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Hittite Online

Lesson 10

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

The festival texts make up the largest group of tablets found at Bogazky. Stereotyped, they describe in detail the rituals that must be carried out at a given festival. They also include information of importance for reconstructing the history of the Hittites, such as lists of place names, and data on the gods and the functionaries in the various cults. The texts are lengthy; those for the KI.LAM festival, "The Festival of the Gate-House," make up more than 12 tablets, while the purulli festival is recorded in 32. They are also of importance for determining changes in the Hittite language over time, as well as supplies for the participants in the festival, such as their rations of food, their festive garments, and their ornaments. For the KI.LAM festival the priest selects 4 sheep on the first day, and again on the third, leading to a total of more than 120. Similar information is included for bread and beverages, as well as for the clothing and ornaments, some of which have not been identified. The participants are also identified by types, such as priests of the various deities and cities, and cult functionaries in addition to men and women of the town. Much of this information still remains to be assembled and published.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The sections from the description of the KI.LAM festival that are presented here are self-explanatory. The first provides information on the participants and their functions. The remainder list the procedures as the king and queen proceed from their palace to the site of the ceremony. The central features of the ceremony in the procession viewed by the king, first at the palace gate and then at the upper gate of the gods, consisted of cult objects. The priest of KAL is followed by "the spears," the "copper fleeces," and the animals of the gods; these are metal figures, including a silver panther, a silver wolf, a golden lion, a lapis lazuli boar, a silver boar and a silver bear. They in turn are followed by the "god-men," metal figures of the stags, and birds of ivory. Further ceremonies include the race of the runners, who bring a libation vessel to the king. This is filled with wine, which the king then pours into the hands of the priests, who are mentioned in the lists of garments given them. Thereupon the king and the queen ride in a chariot to various houses and temples, finally to the ceremonial tent of the Storm-god where a "Great Assembly" is held at which 40 different gods are worshipped, as by drinking to them. Finally the king and queen return to the palace, entering through the palace gate.

  • The 1st paragraph is from KBo X 15 I 22-31;
  • the 2nd paragraph is from KBo XXVII 42 I 1-14;
  • the 3rd paragraph is from KBo XXVII 42 I 24-39;
  • the 4th paragraph is from KBo XXVII 42 III 12-23.

22-31 - GISH DINANNA GAL L.MESHha-li-ya-re-es SRRU LALAM.KA UD me-ma-i Lpal-wa-tal-la-as pal-wa-iz-zi Lki-i-ta-as hal-za-a-i

  • GISH DINANNA -- noun; Sumerogram <GISH> wood, tree + proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as instrumental <DINANNA> Inanna -- (to the accompaniment of) the... INANNA-lyre
  • GAL -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as instrumental <GAL> chief, great -- large
  • L.MESHha-li-ya-re-es -- noun; nominative plural animate of <haliyari-> singer -- the singers # The haliyari men were apparently a group of singer-priests.
  • SRRU -- verb; Sumerogram functioning here as 3rd person plural present <SR> sing + Akkadian phonetic complement <-RU>... -- sing # The Akkadian verb from which the phonetic complement comes was zama:ru, but the Hittite reading is ishamiyanzi.
  • LALAM.KA UD -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <LALAM.KAxUD> performer, comedian -- the comedian # Apparently this cult functionary was a kind of ritual clown.
  • me-ma-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <me:ma-, me:miya-> say, speak -- speaks
  • Lpal-wa-tal-la-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <Lpalwatalla-> applauder -- the applauder # The applauders were another group of ritual functionaries.
  • pal-wa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <palwa:i-> applaud -- applauds
  • Lki-i-ta-as -- noun; nominative singular of <Lki:ta-> a cult functionary, reciter? -- the reciter?
  • hal-za-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <halza:i-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- recites

LSLA.SU.DU8.A 1 NINDA.GUR4 EM-SA a-as-ka-az -da-i LUGAL-i pa-a-i LUGAL-us par-si-ya LSLA.SU.DU8.A-kan LUGAL-i NINDA.GUR4 e-ep-zi ta-as-ta pa-ra-a pe-e-da-i

  • LSLA.SU.DU8.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <LSLA.SU.DU8.A> cupbearer -- the cupbearer
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • NINDA.GUR4 -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.GUR4> thick bread -- thick bread
  • EM-SA -- adjective; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular of <EMSU> sour -- sour
  • a-as-ka-az -- noun; ablative singular of <a:ska-> gate, outside -- from the gate
  • -da-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <uda-> bring -- brings
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- to the king
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- he gives (it)
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • par-si-ya -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <pars-, parsiya-> break, crumble -- crumbles
  • LSLA.SU.DU8.A-kan -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <LSLA.SU.DU8.A> cupbearer + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- the cupbearer
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- to the king
  • NINDA.GUR4 -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.GUR4> thick bread -- a thick loaf
  • e-ep-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <e:pp-> take, seize -- holds out
  • ta-as-ta -- sentence particle; <ta> and + locatival particle <-asta> (indicating completed action) -- and
  • pa-ra-a pe-e-da-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <para: pe:da-> take away -- he... takes away

1-14 - ma-a-an LUGAL-us ha-li-en-tu-u-az -ez-zi ta GISHZA.LAM.GAR-as pa-iz-zi nu-za LUGAL-us MUNUS.LUGAL e-sa-an-da

  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <ma:n> if, when -- when
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • ha-li-en-tu-u-az -- noun; ablative singular of <halientu:-> palace complex -- from the palace complex
  • -ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- comes
  • ta -- sentence particle; <ta> and -- ...
  • GISHZA.LAM.GAR-as -- noun; Sumerogram <ZA.LAM.GAR> ceremonial tent + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- to the tent
  • pa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go -- goes
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- and queen
  • e-sa-an-da -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <e:s-> sit -- seat themselves

n-as-ta DUMU..GAL SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN an-da ti-ya-az-zi nu SHU-az GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN GISHkal-mu-us GAD SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN har-zi e-ez-zi GAD LUGAL-i pa-a-i

