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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

In Book 4 of his History, Herodotus relates the expedition of Darius against the Scythians, who were located in the western highlands of the Persian Empire. Darius set out to avenge their earlier invasion of Media. While Herodotus tells of his attempt to punish the Scythians, most of the sections of the book dealing with the Scythians describe their customs. Among these the two sections on their use of cannabis are of great interest, both for their linguistic importance and for their information about the knowledge among the Greeks of this drug. The name for the plant, probably of Scythian origin, is found not only in Greek and Latin, but also in Armenian as kanap', in Albanian as kanep, and in Church Slavonic as konoplja. Found in so many dialects, the word might be reconstructed for Indo-European but for the information given by Herodotus, especially in view of its forms in Germanic.

The forms in the Germanic languages, such as our word hemp, Old Icelandic hampr, and German Hanf include changes in consonants, k > h, b > p, that indicate the word was imported into Germanic before the first consonant shift. The time of its importation is unclear, but on the basis of the changes we may assume that the time was somewhat before our era. There are, however, problems with the assignment, since words may be modified when imported, though scarcely as completely as in the changed Germanic forms. Both for their linguistic and their cultural information, these two sections have been included from among the many of great interest in Herodotus's description of the customs of the Scythians.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Sections 74 and 75 of Book 4 are straightforward. Herodotus describes the appearance of the plant and its uses for clothing. While he mentions that he traveled by ship in the Black Sea, it is unclear whether he went north of it to the homes of the Scythians, or whether he has his information from reports by other travelers or from Scythians themselves. Whatever the basis of his information, his description of the use of the plant for achieving ecstasy and substituting for bathing, as well as the beauty preparations of the women, are clear and credible.

Ἔστι δέ σφι κάνναβις φυομένη ἐν τῇ χώρῃ πλὴν παχύτητος καὶ μεγάθεος τῷ λίνῳ ἐμφερεστάτη. # Book 4, section 74

  • ἔστι -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- there is (they have)
  • δέ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- (for them)
  • κάνναβις -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp
  • φυομένη -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle middle of <φύω> grow -- growing
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • χώρῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <χώρα> land, country -- country
  • πλὴν -- preposition; <πλήν> except -- except for
  • παχύτητος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <παχύτης> thickness -- thickness
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μεγάθεος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μεγάθης> height -- height
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • λίνῳ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <λίνον> linen -- linen
  • ἐμφερεστάτη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of superlative of <ἐμφέρης> resembling -- very much like

ταύτῃ δὲ πολλῷ ὑπερφέρει ἡ κάνναβις

  • ταύτῃ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular feminine of <οὗτος> this -- in this (respect)
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- indeed
  • πολλῷ -- adverb; dative singular neuter of <πολύς> many -- by far
  • ὑπερφέρει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ὑπερφέρω> surpass -- surpasses
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • κάνναβις -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp

αὕτη καὶ αὐτομάτη καὶ σπειρομένη φύεται, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῆς Θρήικες μὲν καὶ εἵματα ποιεῦνται τοίσι λινέοισι ὁμοιότατα·

  • αὕτη -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- both
  • αὐτομάτη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <αὐτόματος> by itself -- by itself
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σπειρομένη -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle passive of <σπείρω> sow -- sown
  • φύεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <φύω> grow -- grows
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- out of
  • αὐτῆς -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it
  • Θρήικες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Θρῆ́ιξ> Thracian -- (the) Thracians
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- and
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- even
  • εἵματα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <εἷμα> clothing -- clothing
  • ποιεῦνται -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <ποιέω> make, do -- make
  • τοίσι -- article; dative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • λινέοισι -- adjective; dative plural neuter of <λίνεος> of linen -- linen
  • ὁμοιότατα -- adjective; accusative plural neuter superlative of <ὅμοιος> like, similar -- very much like

οὐδ' ἄν ὅστις μὴ κάρτα τρίβων εἴη αὐτῆς, διαγνοίη λίνου ἢ καννάβιος ἐστί·

  • οὐδ' -- particle; <οὐδέ> not -- and...not
  • ἄν -- particle; <ἄν> if -- unless
  • ὅστις -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὅστις> whoever, whatever -- one
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- ...
  • κάρτα -- adverb; <κάρτα> very much, extremely -- very
  • τρίβων -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <τρίβω> skilled, experienced -- experienced
  • εἴη -- verb; 3rd person singular present optative of <εἰμί> I am -- were
  • αὐτῆς -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- in it
  • διαγνοίη -- verb; 3rd person singular optative aorist of <διαγιγνώσκω> discern, distinguish -- he would discern
  • λίνου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <λίνον> linen -- linen
  • -- conjunction; <> or, than -- or
  • καννάβιος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp
  • ἐστί -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- (whether) it is

ὅς δὲ μὴ εἶδέ κώ τὴν κανναβίδα, λίνεον δοκήσει εἶναι τὸ εἷμα.

