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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

In Book 4 of his History, Herodotus relates the expedition of Darius against the Scythians, who were located in the western highlands of the Persian Empire. Darius set out to avenge their earlier invasion of Media. While Herodotus tells of his attempt to punish the Scythians, most of the sections of the book dealing with the Scythians describe their customs. Among these the two sections on their use of cannabis are of great interest, both for their linguistic importance and for their information about the knowledge among the Greeks of this drug. The name for the plant, probably of Scythian origin, is found not only in Greek and Latin, but also in Armenian as kanap', in Albanian as kanep, and in Church Slavonic as konoplja. Found in so many dialects, the word might be reconstructed for Indo-European but for the information given by Herodotus, especially in view of its forms in Germanic.

The forms in the Germanic languages, such as our word hemp, Old Icelandic hampr, and German Hanf include changes in consonants, k > h, b > p, that indicate the word was imported into Germanic before the first consonant shift. The time of its importation is unclear, but on the basis of the changes we may assume that the time was somewhat before our era. There are, however, problems with the assignment, since words may be modified when imported, though scarcely as completely as in the changed Germanic forms. Both for their linguistic and their cultural information, these two sections have been included from among the many of great interest in Herodotus's description of the customs of the Scythians.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Sections 74 and 75 of Book 4 are straightforward. Herodotus describes the appearance of the plant and its uses for clothing. While he mentions that he traveled by ship in the Black Sea, it is unclear whether he went north of it to the homes of the Scythians, or whether he has his information from reports by other travelers or from Scythians themselves. Whatever the basis of his information, his description of the use of the plant for achieving ecstasy and substituting for bathing, as well as the beauty preparations of the women, are clear and credible.

ʼΈστι δέ σφι κάνναβις φυομένη ἐν τῃ̂ χώρῃ πλὴν παχύτητος καὶ μεγάθεος τῳ̂ λίνῳ ἐμφερεστάτη. # Book 4, section 74

  • ʼέστι -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- there is (they have)
  • δέ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- (for them)
  • κάνναβις -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp
  • φυομένη -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle middle of <φύω> grow -- growing
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • χώρῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <χώρα> land, country -- country
  • πλὴν -- preposition; <πλήν> except -- except for
  • παχύτητος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <παχύτης> thickness -- thickness
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μεγάθεος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μεγάθης> height -- height
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • λίνῳ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <λίνον> linen -- linen
  • ἐμφερεστάτη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of superlative of <ἐμφέρης> resembling -- very much like

ταύτῃ δὲ πολλῳ̂ ὑπερφέρει ἡ κάνναβις

  • ταύτῃ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular feminine of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- in this (respect)
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- indeed
  • πολλῳ̂ -- adverb; dative singular neuter of <πολύς> many -- by far
  • ὑπερφέρει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ὑπερφέρω> surpass -- surpasses
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κάνναβις -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp

αʽύτη καὶ αὐτομάτη καὶ σπειρομένη φύεται, καὶ ἐξ αὐτη̂ς Θρήικες μὲν καὶ εʽίματα ποιευ̂νται τοίσι λινέοισι ὁμοιότατα·

  • αʽύτη -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- both
  • αὐτομάτη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <αὐτόματος> by itself -- by itself
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σπειρομένη -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle passive of <σπείρω> sow -- sown
  • φύεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <φύω> grow -- grows
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- out of
  • αὐτη̂ς -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it
  • Θρήικες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Θρη̂́ιξ> Thracian -- (the) Thracians
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- and
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- even
  • εʽίματα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <εʽι̂μα> clothing -- clothing
  • ποιευ̂νται -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <ποιέω> make, do -- make
  • τοίσι -- article; dative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • λινέοισι -- adjective; dative plural neuter of <λίνεος> of linen -- linen
  • ὁμοιότατα -- adjective; accusative plural neuter superlative of <ʽόμοιος> like, similar -- very much like