  • n-as-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-asta> (indicating completed action) -- and
  • DUMU..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace -- the Son of the Palace # This is a term for a court functionary.
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GISHSHUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <SHUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUSHKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <GUSHKIN> gold -- gold
  • an-da ti-ya-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <anda tiya> step in -- steps in
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • SHU-az -- noun; Sumerogram <SHU> hand + Hittite phonetic complement <-az> (indicating ablative singular) -- with his hand
  • GISHSHUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <SHUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUSHKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GUSHKIN> gold -- gold
  • GISHkal-mu-us -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <kalmus> lituus -- the lituus # The lituus, a staff that looked like a shepherd's crook, was a symbol of Hittite kingship.
  • -- conjunction; Akkadogram <> and -- and
  • GAD -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GAD> towel -- the towel
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GISHSHUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <SHUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUSHKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <GUSHKIN> gold -- gold
  • har-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- holds
  • e-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- he comes? # The tablet is damaged here, and the restoration is uncertain.
  • GAD -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GAD> towel -- the towel
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- to the king
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gives

GISHkal-mu-us-ma-as-sa-an kat-ta GISHDAG-ti da-a-i

  • GISHkal-mu-us-ma-as-sa-an -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <kalmus> lituus + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-ssan> (indicating upward motion) -- the lituus
  • kat-ta -- postposition; <katta> down, downwards -- down
  • GISHDAG-ti -- noun; Sumerogram <GISHDAG> throne + Hittite phonetic complement <-ti> (indicating dative singular) -- at the throne
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:i-, tiya-> place, put -- he sets

DUMU..GAL-ma EGIR-pa LUGAL-i-kan me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN har-zi nu ka-a-as-mi-is-sa-a hal-za-a-i

  • DUMU..GAL-ma -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- The Son of the Palace
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... -- again
  • LUGAL-i-kan -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- to the king
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- postposition; <me:nahhanda> facing, opposite -- in front of
  • ti-ya-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <tiya-> step -- steps
  • GISHSHUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <SHUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUSHKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GUSHKIN> gold -- golden
  • har-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- he holds
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • ka-a-as-mi-is-sa-a -- exclamation; <ka:smissa:> kassmissa -- kassmissa
  • hal-za-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <halza:i-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- he calls out

24-39 - nu GAL LME-SHE-DI pe-ra-an-hu-wa-i na-as-kan LUGAL-i me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <GAL> chief, great -- the chief
  • LME-SHE-DI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive plural of <LME-SHE-DI> body guard -- of the body guards
  • pe-ra-an-hu-wa-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pe:ran huwai-> run in front -- marches in front
  • na-as-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and he
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- the king
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- postposition; <me:nahhanda> facing, opposite -- facing
  • ti-ya-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <tiya-> step -- steps

nu 2 DUMUMESH..GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL ME-E QA-TI hu-u-pa-ri-it GUSHKIN pe-e-da-an-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two
  • DUMUMESH..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <LUGAL> king -- to the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- and the queen
  • ME-E QA-TI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MEQATI> hand-water -- hand-water
  • hu-u-pa-ri-it -- noun; instrumental singular of <huppar> bowl -- with a... bowl
  • GUSHKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as instrumental singular <GUSHKIN> gold -- gold
  • pe-e-da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <pe:da-> bring, take -- take

SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN-ma DUMU..GAL hu-u-up-par-as A-NA 2 DUMUMESH..GAL GB-la-za i-ya-at-ta-ri GAL DUMUMESH..GAL-ma-as-ma-as EGIR-an kat-ta-ni-pu-un pe-e har-zi

  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GISHSHUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <SHUKUR> spear -- the... spear
  • GUSHKIN-ma -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <GUSHKIN> gold + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- gold
  • DUMU..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace -- the Son of the Palace
  • hu-u-up-par-as -- noun; genitive singular of <hu-u-up-par-as> vessel -- of the vessel
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two
  • DUMUMESH..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the... Sons of the Palace
  • GB-la-za -- adverb; Sumerogram <GB> left + Hittite phonetic complement <-laza>... -- the left of
  • i-ya-at-ta-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <iya-> go, march -- steps
  • GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <GAL> chief, great -- the chief (of the)
  • DUMUMESH..GAL-ma-as-ma-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative <-smas> they -- Sons of the Palace... to them
  • EGIR-an -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-an>... -- ...
  • kat-ta-ni-pu-un -- noun; accusative singular animate of <katanipu:-> linen towel -- a linen towel
  • pe-e har-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pe: har-, pe: hark-> hold, hold out -- holds out

nu ma-ah-ha-an GISHDAG-ti kat-ta ma-ni-in-ku-wa-ah-ha-an-zi nu DUMU..GAL SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN-ma EGIR-pa ti-i-ez-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- when
  • GISHDAG-ti -- noun; Sumerogram <GISHDAG> throne + Hittite phonetic complement <-ti> (indicating dative singular) -- the throne
  • kat-ta -- postposition; <katta> down, downwards -- down
  • ma-ni-in-ku-wa-ah-ha-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <maninkuwahh-> draw near, approach -- approaches
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • DUMU..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace -- the Son of the Palace
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GISHSHUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <SHUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUSHKIN-ma -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <GUSHKIN> gold + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- gold
  • EGIR-pa ti-i-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <a:ppa tiya-> step back -- steps back

nu 2 DUMUMESH..GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL SHUHI.A-as wa-a-tar pa-ra-a ap-pa-an-zi nu-za-kan LUGAL MUNUS.lUGAL SHUHI.A-SHU-NU ar-ra-an-zi nu-kan pa-ra-a pe-e-da-an-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two
  • DUMUMESH..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- of
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <LUGAL> king -- the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- (and) queen
  • SHUHI.A-as -- noun; Sumerogram <SHU> hand + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- for the hands
  • wa-a-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <wa:tar> water -- water
  • pa-ra-a ap-pa-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <para: e:pp-> hold out -- hold out
  • nu-za-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <LUGAL> king -- the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- and the queen
  • SHUHI.A-SHU-NU -- noun; Sumerogram <SHU> hand + Sumerian plural marker <HI.A>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person plural of <-SHU-NU> their -- their hands
  • ar-ra-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <a:rr-> wash -- wash
  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • pa-ra-a pe-e-da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <para: pe:da-> take away -- take away

