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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Xenophon was born about 444 BC, and is said to have lived 90 years. He was a student of Socrates, and wrote the Memorabilia of Socrates to clear him from the charge of irreligion and corruption of the young men of Athens. Banished about the time of Socrates' death in 399, he served variously in military activities, and in 394 BC settled near Olympus, where he remained for twenty years. He then is said to have lived in Corinth, but there is no definite information about that part of his life until his death. In addition to the Anabasis, he wrote the Cyropaedia, a fanciful account of Cyrus the Elder. He is acclaimed for his simple and straightforward style. When Greek was taught for six years in High School and College, the Anabasis was the first long work read by students.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Xenophon's Anabasis is the account of the Greek army's retreat along the Tigris and through the high country of Armenia to Trapezus, and from there to Byzantium. The army had been assisting Cyrus in his attempt to gain the Persian throne after the death of his father Darius, king of Persia from 424-405 BC. His older brother, Artaxerxes, then assumed the throne. Cyrus, known as the Younger to distinguish him from the Elder (d. 529 BC), had been appointed by his father, Darius, to be commander of the maritime parts of Asia Minor. When his brother became king in 404 BC, Cyrus decided to overthrow him. He set out from Sardis in 401 BC with an army that included 13,000 Greek mercenaries. In the plain of Cunaxa, about 60 miles from Babylon, he met the king's army. His troops were victorious, but he himself was killed. The Greek army then set out to escape to the north, after most of their generals were treacherously murdered. Xenophon had been with the army as an observer, but now was elected as one of the generals and became effectively leader of the army. Approximately half of the Anabasis consists of the report of the retreat to the sea; the rest of it deals with the continued effort to go by sea to Byzantium. This episode was selected because of its account of the joy of the Greeks on their escape from their enemies.

ἀφικνου̂νται ἐπὶ τὸ ʼόρος τῃ̂ πέμπτῃ̂ ἡμέρᾳ.

  • ἀφικνου̂νται -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἀφικνέομαι> come to, reach -- they reach
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼόρος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ʼόρος> mountain -- mountain
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- on the
  • πέμπτῃ̂ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <πέμπτος> fifth -- fifth
  • ἡμέρᾳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἡμέρα> day -- day

ʼόνομα δὲ τῳ̂ ʼόρει ʼη̂ν Θήχης.

  • ʼόνομα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <ʼόνομα> name -- (the) name
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- for the
  • ʼόρει -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <ʼόρος> mountain -- mountain
  • ʼη̂ν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- was
  • Θήχης -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Θήχης> Theches -- Theches

ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πρω̂τοι ἐγένοντο ἐπὶ του̂ ʼόρους, κραυγὴ πολλὴ ἐγένετο.

  • ἐπεὶ -- conjunction; <ἐπεί> when, after -- when
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πρω̂τοι -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <πρω̂τος> first -- first
  • ἐγένοντο -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- arrived
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼόρους -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ʼόρος> mountain -- mountain
  • κραυγὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <κραυγή> shout -- shout
  • πολλὴ -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πολύς> many -- great
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- went up

ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ξενοφω̂ν καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ʼῳήθησαν ʼέμπροσθεν ʼάλλους ἐπιτίθεσθαι πολεμίους.

  • ἀκούσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ξενοφω̂ν -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ξενοφω̂ν> Xenophon -- Xenophon
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀπισθοφύλακες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ὀπισθοφύλαξ> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • ʼῳήθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <οʼίομαι> think, imagine -- thought
  • ʼέμπροσθεν -- adverb; <ʼέμπροσθεν> before, in front -- in front
  • ʼάλλους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <ʼάλλος> other -- other
  • ἐπιτίθεσθαι -- verb; infinitive aorist middle of <ἐπιτίθημι> attack -- were attacking
  • πολεμίους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <πολέμιος> enemy -- enemies

εʽίποντο γὰρ ʼόπισθεν ἐκ τη̂ς καιομένης χώρας, καὶ αὐτω̂ν οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ἀπέκτεινάν τέ τινας καὶ ἐζώγρησαν ἐνέδραν ποιησάμενοι, καὶ γέρρα ʼέλαβον δασειω̂ν βοω̂ν ὠμοβόεια ἀμφὶ τὰ εʼίκοσιν.

