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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 4

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Herodotus, often referred to as the father of history, provided no information about himself. He is said to have been born about 484 B.C. in Caria, Asia Minor, and died about 430 B.C. in southern Italy. The aim of his history is stated in the first sentence, which is considered one of the greatest ever written; it is broken up here for ease of treatment. In my view, this sentence provided the pattern of the first sentence of Luke's Gospel. In the course of setting out to provide a history of the conflict between the Greeks and the Persians he not only describes the rise of the Persian Empire but also that of Egypt and Greece. His description is based on wide travels that took him throughout the countries on the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea and also into Scythia, the area north of the Black Sea. That area he visited before his travels in Egypt, where he went as far south as Assuan. The nine books of his History include highly interesting accounts such as that of Solon with the Lydian ruler, Croesus, which was formerly included in elementary grade school readers. Recalling Solon's accounts of fortunate men, Croesus repeated Solon's name when he was to be burned at the stake by his Persian conqueror, Cyrus; on his explanation for recalling Solon he was freed. While some of these are considered mythical, his unparalleled accounts provide information about Greece, Asia Minor, and Persia that is not recorded elsewhere.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Section 3 of Book I ascribes the initial enmity between the Greeks and the Persians to the rape of Helen by Paris. The previous section tells of other rapes, including that of Medea by the Greeks, which by his account led Paris to abduct Helen. In a sense then, Herodotus begins his history from the epics of Homer.

ʽΗροδότου ʽΑλικαρνησσέος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ʽήδε, # History I.1

  • ʽΗροδότου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʽΗερόδοτος> Herodotus -- of Herodotus
  • ʽΑλικαρνησσέος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʽΑλικαρνησεύς> Halicarnassian -- the Halicarnassian
  • ἱστορίης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ἱστορία> inquiry, history -- of the history
  • ἀπόδεξις -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <ἀπόδεξις> exposition, publication -- exposition
  • ʽήδε -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <ʽόδε> this -- this

ὡς μήτε τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων τῳ̂ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται,

  • ὡς -- conjunction; <ὡς> as, thus -- so that
  • μήτε -- adverb; <μήτε> and not, neither -- neither
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γενόμενα -- participle used as substantive; nominative plural neuter of present participle middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- events
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- by
  • ἀνθρώπων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- by humans
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • χρόνῳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <χρόνος> time -- in time
  • ἐξίτηλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ἐξίτηλος> fading, forgotten -- forgotten
  • γένηται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- become

μήτε ʼέργα μεγάλα τε καὶ θωμαστά, τὰ μὲν ʽΈλλησι τὰ δὲ βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα, ἀκλεα̂ γένηται,

  • μήτε -- adverb; <μήτε> and not, neither -- nor
  • ʼέργα -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ʼέργον> work, deed -- deeds
  • μεγάλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <μεγάλος> great -- great
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • θωμαστά -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <θωμαστός> wonderful -- wonderful
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- those
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- on the one hand
  • ʽΈλλησι -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ʽΈλλην> Greek -- by Greeks
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- those
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- on the other hand
  • βαρβάροισι -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <βάρβαρος> foreigner, non-Greek -- others than Greeks
  • ἀποδεχθέντα -- verb; nominative plural neuter of aorist participle passive of <ἀποδείκνυμι> propose -- performed
  • ἀκλεα̂ -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ἀκλεός> without fame -- without fame
  • γένηται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- may be

τά τε ʼάλλα καὶ δι' ʽὴν αἰτίην ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι.

  • τά -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- and
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • ʼάλλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ʼάλλος> other -- other
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • δι' -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- because
  • ʽὴν -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <ʽός> his -- the
  • αἰτίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <αἰτία> cause, reason -- reason
  • ἐπολέμησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <πολεμέω> fight, be at war -- they fought
  • ἀλλήλοισι -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <ἀλλήλων> one another -- with one another

Δευτέρῃ δὲ λέγουσι γενεῃ̂ μετὰ ταυ̂τα ʼΑλέξανδρον τὸν Πριάμου, ἀκηκοότα ταυ̂τα, ἐθελη̂σαί οἱ ἐκ τη̂ς ʽΕλλάδος δι' ἁρπαγη̂ς γενέσθαι γυναι̂κα, # History I.3

