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Hittite Online

Lesson 10

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

The festival texts make up the largest group of tablets found at Boğazköy. Stereotyped, they describe in detail the rituals that must be carried out at a given festival. They also include information of importance for reconstructing the history of the Hittites, such as lists of place names, and data on the gods and the functionaries in the various cults. The texts are lengthy; those for the KI.LAM festival, "The Festival of the Gate-House," make up more than 12 tablets, while the purulli festival is recorded in 32. They are also of importance for determining changes in the Hittite language over time, as well as supplies for the participants in the festival, such as their rations of food, their festive garments, and their ornaments. For the KI.LAM festival the priest selects 4 sheep on the first day, and again on the third, leading to a total of more than 120. Similar information is included for bread and beverages, as well as for the clothing and ornaments, some of which have not been identified. The participants are also identified by types, such as priests of the various deities and cities, and cult functionaries in addition to men and women of the town. Much of this information still remains to be assembled and published.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The sections from the description of the KI.LAM festival that are presented here are self-explanatory. The first provides information on the participants and their functions. The remainder list the procedures as the king and queen proceed from their palace to the site of the ceremony. The central features of the ceremony in the procession viewed by the king, first at the palace gate and then at the upper gate of the gods, consisted of cult objects. The priest of KAL is followed by "the spears," the "copper fleeces," and the animals of the gods; these are metal figures, including a silver panther, a silver wolf, a golden lion, a lapis lazuli boar, a silver boar and a silver bear. They in turn are followed by the "god-men," metal figures of the stags, and birds of ivory. Further ceremonies include the race of the runners, who bring a libation vessel to the king. This is filled with wine, which the king then pours into the hands of the priests, who are mentioned in the lists of garments given them. Thereupon the king and the queen ride in a chariot to various houses and temples, finally to the ceremonial tent of the Storm-god where a "Great Assembly" is held at which 40 different gods are worshipped, as by drinking to them. Finally the king and queen return to the palace, entering through the palace gate.

  • The 1st paragraph is from KBo X 15 I 22-31;
  • the 2nd paragraph is from KBo XXVII 42 I 1-14;
  • the 3rd paragraph is from KBo XXVII 42 I 24-39;
  • the 4th paragraph is from KBo XXVII 42 III 12-23.

22-31 - GIŠ DINANNA GAL LÚ.MEŠha-li-ya-re-es SÌRRU ALAM.KA UD me-ma-i pal-wa-tal-la-as pal-wa-iz-zi ki-i-ta-as hal-za-a-i

  • GIŠ DINANNA -- noun; Sumerogram <GIŠ> wood, tree + proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as instrumental <DINANNA> Inanna -- (to the accompaniment of) the... INANNA-lyre
  • GAL -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as instrumental <GAL> chief, great -- large
  • LÚ.MEŠha-li-ya-re-es -- noun; nominative plural animate of <haliyari-> singer -- the singers # The haliyari men were apparently a group of singer-priests.
  • SÌRRU -- verb; Sumerogram functioning here as 3rd person plural present <SÌR> sing + Akkadian phonetic complement <-RU>... -- sing # The Akkadian verb from which the phonetic complement comes was zamāru, but the Hittite reading is ishamiyanzi.
  • ALAM.KA UD -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <ALAM.KAxUD> performer, comedian -- the comedian # Apparently this cult functionary was a kind of ritual clown.
  • me-ma-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <mēma-, mēmiya-> say, speak -- speaks
  • pal-wa-tal-la-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <palwatalla-> applauder -- the applauder # The applauders were another group of ritual functionaries.
  • pal-wa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <palwāi-> applaud -- applauds
  • ki-i-ta-as -- noun; nominative singular of <kīta-> a cult functionary, reciter? -- the reciter?
  • hal-za-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <halzāi-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- recites

LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A 1 NINDA.GUR₄ EM-SA a-as-ka-az ú-da-i LUGAL-i pa-a-i LUGAL-us par-si-ya LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A-kan LUGAL-i NINDA.GUR₄ e-ep-zi ta-as-ta pa-ra-a pe-e-da-i

  • LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A> cupbearer -- the cupbearer
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • NINDA.GUR₄ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.GUR₄> thick bread -- thick bread
  • EM-SA -- adjective; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular of <EMSU> sour -- sour
  • a-as-ka-az -- noun; ablative singular of <āska-> gate, outside -- from the gate
  • ú-da-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <uda-> bring -- brings
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- to the king
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- he gives (it)
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • par-si-ya -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <pars-, parsiya-> break, crumble -- crumbles
  • LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A-kan -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A> cupbearer + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- the cupbearer
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- to the king
  • NINDA.GUR₄ -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.GUR₄> thick bread -- a thick loaf
  • e-ep-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <ēpp-> take, seize -- holds out
  • ta-as-ta -- sentence particle; <ta> and + locatival particle <-asta> (indicating completed action) -- and
  • pa-ra-a pe-e-da-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <parā pēda-> take away -- he... takes away

1-14 - ma-a-an LUGAL-us Éha-li-en-tu-u-az ú-ez-zi ta GIŠZA.LAM.GAR-as pa-iz-zi nu-za LUGAL-us MUNUS.LUGAL e-sa-an-da

  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <mān> if, when -- when
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • Éha-li-en-tu-u-az -- noun; ablative singular of <halientū-> palace complex -- from the palace complex
  • ú-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- comes
  • ta -- sentence particle; <ta> and -- ...
  • GIŠZA.LAM.GAR-as -- noun; Sumerogram <ZA.LAM.GAR> ceremonial tent + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- to the tent
  • pa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pāi-> go -- goes
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- and queen
  • e-sa-an-da -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <ēs-> sit -- seat themselves

n-as-ta DUMU.É.GAL ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN an-da ti-ya-az-zi nu ŠU-az GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN GIŠkal-mu-us Ù GAD ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN har-zi úe-ez-zi GAD LUGAL-i pa-a-i

  • n-as-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-asta> (indicating completed action) -- and
  • DUMU.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace -- the Son of the Palace # This is a term for a court functionary.
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GIŠŠUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <ŠUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUŠKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <GUŠKIN> gold -- gold
  • an-da ti-ya-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <anda tiya> step in -- steps in
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • ŠU-az -- noun; Sumerogram <ŠU> hand + Hittite phonetic complement <-az> (indicating ablative singular) -- with his hand
  • GIŠŠUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <ŠUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUŠKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GUŠKIN> gold -- gold
  • GIŠkal-mu-us -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <kalmus> lituus -- the lituus # The lituus, a staff that looked like a shepherd's crook, was a symbol of Hittite kingship.
  • Ù -- conjunction; Akkadogram <Ù> and -- and
  • GAD -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GAD> towel -- the towel
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GIŠŠUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <ŠUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUŠKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <GUŠKIN> gold -- gold
  • har-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- holds
  • úe-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- he comes? # The tablet is damaged here, and the restoration is uncertain.
  • GAD -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GAD> towel -- the towel
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- to the king
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- gives

GIŠkal-mu-us-ma-as-sa-an kat-ta GIŠDAG-ti da-a-i

  • GIŠkal-mu-us-ma-as-sa-an -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <kalmus> lituus + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-ssan> (indicating upward motion) -- the lituus
  • kat-ta -- postposition; <katta> down, downwards -- down
  • GIŠDAG-ti -- noun; Sumerogram <GIŠDAG> throne + Hittite phonetic complement <-ti> (indicating dative singular) -- at the throne
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <dāi-, tiya-> place, put -- he sets

DUMU.É.GAL-ma EGIR-pa LUGAL-i-kan me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN har-zi nu ka-a-as-mi-is-sa-a hal-za-a-i