12-23 - nu LUGAl-us GAD-an ar-ha pi-is-si-az-zi na-at ma-a-an A-NA LMESH ME-SE-DI an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi LMESH ME-SE-DI ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at LMESH ME-SE-DI sa-ra-a da-an-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • GAD-an -- noun; Sumerogram <GAD> towel + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- the towel
  • ar-ha pi-is-si-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arha pe:ssiya-> throw away -- throws away
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <ma:n> if, when -- if
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- among
  • LMESH ME-SE-DI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative plural <LMESH ME-SE-DI> bodyguard -- the bodyguards
  • an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <andan pe:ssiya-> throw into the midst -- throws
  • LMESH ME-SE-DI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural <LMESH ME-SE-DI> bodyguard -- the bodyguards
  • ku-e-ez -- adverb; <kue:z> from where -- from where
  • par-as-sa-na-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of mi-conjugation <parssna:i-> squat -- have been squatting
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • LMESH ME-SE-DI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural <LMESH ME-SE-DI> bodyguard -- the bodyguards
  • sa-ra-a da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <sara: da:-> offer, take -- take away

ma-a-na-at DUMUMESH..GAL-ma an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi DUMUMESH..GAL ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at DUMUMESH..GAL sa-ra-a da-an-zi na-at LMESHGISHBANSUR-as pi-an-zi

  • ma-a-na-at -- conjunction; <ma:n> if, when + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- if it
  • DUMUMESH..GAL-ma -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but to the Sons of the Palace
  • an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <andan pe:ssiya-> throw into the midst -- throws
  • DUMUMESH..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • ku-e-ez -- adverb; <kue:z> from where -- from where
  • par-as-sa-na-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of mi-conjugation <parssna:i-> squat -- have been squatting
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • DUMUMESH..GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU..GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • sa-ra-a da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <sara: da:-> offer, take -- take away
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • LMESHGISHBANSUR-as -- noun; Sumerogram <LMESHGISHBANSUR> man of the table + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- to the men of the table
  • pi-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- give

Lesson Text

22-31 GISH DINANNA GAL L.MESHha-li-ya-re-es SRRU LALAM.KA UD me-ma-i Lpal-wa-tal-la-as pal-wa-iz-zi Lki-i-ta-as hal-za-a-i
LSLA.SU.DU8.A 1 NINDA.GUR4 EM-SA a-as-ka-az -da-i LUGAL-i pa-a-i LUGAL-us par-si-ya LSLA.SU.DU8.A-kan LUGAL-i NINDA.GUR4 e-ep-zi ta-as-ta pa-ra-a pe-e-da-i

1-14 ma-a-an LUGAL-us ha-li-en-tu-u-az -ez-zi ta GISHZA.LAM.GAR-as pa-iz-zi nu-za LUGAL-us MUNUS.LUGAL e-sa-an-da
n-as-ta DUMU..GAL SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN an-da ti-ya-az-zi nu SHU-az GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN GISHkal-mu-us GAD SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN har-zi e-ez-zi GAD LUGAL-i pa-a-i
GISHkal-mu-us-ma-as-sa-an kat-ta GISHDAG-ti da-a-i
DUMU..GAL-ma EGIR-pa LUGAL-i-kan me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN har-zi nu ka-a-as-mi-is-sa-a hal-za-a-i

24-39 nu GAL LME-SHE-DI pe-ra-an-hu-wa-i na-as-kan LUGAL-i me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi
nu 2 DUMUMESH..GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL ME-E QA-TI hu-u-pa-ri-it GUSHKIN pe-e-da-an-zi
SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN-ma DUMU..GAL hu-u-up-par-as A-NA 2 DUMUMESH..GAL GB-la-za i-ya-at-ta-ri GAL DUMUMESH..GAL-ma-as-ma-as EGIR-an kat-ta-ni-pu-un pe-e har-zi
nu ma-ah-ha-an GISHDAG-ti kat-ta ma-ni-in-ku-wa-ah-ha-an-zi nu DUMU..GAL SHA GISHSHUKUR GUSHKIN-ma EGIR-pa ti-i-ez-zi
nu 2 DUMUMESH..GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL SHUHI.A-as wa-a-tar pa-ra-a ap-pa-an-zi nu-za-kan LUGAL MUNUS.lUGAL SHUHI.A-SHU-NU ar-ra-an-zi nu-kan pa-ra-a pe-e-da-an-zi

12-23 nu LUGAl-us GAD-an ar-ha pi-is-si-az-zi na-at ma-a-an A-NA LMESH ME-SE-DI an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi LMESH ME-SE-DI ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at LMESH ME-SE-DI sa-ra-a da-an-zi
ma-a-na-at DUMUMESH..GAL-ma an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi DUMUMESH..GAL ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at DUMUMESH..GAL sa-ra-a da-an-zi na-at LMESHGISHBANSUR-as pi-an-zi

