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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Xenophon was born about 444 BC, and is said to have lived 90 years. He was a student of Socrates, and wrote the Memorabilia of Socrates to clear him from the charge of irreligion and corruption of the young men of Athens. Banished about the time of Socrates' death in 399, he served variously in military activities, and in 394 BC settled near Olympus, where he remained for twenty years. He then is said to have lived in Corinth, but there is no definite information about that part of his life until his death. In addition to the Anabasis, he wrote the Cyropaedia, a fanciful account of Cyrus the Elder. He is acclaimed for his simple and straightforward style. When Greek was taught for six years in High School and College, the Anabasis was the first long work read by students.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Xenophon's Anabasis is the account of the Greek army's retreat along the Tigris and through the high country of Armenia to Trapezus, and from there to Byzantium. The army had been assisting Cyrus in his attempt to gain the Persian throne after the death of his father Darius, king of Persia from 424-405 BC. His older brother, Artaxerxes, then assumed the throne. Cyrus, known as the Younger to distinguish him from the Elder (d. 529 BC), had been appointed by his father, Darius, to be commander of the maritime parts of Asia Minor. When his brother became king in 404 BC, Cyrus decided to overthrow him. He set out from Sardis in 401 BC with an army that included 13,000 Greek mercenaries. In the plain of Cunaxa, about 60 miles from Babylon, he met the king's army. His troops were victorious, but he himself was killed. The Greek army then set out to escape to the north, after most of their generals were treacherously murdered. Xenophon had been with the army as an observer, but now was elected as one of the generals and became effectively leader of the army. Approximately half of the Anabasis consists of the report of the retreat to the sea; the rest of it deals with the continued effort to go by sea to Byzantium. This episode was selected because of its account of the joy of the Greeks on their escape from their enemies.

ἀφικνοῦνται ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τῇ πέμπτῇ ἡμέρᾳ.

  • ἀφικνοῦνται -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἀφικνέομαι> come to, reach -- they reach
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • ὄρος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ὄρος> mountain -- mountain
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- on the
  • πέμπτῇ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <πέμπτος> fifth -- fifth
  • ἡμέρᾳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἡμέρα> day -- day

ὄνομα δὲ τῷ ὄρει ἦν Θήχης.

  • ὄνομα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <ὄνομα> name -- (the) name
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <> the -- for the
  • ὄρει -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <ὄρος> mountain -- mountain
  • ἦν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- was
  • Θήχης -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Θήχης> Theches -- Theches

ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πρῶτοι ἐγένοντο ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους, κραυγὴ πολλὴ ἐγένετο.

  • ἐπεὶ -- conjunction; <ἐπεί> when, after -- when
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • πρῶτοι -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <πρῶτος> first -- first
  • ἐγένοντο -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- arrived
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • ὄρους -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ὄρος> mountain -- mountain
  • κραυγὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <κραυγή> shout -- shout
  • πολλὴ -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πολύς> many -- great
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- went up

ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ξενοφῶν καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ᾠήθησαν ἔμπροσθεν ἄλλους ἐπιτίθεσθαι πολεμίους.

  • ἀκούσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • Ξενοφῶν -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ξενοφῶν> Xenophon -- Xenophon
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ὀπισθοφύλακες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ὀπισθοφύλαξ> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • ᾠήθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <οἴομαι> think, imagine -- thought
  • ἔμπροσθεν -- adverb; <ἔμπροσθεν> before, in front -- in front
  • ἄλλους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <ἄλλος> other -- other
  • ἐπιτίθεσθαι -- verb; infinitive aorist middle of <ἐπιτίθημι> attack -- were attacking
  • πολεμίους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <πολέμιος> enemy -- enemies

εἵποντο γὰρ ὄπισθεν ἐκ τῆς καιομένης χώρας, καὶ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ἀπέκτεινάν τέ τινας καὶ ἐζώγρησαν ἐνέδραν ποιησάμενοι, καὶ γέρρα ἔλαβον δασειῶν βοῶν ὠμοβόεια ἀμφὶ τὰ εἴκοσιν.

