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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Xenophon was born about 444 BC, and is said to have lived 90 years. He was a student of Socrates, and wrote the Memorabilia of Socrates to clear him from the charge of irreligion and corruption of the young men of Athens. Banished about the time of Socrates' death in 399, he served variously in military activities, and in 394 BC settled near Olympus, where he remained for twenty years. He then is said to have lived in Corinth, but there is no definite information about that part of his life until his death. In addition to the Anabasis, he wrote the Cyropaedia, a fanciful account of Cyrus the Elder. He is acclaimed for his simple and straightforward style. When Greek was taught for six years in High School and College, the Anabasis was the first long work read by students.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Xenophon's Anabasis is the account of the Greek army's retreat along the Tigris and through the high country of Armenia to Trapezus, and from there to Byzantium. The army had been assisting Cyrus in his attempt to gain the Persian throne after the death of his father Darius, king of Persia from 424-405 BC. His older brother, Artaxerxes, then assumed the throne. Cyrus, known as the Younger to distinguish him from the Elder (d. 529 BC), had been appointed by his father, Darius, to be commander of the maritime parts of Asia Minor. When his brother became king in 404 BC, Cyrus decided to overthrow him. He set out from Sardis in 401 BC with an army that included 13,000 Greek mercenaries. In the plain of Cunaxa, about 60 miles from Babylon, he met the king's army. His troops were victorious, but he himself was killed. The Greek army then set out to escape to the north, after most of their generals were treacherously murdered. Xenophon had been with the army as an observer, but now was elected as one of the generals and became effectively leader of the army. Approximately half of the Anabasis consists of the report of the retreat to the sea; the rest of it deals with the continued effort to go by sea to Byzantium. This episode was selected because of its account of the joy of the Greeks on their escape from their enemies.

aphiknountai epi to oros tê pemptê hêmera.

  • aphiknountai -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <aphikneomai> come to, reach -- they reach
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- to
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • oros -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <oros> mountain -- mountain
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- on the
  • pemptê -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <pemptos> fifth -- fifth
  • hêmera -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <hêmera> day -- day

onoma de tô orei ên Thêchês.

  • onoma -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <onoma> name -- (the) name
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • -- article; dative singular neuter of <ho> the -- for the
  • orei -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <oros> mountain -- mountain
  • ên -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <eimi> I am -- was
  • Thêchês -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Thêchês> Theches -- Theches

epei de hoi prôtoi egenonto epi tou orous, kraugê pollê egeneto.

  • epei -- conjunction; <epei> when, after -- when
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • prôtoi -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <prôtos> first -- first
  • egenonto -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <gignomai> happen, become -- arrived
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • tou -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • orous -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <oros> mountain -- mountain
  • kraugê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <kraugê> shout -- shout
  • pollê -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <polus> many -- great
  • egeneto -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <gignomai> happen, become -- went up

akousas de ho Xenophôn kai hoi opisthophulakes ôêthêsan emprosthen allous epitithesthai polemious.

  • akousas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <akouô> hear, listen -- having heard
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Xenophôn -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Xenophôn> Xenophon -- Xenophon
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • opisthophulakes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <opisthophulax> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • ôêthêsan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <oiomai> think, imagine -- thought
  • emprosthen -- adverb; <emprosthen> before, in front -- in front
  • allous -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <allos> other -- other
  • epitithesthai -- verb; infinitive aorist middle of <epitithêmi> attack -- were attacking
  • polemious -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <polemios> enemy -- enemies

heiponto gar opisthen ek tês kaiomenês chôras, kai autôn hoi opisthophulakes apekteinan te tinas kai ezôgrêsan enedran poiêsamenoi, kai gerra elabon daseiôn boôn ômoboeia amphi ta eikosin.