  • DUMU.É.GAL-ma -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- The Son of the Palace
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... -- again
  • LUGAL-i-kan -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- to the king
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- postposition; <mēnahhanda> facing, opposite -- in front of
  • ti-ya-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <tiya-> step -- steps
  • GIŠŠUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <ŠUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUŠKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <GUŠKIN> gold -- golden
  • har-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- he holds
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • ka-a-as-mi-is-sa-a -- exclamation; <kāsmissā> kassmissa -- kassmissa
  • hal-za-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <halzāi-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- he calls out

24-39 - nu GAL ME-ŠE-DI pe-ra-an-hu-wa-i na-as-kan LUGAL-i me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <GAL> chief, great -- the chief
  • ME-ŠE-DI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive plural of <ME-ŠE-DI> body guard -- of the body guards
  • pe-ra-an-hu-wa-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pēran huwai-> run in front -- marches in front
  • na-as-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and he
  • LUGAL-i -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- the king
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- postposition; <mēnahhanda> facing, opposite -- facing
  • ti-ya-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <tiya-> step -- steps

nu 2 DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL ME-E QA-TI hu-u-pa-ri-it GUŠKIN pe-e-da-an-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two
  • DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <LUGAL> king -- to the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- and the queen
  • ME-E QA-TI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MEQATI> hand-water -- hand-water
  • hu-u-pa-ri-it -- noun; instrumental singular of <huppar> bowl -- with a... bowl
  • GUŠKIN -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as instrumental singular <GUŠKIN> gold -- gold
  • pe-e-da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <pēda-> bring, take -- take

ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN-ma DUMU.É.GAL hu-u-up-par-as A-NA 2 DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL GÙB-la-za i-ya-at-ta-ri GAL DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL-ma-as-ma-as EGIR-an kat-ta-ni-pu-un pe-e har-zi

  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GIŠŠUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <ŠUKUR> spear -- the... spear
  • GUŠKIN-ma -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <GUŠKIN> gold + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- gold
  • DUMU.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace -- the Son of the Palace
  • hu-u-up-par-as -- noun; genitive singular of <hu-u-up-par-as> vessel -- of the vessel
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two
  • DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... -- the... Sons of the Palace
  • GÙB-la-za -- adverb; Sumerogram <GÙB> left + Hittite phonetic complement <-laza>... -- the left of
  • i-ya-at-ta-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <iya-> go, march -- steps
  • GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <GAL> chief, great -- the chief (of the)
  • DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL-ma-as-ma-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative <-smas> they -- Sons of the Palace... to them
  • EGIR-an -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-an>... -- ...
  • kat-ta-ni-pu-un -- noun; accusative singular animate of <katanipū-> linen towel -- a linen towel
  • pe-e har-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pē har-, pē hark-> hold, hold out -- holds out

nu ma-ah-ha-an GIŠDAG-ti kat-ta ma-ni-in-ku-wa-ah-ha-an-zi nu DUMU.É.GAL ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN-ma EGIR-pa ti-i-ez-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- when
  • GIŠDAG-ti -- noun; Sumerogram <GIŠDAG> throne + Hittite phonetic complement <-ti> (indicating dative singular) -- the throne
  • kat-ta -- postposition; <katta> down, downwards -- down
  • ma-ni-in-ku-wa-ah-ha-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <maninkuwahh-> draw near, approach -- approaches
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • DUMU.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace -- the Son of the Palace
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GIŠŠUKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <ŠUKUR> spear -- spear
  • GUŠKIN-ma -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <GUŠKIN> gold + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- gold
  • EGIR-pa ti-i-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <āppa tiya-> step back -- steps back

nu 2 DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL ŠUHI.A-as wa-a-tar pa-ra-a ap-pa-an-zi nu-za-kan LUGAL MUNUS.lUGAL ŠUHI.A-ŠU-NU ar-ra-an-zi nu-kan pa-ra-a pe-e-da-an-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two
  • DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- of
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <LUGAL> king -- the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- (and) queen
  • ŠUHI.A-as -- noun; Sumerogram <ŠU> hand + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- for the hands
  • wa-a-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <wātar> water -- water
  • pa-ra-a ap-pa-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <parā ēpp-> hold out -- hold out
  • nu-za-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <LUGAL> king -- the king
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- and the queen
  • ŠUHI.A-ŠU-NU -- noun; Sumerogram <ŠU> hand + Sumerian plural marker <HI.A>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person plural of <-ŠU-NU> their -- their hands
  • ar-ra-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <ārr-> wash -- wash
  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • pa-ra-a pe-e-da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <parā pēda-> take away -- take away