  • εἵποντο -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἕπομαι> follow -- were following
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ὄπισθεν -- adverb; <ὄπισθεν> behind -- behind
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • καιομένης -- verb; genitive singular feminine of participle middle of <καίω> burn -- burning
  • χώρας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <χώρα> land, country -- area
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of them
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ὀπισθοφύλακες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ὀπισθοφύλαξ> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • ἀπέκτεινάν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἀποκτείνω> kill -- killed
  • τέ -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • τινας -- indefinite pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <τις> someone, something -- some
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐζώγρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ζωγρέω> capture alive -- captured alive
  • ἐνέδραν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἐνέδρα> ambush -- an ambush
  • ποιησάμενοι -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist middle participle of <ποιέω> make, do -- by arranging
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γέρρα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <γέρρον> ox-hide wicker shield -- ox-hide wicker shields
  • ἔλαβον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <λαμβάνω> receive, capture -- had captured
  • δασειῶν -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <δασύς> hairy, shaggy -- shaggy
  • βοῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <βοῦς> cow, ox -- of oxen
  • ὠμοβόεια -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <ὠμοβόειος> of raw, untanned oxhide -- raw oxhide
  • ἀμφὶ -- preposition; <ἀμφί> around, between -- about
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • εἴκοσιν -- number; accusative plural neuter of <εἴκοσι> twenty -- twenty

ἐπειδὴ δὲ βοὴ πλείων τε ἐγίγνετο καὶ ἐγγύτερον καὶ οἱ ἀεὶ ἐπιόντες ἔθεον δρόμῳ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀεὶ βοῶντας καὶ πολλῷ μείζων ἐγίγνετο ἡ βοὴ ὅσῳ δὴ πλείους ἐγίγνοντο,--

  • ἐπειδὴ -- conjunction; <ἐπειδή> after -- after
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • βοὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βοή> shout -- the shout
  • πλείων -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <πολύς> many -- greater
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • ἐγίγνετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐγγύτερον -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <ἐγγύς> near -- nearer
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- those
  • ἀεὶ -- adverb; <ἀεί> always -- always
  • ἐπιόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ἐπίειμι> come near -- coming up
  • ἔθεον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <θέω> run -- ran
  • δρόμῳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <δρόμος> run -- at a run, at full speed
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- towards
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἀεὶ -- adverb; <ἀεί> always -- always
  • βοῶντας -- verb; accusative plural masculine of present participle of <βοάω> shout -- shouting
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πολλῷ -- adverb; dative singular neuter of <πολύς> many -- much
  • μείζων -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of comparative of <μέγας> great -- greater
  • ἐγίγνετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • βοὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βοή> shout -- shouting
  • ὅσῳ -- relative pronoun; dative singular neuter of <ὅσος> as many -- as
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • πλείους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of comparative of <πολύς> many -- greater
  • ἐγίγνοντο -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became

ἐδόκει δὴ μεῖζόν τι εἶναι τῷ Ξενοφῶντι, καὶ ἀναβὰς ἐφ' ἵππον καὶ Λύκιον καὶ τούς ἱππέας ἀναλαβὼν παρεβοήθει.

  • ἐδόκει -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <δοκέω> seem, think -- it seemed
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • μεῖζόν -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of comparative of <μέγας> great -- very important
  • τι -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <τις> someone, something -- something
  • εἶναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- to be
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • Ξενοφῶντι -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Ξενοφῶν> Xenophon -- to Xenophon
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀναβὰς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- mounting
  • ἐφ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • ἵππον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἵππος> horse -- his horse
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Λύκιον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Λύκιος> Lycius -- Lycius
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τούς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἱππέας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ἱππεύς> horseman -- cavalry
  • ἀναλαβὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle of <ἀναλαμβάνω> take along -- taking along
  • παρεβοήθει -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <παραβοηθέω> come up to help -- went up to help

καὶ τάχα δὴ ἀκούουσι βοώντων τῶν στρατιωτῶν Θάλαττα θάλαττα καὶ παρεγγυώντων.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τάχα -- adverb; <τάχα> presently, soon -- soon
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- ...
  • ἀκούουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- they heard
  • βοώντων -- verb; genitive plural masculine of participle of <βοάω> shout -- shouting
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • στρατιωτῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <στρατιώτης> soldier -- soldiers
  • θάλαττα -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <θάλαττα> sea -- the sea
  • θάλαττα -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <θάλαττα> sea -- the sea
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • παρεγγυώντων -- verb; genitive plural masculine of participle of <παρεγγυάω> pass along -- passing it along

ἔνθα δὴ ἔθεον πάντες καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες, καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἠλαύνετο καὶ οἱ ἵπποι.

  • ἔνθα -- adverb; <ἔνθα> then, there -- then
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • ἔθεον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <θέω> run -- ran
  • πάντες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ὀπισθοφύλακες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ὀπισθοφύλαξ> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • ὑποζύγια -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ὑποζύγιον> pack animal -- pack animals
  • ἠλαύνετο -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <ἐλαύνω> set in motion -- broke into a run
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἵπποι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ἵππος> horse -- horses

ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφίκοντο πάντες ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον, ἐνταῦθα δὴ περιέβαλλον ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγοὺς δακρύοντες.

