The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Classical Greek Online

Lesson 7

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Hesiod, the author of Works and Days, lived in the second section of the eighth century B.C. Reports of his life are sketchy, but he clearly was a poet in the Homeric tradition. In addition to fragments that have been preserved, his other major poem is the Theogony of 1020 lines. It sketches the 'births of the gods', beginning with those of the nine Muses from the union of Zeus and Mnemosyne or Memory, and ending with the union of Kalypso and Odysseus that resulted in two children. His language and subject matter is clearly less elegant than that of Homer, but it has maintained its interest for providing information on everyday life and for information on the views of the Greek peoples of his time.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Hesiod's Works and Days is a poem in the eastern tradition of wisdom literature. Addressed to his brother, Perses, who is pictured as a ne'er-do-well, it consists of four parts in its 828 lines, each of approximately 200 lines. The first part tells Perses that work is essential. It contains the lines excerpted here, which are of especial interest in sketching the ages of man that correspond in part to the periods determined by archeologists of our day, with the bronze age leading to the iron age, and so on. The second part provides instructions on how to achieve prosperity through righteous actions and proper dealings with others. The third part outlines the work that is necessary for success in farming, such as the type of work that is essential in the four seasons. The last part indicates the proper time for activities, such as sailing to market one's produce, marriage, and also for everyday activities, such as urinating and copulating. And last of all it is essential to be aware of the good and bad days of the month for all of one's activities.

There is considerable agreement on the text of Works and Days; the lines here correspond to those of Hesiod: Works and Days, ed. M. L. West (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), which differ in a few respects from the text of the Loeb Classical Library prepared by Hugh G. Evelyn-White with credit to W. H. D. Rouse (1914, frequently reprinted). The differences are noted in the commentary.

χρύσεον μὲν πρώτιστα γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων
# (line 109)

  • χρύσεον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <χρύσεος> golden -- golden
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- indeed
  • πρώτιστα -- adverb; <πρώτιστα> first of all -- first of all
  • γένος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <γένος> race -- race
  • μερόπων -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <μέροψ> endowed with speech -- of speaking
  • ἀνθρώπων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- humans

ἀθάνατοι ποίησαν ʼΟλύμπια δώματ' ʼέχοντες.

  • ἀθάνατοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ἀθάνατος> immortal -- (the) immortals
  • ποίησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ποιέω> make, do -- made
  • ʼΟλύμπια -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <ʼΟλύμπιος> Olympian -- Olympian
  • δώματ' -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <δω̂μα> house, home -- homes
  • ʼέχοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ʼέχω> have -- having

οʽὶ μὲν ἐπὶ Κρόνου ʼη̂σαν, ʽότ' οὐρανῳ̂ ἐμβασίλευεν.

  • οʽὶ -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ʽός> this, that, he, she, it -- who
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- ...
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- at the time
  • Κρόνου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Κρόνος> Cronos -- of Cronos
  • ʼη̂σαν -- verb; 3rd person singular plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- existed
  • ʽότ' -- conjunction; <ʽότε> when -- when
  • οὐρανῳ̂ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- in heaven
  • ἐμβασίλευεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <ἐμβασιλεύω> be king in -- was king (in)

ʽώστε θεοὶ δ' ʼέζωον ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ʼέχοντες

  • ʽώστε -- adverbial conjunction; <ʽώστε> like, so that -- like
  • θεοὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <θεός> god -- gods
  • δ' -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ʼέζωον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ζώω> live -- they lived
  • ἀκηδέα -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ἀκήδης> without sorrow -- without sorrow
  • θυμὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θυμός> soul, heart -- heart
  • ʼέχοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ʼέχω> have -- having

νόσφιν ʼάτερ τε πόνων καὶ οἰζύος·

  • νόσφιν -- adverb; <νόσφι> apart, afar, except -- apart
  • ʼάτερ -- preposition; <ʼάτερ> without -- without
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • πόνων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <πόνος> grief -- grief
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἰζύος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <οἰζύς> misery, suffering -- suffering

αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ του̂το γένος κατὰ γαι̂α κάλυψεν
# (line 121; for κάλυψεν West omits the augment, as was done in ἐμ-βασίλευεν above, and maintains the full form of γαι̂α; others elide the final vowel of γαι̂α and include the augment, e.g. γαι̂' ἐκάλυψε, where the -ν is also omitted. The line is repeated before the paragraphs on the third and fourth races.)