  • εʽίποντο -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ʽέπομαι> follow -- were following
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ʼόπισθεν -- adverb; <ʼόπισθεν> behind -- behind
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • καιομένης -- verb; genitive singular feminine of participle middle of <καίω> burn -- burning
  • χώρας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <χώρα> land, country -- area
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of them
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀπισθοφύλακες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ὀπισθοφύλαξ> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • ἀπέκτεινάν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἀποκτείνω> kill -- killed
  • τέ -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • τινας -- indefinite pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <τις> someone, something -- some
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐζώγρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ζωγρέω> capture alive -- captured alive
  • ἐνέδραν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἐνέδρα> ambush -- an ambush
  • ποιησάμενοι -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist middle participle of <ποιέω> make, do -- by arranging
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γέρρα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <γέρρον> ox-hide wicker shield -- ox-hide wicker shields
  • ʼέλαβον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <λαμβάνω> receive, capture -- had captured
  • δασειω̂ν -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <δασύς> hairy, shaggy -- shaggy
  • βοω̂ν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <βου̂ς> cow, ox -- of oxen
  • ὠμοβόεια -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <ὠμοβόειος> of raw, untanned oxhide -- raw oxhide
  • ἀμφὶ -- preposition; <ἀμφί> around, between -- about
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • εʼίκοσιν -- number; accusative plural neuter of <εʼίκοσι> twenty -- twenty

ἐπειδὴ δὲ βοὴ πλείων τε ἐγίγνετο καὶ ἐγγύτερον καὶ οἱ ἀεὶ ἐπιόντες ʼέθεον δρόμῳ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀεὶ βοω̂ντας καὶ πολλῳ̂ μείζων ἐγίγνετο ἡ βοὴ ʽόσῳ δὴ πλείους ἐγίγνοντο,--

  • ἐπειδὴ -- conjunction; <ἐπειδή> after -- after
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • βοὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βοή> shout -- the shout
  • πλείων -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <πολύς> many -- greater
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • ἐγίγνετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐγγύτερον -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <ἐγγύς> near -- nearer
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- those
  • ἀεὶ -- adverb; <ἀεί> always -- always
  • ἐπιόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ἐπίειμι> come near -- coming up
  • ʼέθεον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <θέω> run -- ran
  • δρόμῳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <δρόμος> run -- at a run, at full speed
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- towards
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀεὶ -- adverb; <ἀεί> always -- always
  • βοω̂ντας -- verb; accusative plural masculine of present participle of <βοάω> shout -- shouting
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πολλῳ̂ -- adverb; dative singular neuter of <πολύς> many -- much
  • μείζων -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of comparative of <μέγας> great -- greater
  • ἐγίγνετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βοὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βοή> shout -- shouting
  • ʽόσῳ -- relative pronoun; dative singular neuter of <ʽόσος> as many -- as
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • πλείους -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of comparative of <πολύς> many -- greater
  • ἐγίγνοντο -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- became

ἐδόκει δὴ μει̂ζόν τι εʼι̂ναι τῳ̂ Ξενοφω̂ντι, καὶ ἀναβὰς ἐφ' ʽίππον καὶ Λύκιον καὶ τούς ἱππέας ἀναλαβὼν παρεβοήθει.