  • heiponto -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <hepomai> follow -- were following
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • opisthen -- adverb; <opisthen> behind -- behind
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- from
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • kaiomenês -- verb; genitive singular feminine of participle middle of <kaiô> burn -- burning
  • chôras -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <chôra> land, country -- area
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- of them
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • opisthophulakes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <opisthophulax> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • apekteinan -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <apokteinô> kill -- killed
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- and
  • tinas -- indefinite pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <tis> someone, something -- some
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ezôgrêsan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <zôgreô> capture alive -- captured alive
  • enedran -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <enedra> ambush -- an ambush
  • poiêsamenoi -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist middle participle of <poieô> make, do -- by arranging
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • gerra -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <gerron> ox-hide wicker shield -- ox-hide wicker shields
  • elabon -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <lambanô> receive, capture -- had captured
  • daseiôn -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <dasus> hairy, shaggy -- shaggy
  • boôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <bous> cow, ox -- of oxen
  • ômoboeia -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <ômoboeios> of raw, untanned oxhide -- raw oxhide
  • amphi -- preposition; <amphi> around, between -- about
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • eikosin -- number; accusative plural neuter of <eikosi> twenty -- twenty

epeidê de boê pleiôn te egigneto kai egguteron kai hoi aei epiontes etheon dromô epi tous aei boôntas kai pollô meizôn egigneto hê boê hosô dê pleious egignonto,--

  • epeidê -- conjunction; <epeidê> after -- after
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • boê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <boê> shout -- the shout
  • pleiôn -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <polus> many -- greater
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- and
  • egigneto -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <gignomai> happen, become -- became
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • egguteron -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <eggus> near -- nearer
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- those
  • aei -- adverb; <aei> always -- always
  • epiontes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <epieimi> come near -- coming up
  • etheon -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <theô> run -- ran
  • dromô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <dromos> run -- at a run, at full speed
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- towards
  • tous -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • aei -- adverb; <aei> always -- always
  • boôntas -- verb; accusative plural masculine of present participle of <boaô> shout -- shouting
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • pollô -- adverb; dative singular neuter of <polus> many -- much
  • meizôn -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of comparative of <megas> great -- greater
  • egigneto -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <gignomai> happen, become -- became
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • boê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <boê> shout -- shouting
  • hosô -- relative pronoun; dative singular neuter of <hosos> as many -- as
  • -- particle; <> indeed -- indeed
  • pleious -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of comparative of <polus> many -- greater
  • egignonto -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <gignomai> happen, become -- became

edokei dê meizon ti einai tô Xenophônti, kai anabas eph' hippon kai Lukion kai tous hippeas analabôn pareboêthei.

  • edokei -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <dokeô> seem, think -- it seemed
  • -- particle; <> indeed -- indeed
  • meizon -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of comparative of <megas> great -- very important
  • ti -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <tis> someone, something -- something
  • einai -- verb; infinitive of <eimi> I am -- to be
  • -- article; dative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Xenophônti -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Xenophôn> Xenophon -- to Xenophon
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • anabas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <anabainô> mount, go up -- mounting
  • eph' -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • hippon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hippos> horse -- his horse
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • Lukion -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Lukios> Lycius -- Lycius
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tous -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • hippeas -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <hippeus> horseman -- cavalry
  • analabôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle of <analambanô> take along -- taking along
  • pareboêthei -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <paraboêtheô> come up to help -- went up to help

kai tacha dê akouousi boôntôn tôn stratiôtôn Thalatta thalatta kai paregguôntôn.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tacha -- adverb; <tacha> presently, soon -- soon
  • -- particle; <> indeed -- ...
  • akouousi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <akouô> hear, listen -- they heard
  • boôntôn -- verb; genitive plural masculine of participle of <boaô> shout -- shouting
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • stratiôtôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <stratiôtês> soldier -- soldiers
  • thalatta -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <thalatta> sea -- the sea
  • thalatta -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <thalatta> sea -- the sea
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • paregguôntôn -- verb; genitive plural masculine of participle of <paregguaô> pass along -- passing it along

entha dê etheon pantes kai hoi opisthophulakes, kai ta hupozugia êlauneto kai hoi hippoi.