  • δευτέρῃ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <δεύτερος> second -- in the second
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- then
  • λέγουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <λέγω> say -- they say
  • γενεῃ̂ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <γενεή> family, generation, race -- generation
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- after
  • ταυ̂τα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- these things
  • ʼΑλέξανδρον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ʼΑλέξανδρος> Alexandros -- Alexandros = Paris
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the (son)
  • Πριάμου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Πρίαμος> Priam -- of Priam
  • ἀκηκοότα -- verb; nominative plural neuter of perfect participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having been heard
  • ταυ̂τα -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- these things
  • ἐθελη̂σαί -- verb; infinitive aorist of <ἐθέλω> wish, want -- wanted
  • οἱ -- reflexive pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- for himself
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʽΕλλάδος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ʽΕλλάς> Greece -- Greece
  • δι' -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- through
  • ἁρπαγη̂ς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abduction
  • γενέσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- become
  • γυναι̂κα -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γυνή> woman -- wife

ἐπιστάμενον πάντως ʽότι οὐ δώσει δίκας.

  • ἐπιστάμενον -- deponent verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle of <ἐπίσταμαι> know -- knowing
  • πάντως -- adverb; <πάντως> altogether -- fully well
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- that
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δώσει -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <δίδωμι> give -- he would...make
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- amends

οʼύτω δὴ ἁρπάσαντος αὐτου̂ ʽΕλένην.

  • οʼύτω -- adverb; <οʼύτω> thus -- and so
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • ἁρπάσαντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of <ἁρπάζω> carry off -- carried off
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- he
  • ʽΕλένην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ʽΕλένη> Helen -- Helen

τοι̂σι ʽΈλλησι δόξαι πρω̂τὸν πέμψαντας ἀγγέλους ἀπαιτέειν τε ʽΕλένην καὶ δίκας τη̂ς ἁρπαγη̂ς αἰτέειν.

  • τοι̂σι -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʽΈλλησι -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ʽΈλλην> Greek -- Greeks
  • δόξαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <δοκέω> seem, think -- it was resolved
  • πρω̂τὸν -- adverb; <πρω̂τον> first -- first
  • πέμψαντας -- verb; accusative plural masculine of aorist participle of <πέμπω> send -- sent
  • ἀγγέλους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ʼάγγελος> messenger -- messengers
  • ἀπαιτέειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἀπαιτέω> request -- to demand back
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • ʽΕλένην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ʽΕλένη> Helen -- Helen
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- reparations
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἁρπαγη̂ς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abduction
  • αἰτέειν -- verb; infinitive present, of <αἰτέω> request -- to request

τοὺς δέ, προισομένων ταυ̂τα, προφέρειν σφι Μηδείης τὴν ἁρπαγήν.

  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- these
  • δέ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • προισομένων -- verb; genitive plural neuter of aorist participle of <προφέρω> bring forth -- when they proposed
  • ταυ̂τα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- these things
  • προφέρειν -- verb; infinitive of <προφέρω> bring forth -- (the Trojans) brought up
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- they
  • Μηδείης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Μηδεία> Medea -- of Medea
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἁρπαγήν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abduction

ὡς οὐ δόντες αὐτοὶ δίκας οὐδὲ ἐκδόντες ἀπαιτεόντων βουλοίατό σφι παρ' ʼάλλων δίκας γίνεσθαι.

  • ὡς -- conjunction; <ὡς> as, thus -- so that
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <δίδωμι> give -- (they had...) given
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- themselves
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- satisfaction
  • οὐδὲ -- particle; <οὐδέ> not -- and...not
  • ἐκδόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἐκδιδώμι> give up -- having given up
  • ἀπαιτεόντων -- verb; genitive plural neuter of present participle of <ἀπαιτέω> request -- (what was) requested
  • βουλοίατό -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist optative of <βούλομαι> wish, request -- they wished (that)
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- for themselves
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- by
  • ʼάλλων -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <ʼάλλος> other -- others
  • δίκας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <δίκη> custom, right -- reparations
  • γίνεσθαι -- deponent verb; aorist infinitive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be provided

Μέχρι μὲν ʼω̂ν τούτου ἁρπαγὰς μούνας εʼι̂ναι παρ' ἀλλήλων. # History I.4

  • μέχρι -- preposition; <μέχρι> until -- up to
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- indeed
  • ʼω̂ν -- verb; present participle nominative singular masculine of <εἰμί> I am -- being
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this point
  • ἁρπαγὰς -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ἁρπαγή> abduction -- abductions
  • μούνας -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <μου̂νος> alone -- only
  • εʼι̂ναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- (there) were
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- by
  • ἀλλήλων -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἀλλήλων> one another -- one another

τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου ʽΈλληνας δὴ μεγάλως αἰτίους γενέσθαι.