οὐδ' ʼάν ʽόστις μὴ κάρτα τρίβων εʼίη αὐτη̂ς, διαγνοίη λίνου ʼὴ καννάβιος ἐστί·

  • οὐδ' -- particle; <οὐδέ> not -- and...not
  • ʼάν -- particle; <ʼάν> if -- unless
  • ʽόστις -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ʽόστις> whoever, whatever -- one
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- ...
  • κάρτα -- adverb; <κάρτα> very much, extremely -- very
  • τρίβων -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <τρίβω> skilled, experienced -- experienced
  • εʼίη -- verb; 3rd person singular present optative of <εἰμί> I am -- were
  • αὐτη̂ς -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- in it
  • διαγνοίη -- verb; 3rd person singular optative aorist of <διαγιγνώσκω> discern, distinguish -- he would discern
  • λίνου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <λίνον> linen -- linen
  • ʼὴ -- conjunction; <ʼή> or, than -- or
  • καννάβιος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp
  • ἐστί -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- (whether) it is

ʽός δὲ μὴ εʼι̂δέ κώ τὴν κανναβίδα, λίνεον δοκήσει εʼι̂ναι τὸ εʽι̂μα.

  • ʽός -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ʽός> who, which -- he who
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • εʼι̂δέ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εʼι̂δον> saw -- has seen
  • κώ -- adverb; <κώ> yet -- yet
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κανναβίδα -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp clothing
  • λίνεον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <λίνεος> of linen -- of linen
  • δοκήσει -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <δοκέω> seem, think -- will think
  • εʼι̂ναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- (it) is
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • εʽι̂μα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <εʽι̂μα> clothing -- clothing

Ταύτης ʼω̂ν οἱ Σκύθαι τη̂ς καννάβιος τὸ σπέρμα ἐπεὰν λάβωσι, ὑποδύνουσι ὑπὸ τοὺς πι̂λους, καὶ ʼέπειτα ἐπιβάλλουσι τὸ σπέρμα ἐπὶ τοὺς διαφανέας λίθους τῳ̂ πυρί· # Book 4, section 75

  • ταύτης -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- of this
  • ʼω̂ν -- adverb; <ʼω̂ν> indeed -- indeed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • Σκύθαι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Σκύθης> Scythian -- Scythians
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • καννάβιος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κάνναβις> hemp -- hemp
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • σπέρμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σπέρμα> seed -- seed
  • ἐπεὰν -- conjunction; <ἐπεάν> when, after -- after
  • λάβωσι -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <λαμβάνω> receive, capture -- take
  • ὑποδύνουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ὑποδύω> go under -- (and) they go (under)
  • ὑπὸ -- preposition; <ὑπό> under, by -- under
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πι̂λους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <πι̂λος> mat -- mats
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼέπειτα -- adverb; <ʼέπειτα> thereupon -- then
  • ἐπιβάλλουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἐπιβάλλω> throw on -- they throw
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • σπέρμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σπέρμα> seed -- seed
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διαφανέας -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <διαφανής> transparent, red-hot -- red-hot
  • λίθους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <λίθος> stone -- stones
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- with the
  • πυρί -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <πυ̂ρ> fire -- fire

τὸ δὲ θυμια̂ται ἐπιβαλλόμενον καὶ ἀτμίδα παρέχεται τοσαύτην ʽώστε ʽΕλληνικὴ οὐδεμία ʼάν μιν πυρίη ἀποκρατήσειε.

  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- it
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • θυμια̂ται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <θυμιάω> burn with smoke -- burn with smoke
  • ἐπιβαλλόμενον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle passive of <ἐπιβάλλω> throw on -- (so) thrown
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀτμίδα -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἀτμίς> steam, vapor -- vapor
  • παρέχεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <παρέχω> provide -- it produces
  • τοσαύτην -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <τοσου̂τος> such -- such
  • ʽώστε -- adverbial conjunction; <ʽώστε> like, so that -- that
  • ʽΕλληνικὴ -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <ʽΕλληνικός> Greek -- Greek
  • οὐδεμία -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no
  • ʼάν -- particle; <ʼάν> if -- ...
  • μιν -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <μιν> it -- it
  • πυρίη -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <πυρίη> vapor bath -- vapor bath
  • ἀποκρατήσειε -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist optative of <ἀποκρατέω> exceed -- might exceed

οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι ἀγάμενοι τῃ̂ πυρίῃ ὠρύονται.