  • αὐτὰρ -- conjunction; <αὐτάρ> but -- but
  • ἐπεὶ -- conjunction; <ἐπεί> when, after -- after
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • του̂το -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this
  • γένος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <γένος> race -- race
  • κατὰ -- adverb; <κατά> completely, down, under -- under
  • γαι̂α -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <γαι̂α> land -- the earth
  • κάλυψεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <καλύπτω> cover -- covered

δεύτερον αʼυ̂τε γένος πολὺ χειρότερον μετόπισθεν
# (line 127)

  • δεύτερον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <δεύτερος> second -- second
  • αʼυ̂τε -- adverb; <αʼυ̂τε> then, again -- then
  • γένος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <γένος> race -- race
  • πολὺ -- adverb; <πολύς> many -- much
  • χειρότερον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter comparative of <κακός> evil, poor -- inferior
  • μετόπισθεν -- adverb; <μετόπισθε> afterwards -- somewhat later

ἀργύρεον ποίησαν ʼΟλύμπια δώματ' ʼέχοντες,
# (For δώματ' West elides the -α before a form whose root begins with a vowel.)

  • ἀργύρεον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ἀργύρεος> silver -- of silver
  • ποίησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ποιέω> make, do -- made
  • ʼΟλύμπια -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <ʼΟλύμπιος> Olympian -- Olympian
  • δώματ' -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <δω̂μα> house, home -- homes
  • ʼέχοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ʼέχω> have -- having

χρυσέῳ οʼύτε φυὴν ἐναλίγκιον οʼύτε νόημα.

  • χρυσέῳ -- adjective; dative singular neuter of <χρύσεος> golden -- the golden
  • οʼύτε -- adverb; <οʼύτε> neither, nor -- neither
  • φυὴν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <φύη> stature -- in stature
  • ἐναλίγκιον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ἐναλίγκιος> resembling, like -- like
  • οʼύτε -- adverb; <οʼύτε> neither, nor -- nor
  • νόημα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <νόημα> thought, understanding -- in understanding

Ζεὺς δὲ πατὴρ τρίτον ʼάλλο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων
# (line 143)

  • Ζεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ζεύς> Zeus -- Zeus
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • πατὴρ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <πατήρ> father -- father
  • τρίτον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <τρίτος> third -- third
  • ʼάλλο -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ʼάλλος> other -- other
  • γένος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <γένος> race -- race
  • μερόπων -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <μέροψ> endowed with speech -- endowed with speech
  • ἀνθρώπων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- of humans

χάλκειον ποίησ' οὐκ ἀργυρέῳ οὐδὲν ὁμοι̂ον,

  • χάλκειον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <χάλκειος> of bronze -- bronze
  • ποίησ' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ποιέω> make, do -- made
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἀργυρέῳ -- adjective; dative singular neuter of <ἀργύρεος> silver -- to the silver (race)
  • οὐδὲν -- adverb; <οὐδέν> in no way -- in no way
  • ὁμοι̂ον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ʽόμοιος> like, similar -- like

ἐκ μελια̂ν, δεινόν τε καὶ ʼόβριμον· οʽι̂σιν ʼΆρηος

  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • μελια̂ν -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <μελία> the ash tree -- ash wood
  • δεινόν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <δεινός> terrible -- terrible
  • τε -- conjunction; <τε> and -- and
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼόβριμον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ʼόβριμος> strong -- strong
  • οʽι̂σιν -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural masculine of <ʽός> this, that, he, she, it -- to them
  • ʼΆρηος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʼΆρης> Ares -- of Ares

ʼέργ' ʼέμελε στονόεντα καὶ ʽύβριες· οὐδέ τι σι̂τον

  • ʼέργ' -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ʼέργον> work, deed -- works
  • ʼέμελε -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <μέλω> to care, to be an object of care -- were loved
  • στονόεντα -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <στονόεις> sad, wretched -- wretched
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʽύβριες -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ʽύβρις> violence -- violent acts
  • οὐδέ -- particle; <οὐδέ> not -- not
  • τι -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <τις> someone, something -- any
  • σι̂τον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <σι̂τος> corn, bread -- bread