  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- in regard to this
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this point
  • ʽΈλληνας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ʽΈλλην> Greek -- the Greeks
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • μεγάλως -- adverb; <μεγάλως> greatly -- greatly
  • αἰτίους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <αʼίτιος> blameworthy -- blameworthy
  • γενέσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became

προτέρους γὰρ ʼάρξαι στρατεύεσθαι ἐς τὴν ʼΑσίην ʼή σφέας ἐς τὴν Εὐρώπην.

  • προτέρους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <πρότερος> first, before -- before
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ʼάρξαι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <ʼάρχω> begin -- (they) began
  • στρατεύεσθαι -- verb; infinitive middle of <στρατεύω> take the field, attack -- make war
  • ἐς -- preposition; <ἐς> towards -- against
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼΑσίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ʼΑσία> Asia -- Asia
  • ʼή -- conjunction; <ʼή> or, than -- than
  • σφέας -- reflexive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- they
  • ἐς -- preposition; <ἐς> towards -- against
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • Εὐρώπην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Εὐρώπη> Europe -- Europe

ʽΈλληνας δὲ Λακεδαιμονίης εʽίνεκεν γυναικὸς στόλον μέγαν συναγει̂ραι καὶ ʼέπειτα ἐλθόντας ἐς τὴν ʼΑσίην τὴν Πριάμου δύναμιν κατελει̂ν.

  • ʽΈλληνας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ʽΈλλην> Greek -- the Greeks
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • Λακεδαιμονίης -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <Λακεδαιμόνιος> Lacedemonian, Spartan -- Lacedemonian
  • εʽίνεκεν -- preposition; <εʽίνεκεν> because of -- because of
  • γυναικὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γυνή> woman -- woman
  • στόλον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <στόλος> army -- army
  • μέγαν -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <μέγας> great -- great
  • συναγει̂ραι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <συναγείρω> assemble -- assembled
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼέπειτα -- adverb; <ʼέπειτα> thereupon -- thereupon
  • ἐλθόντας -- verb; accusative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- went
  • ἐς -- preposition; <ἐς> towards -- to
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼΑσίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ʼΑσία> Asia -- Asia
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • Πριάμου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Πρίαμος> Priam -- of Priam
  • δύναμιν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <δύναμις> power -- power
  • κατελει̂ν -- verb; infinitive aorist of <καθαιρέω> take down, destroy -- destroyed

ἀπὸ τούτου αἰεὶ ἡγήσασθαι τὸ ʽΕλληνικὸν σφίσι εʼι̂ναι πολέμιον,

  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this (time)
  • αἰεὶ -- adverb; <αἰεί> always -- always
  • ἡγήσασθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <ἡγέομαι> lead, regard, rule -- (we have) regarded
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʽΕλληνικὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ʽΕλληνικός> Greek -- Greeks
  • σφίσι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- to us
  • εʼι̂ναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- to be
  • πολέμιον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πολέμιος> hostile, inimical -- hostile

τὴν γὰρ ʼΑσίην καὶ τὰ ἐνοικέοντα ʼέθνεα βάρβαρα οἰκηιευ̂νται οἱ Πέρσαι, τὴν δὲ Εὐρώπην καὶ τὸ ʽΕλληνικὸν ʽήγηνται κεχωρίσθαι.

  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ʼΑσίην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ʼΑσία> Asia -- Asia
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐνοικέοντα -- verb; accusative plural neuter of present participle of <ἐνοικέω> dwelling in -- inhabiting
  • ʼέθνεα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ʼέθνος> nation, people, tribe -- nations
  • βάρβαρα -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <βάρβαρος> foreign, not Greek -- foreign
  • οἰκηιευ̂νται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <οἰκηιεύω> claim -- claim (for themselves)
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • Πέρσαι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Πέρσης> Persian -- Persians
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • Εὐρώπην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Εὐρώπη> Europe -- Europe
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʽΕλληνικὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ʽΕλληνικός> Greek -- Greeks
  • ʽήγηνται -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἡγέομαι> lead, regard, rule -- they consider
  • κεχωρίσθαι -- verb; infinitive perfect passive of <χωρίζω> separate -- to be separate

