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Classical Greek Online

Lesson 8

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Plato is probably the most influential Greek philosopher, as well as one of the greatest in the western world. Born in 429 or 428 B.C., he died in 347 B.C. At the age of twenty he became a follower of Socrates, and remained with him until his death in 399 B.C. After that time he traveled in Egypt, Sicily and lower Italy. He then founded a philosophical school in the Academus grove, from which it is known as the Academy. He produced many dialogues, of which The Laws and the Republic are the most extensive. Socrates conducts the dialogues in which the ideas are discussed. Western philosophers and editors have achieved distinction through their attention to his works, among them Jowett for his translation of the Republic.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The Republic is Plato's major work. In it he discusses, through the mouth of Socrates, the bases of an ideal state. The major ideas deal with human improvement and with the love of truth, as well as the supremacy of mind. The state or city is essential because, without it, individuals cannot be provided with the necessities of life, such as food, shelter, and clothing. Moreover, education is highly important for achieving an ideal state. The four cardinal virtues must be observed, and the three classes must have the desired virtues. The rulers must be wise; the soldiers must be brave and aware of what is to be feared; all others as well must apply moderation and temperance. The health of the state is based on justice, which requires that each class carry out its proper functions. These ideas are presented in the first five books. In the sixth book the prerequisites of higher education are discussed; in the seventh, specialization in the mathematical sciences and dialectic. The eighth book deals with the four types of states that differ from the ideal:

  1. Timocracy, where honor is the basic principle;
  2. Oligarchy, where emphasis is on wealth;
  3. Democracy, where emphasis is on liberty, often on doing what one likes;
  4. Tyranny, where there is slavery to appetite.

The ninth book deals with the difference between the just and the unjust life. The tenth book is a kind of conclusion that emphasizes the importance of righteousness and sobriety.

Choice among the many excellent sections of the Republic is difficult; this passage from Book VI, section XIII, provides insight into the ideal man; it has affected authors from Boethius through Dante to Matthew Arnold.

Oude gar pou, ô Adeimante, scholê tô ge hôs alêthôs pros tois oisi tên dianoian echonti katô blepein eis anthrôpôn pragmateias.

  • oude -- particle; <oude> not -- not
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • pou -- adverb; <pou> anywhere, perhaps -- anywhere
  • ô -- exclamation; <ô> Oh -- Oh
  • Adeimante -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <Adeimantos> Adeimontus -- Adeimontus
  • scholê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <scholê> leisure -- there is ... leisure
  • -- article; dative singular masculine of <ho> the -- for the one
  • ge -- particle; <ge> indeed -- at all
  • hôs -- adverb; <hôs> so, thus -- thus
  • alêthôs -- adverb; <alêthôs> really, truly -- truly
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- on
  • tois -- article; dative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • oisi -- participle used as substantive; dative plural neuter of present participle of <eimi> I am -- (beings) eternal verities
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- (the) his
  • dianoian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular <dianoia> thought, mind -- mind
  • echonti -- verb; dative singular masculine present participle of <echô> have -- (who) has
  • katô -- adverb; <katô> downward -- downward
  • blepein -- verb; infinitive of <blepô> see -- to look
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- at
  • anthrôpôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <anthrôpos> human being -- of human beings
  • pragmateias -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <pragmateia> hard work, affairs -- the affairs

kai machomenon autois phthonou te kai dusmeneias empiplasthai,

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • machomenon -- deponent verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle of <machomai> fight, quarrel -- quarreling
  • autois -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- with them
  • phthonou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <phthonos> envy, ill-will -- with ill-will
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- and
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • dusmeneias -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dusmeneia> enmity, hate -- hate
  • empiplasthai -- verb; infinitive passive of <empiplêmi> fill -- to be filled

all' eis tetagmena hatta kai kata tauta aei echonta horôntas kai theômenous out' adikounta out' adikoumena hup' allêlôn, kosmô de panta kai kata logon echonta, tauta mimeisthai te kai ho ti malista aphomoiousthai.