  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • Σκύθαι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Σκύθης> Scythian -- Scythians
  • ἀγάμενοι -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle middle of <ʼάγαμαι> to wonder, admire -- delighted
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- by the
  • πυρίῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <πυρίη> vapor bath -- vapor bath
  • ὠρύονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <ὠρύομαι> howl -- howl

του̂τό σφι ἀντὶ λουτρου̂ ἐστι.

  • του̂τό -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this
  • σφι -- reflexive pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- for them
  • ἀντὶ -- preposition; <ἀντί> instead of -- instead of
  • λουτρου̂ -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <λουτρόν> bathing -- bathing
  • ἐστι -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is (done)

οὐ γὰρ δὴ λούονται ʽύδατι τὸ παράπαν τὸ σω̂μα.

  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • λούονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <λούομαι> wash oneself -- they wash
  • ʽύδατι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <ʽύδωρ> water -- in water
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παράπαν -- adverb; <παράπαν> absolutely -- at all
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- their
  • σω̂μα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σω̂μα> body -- body

αἱ δὲ γυναι̂κες αὐτω̂ν ʽύδωρ παραχέουσαι κατασώχουσι περὶ λίθον τρηχὺν τη̂ς κυπαρίσσου καὶ κέδρου καὶ λιβάνου ξύλου, καὶ ʼέπειτα τὸ κατασωχόμενον του̂το παχὺ ἐὸν καταπλάσσονται πα̂ν τὸ σω̂μα καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον·

  • αἱ -- article; nominative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- on the other hand
  • γυναι̂κες -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <γυνή> woman -- women
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their
  • ʽύδωρ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ʽύδωρ> water -- water
  • παραχέουσαι -- verb; nominative plural feminine of present participle of <παραχέω> pour in -- pouring in
  • κατασώχουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <κατασώχω> rub in pieces -- rub
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- around
  • λίθον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίθος> stone -- stone
  • τρηχὺν -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <τρηχύς> rough -- a rough
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • κυπαρίσσου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <κυπαρίσσος> cypress -- cypress
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • κέδρου -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κέδρος> cedar -- cedar
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λιβάνου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <λίβανος> frankincense, frankincense tree -- frankincense tree
  • ξύλου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ξύλον> wood -- wood
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼέπειτα -- adverb; <ʼέπειτα> thereupon -- then
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κατασωχόμενον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle middle of <κατασώχω> rub in pieces -- rubbed (matter)
  • του̂το -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this
  • παχὺ -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <παχύς> thick -- thick
  • ἐὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ἐός> his, her -- their
  • καταπλάσσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <καταπλάσσω> plaster over -- they plaster over
  • πα̂ν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πα̂ς> all, every -- entire
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • σω̂μα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σω̂μα> body -- body
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πρόσωπον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πρόσωπον> face -- face

καὶ ʽάμα μὲν εὐωδίη σφέας ἀπὸ τούτου ʼίσχει, ʽάμα δὲ ἀπαιρέουσαι τῃ̂ δευτέρῃ ἡμέρῃ τὴν καταπλαστὺν γίνονται καθαραὶ καὶ λαμπραί.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʽάμα -- adverb; <ʽάμα> at the same time -- at the same time
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- on the one hand
  • εὐωδίη -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <εὐωδίη> fragrant scent -- a fragrant scent
  • σφέας -- reflexive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σφει̂ς> they -- them
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • τούτου -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this
  • ʼίσχει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ʼίσχω> stay -- remains
  • ʽάμα -- adverb; <ʽάμα> at the same time -- and at the same time
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- on the other hand
  • ἀπαιρέουσαι -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle of <ἀπαιρέω> take off -- (when they) remove
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- their
  • δευτέρῃ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <δεύτερος> second -- on the second
  • ἡμέρῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἡμέρα> day -- day
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • καταπλαστὺν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <καταπλαστύς> plaster -- ointment
  • γίνονται -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- they become
  • καθαραὶ -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <καθαρός> clean, pure -- clean
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λαμπραί -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <λαμπρός> shiny -- shining (in appearance)