  • ἐδόκει -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <δοκέω> seem, think -- it seemed
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • μει̂ζόν -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of comparative of <μέγας> great -- very important
  • τι -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <τις> someone, something -- something
  • εʼι̂ναι -- verb; infinitive of <εἰμί> I am -- to be
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Ξενοφω̂ντι -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <Ξενοφω̂ν> Xenophon -- to Xenophon
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀναβὰς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- mounting
  • ἐφ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • ʽίππον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ʽίππος> horse -- his horse
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • Λύκιον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Λύκιος> Lycius -- Lycius
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τούς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἱππέας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ἱππεύς> horseman -- cavalry
  • ἀναλαβὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle of <ἀναλαμβάνω> take along -- taking along
  • παρεβοήθει -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <παραβοηθέω> come up to help -- went up to help

καὶ τάχα δὴ ἀκούουσι βοώντων τω̂ν στρατιωτω̂ν Θάλαττα θάλαττα καὶ παρεγγυώντων.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τάχα -- adverb; <τάχα> presently, soon -- soon
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- ...
  • ἀκούουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- they heard
  • βοώντων -- verb; genitive plural masculine of participle of <βοάω> shout -- shouting
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • στρατιωτω̂ν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <στρατιώτης> soldier -- soldiers
  • θάλαττα -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <θάλαττα> sea -- the sea
  • θάλαττα -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <θάλαττα> sea -- the sea
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • παρεγγυώντων -- verb; genitive plural masculine of participle of <παρεγγυάω> pass along -- passing it along

ʼένθα δὴ ʼέθεον πάντες καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες, καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἠλαύνετο καὶ οἱ ʽίπποι.

  • ʼένθα -- adverb; <ʼένθα> then, there -- then
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • ʼέθεον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <θέω> run -- ran
  • πάντες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- all
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀπισθοφύλακες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ὀπισθοφύλαξ> rear-guard -- rear-guard
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὑποζύγια -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ὑποζύγιον> pack animal -- pack animals
  • ἠλαύνετο -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <ἐλαύνω> set in motion -- broke into a run
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʽίπποι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ʽίππος> horse -- horses

ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφίκοντο πάντες ἐπὶ τὸ ʼάκρον, ἐνταυ̂θα δὴ περιέβαλλον ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγοὺς δακρύοντες.

  • ἐπεὶ -- conjunction; <ἐπεί> when, after -- when
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἀφίκοντο -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀφικνέομαι> come to, reach -- came to
  • πάντες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- all
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼάκρον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ʼάκρον> mountain-top, peak -- peak
  • ἐνταυ̂θα -- adverb; <ἐνταυ̂θα> then, there -- there
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • περιέβαλλον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <περιβάλλω> throw around -- they embraced
  • ἀλλήλους -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <ἀλλήλων> one another -- one another
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- both
  • στρατηγοὺς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <στρατηγός> general -- generals
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λοχαγοὺς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <λοχαγός> captain -- captains
  • δακρύοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <δακρύω> weep -- weeping

καὶ ἐξαπίνης ʽότου δὴ παρεγγυήσαντος οἱ στρατιώται φέρουσι λίθους καὶ ποιου̂σι κολωνὸν μέγαν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐξαπίνης -- adverb; <ἐξαπίνης> on a sudden -- all of a sudden
  • ʽότου -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ʽότος> someone -- someone
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • παρεγγυήσαντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist participle of <παρεγγυάω> pass along -- when ... suggested it
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • στρατιώται -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <στρατιώτης> soldier -- soldiers
  • φέρουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <φέρω> bear, bring, carry -- bring
  • λίθους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <λίθος> stone -- stones
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ποιου̂σι -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ποιέω> make, do -- make
  • κολωνὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κολωνός> heap -- heap
  • μέγαν -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <μέγας> great -- large