12-23 - nu LUGAl-us GAD-an ar-ha pi-is-si-az-zi na-at ma-a-an A-NAMEŠ ME-SE-DI an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi LÙMEŠ ME-SE-DI ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at LÙMEŠ ME-SE-DI sa-ra-a da-an-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • GAD-an -- noun; Sumerogram <GAD> towel + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- the towel
  • ar-ha pi-is-si-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arha pēssiya-> throw away -- throws away
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <mān> if, when -- if
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- among
  • MEŠ ME-SE-DI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative plural <MEŠ ME-SE-DI> bodyguard -- the bodyguards
  • an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <andan pēssiya-> throw into the midst -- throws
  • MEŠ ME-SE-DI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural <MEŠ ME-SE-DI> bodyguard -- the bodyguards
  • ku-e-ez -- adverb; <kuēz> from where -- from where
  • par-as-sa-na-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of mi-conjugation <parssnāi-> squat -- have been squatting
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • MEŠ ME-SE-DI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural <MEŠ ME-SE-DI> bodyguard -- the bodyguards
  • sa-ra-a da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <sarā dā-> offer, take -- take away

ma-a-na-at DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL-ma an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL sa-ra-a da-an-zi na-at LÚMEŠGIŠBANSUR-as pi-an-zi

  • ma-a-na-at -- conjunction; <mān> if, when + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- if it
  • DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL-ma -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but to the Sons of the Palace
  • an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <andan pēssiya-> throw into the midst -- throws
  • DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • ku-e-ez -- adverb; <kuēz> from where -- from where
  • par-as-sa-na-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of mi-conjugation <parssnāi-> squat -- have been squatting
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU.É.GAL> son of the palace + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... -- Sons of the Palace
  • sa-ra-a da-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <sarā dā-> offer, take -- take away
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • MEŠGIŠBANSUR-as -- noun; Sumerogram <MEŠGIŠBANSUR> man of the table + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- to the men of the table
  • pi-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give -- give

Lesson Text

22-31 GIŠ DINANNA GAL LÚ.MEŠha-li-ya-re-es SÌRRU ALAM.KA UD me-ma-i pal-wa-tal-la-as pal-wa-iz-zi ki-i-ta-as hal-za-a-i
LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A 1 NINDA.GUR₄ EM-SA a-as-ka-az ú-da-i LUGAL-i pa-a-i LUGAL-us par-si-ya LÚSÌLA.SU.DU₈.A-kan LUGAL-i NINDA.GUR₄ e-ep-zi ta-as-ta pa-ra-a pe-e-da-i

1-14 ma-a-an LUGAL-us Éha-li-en-tu-u-az ú-ez-zi ta GIŠZA.LAM.GAR-as pa-iz-zi nu-za LUGAL-us MUNUS.LUGAL e-sa-an-da
n-as-ta DUMU.É.GAL ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN an-da ti-ya-az-zi nu ŠU-az GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN GIŠkal-mu-us Ù GAD ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN har-zi úe-ez-zi GAD LUGAL-i pa-a-i
GIŠkal-mu-us-ma-as-sa-an kat-ta GIŠDAG-ti da-a-i
DUMU.É.GAL-ma EGIR-pa LUGAL-i-kan me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN har-zi nu ka-a-as-mi-is-sa-a hal-za-a-i