Translation

22 To the accompaniment of the large INANNA-lyre, the singers sing, the comedian speaks, the applauders applaud, (and) the reciter recites. The cupbearer brings one sour thick bread from the gate/outside. He gives it to the king (and) the king crumbles (it). The cupbearer holds out a thick loaf to the king and he (the cupbearer) takes (it) away.
1 When the king comes from the palace complex, he goes to the tents; and the king (and) queen seat themselves. The Son of the Palace of the Gold Spear steps in. With his hand, he holds the lituus and the towel of the golden spear. He comes(?) and gives the towel to the king, but the lituus he sets down at the throne. The Son of the Palace again steps in front of the king. He holds the golden spear. He calls out "kassmissa!"
24 And the chief of the bodyguard marches in front and he steps facing the king. And two Sons of the Palace take hand-water to the king and queen with a gold bowl. The Son of the Palace of the Gold Spear steps to the left of the two Sons of the Palace of the Vessel. The chief of the Sons of the Palace holds out a linen towel to them (the king and queen). And when he approaches the throne, then the Son of the Palace of the Gold Spear steps back. And 2 Sons of the Palace hold out water for the hands of the king and queen. And the king and queen wash their hands and they (the Sons of the Palace) take (it) away.
12 And the king throws the towel away. If he throws it among the bodyguards, the bodyguards from where they have been squatting pick it up, and the bodyguards take it away. But if he throws it among the Sons of the Palace, the Sons of the Palace from where they have been squatting pick it up, and they take it away and give it to the Men of the Table.

Grammar

46. Negatives

Hittite has two widely used negative particles. One, natta, can be considered the general negative. The other, le:, which was rarer, was an emphatic negative, used in expressing strong wishes or commands.

46.1. Emphatic negative

The emphatic negative could be used, at least in early texts, in commands with the imperative. It could also be used with verbs in the indicative to express strong wishes in texts from all periods.

    le:-ta   na:hi
    negative-yourself   fear (imp.)
    "Don't fear for yourself."
         
    memiyann-a-ssi   le:   mematti
    word-but-to her   not   you speak
    "And you should not speak a word to her."
             
    ehu-wa   i:t   kuwapi-wa   paisi
    come on-quotative   go   where-quotative   you go
    ammuk-ma-wa-tta   le:   saggahhi    
    I-and-quotative-you   not   know    
    "Go! And I don't want to know where you go!"
                 
    n-asta   le:   a:ssawe:s   id:lauwas   anda harkanzi
    and-locatival   not   good   bad   perish together with
    "Let not the good people perish together with the bad."

With a verb in the second or third person iterative le: can be translated as "stop" doing the action conveyed by the iterative:

    le:   kuwatqa   lahlahhiskesi
    not   in any way   keep worrying
    "You should stop worrying in any way."
46.2. General particle natta

By far the more common negative particle, however, was the general particle natta. It is usually written out as na-at-ta in the earliest Old Hittite texts, but in later texts, the syllabic spelling is normally replaced by the Akkadogram U:L, which was read as natta. Natta normally occurs before the part of the clause that is negated. So-called "double negatives" are perfectly grammatical in Hittite.

Natta may negate the entire predicate of a sentence of a sentence, or a noun that is part of the predicate:

    takku   natta-ma   taranzi   nu   natta   paimi
    if   not-but   they say   then   not   I go
    "But if they don't say, I will not go."
                         
    eter   n-e   U:L   ispie:r
    they   ate   not   were satiated
    "They ate, (and) they were not satiated."
                 
    takku   kussan-a   natta   piyan
    if   wage-but   not   paid
    "But if the wage is not paid..."
                 
    lalesmess-a   U:L   siya:nza
    the invoice-and   not   sealed
    "And the invoice was not sealed."

In the following the direct object or one of its modifiers is negated:

    U:L   pittuliantan-ma   anda warpiskesi
    not   intimidated-but   you enclose
    "You enclose even the unintimidated."
             
    qa:sa-smas-kan   parkuin   misriwantan   harkin    
    look-to you-locatival   pure   perfect   white    
    GISHPA-it   U:L   walhantan   UDU-un   sipantahhun
    with a stick   not   struck   sheep   I offer
    "Look, I am offering you (as sacrifice) a pure, perfect, white, never-struck with a stick sheep."

The subject or one of its modifiers can also be negated:

    natta-an   u:k   tarnahhun
    not-it   I   released
    "It wasn't I who released it."
             
    ektas-ma-du-ssan   erhaz   U:L   nahsariyauwanza   arha   U:L   wezzi
    net-but-you-locatival   circle   not   afraid   out   not   comes
    "Even the unafraid will not come out of the circle of your net."
46.3. Indefinite pronouns and adverbs

Indefinite pronouns and adverbs can be negated, for example natta kuiski means 'no one', natta kuitki means 'nothing', natta kuatqa means 'in no way', and natta kuwappiki means 'in no way, at no time, never':

    nu-wa   U:L kuitki   sakti
    and-quotative   nothing   you know
    "You know nothing."
             
    ANA   M.DLAMMMA-ma-kan   wastul   U:L kuitki   a:sta
    to   Kurunta-but-locatival   fault   not any   remained
    "No fault whatsoever attached to (lit. 'remained with') Kurunta."
                     
    M.DLAMMA-as-ma-kan   U:L kuwappiki   anda   e:sta
    Kurunta-but-locatival   in no way   in   was
    "Kurunta was in no way involved (in the insurrection)."
46.4. Negative adverb na:wi

The negative adverb na:wi means 'not yet'. When na:wi is used with a verb in the present tense, the sentence or clause in which it occurs is to be translated by the English present perfect:

    ma:n-kan   DSIN   nawi   u:pzi
    if-locatival   the moon   not yet   rises
    "If the moon has not yet risen..."