Lesson Text

ἀφικνου̂νται ἐπὶ τὸ ʼόρος τῃ̂ πέμπτῃ̂ ἡμέρᾳ. ʼόνομα δὲ τῳ̂ ʼόρει ʼη̂ν Θήχης. ἐπεὶ δὲ οἱ πρω̂τοι ἐγένοντο ἐπὶ του̂ ʼόρους, κραυγὴ πολλὴ ἐγένετο. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ξενοφω̂ν καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ʼῳήθησαν ʼέμπροσθεν ʼάλλους ἐπιτίθεσθαι πολεμίους. εʽίποντο γὰρ ʼόπισθεν ἐκ τη̂ς καιομένης χώρας, καὶ αὐτω̂ν οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες ἀπέκτεινάν τέ τινας καὶ ἐζώγρησαν ἐνέδραν ποιησάμενοι, καὶ γέρρα ʼέλαβον δασειω̂ν βοω̂ν ὠμοβόεια ἀμφὶ τὰ εʼίκοσιν. ἐπειδὴ δὲ βοὴ πλείων τε ἐγίγνετο καὶ ἐγγύτερον καὶ οἱ ἀεὶ ἐπιόντες ʼέθεον δρόμῳ ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀεὶ βοω̂ντας καὶ πολλῳ̂ μείζων ἐγίγνετο ἡ βοὴ ʽόσῳ δὴ πλείους ἐγίγνοντο,-- ἐδόκει δὴ μει̂ζόν τι εʼι̂ναι τῳ̂ Ξενοφω̂ντι, καὶ ἀναβὰς ἐφ' ʽίππον καὶ Λύκιον καὶ τούς ἱππέας ἀναλαβὼν παρεβοήθει. καὶ τάχα δὴ ἀκούουσι βοώντων τω̂ν στρατιωτω̂ν Θάλαττα θάλαττα καὶ παρεγγυώντων. ʼένθα δὴ ʼέθεον πάντες καὶ οἱ ὀπισθοφύλακες, καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἠλαύνετο καὶ οἱ ʽίπποι. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀφίκοντο πάντες ἐπὶ τὸ ʼάκρον, ἐνταυ̂θα δὴ περιέβαλλον ἀλλήλους καὶ στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχαγοὺς δακρύοντες. καὶ ἐξαπίνης ʽότου δὴ παρεγγυήσαντος οἱ στρατιώται φέρουσι λίθους καὶ ποιου̂σι κολωνὸν μέγαν.

Translation

On the fifth day they reached the mountain; and the name of the mountain was Theches. When the first group arrived on the mountain, a great shout went up. Now when Xenophon and the rear-guard heard it, they thought that other enemies were attacking from the burning area; the rear-guard had killed some of them and captured others alive by setting an ambush, and had also captured about twenty shaggy, raw wicker ox-hide shields. But as the shout became louder and nearer, and those coming up began to run at full speed toward those ahead that were shouting, and as the shout became much greater as they became greater, it seemed to Xenophon that there was something very important. So he mounted his horse, taking also Lycius and the cavalry, and went ahead to help. Soon they heard the soldiers shouting: "The Sea! The Sea!" and passing it along. Then all the rear-guard ran and the pack animals broke into a run and also the horses. And when they came to the peak, then they embraced one another, both the generals and the captains, weeping. And all of a sudden, when someone suggested it, the soldiers bring stones and make a great heap.

Grammar

26. Survey of noun declensions.

The ο- and α- declensions have been given in section 4, and subsequent sections of the grammar, 11 and 16, have provided examples of consonantal declension and that of some irregular nouns. Here additional sub-classes of the consonantal declension are listed.

Grammars provide the sub-classes according to the consonants of the stem. There may be modifications from sub-group to sub-group, but if the inflection of the word for salt is memorized, such forms may be identified. Examples are given here also for stems ending in velars, dentals, and other elements; as the selection indicates, nouns in the consonantal declension vary in gender: ἡ αʼίξ 'goat', τὸ σω̂μα 'body', ὁ ἁλ́ς 'salt', ὁ ʽΈλλην 'Greek', ὁ συ̂ς 'pig'.

    velars   dentals
Nom. sg.   ἡ αʼίξ   τό σω̂μα
Gen. sg.   τη̂ς αἰγός   του̂ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῃ̂ αἰγί   τῳ̂ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τη̂ν αʼι̂γα   τό σω̂μα
         