  • all' -- conjunction; <alla> but -- but
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- towards
  • tetagmena -- verb; accusative plural neuter of passive participle of <tassô> arrange, put in order -- has been arranged, i.e. is eternal
  • hatta -- pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <hostis> whoever, whatever -- what
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • kata -- preposition; <kata> completely, down, under -- in accordance with
  • tauta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the + pronoun <autos> oneself, he -- the things
  • aei -- adverb; <aei> always -- constant
  • echonta -- verb; accusative plural neuter of participle of <echô> have -- (being) that are
  • horôntas -- verb; accusative plural masculine of participle of <horaô> see -- he keeps his eyes fixed
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • theômenous -- deponent verb; accusative plural masculine of middle participle of <theaomai> see -- sees
  • out' -- adverb; <oute> neither, nor -- neither
  • adikounta -- verb; accusative plural neuter of participle of <adikeô> wrong -- wrong
  • out' -- adverb; <oute> neither, nor -- nor
  • adikoumena -- verb; accusative plural neuter of passive participle of <adikeô> wrong -- wronged
  • hup' -- preposition; <hupo> under, by -- by
  • allêlôn -- pronoun; genitive plural neuter of <allêlôn> one another -- by one another
  • kosmô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <kosmos> beauty, order, world -- order
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • panta -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- everything
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • kata -- preposition; <kata> completely, down, under -- in accordance with
  • logon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <logos> word, reason -- reason
  • echonta -- verb; accusative plural neuter of participle of <echô> have -- that is
  • tauta -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <houtos> this -- things
  • mimeisthai -- deponent verb; infinitive middle of <mimeomai> imitate -- he will imitate
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- and
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ho -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hos> who, which -- what
  • ti -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <tis> someone, something -- that
  • malista -- adverb; superlative of <mala> very -- as much as possible
  • aphomoiousthai -- verb; passive infinitive of <aphomoioô> to make like -- become like

ê oiei tina mêchanên einai, hotô tis homilei agamenos, mê mimeisthai ekeino?

  • ê -- conjunction; <ê> or, than -- or
  • oiei -- deponent verb; 2nd person singular present middle of <oimai> think -- do you think
  • tina -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <tis> someone, something -- it
  • mêchanên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <mêchanê> instrument -- possible
  • einai -- verb; infinitive of <eimi> I am -- to be
  • hotô -- relative pronoun; dative singular neuter of <hostis> whoever, whatever -- with something
  • tis -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tis> someone, something -- (if) someone
  • homilei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <homileô> consort with, busy oneself with -- busies himself
  • agamenos -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of middle participle of <agamai> to wonder, admire -- admiringly
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • mimeisthai -- deponent verb; infinitive middle of <mimeomai> imitate -- (would) ...imitate
  • ekeino -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ekeinos> that -- that

Adunaton, ephê.

  • adunaton -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <adunatos> impossible -- (it is) impossible
  • ephê -- verb; 2nd person singular imperfect of <phêmi> say -- he said

Theiô dê kai kosmiô ho ge philosophos homilôn kosmios te kai theios eis dunaton anthrôpô gignetai.

  • theiô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <theios> deity, divinity -- the divine
  • -- particle; <> indeed -- indeed
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • kosmiô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <kosmios> decorum, order -- order
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • ge -- particle; <ge> indeed -- ...
  • philosophos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <philosophos> wise man -- wise man
  • homilôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <homileô> consort with, busy oneself with -- who busies himself with
  • kosmios -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <kosmios> orderly -- orderly
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- and
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • theios -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <theios> divine, godlike -- divine
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- to
  • dunaton -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <dunatos> possible -- the extent possible
  • anthrôpô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <anthrôpos> human being -- for a human
  • gignetai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present of <gignomai> happen, become -- will become

diabolê d' en pasi pollê.