  • ὅς -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- he who
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • εἶδέ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εἶδον> saw -- has seen
  • κώ -- adverb; <κώ> yet -- yet
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • κανναβίδα -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp clothing
  • λίνεον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <λίνεος> of linen -- of linen
  • δοκήσει -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <δοκέω> seem, think -- will think
  • εἶναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- (it) is
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • εἷμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <εἷμα> clothing -- clothing

Ταύτης ὦν οἱ Σκύθαι τῆς καννάβιος τὸ σπέρμα ἐπεὰν λάβωσι, ὑποδύνουσι ὑπὸ τοὺς πῖλους, καὶ ἔπειτα ἐπιβάλλουσι τὸ σπέρμα ἐπὶ τοὺς διαφανέας λίθους τῷ πυρί· # Book 4, section 75

  • ταύτης -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <οὗτος> this -- of this
  • ὦν -- adverb; <ὦν> indeed -- indeed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • Σκύθαι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Σκύθης> Scythian -- Scythians
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • καννάβιος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • σπέρμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σπέρμα> seed -- seed
  • ἐπεὰν -- conjunction; <ἐπεάν> when, after -- after
  • λάβωσι -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <λαμβάνω> receive, capture -- take
  • ὑποδύνουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ὑποδύω> go under -- (and) they go (under)
  • ὑπὸ -- preposition; <ὑπό> under, by -- under
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • πῖλους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <πῖλος> mat -- mats
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔπειτα -- adverb; <ἔπειτα> thereupon -- then
  • ἐπιβάλλουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἐπιβάλλω> throw on -- they throw
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • σπέρμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σπέρμα> seed -- seed
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • διαφανέας -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <διαφανής> transparent, red-hot -- red-hot
  • λίθους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <λίθος> stone -- stones
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <> the -- with the
  • πυρί -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <πῦρ> fire -- fire

τὸ δὲ θυμιᾶται ἐπιβαλλόμενον καὶ ἀτμίδα παρέχεται τοσαύτην ὥστε Ἑλληνικὴ οὐδεμία ἄν μιν πυρίη ἀποκρατήσειε.

  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <> the -- it
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • θυμιᾶται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <θυμιάω> burn with smoke -- burn with smoke
  • ἐπιβαλλόμενον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle passive of <ἐπιβάλλω> throw on -- (so) thrown
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀτμίδα -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἀτμίς> steam, vapor -- vapor
  • παρέχεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <παρέχω> provide -- it produces
  • τοσαύτην -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <τοσοῦτος> such -- such
  • ὥστε -- adverbial conjunction; <ὥστε> like, so that -- that
  • Ἑλληνικὴ -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <Ἑλληνικός> Greek -- Greek
  • οὐδεμία -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no
  • ἄν -- particle; <ἄν> if -- ...
  • μιν -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <μιν> it -- it
  • πυρίη -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <πυρίη> vapor bath -- vapor bath
  • ἀποκρατήσειε -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist optative of <ἀποκρατέω> exceed -- might exceed

οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι ἀγάμενοι τῇ πυρίῃ ὠρύονται.

  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • Σκύθαι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Σκύθης> Scythian -- Scythians
  • ἀγάμενοι -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle middle of <ἄγαμαι> to wonder, admire -- delighted
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- by the
  • πυρίῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <πυρίη> vapor bath -- vapor bath
  • ὠρύονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <ὠρύομαι> howl -- howl

τοῦτό σφι ἀντὶ λουτροῦ ἐστι.

  • τοῦτό -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- for them
  • ἀντὶ -- preposition; <ἀντί> instead of -- instead of
  • λουτροῦ -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <λουτρόν> bathing -- bathing
  • ἐστι -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is (done)

οὐ γὰρ δὴ λούονται ὕδατι τὸ παράπαν τὸ σῶμα.

  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • λούονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <λούομαι> wash oneself -- they wash
  • ὕδατι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <ὕδωρ> water -- in water
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • παράπαν -- adverb; <παράπαν> absolutely -- at all
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- their
  • σῶμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σῶμα> body -- body

αἱ δὲ γυναῖκες αὐτῶν ὕδωρ παραχέουσαι κατασώχουσι περὶ λίθον τρηχὺν τῆς κυπαρίσσου καὶ κέδρου καὶ λιβάνου ξύλου, καὶ ἔπειτα τὸ κατασωχόμενον τοῦτο παχὺ ἐὸν καταπλάσσονται πᾶν τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον·