ʼήσθιον, ἀλλ' ἀδάμαντος ʼέχον κρατερόφρονα θυμόν

  • ʼήσθιον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἐσθίω> eat -- they did ...eat
  • ἀλλ' -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • ἀδάμαντος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἀδάμας> steel -- of steel
  • ʼέχον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ʼέχω> have -- they had
  • κρατερόφρονα -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <κρατερόφρων> stout-hearted, dauntless -- a dauntless
  • θυμόν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θυμός> soul, heart -- heart

αʼύτις ʼέτ' ʼάλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ
# (line 158)

  • αʼύτις -- adverb; <αʼύτις> again -- again
  • ʼέτ' -- adverb; <ʼέτι> still -- yet
  • ʼάλλο -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ʼάλλος> other -- another
  • τέταρτον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <τέταρτος> fourth -- a fourth
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • χθονὶ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <χθών> earth -- the earth
  • πουλυβοτείρῃ -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <πουλυβότειρα> all nourishing, fruitful -- fruitful

Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ʼάρειον,

  • Ζεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ζεύς> Zeus -- Zeus
  • Κρονίδης -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <Κρονίδης> son of Kronos -- the son of Kronos
  • ποίησε -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ποιέω> make, do -- made
  • δικαιότερον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of comparative of <δίκαιος> just, righteous -- more righteous
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼάρειον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of comparative of <ʼάγαθος> good -- better

ἀνδρω̂ν ἡρώων θει̂ον γένος, οʽί καλέονται

  • ἀνδρω̂ν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ἀνήρ> man -- of men
  • ἡρώων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ʽήρως> hero -- (of) heroes
  • θει̂ον -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <θει̂ος> divine, godlike -- godlike
  • γένος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <γένος> race -- race
  • οʽί -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ʽός> who, which -- who
  • καλέονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <καλέω> call, summon -- are called

ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατ' ἀπείρονα γαι̂αν.

  • ἡμίθεοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ἡμίθεος> demi-god -- demi-gods
  • προτέρη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πρότερος> first, before -- prior (to ours)
  • γενεὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <γενεή> family, generation, race -- a race
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- on
  • ἀπείρονα -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <ἀπείρων> boundless -- the boundless
  • γαι̂αν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γαι̂α> land -- earth

νυ̂ν γὰρ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ σιδήρεον· οὐδέ ποτ' ʽη̂μαρ
# (line 176)

  • νυ̂ν -- adverb; <νυ̂ν> now -- now
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- and
  • δὴ -- particle; <δή> indeed -- indeed
  • γένος -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <γένος> race -- the race
  • ἐστὶ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • σιδήρεον -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <σιδήρεος> of iron -- of iron
  • οὐδέ -- particle; <οὐδέ> not -- and ... not
  • ποτ' -- adverb; <ποτέ> at some time, ever -- ever
  • ʽη̂μαρ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ʽη̂μαρ> day -- by day

παύονται καμάτου καὶ οἰζύος, οὐδέ τι νύκτωρ

  • παύονται -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <παύω> stop, cease -- they do ...stop
  • καμάτου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <κάματος> toil, labor -- laboring
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οἰζύος -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <οἰζύς> misery, suffering -- suffering
  • οὐδέ -- particle; <οὐδέ> not -- and . . . not
  • τι -- adverb; <τι> in any way -- at all
  • νύκτωρ -- adverb; <νύκτωρ> by night -- by night

φθειρόμενοι χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας

  • φθειρόμενοι -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle middle of <φθείρω> perish -- perishing
  • χαλεπὰς -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <χαλεπός> difficult -- difficult
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- indeed
  • θεοὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <θεός> god -- the gods
  • δώσουσι -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <δίδωμι> give -- will give
  • μερίμνας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <μέριμνα> care, anxious thought -- anxieties