Lesson Text

ʽΗροδότου ʽΑλικαρνησσέος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ʽήδε, ὡς μήτε τὰ γενόμενα ἐξ ἀνθρώπων τῳ̂ χρόνῳ ἐξίτηλα γένηται, μήτε ʼέργα μεγάλα τε καὶ θωμαστά, τὰ μὲν ʽΈλλησι τὰ δὲ βαρβάροισι ἀποδεχθέντα, ἀκλεα̂ γένηται, τά τε ʼάλλα καὶ δι' ʽὴν αἰτίην ἐπολέμησαν ἀλλήλοισι. Δευτέρῃ δὲ λέγουσι γενεῃ̂ μετὰ ταυ̂τα ʼΑλέξανδρον τὸν Πριάμου, ἀκηκοότα ταυ̂τα, ἐθελη̂σαί οἱ ἐκ τη̂ς ʽΕλλάδος δι' ἁρπαγη̂ς γενέσθαι γυναι̂κα, ἐπιστάμενον πάντως ʽότι οὐ δώσει δίκας. οʼύτω δὴ ἁρπάσαντος αὐτου̂ ʽΕλένην. τοι̂σι ʽΈλλησι δόξαι πρω̂τὸν πέμψαντας ἀγγέλους ἀπαιτέειν τε ʽΕλένην καὶ δίκας τη̂ς ἁρπαγη̂ς αἰτέειν. τοὺς δέ, προισομένων ταυ̂τα, προφέρειν σφι Μηδείης τὴν ἁρπαγήν. ὡς οὐ δόντες αὐτοὶ δίκας οὐδὲ ἐκδόντες ἀπαιτεόντων βουλοίατό σφι παρ' ʼάλλων δίκας γίνεσθαι. Μέχρι μὲν ʼω̂ν τούτου ἁρπαγὰς μούνας εʼι̂ναι παρ' ἀλλήλων. τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τούτου ʽΈλληνας δὴ μεγάλως αἰτίους γενέσθαι. προτέρους γὰρ ʼάρξαι στρατεύεσθαι ἐς τὴν ʼΑσίην ʼή σφέας ἐς τὴν Εὐρώπην. ʽΈλληνας δὲ Λακεδαιμονίης εʽίνεκεν γυναικὸς στόλον μέγαν συναγει̂ραι καὶ ʼέπειτα ἐλθόντας ἐς τὴν ʼΑσίην τὴν Πριάμου δύναμιν κατελει̂ν. ἀπὸ τούτου αἰεὶ ἡγήσασθαι τὸ ʽΕλληνικὸν σφίσι εʼι̂ναι πολέμιον, τὴν γὰρ ʼΑσίην καὶ τὰ ἐνοικέοντα ʼέθνεα βάρβαρα οἰκηιευ̂νται οἱ Πέρσαι, τὴν δὲ Εὐρώπην καὶ τὸ ʽΕλληνικὸν ʽήγηνται κεχωρίσθαι.

Translation

This is the exposition of the history of Herodotus, the Halicarnassian, (produced) so that neither the events be forgotten by humans in time, nor the great and wonderful deeds done by Greeks and foreigners may be without fame, and especially the reason why they fought with one another.
Then in the second generation after these things, they say that Paris, the son of Priam, having heard these things, wanted to get for himself a wife out of Greece through rapine, believing full well that he would not make amends. And so indeed he carried off Helen. It was resolved first by the Greeks that messengers that were sent should demand back Helen and request reparations. When they proposed these things, the Trojans brought up the rape of Medea, and they reminded the Greeks that they had not given satisfaction nor given what was requested but asked that reparations be given to them by others. Up to this point there were only robberies from one another. But after this (the Persians say) the Greeks became greatly blameworthy. For they began to make war against Asia before they themselves did against Europe. --- The Greeks for the sake of a Lacedaemonian woman brought together a great army and then coming to Asia destroyed the power of Priam. From this time on we have always regarded the Greeks as hostile us. The Persians claim Asia and the foreign nations living there for themselves and consider Europe and the Greeks to be separate.

Grammar

16. Nouns ending in -ηρ.

The basic relationship terms, among other nouns, end in -ηρ, and have no -ε- in the genitive and dative singular, and the dative plural. The following are examples.

    father   daughter   man
Nom. sg.   ὁ πατήρ   ἡ θυγάτηρ   ὀ ἀνήρ
Gen. sg.   του̂ πατρός   τη̂ς θυγατρός   του̂ ἀνδρός
Dat. sg.   τῳ̂ πατρί   τῃ̂ θυγατρί   τῳ̂ ανδρί
Acc. sg.   τὸν πατέρα   τη̂ν θυγατέρα   τὸν ʼάνδρα
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ πατέρες   αἱ θυγατέρες   οἱ ʼάνδρες
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν πατέρων   τω̂ν θυγατέρων   τω̂ν ἀνδρω̂ν
Dat. pl.   τοι̂ς πατράσι   ται̂ς θυγατράσι   τοι̂ς ἀνδράσι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς πατέρας   τὰς θυγατέρας   τοὺς ʼάνδρας
17. Irregular nouns.