  • αἱ -- article; nominative plural feminine of <> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- on the other hand
  • γυναῖκες -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <γυνή> woman -- women
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their
  • ὕδωρ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ὕδωρ> water -- water
  • παραχέουσαι -- verb; nominative plural feminine of present participle of <παραχέω> pour in -- pouring in
  • κατασώχουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <κατασώχω> rub in pieces -- rub
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- around
  • λίθον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίθος> stone -- stone
  • τρηχὺν -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <τρηχύς> rough -- a rough
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- of the
  • κυπαρίσσου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <κυπαρίσσος> cypress -- cypress
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • κέδρου -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κέδρος> cedar -- cedar
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λιβάνου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <λίβανος> frankincense, frankincense tree -- frankincense tree
  • ξύλου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ξύλον> wood -- wood
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔπειτα -- adverb; <ἔπειτα> thereupon -- then
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • κατασωχόμενον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle middle of <κατασώχω> rub in pieces -- rubbed (matter)
  • τοῦτο -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • παχὺ -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <παχύς> thick -- thick
  • ἐὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ἐός> his, her -- their
  • καταπλάσσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <καταπλάσσω> plaster over -- they plaster over
  • πᾶν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πᾶς> all, every -- entire
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- ...
  • σῶμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σῶμα> body -- body
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- ...
  • πρόσωπον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πρόσωπον> face -- face

καὶ ἅμα μὲν εὐωδίη σφέας ἀπὸ τούτου ἴσχει, ἅμα δὲ ἀπαιρέουσαι τῇ δευτέρῃ ἡμέρῃ τὴν καταπλαστὺν γίνονται καθαραὶ καὶ λαμπραί.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἅμα -- adverb; <ἅμα> at the same time -- at the same time
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- on the one hand
  • εὐωδίη -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <εὐωδίη> fragrant scent -- a fragrant scent
  • σφέας -- reflexive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σφεῖς> they -- them
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οὗτος> this -- this
  • ἴσχει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ἴσχω> stay -- remains
  • ἅμα -- adverb; <ἅμα> at the same time -- and at the same time
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- on the other hand
  • ἀπαιρέουσαι -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle of <ἀπαιρέω> take off -- (when they) remove
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- their
  • δευτέρῃ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <δεύτερος> second -- on the second
  • ἡμέρῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἡμέρα> day -- day
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • καταπλαστὺν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <καταπλαστύς> plaster -- ointment
  • γίνονται -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- they become
  • καθαραὶ -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <καθαρός> clean, pure -- clean
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λαμπραί -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <λαμπρός> shiny -- shining (in appearance)

Lesson Text

Ἔστι δέ σφι κάνναβις φυομένη ἐν τῇ χώρῃ πλὴν παχύτητος καὶ μεγάθεος τῷ λίνῳ ἐμφερεστάτη. ταύτῃ δὲ πολλῷ ὑπερφέρει ἡ κάνναβις αὕτη καὶ αὐτομάτη καὶ σπειρομένη φύεται, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῆς Θρήικες μὲν καὶ εἵματα ποιεῦνται τοίσι λινέοισι ὁμοιότατα· οὐδ' ἄν ὅστις μὴ κάρτα τρίβων εἴη αὐτῆς, διαγνοίη λίνου ἢ καννάβιος ἐστί· ὅς δὲ μὴ εἶδέ κώ τὴν κανναβίδα, λίνεον δοκήσει εἶναι τὸ εἷμα. Ταύτης ὦν οἱ Σκύθαι τῆς καννάβιος τὸ σπέρμα ἐπεὰν λάβωσι, ὑποδύνουσι ὑπὸ τοὺς πῖλους, καὶ ἔπειτα ἐπιβάλλουσι τὸ σπέρμα ἐπὶ τοὺς διαφανέας λίθους τῷ πυρί· τὸ δὲ θυμιᾶται ἐπιβαλλόμενον καὶ ἀτμίδα παρέχεται τοσαύτην ὥστε Ἑλληνικὴ οὐδεμία ἄν μιν πυρίη ἀποκρατήσειε. οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι ἀγάμενοι τῇ πυρίῃ ὠρύονται. τοῦτό σφι ἀντὶ λουτροῦ ἐστι. οὐ γὰρ δὴ λούονται ὕδατι τὸ παράπαν τὸ σῶμα. αἱ δὲ γυναῖκες αὐτῶν ὕδωρ παραχέουσαι κατασώχουσι περὶ λίθον τρηχὺν τῆς κυπαρίσσου καὶ κέδρου καὶ λιβάνου ξύλου, καὶ ἔπειτα τὸ κατασωχόμενον τοῦτο παχὺ ἐὸν καταπλάσσονται πᾶν τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον· καὶ ἅμα μὲν εὐωδίη σφέας ἀπὸ τούτου ἴσχει, ἅμα δὲ ἀπαιρέουσαι τῇ δευτέρῃ ἡμέρῃ τὴν καταπλαστὺν γίνονται καθαραὶ καὶ λαμπραί.