  • diabolê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <diabolê> false accusation, calumny -- calumny
  • d' -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • pasi -- adjective; dative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- everything
  • pollê -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <polus> many -- (is) plentiful

Pantapasi men oun.

  • pantapasi -- adverb; <pantapasi> absolutely -- absolutely
  • men -- particle; <men> on the one hand -- indeed
  • oun -- adverb; <oun> indeed -- to be sure

An oun tis, eipon, autô anagkê genetai ha ekei hora meletêsai eis anthrôpôn êthê kai idia kai dêmosia tithenai, kai mê monon heauton plattein,

  • an -- particle; <an> if -- supposing
  • oun -- adverb; <oun> indeed -- then
  • tis -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <tis> someone, something -- someone
  • eipon -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <legô> say -- I said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- for him
  • anagkê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <anagkê> force, compulsion -- force
  • genetai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <gignomai> happen, become -- is applied
  • ha -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <hos> who, which -- which
  • ekei -- adverb; <ekei> there -- there
  • hora -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <horaô> see -- he sees
  • meletêsai -- verb; aorist infinitive of <meletaô> care for, practice -- to practice
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- ...
  • anthrôpôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <anthrôpos> human being -- of humans
  • êthê -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <êthos> custom, character -- the manners
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- both
  • idia -- adverb; <idia> privately -- privately
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • dêmosia -- adverb; <dêmosia> in public -- in public
  • tithenai -- verb; infinitive of <tithêmi> put, place -- arranging
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • monon -- adverb; <monon> alone -- alone
  • heauton -- reflexive pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <heautos> himself -- himself
  • plattein -- verb; infinitive of <plattô> mould, shape -- moulding

ara kakon dêmiourgon auton oiei genêsesthai sôphrosunês te kai dikaiosunês kai xumpasês tês dêmotikês aretês?

  • ara -- interrogative particle; <ara> then -- then
  • kakon -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <kakos> evil, poor -- a poor
  • dêmiourgon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dêmiourgos> craftsman -- craftsman
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- he
  • oiei -- deponent verb; 2nd person singular present middle of <oimai> think -- do you consider
  • genêsesthai -- deponent verb; infinitive future middle of <gignomai> happen, become -- will become
  • sôphrosunês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <sôphrosunê> moderation, discretion -- of discretion
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- and
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • dikaiosunês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dikaiosunê> justice, righteousness -- of justice
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • xumpasês -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <xumpas> all together -- of all kinds
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • dêmotikês -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <dêmotikos> of the people, in common use -- common
  • aretês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <aretê> virtue -- virtue

Hêkista ge, hê d' hos.

  • hêkista -- adverb; <hêkista> least -- not at all
  • ge -- particle; <ge> indeed -- indeed
  • -- adverb; <> verily -- in truth
  • d' -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- ...
  • hos -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hos> this, that, he, she, it -- he (said)

Lesson Text

Oude gar pou, ô Adeimante, scholê tô ge hôs alêthôs pros tois oisi tên dianoian echonti katô blepein eis anthrôpôn pragmateias. kai machomenon autois phthonou te kai dusmeneias empiplasthai, all' eis tetagmena hatta kai kata tauta aei echonta horôntas kai theômenous out' adikounta out' adikoumena hup' allêlôn, kosmô de panta kai kata logon echonta, tauta mimeisthai te kai ho ti malista aphomoiousthai. ê oiei tina mêchanên einai, hotô tis homilei agamenos, mê mimeisthai ekeino? Adunaton, ephê. Theiô dê kai kosmiô ho ge philosophos homilôn kosmios te kai theios eis dunaton anthrôpô gignetai. diabolê d' en pasi pollê. Pantapasi men oun. An oun tis, eipon, autô anagkê genetai ha ekei hora meletêsai eis anthrôpôn êthê kai idia kai dêmosia tithenai, kai mê monon heauton plattein, ara kakon dêmiourgon auton oiei genêsesthai sôphrosunês te kai dikaiosunês kai xumpasês tês dêmotikês aretês? Hêkista ge, hê d' hos.