24-39 nu GAL ME-ŠE-DI pe-ra-an-hu-wa-i na-as-kan LUGAL-i me-na-ah-ha-an-da ti-ya-zi
nu 2 DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL ME-E QA-TI hu-u-pa-ri-it GUŠKIN pe-e-da-an-zi
ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN-ma DUMU.É.GAL hu-u-up-par-as A-NA 2 DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL GÙB-la-za i-ya-at-ta-ri GAL DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL-ma-as-ma-as EGIR-an kat-ta-ni-pu-un pe-e har-zi
nu ma-ah-ha-an GIŠDAG-ti kat-ta ma-ni-in-ku-wa-ah-ha-an-zi nu DUMU.É.GAL ŠA GIŠŠUKUR GUŠKIN-ma EGIR-pa ti-i-ez-zi
nu 2 DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL A-NA LUGAL MUNUS.LUGAL ŠUHI.A-as wa-a-tar pa-ra-a ap-pa-an-zi nu-za-kan LUGAL MUNUS.lUGAL ŠUHI.A-ŠU-NU ar-ra-an-zi nu-kan pa-ra-a pe-e-da-an-zi

12-23 nu LUGAl-us GAD-an ar-ha pi-is-si-az-zi na-at ma-a-an A-NAMEŠ ME-SE-DI an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi LÙMEŠ ME-SE-DI ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at LÙMEŠ ME-SE-DI sa-ra-a da-an-zi
ma-a-na-at DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL-ma an-da-an pi-is-si-az-zi DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL ku-e-ez par-as-sa-na-an-te-es na-at DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL sa-ra-a da-an-zi na-at LÚMEŠGIŠBANSUR-as pi-an-zi

Translation

22 To the accompaniment of the large INANNA-lyre, the singers sing, the comedian speaks, the applauders applaud, (and) the reciter recites. The cupbearer brings one sour thick bread from the gate/outside. He gives it to the king (and) the king crumbles (it). The cupbearer holds out a thick loaf to the king and he (the cupbearer) takes (it) away.
1 When the king comes from the palace complex, he goes to the tents; and the king (and) queen seat themselves. The Son of the Palace of the Gold Spear steps in. With his hand, he holds the lituus and the towel of the golden spear. He comes(?) and gives the towel to the king, but the lituus he sets down at the throne. The Son of the Palace again steps in front of the king. He holds the golden spear. He calls out "kassmissa!"
24 And the chief of the bodyguard marches in front and he steps facing the king. And two Sons of the Palace take hand-water to the king and queen with a gold bowl. The Son of the Palace of the Gold Spear steps to the left of the two Sons of the Palace of the Vessel. The chief of the Sons of the Palace holds out a linen towel to them (the king and queen). And when he approaches the throne, then the Son of the Palace of the Gold Spear steps back. And 2 Sons of the Palace hold out water for the hands of the king and queen. And the king and queen wash their hands and they (the Sons of the Palace) take (it) away.
12 And the king throws the towel away. If he throws it among the bodyguards, the bodyguards from where they have been squatting pick it up, and the bodyguards take it away. But if he throws it among the Sons of the Palace, the Sons of the Palace from where they have been squatting pick it up, and they take it away and give it to the Men of the Table.

Grammar

46. Negatives

Hittite has two widely used negative particles. One, natta, can be considered the general negative. The other, , which was rarer, was an emphatic negative, used in expressing strong wishes or commands.

46.1. Emphatic negative

The emphatic negative could be used, at least in early texts, in commands with the imperative. It could also be used with verbs in the indicative to express strong wishes in texts from all periods.

    lē-ta   nāhi
    negative-yourself   fear (imp.)
    "Don't fear for yourself."
         
    memiyann-a-ssi     mematti
    word-but-to her   not   you speak
    "And you should not speak a word to her."
             
    ehu-wa   īt   kuwapi-wa   paisi
    come on-quotative   go   where-quotative   you go
    ammuk-ma-wa-tta     saggahhi    
    I-and-quotative-you   not   know    
    "Go! And I don't want to know where you go!"
                 
    n-asta     āssawēs   id:lauwas   anda harkanzi
    and-locatival   not   good   bad   perish together with
    "Let not the good people perish together with the bad."