When na:wi is used with a verb in the past tense, the sentence should be translated by the Engish past perfect:

    EGIR-izzi-ma-ssi   TUPPU   na:wi   wemiyawen
    last-but-to it   tablet   not yet   found
    "We had not yet found its final tablet (i.e. the final tablet of a multi-tablet composition)."
46.5. Adverb nu:ma:n

The adverb nu:ma:n, which is a compound whose second element is probably related to the irrealis particle man, is used with negative wishes, for example:

    n-e   namma   hattesnas   kattanda nu:ma:n pa:nzi
    and-they   moreover   to holes   down not they go
    "And they (snakes) do not want to go back down into (their) holes again."
47. Local Adverbs and Preverbs

Hittite has a handful of function words that may act as postpositions (function words that are comparable to English prepositions), as adverbs specifying location, and as preverbs, words that modify verbs. As adverbs, anda 'into', a:ppa 'after(wards), behind', arha 'outward, away', katta 'downward', para: 'forward, forth, further', and sara: 'upward' indicate movement in a particular direction. The related adverbs a:ppan 'behind, after(wards)', kattan 'at the side', pe:ran 'before, in front, previously' and se:r 'upon', tend to indicate location in relation to a particular position. A:ppa and a:ppan are often written with the Sumerogram EGIR with or without phonetic complement, while pe:ran may be written with the Akkadograms PANI or MAHAR. The adverbs may be used of spatial, temporal, or logical relationships, for example:

    DINGIRDIDLI.HI.A-s-a   DUMUMESH-us   A.AB.BA-az   sara:   da:er
    gods-but   children   out of the sea   up   they took
    "But the gods took the boys up out of the sea."
                     
    aniu:r-kan   EGIR-an   iyanzi
    ritual-locatival   again   they do
    "They perform the ritual again."
             
    a:ppa-ma   URUDalawas   ku:rur   ISBAT
    afterwards-but   city of Dalawa   hostilities   took
    "But afterwards, the city of Dalawa took up hostilities."
                 
    ammuk-at   kattan   lahhi   iyantat-pat
    me-they   together   to war   they went-indeed
    "Together with me they indeed went to war."
47.1. Compound Verbs

Combinations of preverb plus verb may be considered compound verbs. As preverbs, these words modify the sense of the verbs in much the same way that function words like "in," "up," or "down" modify the sense of the verb in English phrasal verbs like "fill in (a form)" (compare "fill"), "give up" 'surrender' (compare "give"), "put down" 'insult someone' (compare "put"). Preverbs tend to precede the verbs they modify as closely as possible, and in most instances, the preverb comes immediately before the verb. As with English phrasal verbs, the meaning of the preverb plus verb combination may be fairly close to the meaning of the uncompounded verb or it may be may be idiomatic and not entirely predictable from the literal meanings of the elements of the compound.

Sometimes, the addition of the preverb simply makes the meaning of the verb more emphatic. For example, the verb karap- means 'eat, devour'. With arha the sense is more akin to English 'eat up':

    nu-za   LMESH   huelpi   GA.RASSAR   iwar   arha karapta
    and-reflexive   men   fresh   leek (gen.)   like   you eat up
    "You eat up men like (one would eat up) a fresh leek."

The verb huwa:i- means 'run, march, go'. When used with the preverb pe:ran 'in front, before' it can have the literal meaning 'run in front' or it can have the figurative meanings 'lead' or 'help, support'. The compund pe:ran huwa:i- normally takes a dative object.

    nu   DUTUSHI   ANA   KARASHHI.A   G\R-it   peran hu:iyanun
    and   my majesty   dative   army   on foot   marched-before
    "And I, my majesty, marched before the army on foot."

The phrase pe:ran huwa:i- is often used of the gods supporting the king or his troops in battle:

    nu-nnas   DINGIRMESH   peran hu:wae:r    
    and-us   gods   before-ran    
    nu   RINMESH   LKR   hullumen
    and   troops   enemy   we defeated
    "The gods supported us, and we defeated the enemy troops."

The basic meaning of pe:ssiya- is 'throw', though it can have metaphorical meanings such as 'waive' or 'disregard'. With the preverb arha, however, it can take on a variety of meanings, including 'reject' or 'repudiate':

    nu   apu:n   MA:ME:TUM   arha pessiyatten
    and   that   oath   away-throw
    "Repudiate that oath."

The compound verb pe:ran weriya- with the reflexive particle -za means 'involve oneself with'. In the following sentence, a nominal sentence made with the participle, the negative adverb le: separates the preverb from the verb:

    ANA   L.ME^S   URUMira-ma-wa-za   peran le: weriyanza
    with   men   Mira-but-quotative-reflexive   do not be involved
    "Don't be involved with the men of Mira."
47.2. Separation of Preverb and Verb

Under certain conditions, the preverb may be separated from the verb it modifies. In the following sentence, for example, the verb is para: pa:i- 'hand over', but the preverb is separated from the verb by a negative particle:

    kuwat-war-an   para: U:L pesti
    why-quotative-him   over-not-you give
    "Why didn't you hand him over?"

The preverbs para: and a:ppa, to which enclitcs have been attached are separated from the verb by negative indefinites in the following sentence with the compound verbs para: na:i-, meaning 'add' here, and a:ppiya pe:ssiya- 'leave off, neglect':

    para:-ma-ssan natta kuitki na:i
    forth-but-locatival-nothing turns
    a:ppa-ya-kan natta kuitki pessiyazzi
    back-but-locatival-nothing-throws
    "He does not add anything, nor does he leave off anything."

