇ νηί   τῷ πυρί   Διί
Acc. sg.   τῆν γυναῖκα   τῆν ναῦν   τὸ πῦρ   Δία
                 
Nom. pl.   αἱ γυναῖκες   αἱ νῆες   τὰ πυρά    
Gen. pl.   τῶν γυναικῶν   τῶν νεῶν   τῶν πυρῶν    
Dat. pl.   ταῖς γυναιξί(ν)   ταῖς ναυσί(ν)   τοῖς πυροῖς    
Acc. pl.   τὰς γυναῖκας   τὰς ναῦς   τὰ πυρά    
18. Demonstrative pronouns.

There are three demonstrative pronouns. ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε points to the present or future, and corresponds to 'this,' 'this one here.' οὕτος, αὔτη, τοῦτο points to the former, and corresponds to 'that.' ἐκεῖνος, ἐκείνη, ἐκεῖνο points to things remote or absent, and corresponds to 'that there.' ὅδε is based on the definite article. The forms of ἐκεῖνος are like those of αὐτός. The forms of ὁ̃υτος are given here.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   οὗτος   αὕτη   τοῦτο
Gen. sg.   τούτου   ταύτης   τούτου
Dat. sg.   τούτῳ   ταύτῃ   τούτῳ
Acc. sg.   τοῦτον   ταύτην   τοῦτο
             
Nom. pl.   οὗτοι   αὗται   ταῦτα
Gen. pl.   τούτων   τούτων   τούτων
Dat. pl.   τούτοις   ταύταις   τούτοις
Acc. pl.   τούτους   ταύτας   ταῦτα
19. The uses of infinitives.

Infinitives are often used after verbs to complement their meaning, as in Iliad 18-19: δοῖεν ... ἐκπέερσαι 'may they grant (you) to destroy...' But in this passage of Herodotus, they also correspond to finite verbs. In the first sentence of section 3, the infinitive ἐθελήσαι functions in this way to provide the verb for the noun Ἀλέξανδρον 'Alexander wished ...' This clause corresponds to a subordinate clause after the verb λέγουσι 'they say'; relatively frequent, it is known as the Accusative with Infinitive Construction, often labeled AcI.

A further sentence simply has the infinitive with a dative indicating the subject, and in turn is followed by two two AcI constructions: τοῖσι Ἕλλεησι δόξαι 'it was resolved by the Greeks = the Greeks resolved.' Grammars simply label such constructions. Readers of the texts must accept their presence, and interpret them appropriately.

20. The Present system of the Middle and the Passive.

The Greek verb has a full set of Middle and Passive forms corresponding to those of the Active. In the Present System, the forms of the two Voices are the same.

When used as Middle, the forms indicate an action or situation reflecting on the subject; thus the first singular indicative παιδεύομαι means 'I educate (for my sake)'. When used as Passive, the meaning corresponds to that of passives in English, so that the Passive παιδεύομαι means 'I am (being) educated.' The forms must be interpreted from the context.

The forms of the Present System (first, second, and third person, singular and plural) are as follows:

    Indicative   Imperfect   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   παιδεύομαι   ἐπαιδευόμην   παιδεύωμαι   παιδευοίμην    
2s   παιδεύῃ   ἐπαιδεύου   παιδεύῃ   παιδεύοιο   παιδεύου
3s   παιδεύεται   ἐπαιδεύετο   παιδεύηται   παιδευοίτο   παιδευέσθω
1p   παιδευόμεθα   ἐπαιδευόμεθα   παιδευώμεθα   παιδευοίμεθα    
2p   παιδεύεσθε   ἐπαιδεύεσθε   παιδεύησθε   παιδεύοισθε   παιδεύεσθε
3p   παιδεύονται   ἐπαιδεύοντο   παιδεύωνται   παιδεύοιντο   παιδευέσθων

Infinitive:   παιδεύεσθαι
Participle:   παιδευόμενος, παιδευομένη, παιδευόμενον