Translation

They have hemp growing in their country, very much like flax except for thickness and height. In this respect the hemp surpasses flax by far. This grows by itself and sown, and out of it the Thracians even make clothing very much like linen. And unless anyone were very experienced in it, he would not discern whether it is linen or hemp. But he who has not yet seen hemp clothing will think the clothing is linen.
Now the Scythians take the seed of the hemp and they go under their mats and then they throw the seed on the red-hot stones in the fire. So thrown it smoulders, and it produces such vapor that no Greek vapor bath might exceed it. And delighted by the vapor bath, the Scythians howl. This is done by them instead of bathing. But their women pound around a rough stone cypress and cedar and frankincense wood, pouring in water, and then they plaster this thick rubbed matter over their entire body and face. A fragrant scent remains on them from this, and at the same time when they remove the ointment on the second day they become clean and shining in appearance.

Grammar

21. Consonant stems ending in dentals.

In these stems the consonant is dropped in the nominative singular, as well as in the accusative singular of neuters, and in the dative plural.

    'foot'   'body'
Nom. sg.   ὁ πούς   τὸ σῶμα
Gen. sg.   τοῦ ποδός   τοῦ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῷ ποδί   τῷ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τὸν ποδά   τὸ σῶμα
         
Nom. pl.   οἱ ποδές   τὰ σώματα
Gen. pl.   τῶν ποδῶν   τῶν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοῖς ποσί   τοῖς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς ποδάς   τὰ σώματα
22. Comparison of adjectives.

In most adjectives comparison is expressed by -τερος in the comparative degree, by -τατος in the superlative degree. The forms then are inflected in accordance with the ο- and α-declensions. Examples in this text are ἐμφερεστάτη and ὁμοιότατα. Some of the common adjectives on the other hand are irregular, for example, κακός 'bad'; κακίων, κάκιστος. Their forms will be listed in dictionaries.

23. Interrogative and indefinite pronouns.

These are declined as follows:

    Interrogative   Indefinite
    Masc/Fem   Neut | Masc/Fem   Neut
    'who'   'what' | 'someone'   'something'
Nom. sg.   τίς   τί | τις   τι
Gen. sg.   τίνος   τίνος | τινός   τινός
Dat. sg.   τίνι   τίνι | τινί   τινί
Acc. sg.   τίνα   τί | τινα   τι
                 
Nom. pl.   τίνες   τίνα | τινες   τινα
Gen. pl.   τίνων   τίνων | τινῶν   τινῶν
Dat. pl.   τίσι(ν)   τίσι(ν) | τισί(ν)   τισί(ν)
Acc. pl.   τίνας   τίνα | τινας   τινα

    Indefinite
    Masc   Fem   Neut
    'who(ever)'   'who(ever)'   'what(ever)'
Nom. sg.   ὄστις   ἥτις   ὅτι
Gen. sg.   ὅτου   ἧστινος   ὅτου
Dat. sg.   ᾧτινι   ᾗτινι   ᾧτινι
Acc. sg.   ὅντινα   ἥντινα   ὅτι
             
Nom. pl.   οἵτινες   αἵτινες   ἅτινα
Gen. pl.   ὥντινων   ὥντινων   ὥντινων
Dat. pl.   οἵστισι   αἷστισι   οἷστισι
Acc. pl.   οὕστινας   ἅστινας   ἅτινα
24. The middle and passive voices.

In the present system the forms of the middle (expressing action for one's own sake) and the passive (expressing action directed at the subject) are the same. The forms for the indicative and the imperfect are as follows.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   παιδεύομαι   ἐπαιδευόμην
2 sg   παιδεύῃ   ἐπαιδεύου
3 sg   παιδεύεται   ἐπαιδεύετο
         
1 pl   παιδεύομεθα   ἐπαιδευόμεθα
2 pl   παιδεύεσθε   ἐπαιδεύεσθε
3 pl   παιδεύονται   ἐπαιδεύονται
25. The subjunctive, optative, and imperative middle and passive forms, the infinitive and participle.

While these forms are not frequent, they are given here so that, if found, they may be recognized. The participial forms, on the other hand, are relatively frequent, as in this text, where a number of them occur, such as φυομένη, ἐπιβαλλόμενον, ἀγάμενοι.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   παιδεύωμαι   παιαδευοίμην    
2s   παιδεύῃ   παιδεύοιο   παιδευέσθω
3s   παιδεύηται   παιδεύοιτο   παιδεύεσθω
             
1p   παιδευοώμεθα   παιδευοίμεθα    
2p   παιδεύησθε   παιδεύοισθε   παιδεύεσθε
3p   παιδεύωνται   παιδεύοιντο   παιδευέσθων

Infinitive:   παιδεύεσθαι
Participle:   παιδευόμενος, παιδευομένη, παιδευόμενον