The multiple functions of these words as adverbs, postpositions, and preverbs can be a source of ambiguity. A native speaker of Hittite presumably had intuitions about which elements in a sentence belonged together, just as a speaker of English can sense that 'in' belongs with 'turned' in the sentence "She turned in her homework," but 'in' belongs with 'the driveway' in "She turned the car in the driveway." A modern reader of Hittite, however, has to rely upon clues from syntax and meaning to distinguish the function of these words. When the function word appears directly before the verb, it is likely to be a preverb. When the function word appears after a noun or pronoun in the accusative, genitive, dative-locative, ablative, instrumental, or allative, it is possibly to be interpreted as a postposition. Negatives, indefinites, and the adverbs namma 'moreover', imma 'indeed', kissan 'thus', and apenissan 'just so' may intervene between a preverb and its verb. Finally, a combination of function word plus verb that has a meaning clearly distinct from the meaning of the verb and difficult to reconstruct from the literal meaning of its parts is most likely a verb with preverb, for example, pe:ran weriya-, 'be involved with', which is composed of pe:ran 'before' and weriya- 'call (out)'.

48. Sentence Particles

Perhaps the only thing that is entirely clear about the sentence particles -kan, -ssan, -asta, (or -sta), -apa (or -pa), and -an is that they occur at the end of the sentence-initial enclitic chain. These particles, or some of them, have been variously described as indicating local relations between the verb and other elements in the sentence, as indicating locatival or other case functions, as modifiers of the verb that work in conjunction with preverbs, as remnants of pronouns used to establish relations between clauses, or as connective particles used to connect sentences or clauses. Much of the research done on the particles, however, suffers from problems resulting from lack of evidence or doubtful methodology. The particle -an is very rare. It is found only in the earliest texts, and it seems to have dropped out of use quite early. The fate of -apa (-pa), which is also rare and archaic, was similar, though related particles are found in the other Anatolian languages. The particle -asta (-sta) is also found in early texts and in copies of early texts but was lost from the living language by the Empire period. By contrast, -ssan (also -san) is fairly well attested in texts from most periods except the very latest, and -kan (sometimes spelled -kkan), which is rare in Old Hittite, increases dramatically in frequency in later texts.

48.1. Examples of asta

The rarity of -an and -apa means that little can be said with certainty about the functions of these paricles. It has been claimed that -asta (-sta) has an affinity for the ablative case, or for meanings associated with it and indeed, a sense of separation is found in sentences such as the following:

    GISHTUKULHI.A-us-sus-sta   ZAG.LU.ZA   da:hhun
    weapons-their-locatival   shoulders   I took
    "I took their weapons from their shoulder(s)."

The particle is found in a sentence with a noun in the ablative and with the compound verb katta pa:i- 'go down' in the following:

    ma:n-asta   GUD.MAH-a   K.GAL-az   katta   paizzi
    when-locatival   bull   gate (abl.)   down   goes
    "When the bull goes down through the gate..."

Similarly, -asta is used with kattanda pai:- 'go down into', though not with a noun in the ablative in, for example:

    n-asta   DIM-nas   ta:n   annas-sis   kattanda pait
    and-locatival   of the Stormgod   for a second time   mother-his   downward went
    "For the second time, the mother of the Stormgod went downward."

However, katta pa:i- is found without -asta in, the following sentence from a copy of a fairly early text:

    nu   nekuz me:hu:ni   hu:da:k   katta paitten
    and   at night-time   immediately   down go
    "At night time, go down immediately!"

The compound kattanda pa:i- is found without a particle in, for example:

    n-e   namma   hattesnas   kattanda nu:ma:n pa:nzi
    and-they   moreover   to holes   down negative they go
    "And they do not want to go back down into (their) holes again."

The postposition katta 'down', modifying a noun with the ablative occurs with pai- and with the particle -kan rather than -asta in the following sentence from a fairly early text:

    n-at-kan   katta   ISHTU K.GAL-az   URUDa:uniya   pa:nzi
    and-they-locatival   down   from the gate (abl.)   city of Dauniya   they go
    "And they go down from the Dauniya gate."
48.2. Examples of -ssan

The uses and meaning of the particle -ssan are somewhat clearer. It may have an affinity with the dative, locative, and allative, and may add the idea of superposition ("over, upon, on"), proximity, or accompaniment. It does occur often with a dative-locative and/or with the preverb and adverb se:r 'over, upon', for example:

    serr-a-ssan   harnamma   BAPPIR   ISHTU   KASH   harnan   lahuwai
    over-and-over   yeast   BAPPIR   with   beer   fermented   he pours
    n-at   anda immiyanzi                    
    and-them   into mixes                    
    "He pours over them (herbs) yeast (and) BAPPIR fermented with the beer, and he mixes them together."

Similarly, s:er and -ssan occur with huwa:i:- in the following sentence about vegetation growing over the sleeping god Telepenus:

    se:r-s-a-ses-san   halenzu   huwai:s
    over-but-him-over   halenzu-plant   ran
    "But over him the halenzu-plant grew."

It is possible that the sense 'over' is conveyed by se:r rather than -ssan, but the particle may also be used without se:r but with a dative-locative or allative. In many of these instances, -ssan may indicate a goal:

    nu-mu-ssan   zigg-a   KARASH-pat   hu:da:k   arnut
    and-to me   you-and   troops-those same   immediately   bring
    "And you, bring those same troops to me immediately!"
                     
    LUGAL-us-san   DU-as   NA4huwasiya   anda paizzi
    king-over-to   of the Stormgod   stele   into goes
    "The king enters (the enclosure) to the stele of the Stormgod."