ἀλλ' ʼέμπης καὶ τοι̂σι μεμείχεται ἐσθλὰ κακοι̂σιν

  • ἀλλ' -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • ʼέμπης -- adverb; <ʼέμπης> nevertheless -- nevertheless
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- also
  • τοι̂σι -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- for them
  • μεμείχεται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <μίγνυμι> mix -- will be mixed
  • ἐσθλὰ -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural neuter of <ἐσθλόν> good -- good things
  • κακοι̂σιν -- adjective; dative plural neuter of <κακός> evil, poor -- with evils

Lesson Text

χρύσεον μὲν πρώτιστα γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων
ἀθάνατοι ποίησαν ʼΟλύμπια δώματ' ʼέχοντες.
οʽὶ μὲν ἐπὶ Κρόνου ʼη̂σαν, ʽότ' οὐρανῳ̂ ἐμβασίλευεν.
ʽώστε θεοὶ δ' ʼέζωον ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ʼέχοντες
νόσφιν ʼάτερ τε πόνων καὶ οἰζύος·
αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ του̂το γένος κατὰ γαι̂α κάλυψεν
δεύτερον αʼυ̂τε γένος πολὺ χειρότερον μετόπισθεν
ἀργύρεον ποίησαν ʼΟλύμπια δώματ' ʼέχοντες,
χρυσέῳ οʼύτε φυὴν ἐναλίγκιον οʼύτε νόημα.
Ζεὺς δὲ πατὴρ τρίτον ʼάλλο γένος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων
χάλκειον ποίησ' οὐκ ἀργυρέῳ οὐδὲν ὁμοι̂ον,
ἐκ μελια̂ν, δεινόν τε καὶ ʼόβριμον· οʽι̂σιν ʼΆρηος
ʼέργ' ʼέμελε στονόεντα καὶ ʽύβριες· οὐδέ τι σι̂τον
ʼήσθιον, ἀλλ' ἀδάμαντος ʼέχον κρατερόφρονα θυμόν
αʼύτις ʼέτ' ʼάλλο τέταρτον ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ
Ζεὺς Κρονίδης ποίησε, δικαιότερον καὶ ʼάρειον,
ἀνδρω̂ν ἡρώων θει̂ον γένος, οʽί καλέονται
ἡμίθεοι, προτέρη γενεὴ κατ' ἀπείρονα γαι̂αν.
νυ̂ν γὰρ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ σιδήρεον· οὐδέ ποτ' ʽη̂μαρ
παύονται καμάτου καὶ οἰζύος, οὐδέ τι νύκτωρ
φθειρόμενοι χαλεπὰς δὲ θεοὶ δώσουσι μερίμνας
ἀλλ' ʼέμπης καὶ τοι̂σι μεμείχεται ἐσθλὰ κακοι̂σιν

Translation

First of all the immortal gods, who live on Olympus, made a golden race of mortal men who lived in the time of Cronos when he was king in heaven. And they lived like gods having a life without sorrow, remote and without grief and suffering. ... But somewhat later after the earth covered this generation, those having Olympian homes made a second generation, silver, inferior, like the golden neither in stature nor in understanding. ... Father Zeus made a third, different race of humans endowed with speech, bronze out of the ash tree, in no way like the silver race, terrible and strong. The wretched works and violent acts of Ares were loved by them, and did not eat any bread, but they inflexibly maintained a dauntless spirit. ... Yet again Zeus, the son of Cronos, made another, the fourth, on the fruitful earth, that was more righteons and better, a godlike race of men, heroes, who are called demigods, the race prior to ours, on the boundless earth. ... And now indeed the race is of iron, and they do not stop laboring and suffering by day, and not at all from perishing by night. Indeed the gods give them difficult anxieties. But nevertheless, also for them, good will be mixed with evils.

Grammar

31. Inflection of adjectives and participles.

Section 12 provided the inflection of the most common adjectives, Here that of adjectives with consonantal stems is given for the adjective ʼάκων 'unwilling'; it applies also to present participles.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   ʼάκων   ʼάκουσα   ʼάκον
Gen. sg.   ʼάκοντος   ἀκούσης   ἀκοντος
Dat. sg.   ʼάκοντι   ἀκούσῃ   ʼάκοντι
Acc. sg.   ʼάκοντα   ʼάκουσαν   ʼάκον
             
Nom. pl.   ʼάκοντες   ʼάκουσαι   ʼάκοντα
Gen. pl.   ἀκόντων   ἀκουσω̂ν   ἀκόντων
Dat. pl.   ʼάκουσι(ν)   ἀκούσαις   ʼάκουσι(ν)
Acc. pl.   ʼάκοντας   ἀκούσας   ʼάκοντα

The frequent adjective, πα̂ς 'all, whole' is also inflected in this way; the nominative and genitive singular are given as an illustration.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   πα̂ς   πα̂σα   πα̂ν
Gen. sg.   παντός   πάσης   παντός

The nominative forms of other consonantal adjectives are given in dictionaries; the other cases may be identified with the help of the forms given above.