With a verb in the second or third person iterative le: can be translated as "stop" doing the action conveyed by the iterative:

      kuwatqa   lahlahhiskesi
    not   in any way   keep worrying
    "You should stop worrying in any way."
46.2. General particle natta

By far the more common negative particle, however, was the general particle natta. It is usually written out as na-at-ta in the earliest Old Hittite texts, but in later texts, the syllabic spelling is normally replaced by the Akkadogram ŪL, which was read as natta. Natta normally occurs before the part of the clause that is negated. So-called "double negatives" are perfectly grammatical in Hittite.

Natta may negate the entire predicate of a sentence of a sentence, or a noun that is part of the predicate:

    takku   natta-ma   taranzi   nu   natta   paimi
    if   not-but   they say   then   not   I go
    "But if they don't say, I will not go."
                         
    eter   n-e   ŪL   ispiēr
    they   ate   not   were satiated
    "They ate, (and) they were not satiated."
                 
    takku   kussan-a   natta   piyan
    if   wage-but   not   paid
    "But if the wage is not paid..."
                 
    lalesmess-a   ŪL   siyānza
    the invoice-and   not   sealed
    "And the invoice was not sealed."

In the following the direct object or one of its modifiers is negated:

    ŪL   pittuliantan-ma   anda warpiskesi
    not   intimidated-but   you enclose
    "You enclose even the unintimidated."
             
    qāsa-smas-kan   parkuin   misriwantan   harkin    
    look-to you-locatival   pure   perfect   white    
    GIŠPA-it   ŪL   walhantan   UDU-un   sipantahhun
    with a stick   not   struck   sheep   I offer
    "Look, I am offering you (as sacrifice) a pure, perfect, white, never-struck with a stick sheep."

The subject or one of its modifiers can also be negated:

    natta-an   ūk   tarnahhun
    not-it   I   released
    "It wasn't I who released it."
             
    ektas-ma-du-ssan   erhaz   ŪL   nahsariyauwanza   arha   ŪL   wezzi
    net-but-you-locatival   circle   not   afraid   out   not   comes
    "Even the unafraid will not come out of the circle of your net."
46.3. Indefinite pronouns and adverbs

Indefinite pronouns and adverbs can be negated, for example natta kuiski means 'no one', natta kuitki means 'nothing', natta kuatqa means 'in no way', and natta kuwappiki means 'in no way, at no time, never':

    nu-wa   ŪL kuitki   sakti
    and-quotative   nothing   you know
    "You know nothing."
             
    ANA   M.DLAMMMA-ma-kan   wastul   ŪL kuitki   āsta
    to   Kurunta-but-locatival   fault   not any   remained
    "No fault whatsoever attached to (lit. 'remained with') Kurunta."
                     
    M.DLAMMA-as-ma-kan   ŪL kuwappiki   anda   ēsta
    Kurunta-but-locatival   in no way   in   was
    "Kurunta was in no way involved (in the insurrection)."
46.4. Negative adverb nāwi

The negative adverb nāwi means 'not yet'. When nāwi is used with a verb in the present tense, the sentence or clause in which it occurs is to be translated by the English present perfect:

    mān-kan   DSIN   nawi   ūpzi
    if-locatival   the moon   not yet   rises
    "If the moon has not yet risen..."

When nāwi is used with a verb in the past tense, the sentence should be translated by the Engish past perfect:

    EGIR-izzi-ma-ssi   TUPPU   nāwi   wemiyawen
    last-but-to it   tablet   not yet   found
    "We had not yet found its final tablet (i.e. the final tablet of a multi-tablet composition)."
46.5. Adverb nūmān

The adverb nūmān, which is a compound whose second element is probably related to the irrealis particle man, is used with negative wishes, for example:

    n-e   namma   hattesnas   kattanda nūmān pānzi
    and-they   moreover   to holes   down not they go
    "And they (snakes) do not want to go back down into (their) holes again."
47. Local Adverbs and Preverbs