The particle may also strengthen or add the idea of a goal. In the first sentence, -ssan accompanies the adverb apiya 'there'; in the second sentence, however, it may be that -ssan alone imparts the idea of location:

    nu-ssan   apiya   iyaddumat
    and-locatival   there   go (pl.)
    "Go there!"
             
    n-as   KUR   URUHattusi   U:L   hu:isuwezzi   aki-pat-ssan
    and-he   land   Hattusas   not   lives   he dies-instead-locatival
    "He will not go on living in Hattusas; instead, he will die there."
48.3. The Particle -kan

The function of -kan is much harder to describe because it is so rare in early texts, in which its original, limited, meaning may have been preserved, and it is so common in later texts, where it has clearly replaced other particles.

49. Enclitic Conjunctions

The Hitite conjunctions -a 'but', -ma 'but, moreover', and -a, -ya 'and' are enclitic. That is, they have no independent accent but instead instead attach to a preceding independently accented word. Each of the enclitic conjunctions precedes all other enclitic particles and pronouns in the enclitic string.

49.1. Adversative -a-

The conjunction -a- 'but' is found mainly in early texts, and, although it is found in these texts beside the enclitic conjunction -ma, which is similar in meaning, -ma gradually spread at the expense of -a-, until -a- was eliminated. After vowels or idiograms it is spelled -ya, and after consonants it is spelled -a. Generally, it is attached to the initial word in its clause. Enclitic -a- may be used to conjoin two clauses, for example:

    takkuw-as   attas-sas-a   -ri   aki
    If-she   her-father's-but   in house   dies
    "But if she dies in her father's house..."
                 
    DINGIRDIDLI.HI.A-s-a   DUMUMESH-us   A.AB.BA-az   sara: da:er
    gods-but   children   out of sea   up took
    "But the gods took the boys up out of the sea."
                 
    takku   kussan-a   natta   piyan
    if   wage-but   not   paid
    "But if the wage is not paid..."
                 
    DTelepenus-a   arha iyannis
    Telepenus-but   away ran
    "But Telepenus ran away."
49.2. -ma-

The enclitic particle -ma is very common. Its basic function is to indicate a correlation between adjacent clauses or between words or phrases within clauses. Often, it has an adversative sense and may be translated 'but'. However, its more general use is to mark that two or more items or actions belong together. It can be used to join clauses. In the following the adversative sense is fairly clear.

    ammuk-ma-az   SH-az   lahlahhiman   U:L   tarhmi
    I-but-reflexive   from heart   worry   not   overcome
    "But I cannot overcome the worry from (my) heart."
                     
    takku   natta-ma   taranzi   nu   natta   paimi
    if   not-but   they say   then   not   I go
    "But if they don't say, I will not go."

In correlating sentences with negatives, the sense may be 'nor':

    DUMU.L.UL.LU   U:L   innara   uwanun
    mortal-man   not   by force   I come
    U:L-ma   sullani   uwanun    
    not-but   for quarrel   I come    
    "I, mortal man, have not come on my own account, nor have I come for strife."

In other contexts, though -ma may be translated as 'but' or 'and', the sense is neither clearly adversative nor conjunctive; instead, the particle serves to mark that action continues. In this sense, -ma may be used to mark the beginning of a turning point in a narrative or it may be used in a sentence that begins a paragraph that changes topics in an extended text.

    mahhan-ma   hameshanza   kisat   man    
    when-but   spring   became   irrealis    
    INA   KUR   URUAzzi   taninumanzi   pa:un
    into   country   of Azzi   to restore order   I went
    "But as soon as it became spring, I would have gone into the land of Azzi to restore order."
                     
    tuk-ma   DUTUSHI   kuit   KUR-TAM   ADDIN
    to you-but   my majesty   which   land   I have given
    nu-za   apa:t   KUR-TAM   pahsi    
    and-reflexive   that   land   protect    
    "But protect the land which I, My Majesty, have given to you."
                     
    pe:di-ssi-ma   Z.HA.LI-an   anenun
    in place-its-and   cress   I sowed
    "And on its site I sowed cress."
             
    ANA   MUhha-L-ma   LTE4MU   wiyanun
    to   Uhhazitti-moreover   messenger   I sent
    "Moreover, to Uhhaziti I sent a messenger."

The conjunction -ma may also mark the correlation, or equivalence, of words within adjacent clauses that are parallel or otherwise closely related. In the following sentence from the "Telpenus Myth," -ma marks the parallel between the ewe's treatment of her lamb and the cow's treatment of her calf. If the sentence were translated into English, a semicolon might be an appropriate way of indicating the relationship between the clauses:

    UDU-us-za   SILA4-ZU   mimmas
    ewe-reflexive   lamb-her   rejected
    GU4-ma   AMAR-SHU   mimmas
    cow-and   calf-her   rejected
    "The ewe rejected her lamb; the cow rejected her calf."

Similarly, in the following from a ritual text, -ma marks the contrast between the appearance of the hawthorn bush in the spring, when it is in flower, and in the fall. This passage shows the overlap in function between contrastive -a and -ma, since in first clause contains -a, while the second contains -ma:

    hameshi-ya-z   BABBARTIM   wassasi
    in spring-but-reflexive   white   you wear
    BURU14-ma-z   isharwanda   wassasi
    at harvest time-but-reflexive   red   you wear

In negative constructions, -ma can mean 'nor' or 'neither ... nor':

    U:L   iyat   kuitki   U:L-ma   wastas   kuitki
    not   did   anything   not-but   sinned   any
    U:L-ma-kan   da:s   kuedanikki   kuitki        
    not-but-locatival   took   from anyone   anything        
    "He neither did anything, nor committed any sin, nor took anything from anyone."
49.3. Conjunctive -a-, -ya- 'and'

The correlative enclitic conjunction -a 'and' resembles -a 'but', and, indeed, it took scholars a number of years after Hittite was deciphered to distinguish the two. Like the particle -a 'but', it normally written -ya after vowels and often, though not always written as -ya after Sumerograms and Akkadograms. Unlike -a 'but', however, the conjunction -a 'and' causes gemination, or doubling, of a consonant that it follows. Also, unlike -a 'but', -a 'and' is not confined to early texts:

    GUD-ya-wa-mu   kuin   tet   nu-war-an-mu   uppi
    ox-and-quotative-me   that   you said   and-quotative-it-me   send
    "And the ox that you promised me, send it to me."
                     
    apedani-ya   uddani   wasduli   harteni
    for this-and   for matter   in sin   you hold
    "...and for this matter you hold (us) in sin."
                 
    memiyann-a-ssi   le:   mematti
    word-and-to her   not   you speak
    "And you should not speak a word to her."
             
    lalesmess-a   U:L   siya:nza
    the invoice-and   not   sealed
    "And the invoice was not sealed."