Lesson Text

ʼΈστι δέ σφι κάνναβις φυομένη ἐν τῃ̂ χώρῃ πλὴν παχύτητος καὶ μεγάθεος τῳ̂ λίνῳ ἐμφερεστάτη. ταύτῃ δὲ πολλῳ̂ ὑπερφέρει ἡ κάνναβις αʽύτη καὶ αὐτομάτη καὶ σπειρομένη φύεται, καὶ ἐξ αὐτη̂ς Θρήικες μὲν καὶ εʽίματα ποιευ̂νται τοίσι λινέοισι ὁμοιότατα· οὐδ' ʼάν ʽόστις μὴ κάρτα τρίβων εʼίη αὐτη̂ς, διαγνοίη λίνου ʼὴ καννάβιος ἐστί· ʽός δὲ μὴ εʼι̂δέ κώ τὴν κανναβίδα, λίνεον δοκήσει εʼι̂ναι τὸ εʽι̂μα. Ταύτης ʼω̂ν οἱ Σκύθαι τη̂ς καννάβιος τὸ σπέρμα ἐπεὰν λάβωσι, ὑποδύνουσι ὑπὸ τοὺς πι̂λους, καὶ ʼέπειτα ἐπιβάλλουσι τὸ σπέρμα ἐπὶ τοὺς διαφανέας λίθους τῳ̂ πυρί· τὸ δὲ θυμια̂ται ἐπιβαλλόμενον καὶ ἀτμίδα παρέχεται τοσαύτην ʽώστε ʽΕλληνικὴ οὐδεμία ʼάν μιν πυρίη ἀποκρατήσειε. οἱ δὲ Σκύθαι ἀγάμενοι τῃ̂ πυρίῃ ὠρύονται. του̂τό σφι ἀντὶ λουτρου̂ ἐστι. οὐ γὰρ δὴ λούονται ʽύδατι τὸ παράπαν τὸ σω̂μα. αἱ δὲ γυναι̂κες αὐτω̂ν ʽύδωρ παραχέουσαι κατασώχουσι περὶ λίθον τρηχὺν τη̂ς κυπαρίσσου καὶ κέδρου καὶ λιβάνου ξύλου, καὶ ʼέπειτα τὸ κατασωχόμενον του̂το παχὺ ἐὸν καταπλάσσονται πα̂ν τὸ σω̂μα καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον· καὶ ʽάμα μὲν εὐωδίη σφέας ἀπὸ τούτου ʼίσχει, ʽάμα δὲ ἀπαιρέουσαι τῃ̂ δευτέρῃ ἡμέρῃ τὴν καταπλαστὺν γίνονται καθαραὶ καὶ λαμπραί.

Translation

They have hemp growing in their country, very much like flax except for thickness and height. In this respect the hemp surpasses flax by far. This grows by itself and sown, and out of it the Thracians even make clothing very much like linen. And unless anyone were very experienced in it, he would not discern whether it is linen or hemp. But he who has not yet seen hemp clothing will think the clothing is linen.
Now the Scythians take the seed of the hemp and they go under their mats and then they throw the seed on the red-hot stones in the fire. So thrown it smoulders, and it produces such vapor that no Greek vapor bath might exceed it. And delighted by the vapor bath, the Scythians howl. This is done by them instead of bathing. But their women pound around a rough stone cypress and cedar and frankincense wood, pouring in water, and then they plaster this thick rubbed matter over their entire body and face. A fragrant scent remains on them from this, and at the same time when they remove the ointment on the second day they become clean and shining in appearance.