Translation

"For there is no leisure at all anywhere, Oh Adeimontus, for the one who truly has his mind on the eternal verities to look downward at the affairs of human beings, and quarreling with them to be filled with ill-will and hate. But he keeps his eyes fixed on what is eternal and on the things that are constant, and sees neither what is wrong nor wronged by one another; and he will imitate everything that is in accordance with reason, and become like that as much as possible. Or do you think it to be possible if someone busies himself with something admiringly not to imitate that?" He said it is impossible. "Then the wise man who busies himself with the divine and with order will become orderly and divine to the extent possible for a human. But calumny is plentiful in everything." "Absolutely, to be sure." "Suppose then, I said, some force is applied to him to practice arranging both privately and in public the manners of humans which he sees there, and not moulding himself alone. Then do you consider that he will become a poor craftsman with regard to discretion and justice and all kinds of common virtues?" "Not at all, in truth," he said.

Grammar

36. Tense formation.

To identify verbal forms, it is useful to note the principal parts. Illustrations are provided here, first with the so-called pure verbs, that is, those for which the stems are not modified by the endings. Examples are: paideuô 'educate', timaô 'honor', poieô 'make'.

Present   paideuô   timaô   poieô
Future   paideusô   timêsô   poiêsô
Aorist active   epaideusa   etimêsa   epoiêsa
Perfect active   pepaideuka   tetimêka   pepoiêka
Perfect middle   pepaideumai   tetimêmai   pepoiêmai
Aorist passive   epaideuthên   etimêthên   epoiêthên
37. Tense formation of obstruent stems.

In stems ending in obstruent consonants, that is, those ending in stops or fricatives, the consonant of the stem is modified before the tense markers. Examples are given here for peithô 'persade', prattô 'do', agô 'lead', and graphô 'write'.

Present   peithô   prattô   agô   graphô
Future   peisô   praxô   axô   grapsa
Aorist active   epeisa   epraxa   êgagon   egrapsa
Perfect active   pepeika   pepracha   êcha   gegrapha
Perfect middle   pepeismai   pepragmai   êgmai   gegrammai
Aorist passive   epeisthên   eprachthên   êchthên   egraphthên
38. Tense formation of resonant stems.

Stems ending in resonants may fail to have the future/aorist marker. Examples are phainô 'appear', aggellô 'announce', and speirô 'sow'.

Present   phainô   aggellô   speirô
Future   phanô   aggelô   sperô
Aorist active   ephêna   êggeila   espeira
Perfect active   pephagka   êggelka   esparka
Perfect middle   pephasmai   êggelmai   esparmai
Aorist passive   ephanthên   êggelthên   esparthên
39. The tense formations of some frequent but irregular verbs.

Some verb forms are quite irregular. Some forms of echô 'have' are based on its ancient root *sech-. The forms of pherô 'bear' are based on several roots. The forms of legô, phêmi, agoreuô 'say, speak' are also based on various roots.

Present   echô   pherô   legô (etc.)
Future   hexô   oisô   erô
Aorist active   eschon   ênegkon   eipon
Perfect active   eschêka   enênocha   eirêka
Perfect middle   eschêmai   enênegmai   eirêmai
Aorist passive   eschomên   ênechthên   errêthên
40. The Middle and Passive Perfect.

The forms are the same in the two voices. The subjunctive and optative have forms of the verb 'to be' after the participle (not repeated in the optative, below). They are as follows:

    Indicative   Preterite   Subjunctive   Opt.
1s   pepaideumai   epepaideumên   pepaideumenos ô   eiên
2s   pepaideusai   epepaideuso   --- ês   eiês
3s   pepaideutai   epepaideuto   --- ê   eiê
                 
1p   pepaideumetha   epepaideumetha   pepaideumenoi ômen   eiêmen
2p   pepaideusthe   epepaideusthe   --- ête   eitêe
3p   pepaideuntai   epepaideunto   --- ôsi   eiêsin