The conjunction -a 'and' is often used to join nouns within a clause. Generally, the enclitic is attached to the second noun, but it may occasionally be attached to the first, as in the last phrase.

    n-at-kan   DINGIRMESH-as   antuhsass-a   a:ssu
    and-it-locatival   to gods   men-and   dear
    "It is dear to gods and men."
                 
    nepis   te:kan-a   harsi
    heaven   earth-and   you hold
    "You hold heaven and earth."
             
    takku   attass-a   annas   mimmai
    if   father-and   mother   refuse
    "If the father and mother refuse (to make compensation to their daughter's jilted fiance)..."

The following sentence, from an Old Hittite historical text, has both -a 'but' and -a 'and':

    GI^SBANHI.A-a-ssan   kuye:s   huettiyanta
    bows-but-locatival   who   drawn
    GISHKAK..TAG.GAHI.A-ya   harkanzi    
    bows arrows-and   they hold    
    "But those who hold drawn bows and arrows..."
49.4. The Akkadogram

In some instances the Akkadogram 'and' is employed as a conjunction. It is not known how it was read in Hittite.

    ki:   NA4pe:ru   ma:hhan   uktu:ri    
    this   boulder   just as   eternal    
    BE:LU     DAM-SHU   DUMUMESH-SHU   QA:TAMMA
    lord   and   wife-his   children-his   likewise
    uktu:res   asantu            
    eternal   let them be            
    "Just as this boulder is eternal, let the lord (i.e. the king), his wife, and his children be eternal."
49.5. Omitted Conjunctions

Finally, clauses or phrases within a sentence may be closely connected but not conjoined with an overt conjunction:

    i:tten   azzikatten   akkuskatten
    go   keep eating   keep drinking
    "Go, keep eating (and) drinking! (i.e., 'remain alive')"
50. The Modal Particle man

Hittite, unlike Greek and Latin, had neither a subjunctive nor an optative. Instead, sentences that denote unreal, or contrary to fact conditions, potential conditions, or wishes, were signaled with the irrealis particle man. Normally, the particle is spelled ma-an as distinct from the conjunction ma:n (spelled ma-a-an), but examples of the particle spelled ma-a-an are sometimes found. The reasons behind this variation in spelling are not entirely clear.

50.1. Use in contrary-to-fact clauses

The particle man, sometimes called the "irrealis particle" is used with verbs in the past tense to indicate contrary to fact conditions, actions that the subject would or might have taken that were prevented or that simply did not occur for some reason.

For example, in the following sentence from the "Annals of Mursilis," the reason Mursilis does not go on a military campaign into Azzi is that the people of Azzi hear that he is coming and capitulate in advance of his expedition:

    mahhan-ma   hameshanza   kisat   man   INA   KUR   URUAzzi
    when-but   spring   became   irrealis   into   country   of Azzi
    taninumanzi   pa:un                    
    to restore order   I went                    
    "But as soon as it became spring, I would have gone into the land of Azzi to restore order."

In this sentence from the "Proclamation of Telepenus," Telepenus claims that his brother-in-law would have killed him and his wife had not the brother-in-law's intentions become known:

    ma:n-us-kan   MHuzziyas   kuenta   nu   uttar   isduwa:ti
    irrealis-them-locatival   Huzziyas   killed   but   plan   became known
    "Huzziyas would have killed them, but the plan became known."

In this sentence from Mursili's "Annals" the contrary to fact clause with man begins the sentence. The expression "the year had become short" means that winter, the season during which Hittite kings did not campaign, was closing in:

    man   INA   URUHayasa   pa:un-pat
    irrealis   into   Hayasa   I went-also
    nu-za   MU.KAM-za   ser te:paue:ssanza    
    and-reflexive   year   had become short    
    "I would also have gone to Hayasa (to attack it), but the year had become short."

The particle can be present in both the conditional clause and in the result clause:

    man   tiyat   man-as-kan   suhhaz   katta   maustat
    irrealis   stepped   irrealis-she-locatival   from roof   down   fell
    "Had she (the goddess, Hebat) taken a step, she would have fallen down from the roof."
50.2. Use With the Present-Future

Sentences with man and verbs in the present-future and nominal sentences with man express possible actions. This sentence from the "Deeds of Suppiluliuma" begins with a clause with the conjuction ma:n 'if', and suggests a possible outcome if the conditions expressed in the if-clause are fulfilled:

    ma:n-wa-mu   1-an   DUMU-KA   paisti
    if-quotative-to me   one   son-your   you give
    man-war-as-mu   LMUTIYA   kisari    
    irrealis-quotative-he-to me   husband   become    
    "If you give me one (of) your son(s), he could become my husband."
50.3. Use in Wishes

Man may also be used to express a wish of a speaker or of the subject of a sentence:

    asi-man-wa   URU-as   ammel   kisari
    that-irrealis-quotative   city   mine   becomes
    "I wish that city were mine."
                 
    man-wa   MDUTUSHI   TI-eszi
    irrealis-quotative   his majesty   lives
    "I hope his majesty lives."