Grammar

21. Consonant stems ending in dentals.

In these stems the consonant is dropped in the nominative singular, as well as in the accusative singular of neuters, and in the dative plural.

    'foot'   'body'
Nom. sg.   ὁ πούς   τὸ σω̂μα
Gen. sg.   του̂ ποδός   του̂ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῳ̂ ποδί   τῳ̂ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τὸν ποδά   τὸ σω̂μα
         
Nom. pl.   οἱ ποδές   τὰ σώματα
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν ποδω̂ν   τω̂ν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοι̂ς ποσί   τοι̂ς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς ποδάς   τὰ σώματα
22. Comparison of adjectives.

In most adjectives comparison is expressed by -τερος in the comparative degree, by -τατος in the superlative degree. The forms then are inflected in accordance with the ο- and α-declensions. Examples in this text are ἐμφερεστάτη and ὁμοιότατα. Some of the common adjectives on the other hand are irregular, for example, κακός 'bad'; κακίων, κάκιστος. Their forms will be listed in dictionaries.

23. Interrogative and indefinite pronouns.

These are declined as follows:

    Interrogative   Indefinite
    Masc/Fem   Neut | Masc/Fem   Neut
    'who'   'what' | 'someone'   'something'
Nom. sg.   τίς   τί | τις   τι
Gen. sg.   τίνος   τίνος | τινός   τινός
Dat. sg.   τίνι   τίνι | τινί   τινί
Acc. sg.   τίνα   τί | τινα   τι
                 
Nom. pl.   τίνες   τίνα | τινες   τινα
Gen. pl.   τίνων   τίνων | τινω̂ν   τινω̂ν
Dat. pl.   τίσι(ν)   τίσι(ν) | τισί(ν)   τισί(ν)
Acc. pl.   τίνας   τίνα | τινας   τινα

    Indefinite
    Masc   Fem   Neut
    'who(ever)'   'who(ever)'   'what(ever)'
Nom. sg.   ʼόστις   ʽήτις   ʽότι
Gen. sg.   ʽότου   ʽη̂στινος   ʽότου
Dat. sg.   ʽῳ̂τινι   ʽῃ̂τινι   ʽῳ̂τινι
Acc. sg.   ʽόντινα   ʽήντινα   ʽότι
             
Nom. pl.   οʽίτινες   αʽίτινες   ʽάτινα
Gen. pl.   ʽώντινων   ʽώντινων   ʽώντινων
Dat. pl.   οʽίστισι   αʽι̂στισι   οʽι̂στισι
Acc. pl.   οʽύστινας   ʽάστινας   ʽάτινα
24. The middle and passive voices.

In the present system the forms of the middle (expressing action for one's own sake) and the passive (expressing action directed at the subject) are the same. The forms for the indicative and the imperfect are as follows.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   παιδεύομαι   ἐπαιδευόμην
2 sg   παιδεύῃ   ἐπαιδεύου
3 sg   παιδεύεται   ἐπαιδεύετο
         
1 pl   παιδεύομεθα   ἐπαιδευόμεθα
2 pl   παιδεύεσθε   ἐπαιδεύεσθε
3 pl   παιδεύονται   ἐπαιδεύονται
25. The subjunctive, optative, and imperative middle and passive forms, the infinitive and participle.

While these forms are not frequent, they are given here so that, if found, they may be recognized. The participial forms, on the other hand, are relatively frequent, as in this text, where a number of them occur, such as φυομένη, ἐπιβαλλόμενον, ἀγάμενοι.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   παιδεύωμαι   παιαδευοίμην    
2s   παιδεύῃ   παιδεύοιο   παιδευέσθω
3s   παιδεύηται   παιδεύοιτο   παιδεύεσθω
             
1p   παιδευοώμεθα   παιδευοίμεθα    
2p   παιδεύησθε   παιδεύοισθε   παιδεύεσθε
3p   παιδεύωνται   παιδεύοιντο   παιδευέσθων

Infinitive:   παιδεύεσθαι
Participle:   παιδευόμενος, παιδευομένη, παιδευόμενον