  • entha -- adverb; <entha> then, there -- then
  • -- particle; <> indeed -- indeed
  • etheon -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <theô> run -- ran
  • pantes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • opisthophulakes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <opisthophulax> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ta -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • hupozugia -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <hupozugion> pack animal -- pack animals
  • êlauneto -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <elaunô> set in motion -- broke into a run
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • hippoi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <hippos> horse -- horses

epei de aphikonto pantes epi to akron, entautha dê perieballon allêlous kai stratêgous kai lochagous dakruontes.

  • epei -- conjunction; <epei> when, after -- when
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • aphikonto -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <aphikneomai> come to, reach -- came to
  • pantes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- to
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • akron -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <akron> mountain-top, peak -- peak
  • entautha -- adverb; <entautha> then, there -- there
  • -- particle; <> indeed -- indeed
  • perieballon -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <periballô> throw around -- they embraced
  • allêlous -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <allêlôn> one another -- one another
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- both
  • stratêgous -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <stratêgos> general -- generals
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • lochagous -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <lochagos> captain -- captains
  • dakruontes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <dakruô> weep -- weeping

kai exapinês hotou dê paregguêsantos hoi stratiôtai pherousi lithous kai poiousi kolônon megan.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • exapinês -- adverb; <exapinês> on a sudden -- all of a sudden
  • hotou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hotos> someone -- someone
  • -- particle; <> indeed -- indeed
  • paregguêsantos -- verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist participle of <paregguaô> pass along -- when ... suggested it
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • stratiôtai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <stratiôtês> soldier -- soldiers
  • pherousi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <pherô> bear, bring, carry -- bring
  • lithous -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <lithos> stone -- stones
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • poiousi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <poieô> make, do -- make
  • kolônon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kolônos> heap -- heap
  • megan -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <megas> great -- large

Lesson Text

aphiknountai epi to oros tê pemptê hêmera. onoma de tô orei ên Thêchês. epei de hoi prôtoi egenonto epi tou orous, kraugê pollê egeneto. akousas de ho Xenophôn kai hoi opisthophulakes ôêthêsan emprosthen allous epitithesthai polemious. heiponto gar opisthen ek tês kaiomenês chôras, kai autôn hoi opisthophulakes apekteinan te tinas kai ezôgrêsan enedran poiêsamenoi, kai gerra elabon daseiôn boôn ômoboeia amphi ta eikosin. epeidê de boê pleiôn te egigneto kai egguteron kai hoi aei epiontes etheon dromô epi tous aei boôntas kai pollô meizôn egigneto hê boê hosô dê pleious egignonto,-- edokei dê meizon ti einai tô Xenophônti, kai anabas eph' hippon kai Lukion kai tous hippeas analabôn pareboêthei. kai tacha dê akouousi boôntôn tôn stratiôtôn Thalatta thalatta kai paregguôntôn. entha dê etheon pantes kai hoi opisthophulakes, kai ta hupozugia êlauneto kai hoi hippoi. epei de aphikonto pantes epi to akron, entautha dê perieballon allêlous kai stratêgous kai lochagous dakruontes. kai exapinês hotou dê paregguêsantos hoi stratiôtai pherousi lithous kai poiousi kolônon megan.

Translation

On the fifth day they reached the mountain; and the name of the mountain was Theches. When the first group arrived on the mountain, a great shout went up. Now when Xenophon and the rear-guard heard it, they thought that other enemies were attacking from the burning area; the rear-guard had killed some of them and captured others alive by setting an ambush, and had also captured about twenty shaggy, raw wicker ox-hide shields. But as the shout became louder and nearer, and those coming up began to run at full speed toward those ahead that were shouting, and as the shout became much greater as they became greater, it seemed to Xenophon that there was something very important. So he mounted his horse, taking also Lycius and the cavalry, and went ahead to help. Soon they heard the soldiers shouting: "The Sea! The Sea!" and passing it along. Then all the rear-guard ran and the pack animals broke into a run and also the horses. And when they came to the peak, then they embraced one another, both the generals and the captains, weeping. And all of a sudden, when someone suggested it, the soldiers bring stones and make a great heap.