  • ἐπεὶ -- conjunction; <ἐπεί> when, after -- when
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἀφίκοντο -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀφικνέομαι> come to, reach -- came to
  • πάντες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • ἄκρον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ἄκρον> mountain-top, peak -- peak
  • ἐνταῦθα -- adverb; <ἐνταῦθα> then, there -- there
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • περιέβαλλον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <περιβάλλω> throw around -- they embraced
  • ἀλλήλους -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <ἀλλήλων> one another -- one another
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- both
  • στρατηγοὺς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <στρατηγός> general -- generals
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λοχαγοὺς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <λοχαγός> captain -- captains
  • δακρύοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <δακρύω> weep -- weeping

καὶ ἐξαπίνης ὅτου δὴ παρεγγυήσαντος οἱ στρατιώται φέρουσι λίθους καὶ ποιοῦσι κολωνὸν μέγαν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐξαπίνης -- adverb; <ἐξαπίνης> on a sudden -- all of a sudden
  • ὅτου -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ὅτος> someone -- someone
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • παρεγγυήσαντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist participle of <παρεγγυάω> pass along -- when ... suggested it
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • στρατιώται -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <στρατιώτης> soldier -- soldiers
  • φέρουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <φέρω> bear, bring, carry -- bring
  • λίθους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <λίθος> stone -- stones
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ποιοῦσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ποιέω> make, do -- make
  • κολωνὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κολωνός> heap -- heap
  • μέγαν -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <μέγας> great -- large

Lesson Text

ἀφικνοῦνται ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος τῇ πέμπτῇ ἡμέρᾳ. ὄνομα δὲ τῷ ὄρει ἦν Θήχης. ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πρῶτοι ἐγένοντο ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους, κραυγὴ πολλὴ ἐγένετο. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ξενοφῶν καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ᾠήθησαν ἔμπροσθεν ἄλλους ἐπιτίθεσθαι πολεμίους. εἵποντο γὰρ ὄπισθεν ἐκ τῆς καιομένης χώρας, καὶ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ἀπέκτεινάν τέ τινας καὶ ἐζώγρησαν ἐνέδραν ποιησάμενοι, καὶ γέρρα ἔλαβον δασειῶν βοῶν ὠμοβόεια ἀμφὶ τὰ εἴκοσιν. ἐπειδὴ δὲ βοὴ πλείων τε ἐγίγνετο καὶ ἐγγύτερον καὶ οἱ ἀεὶ ἐπιόντες ἔθεον δρόμῳ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀεὶ βοῶντας καὶ πολλῷ μείζων ἐγίγνετο ἡ βοὴ ὅσῳ δὴ πλείους ἐγίγνοντο,-- ἐδόκει δὴ μεῖζόν τι εἶναι τῷ Ξενοφῶντι, καὶ ἀναβὰς ἐφ' ἵππον καὶ Λύκιον καὶ τούς ἱππέας ἀναλαβὼν παρεβοήθει. καὶ τάχα δὴ ἀκούουσι βοώντων τῶν στρατιωτῶν Θάλαττα θάλαττα καὶ παρεγγυώντων. ἔνθα δὴ ἔθεον πάντες καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες, καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἠλαύνετο καὶ οἱ ἵπποι. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφίκοντο πάντες ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον, ἐνταῦθα δὴ περιέβαλλον ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγοὺς δακρύοντες. καὶ ἐξαπίνης ὅτου δὴ παρεγγυήσαντος οἱ στρατιώται φέρουσι λίθους καὶ ποιοῦσι κολωνὸν μέγαν.

Translation

On the fifth day they reached the mountain; and the name of the mountain was Theches. When the first group arrived on the mountain, a great shout went up. Now when Xenophon and the rear-guard heard it, they thought that other enemies were attacking from the burning area; the rear-guard had killed some of them and captured others alive by setting an ambush, and had also captured about twenty shaggy, raw wicker ox-hide shields. But as the shout became louder and nearer, and those coming up began to run at full speed toward those ahead that were shouting, and as the shout became much greater as they became greater, it seemed to Xenophon that there was something very important. So he mounted his horse, taking also Lycius and the cavalry, and went ahead to help. Soon they heard the soldiers shouting: "The Sea! The Sea!" and passing it along. Then all the rear-guard ran and the pack animals broke into a run and also the horses. And when they came to the peak, then they embraced one another, both the generals and the captains, weeping. And all of a sudden, when someone suggested it, the soldiers bring stones and make a great heap.

Grammar

26. Survey of noun declensions.

The ο- and α- declensions have been given in section 4, and subsequent sections of the grammar, 11 and 16, have provided examples of consonantal declension and that of some irregular nouns. Here additional sub-classes of the consonantal declension are listed.