Some of the more frequent nouns are irregular in inflection; four of them are given here.

    woman   ship   fire   Zeus
Nom. sg.   ἡ γυνή   ἡ ναυ̂ς   τὸ πυ̂ρ   Ζεύς
Gen. sg.   τη̂ς γυναικός   τη̂ς νεώς   του̂ πυρός   Διός
Dat. sg.   τῃ̂ γυναικί   τῃ̂ νηί   τῳ̂ πυρί   Διί
Acc. sg.   τη̂ν γυναι̂κα   τη̂ν ναυ̂ν   τὸ πυ̂ρ   Δία
                 
Nom. pl.   αἱ γυναι̂κες   αἱ νη̂ες   τὰ πυρά    
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν γυναικω̂ν   τω̂ν νεω̂ν   τω̂ν πυρω̂ν    
Dat. pl.   ται̂ς γυναιξί(ν)   ται̂ς ναυσί(ν)   τοι̂ς πυροι̂ς    
Acc. pl.   τὰς γυναι̂κας   τὰς ναυ̂ς   τὰ πυρά    
18. Demonstrative pronouns.

There are three demonstrative pronouns. ʽόδε, ʽήδε, τόδε points to the present or future, and corresponds to 'this,' 'this one here.' οʽύτος, αʼύτη, του̂το points to the former, and corresponds to 'that.' ἐκει̂νος, ἐκείνη, ἐκει̂νο points to things remote or absent, and corresponds to 'that there.' ʽόδε is based on the definite article. The forms of ἐκει̂νος are like those of αὐτός. The forms of ʽο̂υτος are given here.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   οʽυ̂τος   αʽύτη   του̂το
Gen. sg.   τούτου   ταύτης   τούτου
Dat. sg.   τούτῳ   ταύτῃ   τούτῳ
Acc. sg.   του̂τον   ταύτην   του̂το
             
Nom. pl.   οʽυ̂τοι   αʽυ̂ται   ταυ̂τα
Gen. pl.   τούτων   τούτων   τούτων
Dat. pl.   τούτοις   ταύταις   τούτοις
Acc. pl.   τούτους   ταύτας   ταυ̂τα
19. The uses of infinitives.

Infinitives are often used after verbs to complement their meaning, as in Iliad 18-19: δοι̂εν ... ἐκπέερσαι 'may they grant (you) to destroy...' But in this passage of Herodotus, they also correspond to finite verbs. In the first sentence of section 3, the infinitive ἐθελήσαι functions in this way to provide the verb for the noun ʼΑλέξανδρον 'Alexander wished ...' This clause corresponds to a subordinate clause after the verb λέγουσι 'they say'; relatively frequent, it is known as the Accusative with Infinitive Construction, often labeled AcI.

A further sentence simply has the infinitive with a dative indicating the subject, and in turn is followed by two two AcI constructions: τοι̂σι ʽΈλλεησι δόξαι 'it was resolved by the Greeks = the Greeks resolved.' Grammars simply label such constructions. Readers of the texts must accept their presence, and interpret them appropriately.

20. The Present system of the Middle and the Passive.

The Greek verb has a full set of Middle and Passive forms corresponding to those of the Active. In the Present System, the forms of the two Voices are the same.

When used as Middle, the forms indicate an action or situation reflecting on the subject; thus the first singular indicative παιδεύομαι means 'I educate (for my sake)'. When used as Passive, the meaning corresponds to that of passives in English, so that the Passive παιδεύομαι means 'I am (being) educated.' The forms must be interpreted from the context.

The forms of the Present System (first, second, and third person, singular and plural) are as follows:

    Indicative   Imperfect   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   παιδεύομαι   ἐπαιδευόμην   παιδεύωμαι   παιδευοίμην    
2s   παιδεύῃ   ἐπαιδεύου   παιδεύῃ   παιδεύοιο   παιδεύου
3s   παιδεύεται   ἐπαιδεύετο   παιδεύηται   παιδευοίτο   παιδευέσθω
1p   παιδευόμεθα   ἐπαιδευόμεθα   παιδευώμεθα   παιδευοίμεθα    
2p   παιδεύεσθε   ἐπαιδεύεσθε   παιδεύησθε   παιδεύοισθε   παιδεύεσθε
3p   παιδεύονται   ἐπαιδεύοντο   παιδεύωνται   παιδεύοιντο   παιδευέσθων

Infinitive:   παιδεύεσθαι
Participle:   παιδευόμενος, παιδευομένη, παιδευόμενον