Grammar

26. Survey of noun declensions.

The o- and a- declensions have been given in section 4, and subsequent sections of the grammar, 11 and 16, have provided examples of consonantal declension and that of some irregular nouns. Here additional sub-classes of the consonantal declension are listed.

Grammars provide the sub-classes according to the consonants of the stem. There may be modifications from sub-group to sub-group, but if the inflection of the word for salt is memorized, such forms may be identified. Examples are given here also for stems ending in velars, dentals, and other elements; as the selection indicates, nouns in the consonantal declension vary in gender: hê aix 'goat', to sôma 'body', ho hals 'salt', ho Hellên 'Greek', ho sus 'pig'.

    velars   dentals
Nom. sg.   hê aix   to sôma
Gen. sg.   tês aigos   tou sômatos
Dat. sg.   tê aigi   tô sômati
Acc. sg.   tên aiga   to sôma
         
Nom. pl.   hai haiges   ta sômata
Gen. pl.   tôn aigôn   tôn sômatôn
Dat. pl.   tois aixi   tois sômasi
Acc. pl.   tas haigas   ta sômata

    -l, -r   -n   -u
Nom. sg.   ho hals   ho hEllên   ho sus
Gen. sg.   tou halos   tou hEllênos   tou suos
Dat. sg.   tô hali   tô hElleni   tô sui
Acc. sg.   ton hala   ton hEllêna   ton sun
             
Nom. pl.   hoi hales   hoi hEllênes   hoi sues
Gen. pl.   tôn halôn   tôn hEllênôn   tôn suôn
Dat. pl.   tois halsi   tois hEllêsi   tois susi
Acc. pl.   tous halas   tous hEllênas   tous sus
27. Suffixes applied to stems to indicate location.

The following suffixes are used to produce adverbs on noun stems with specific meanings:

  • -then 'whence', as in oikothen 'from home', chamathen 'from the ground'
  • -i, -thi 'where', as in oikoi 'at home', chamai 'on the ground'; but -si(n) if the noun in question is a plural, as in Athênêsi 'at Athens'
  • -de, -se, ze 'whither', as in Athênaze 'to Athens', chamaze 'to the ground'
28. Use of the augment.

The augment is used on past tenses in the indicative, that is, the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix e-, as in the imperfect epaideuon 'I educated', the aorist epaideusa 'I have educated', the pluperfect epepaideukein 'I had educated'. Verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong combine the augment with that vowel or diphthong, usually resulting in its lengthening, as in the imperfect êgon 'I led' from agô, êuxanon 'I increased' from auxanô.

Compound verbs place the augment on the verb, after the initial prefix, for example en-eballon from emballô 'throw into', ep-eballon from epi-ballô 'throw on'. In the early texts, the augment may be omitted, as in the aorist form poiêsan 'they made' from poieô.

29. Deponents.

As in Latin, a number of verbs have their forms in the middle while corresponding to active verbs in English. Many of them indicate state, and do not take objects. They can be recognized from dictionary entries. Examples are:

  • gignomai 'become'
  • dechomai 'receive'
  • ergazomai 'work'
  • apo-krinomai 'reply'
  • logizomai 'reason'
  • mimeomai 'imitate'

These have a active meaning in the aorist middle form, but passive meaning in the passive form of the aorist.

Others have the passive form of the aorist. Many of them denote motion, feeling or mental action. Examples are:

  • eramai 'love'
  • hêdomai 'rejoice'
  • en-thumeomai 'consider'
  • dia-noeomai 'intend'
30. The middle forms of the aorist.

In the aorist the passive has different forms from those of the middle. Here the middle forms will be given.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   epaideusamên   paideusômai   paideusaimên    
2 sg   epaideusô   paideusê   paideusaio   paideusai
3 sg   epaideusato   paideusêtai   paideusaito   paideusasthô
                 
1 pl   epaideusametha   paideusômetha   paideusaimetha    
2 pl   epaideusasthe   paideusêsthe   paideusaisthe   paideusasthe
3 pl   epaideusanto   paideusôntai   paideusainto   paideusasthôn