32. Two frequently occurring adjectives.

The forms of two frequently ocurring adjectives are given here in view of their common occurrence, μέγας 'great' and πολύς 'much'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   μέγας   μεγάλη   μέγα
Gen. sg.   μεγάλου   μεγάλης   μεγάλου
Dat. sg.   μεγάλῳ   μεγάλῃ   μεγάλῳ
Acc. sg.   μέγαν   μεγάλην   μέγα
             
Nom. pl.   μεγάλοι   μεγάλαι   μεγάλα
Gen. pl.   μεγάλων   μεγάλων   μεγάλων
Dat. pl.   μεγάλοις   μεγάλαις   μεγάλοις
Acc. pl.   μεγάλους   μεγάλας   μεγάλα

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   πολύς   πολλή   πόλυ
Gen. sg.   πολλου̂   πολλη̂ς   πολλου̂
Dat. sg.   πολλῳ̂   πολλῃ̂   πολλῴ
Acc. sg.   πολύν   πολλήν   πολύ
             
Nom. pl.   πολλοί   πολλαί   πολλά
Gen. pl.   πολλω̂ν   πολλω̂ν   πολλω̂ν
Dat. pl.   πολλοι̂ς   πολλαι̂ς   πολλοι̂ς
Acc. pl.   πολλούς   πολλάς   πολλά
33. Less frequent patterns of adjectival comparison.

The most frequent type of comparison with the suffixes -τερος, -τατος was given in section 22. Some common adjectives have different suffixes, as noted there for κακός, with its comparative in κακίων 'worse'and superlative κάκιστος. Similarly, καλός 'beautiful' has the forms καλλίων and κάλλιστος, ἐχθρός 'hostile' has the forms έχθίων, ʼέχθιστος.

Other adjectives have different roots in the comparative and superlative forms. Some have several types of comparison, with differing connotations for the various types.

άγαθ́ος 'good'   ἀμείνων   ʼάριστος   'clever, brave'
    βελτίων   βέλτιστος   'virtuous'
    κρείττων   κράτιστος   'strong, superior'
κακός 'bad'   χείρων   χείριστος   'less good'
    ʽήττων   ʽήκιστος   'weaker'
μέγας 'great'   μείζων   μέγιστος    
μικρός 'small'   μικρότερος   μικρότατος    
    ἐλάττων   ἐλαχ́ιστος   (also applies to ὀλίγος)
ὀλίγος 'little'   μείων   ---    
πολύς 'much'   πλείων   πλει̂στος    
34. Aorist of the passive.

As noted in section 30, the aorist in the passive differs from that in the middle.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπαιδεύθην   παιδευθω̂   παιδευθείην    
2 sg   ἐπαιδεύθης   παιδευθῃ̂ς   παιδευθείης   παιδεύθητι
3 sg   ἐπαιδεύθη   παιδευθῃ̂   παιδευθείη   παιδευθήτω
                 
1 pl   ἐπαιδεύθημεν   παιδευθω̂μενͅ   παιδευθείημεν    
2 pl   ἐπαιδεύθητε   παιδευθη̂τε   παιδευθείητε   παιδεύθητε
3 pl   ἐπαιδεύθησαν   παιδευθω̂σι   παιδευθείησαν   παιδευθέντων
35. Infinitives and participles of the aorist middle and passive.
    Middle   Passive
Infinitive   παιδεύσασθαι
'to educate'
  παιδευθήσεσθαι
'to be educated'
Participle   παιδευσάμενος, -η, -ον
'one who educated'
  παιδευθείς, -θει̂σα, -θέν
'be educated'