Hittite has a handful of function words that may act as postpositions (function words that are comparable to English prepositions), as adverbs specifying location, and as preverbs, words that modify verbs. As adverbs, anda 'into', āppa 'after(wards), behind', arha 'outward, away', katta 'downward', parā 'forward, forth, further', and sarā 'upward' indicate movement in a particular direction. The related adverbs āppan 'behind, after(wards)', kattan 'at the side', pēran 'before, in front, previously' and sēr 'upon', tend to indicate location in relation to a particular position. Āppa and āppan are often written with the Sumerogram EGIR with or without phonetic complement, while pēran may be written with the Akkadograms PANI or MAHAR. The adverbs may be used of spatial, temporal, or logical relationships, for example:

    DINGIRDIDLI.HI.A-s-a   DUMUMEŠ-us   A.AB.BA-az   sarā   dāer
    gods-but   children   out of the sea   up   they took
    "But the gods took the boys up out of the sea."
                     
    aniūr-kan   EGIR-an   iyanzi
    ritual-locatival   again   they do
    "They perform the ritual again."
             
    āppa-ma   URUDalawas   kūrur   IṢBAT
    afterwards-but   city of Dalawa   hostilities   took
    "But afterwards, the city of Dalawa took up hostilities."
                 
    ammuk-at   kattan   lahhi   iyantat-pat
    me-they   together   to war   they went-indeed
    "Together with me they indeed went to war."
47.1. Compound Verbs

Combinations of preverb plus verb may be considered compound verbs. As preverbs, these words modify the sense of the verbs in much the same way that function words like "in," "up," or "down" modify the sense of the verb in English phrasal verbs like "fill in (a form)" (compare "fill"), "give up" 'surrender' (compare "give"), "put down" 'insult someone' (compare "put"). Preverbs tend to precede the verbs they modify as closely as possible, and in most instances, the preverb comes immediately before the verb. As with English phrasal verbs, the meaning of the preverb plus verb combination may be fairly close to the meaning of the uncompounded verb or it may be may be idiomatic and not entirely predictable from the literal meanings of the elements of the compound.

Sometimes, the addition of the preverb simply makes the meaning of the verb more emphatic. For example, the verb karap- means 'eat, devour'. With arha the sense is more akin to English 'eat up':

    nu-za   MEŠ   huelpi   GA.RASSAR   iwar   arha karapta
    and-reflexive   men   fresh   leek (gen.)   like   you eat up
    "You eat up men like (one would eat up) a fresh leek."

The verb huwāi- means 'run, march, go'. When used with the preverb pēran 'in front, before' it can have the literal meaning 'run in front' or it can have the figurative meanings 'lead' or 'help, support'. The compund pēran huwāi- normally takes a dative object.

    nu   DUTUŠI   ANA   KARAŠHI.A   G\R-it   peran hūiyanun
    and   my majesty   dative   army   on foot   marched-before
    "And I, my majesty, marched before the army on foot."

The phrase pēran huwāi- is often used of the gods supporting the king or his troops in battle:

    nu-nnas   DINGIRMEŠ   peran hūwaēr    
    and-us   gods   before-ran    
    nu   ÉRINMEŠ   KÚR   hullumen
    and   troops   enemy   we defeated
    "The gods supported us, and we defeated the enemy troops."

The basic meaning of pēssiya- is 'throw', though it can have metaphorical meanings such as 'waive' or 'disregard'. With the preverb arha, however, it can take on a variety of meanings, including 'reject' or 'repudiate':

    nu   apūn   MĀMĒTUM   arha pessiyatten
    and   that   oath   away-throw
    "Repudiate that oath."

The compound verb pēran weriya- with the reflexive particle -za means 'involve oneself with'. In the following sentence, a nominal sentence made with the participle, the negative adverb separates the preverb from the verb:

    ANA   LÚ.ME^S   URUMira-ma-wa-za   peran lē weriyanza
    with   men   Mira-but-quotative-reflexive   do not be involved
    "Don't be involved with the men of Mira."
47.2. Separation of Preverb and Verb

Under certain conditions, the preverb may be separated from the verb it modifies. In the following sentence, for example, the verb is parā pāi- 'hand over', but the preverb is separated from the verb by a negative particle:

    kuwat-war-an   parā ŪL pesti
    why-quotative-him   over-not-you give
    "Why didn't you hand him over?"