Grammars provide the sub-classes according to the consonants of the stem. There may be modifications from sub-group to sub-group, but if the inflection of the word for salt is memorized, such forms may be identified. Examples are given here also for stems ending in velars, dentals, and other elements; as the selection indicates, nouns in the consonantal declension vary in gender: ἡ αἴξ 'goat', τὸ σῶμα 'body', ὁ ἁλ́ς 'salt', ὁ Ἕλλην 'Greek', ὁ σῦς 'pig'.

    velars   dentals
Nom. sg.   ἡ αἴξ   τό σῶμα
Gen. sg.   τῆς αἰγός   τοῦ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῇ αἰγί   τῷ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τῆν αἶγα   τό σῶμα
         
Nom. pl.   αἱ αἷγες   τά σώματα
Gen. pl.   τῶν αἰγῶν   τῶν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοῖς αἰξί   τοῖς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τάς αἷγας   τά σώματα

    -λ, -ρ   -ν   -υ
Nom. sg.   ὁ ἅλς   ὁ Ἕλλην   ὁ σῦς
Gen. sg.   τοῦ ἁλός   τοῦ Ἕλληνος   τοῦ συός
Dat. sg.   τῷ ἁλί   τῷ Ἕλλενι   τῷ συί
Acc. sg.   τόν ἅλα   τόν Ἕλληνα   τόν σῦν
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ ἅλες   οἱ Ἕλληνες   οἱ σύες
Gen. pl.   τῶν ἁλῶν   τῶν Ἕλλήνων   τῶν συῶν
Dat. pl.   τοῖς ἁλσί   τοῖς Ἕλλήσι   τοῖς συσί
Acc. pl.   τούς ἅλας   τούς Ἕλληνας   τούς σῦς
27. Suffixes applied to stems to indicate location.

The following suffixes are used to produce adverbs on noun stems with specific meanings:

  • -θεν 'whence', as in οἴκοθεν 'from home', χαμᾶθεν 'from the ground'
  • -ι, -θι 'where', as in οἴκοι 'at home', χαμαί 'on the ground'; but -σι(ν) if the noun in question is a plural, as in Ἀθήνησι 'at Athens'
  • -δε, -σε, ζε 'whither', as in Ἀθήναζε 'to Athens', χαμᾶζε 'to the ground'
28. Use of the augment.

The augment is used on past tenses in the indicative, that is, the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix -, as in the imperfect ἐπαίδευον 'I educated', the aorist ἐπαίδευσα 'I have educated', the pluperfect ἐπεπαιδεύκειν 'I had educated'. Verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong combine the augment with that vowel or diphthong, usually resulting in its lengthening, as in the imperfect ἦγον 'I led' from ἄγω, ηὔξανον 'I increased' from αὐξάνω.

Compound verbs place the augment on the verb, after the initial prefix, for example ἐν-έβαλλον from ἐμβάλλω 'throw into', ἐπ-έβαλλον from ἐπι-βάλλω 'throw on'. In the early texts, the augment may be omitted, as in the aorist form ποίησαν 'they made' from ποιέω.

29. Deponents.

As in Latin, a number of verbs have their forms in the middle while corresponding to active verbs in English. Many of them indicate state, and do not take objects. They can be recognized from dictionary entries. Examples are:

  • γίγνομαι 'become'
  • δέχομαι 'receive'
  • ἐργάζομαι 'work'
  • ἀπο-κρίνομαι 'reply'
  • λογίζομαι 'reason'
  • μιμέομαι 'imitate'

These have a active meaning in the aorist middle form, but passive meaning in the passive form of the aorist.

Others have the passive form of the aorist. Many of them denote motion, feeling or mental action. Examples are:

  • ἔραμαι 'love'
  • ἥδομαι 'rejoice'
  • έν-θυμέομαι 'consider'
  • δια-νοέομαι 'intend'
30. The middle forms of the aorist.

In the aorist the passive has different forms from those of the middle. Here the middle forms will be given.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπαιδευσάμην   παιδεύσωμαι   παιδευσαίμην    
2 sg   ἐπαιδεύσω   παιδεύσῃ   παιδεύσαιο   παίδευσαι
3 sg   ἐπαιδεύσατο   παιδεύσηται   παιδεύσαιτο   παιδευσάσθω
                 
1 pl   ἐπαιδευσάμεθα   παιδευσώμεθα   παιδευσαίμεθα    
2 pl   ἐπαιδεύσασθε   παιδεύσησθε   παιδεύσαισθε   παιδεύσασθε
3 pl   ἐπαιδεύσαντο   παιδεύσωνται   παιδεύσαιντο   παιδευσάσθων