Nom. pl.   αἱ αʽι̂γες   τά σώματα
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν αἰγω̂ν   τω̂ν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοι̂ς αἰξί   τοι̂ς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τάς αʽι̂γας   τά σώματα

    -λ, -ρ   -ν   -υ
Nom. sg.   ὁ ʽάλς   ὁ ʽΈλλην   ὁ συ̂ς
Gen. sg.   του̂ ἁλός   του̂ ʽΈλληνος   του̂ συός
Dat. sg.   τῳ̂ ἁλί   τῳ̂ ʽΈλλενι   τῳ̂ συί
Acc. sg.   τόν ʽάλα   τόν ʽΈλληνα   τόν συ̂ν
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ ʽάλες   οἱ ʽΈλληνες   οἱ σύες
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν ἁλω̂ν   τω̂ν ʽΈλλήνων   τω̂ν συω̂ν
Dat. pl.   τοι̂ς ἁλσί   τοι̂ς ʽΈλλήσι   τοι̂ς συσί
Acc. pl.   τούς ʽάλας   τούς ʽΈλληνας   τούς συ̂ς
27. Suffixes applied to stems to indicate location.

The following suffixes are used to produce adverbs on noun stems with specific meanings:

  • -θεν 'whence', as in οʼίκοθεν 'from home', χαμα̂θεν 'from the ground'
  • -ι, -θι 'where', as in οʼίκοι 'at home', χαμαί 'on the ground'; but -σι(ν) if the noun in question is a plural, as in ʼΑθήνησι 'at Athens'
  • -δε, -σε, ζε 'whither', as in ʼΑθήναζε 'to Athens', χαμα̂ζε 'to the ground'
28. Use of the augment.

The augment is used on past tenses in the indicative, that is, the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix ἐ-, as in the imperfect ἐπαίδευον 'I educated', the aorist ἐπαίδευσα 'I have educated', the pluperfect ἐπεπαιδεύκειν 'I had educated'. Verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong combine the augment with that vowel or diphthong, usually resulting in its lengthening, as in the imperfect ʼη̂γον 'I led' from ʼάγω, ηʼύξανον 'I increased' from αὐξάνω.

Compound verbs place the augment on the verb, after the initial prefix, for example ἐν-έβαλλον from ἐμβάλλω 'throw into', ἐπ-έβαλλον from ἐπι-βάλλω 'throw on'. In the early texts, the augment may be omitted, as in the aorist form ποίησαν 'they made' from ποιέω.

29. Deponents.

As in Latin, a number of verbs have their forms in the middle while corresponding to active verbs in English. Many of them indicate state, and do not take objects. They can be recognized from dictionary entries. Examples are:

  • γίγνομαι 'become'
  • δέχομαι 'receive'
  • ἐργάζομαι 'work'
  • ἀπο-κρίνομαι 'reply'
  • λογίζομαι 'reason'
  • μιμέομαι 'imitate'

These have a active meaning in the aorist middle form, but passive meaning in the passive form of the aorist.

Others have the passive form of the aorist. Many of them denote motion, feeling or mental action. Examples are:

  • ʼέραμαι 'love'
  • ʽήδομαι 'rejoice'
  • έν-θυμέομαι 'consider'
  • δια-νοέομαι 'intend'
30. The middle forms of the aorist.

In the aorist the passive has different forms from those of the middle. Here the middle forms will be given.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπαιδευσάμην   παιδεύσωμαι   παιδευσαίμην    
2 sg   ἐπαιδεύσω   παιδεύσῃ   παιδεύσαιο   παίδευσαι
3 sg   ἐπαιδεύσατο   παιδεύσηται   παιδεύσαιτο   παιδευσάσθω
                 
1 pl   ἐπαιδευσάμεθα   παιδευσώμεθα   παιδευσαίμεθα    
2 pl   ἐπαιδεύσασθε   παιδεύσησθε   παιδεύσαισθε   παιδεύσασθε
3 pl   ἐπαιδεύσαντο   παιδεύσωνται   παιδεύσαιντο   παιδευσάσθων