The preverbs parā and āppa, to which enclitcs have been attached are separated from the verb by negative indefinites in the following sentence with the compound verbs parā nāi-, meaning 'add' here, and āppiya pēssiya- 'leave off, neglect':

    parā-ma-ssan natta kuitki nāi
    forth-but-locatival-nothing turns
    āppa-ya-kan natta kuitki pessiyazzi
    back-but-locatival-nothing-throws
    "He does not add anything, nor does he leave off anything."

The multiple functions of these words as adverbs, postpositions, and preverbs can be a source of ambiguity. A native speaker of Hittite presumably had intuitions about which elements in a sentence belonged together, just as a speaker of English can sense that 'in' belongs with 'turned' in the sentence "She turned in her homework," but 'in' belongs with 'the driveway' in "She turned the car in the driveway." A modern reader of Hittite, however, has to rely upon clues from syntax and meaning to distinguish the function of these words. When the function word appears directly before the verb, it is likely to be a preverb. When the function word appears after a noun or pronoun in the accusative, genitive, dative-locative, ablative, instrumental, or allative, it is possibly to be interpreted as a postposition. Negatives, indefinites, and the adverbs namma 'moreover', imma 'indeed', kissan 'thus', and apenissan 'just so' may intervene between a preverb and its verb. Finally, a combination of function word plus verb that has a meaning clearly distinct from the meaning of the verb and difficult to reconstruct from the literal meaning of its parts is most likely a verb with preverb, for example, pēran weriya-, 'be involved with', which is composed of pēran 'before' and weriya- 'call (out)'.

48. Sentence Particles

Perhaps the only thing that is entirely clear about the sentence particles -kan, -ssan, -asta, (or -sta), -apa (or -pa), and -an is that they occur at the end of the sentence-initial enclitic chain. These particles, or some of them, have been variously described as indicating local relations between the verb and other elements in the sentence, as indicating locatival or other case functions, as modifiers of the verb that work in conjunction with preverbs, as remnants of pronouns used to establish relations between clauses, or as connective particles used to connect sentences or clauses. Much of the research done on the particles, however, suffers from problems resulting from lack of evidence or doubtful methodology. The particle -an is very rare. It is found only in the earliest texts, and it seems to have dropped out of use quite early. The fate of -apa (-pa), which is also rare and archaic, was similar, though related particles are found in the other Anatolian languages. The particle -asta (-sta) is also found in early texts and in copies of early texts but was lost from the living language by the Empire period. By contrast, -ssan (also -san) is fairly well attested in texts from most periods except the very latest, and -kan (sometimes spelled -kkan), which is rare in Old Hittite, increases dramatically in frequency in later texts.

48.1. Examples of asta

The rarity of -an and -apa means that little can be said with certainty about the functions of these paricles. It has been claimed that -asta (-sta) has an affinity for the ablative case, or for meanings associated with it and indeed, a sense of separation is found in sentences such as the following:

    GIŠTUKULHI.A-us-sus-sta   ZAG.LU.ZA   dāhhun
    weapons-their-locatival   shoulders   I took
    "I took their weapons from their shoulder(s)."

The particle is found in a sentence with a noun in the ablative and with the compound verb katta pāi- 'go down' in the following:

    mān-asta   GUD.MAH-a   KÁ.GAL-az   katta   paizzi
    when-locatival   bull   gate (abl.)   down   goes
    "When the bull goes down through the gate..."

Similarly, -asta is used with kattanda paī- 'go down into', though not with a noun in the ablative in, for example:

    n-asta   DIM-nas   tān   annas-sis   kattanda pait
    and-locatival   of the Stormgod   for a second time   mother-his   downward went
    "For the second time, the mother of the Stormgod went downward."

However, katta pāi- is found without -asta in, the following sentence from a copy of a fairly early text:

    nu   nekuz mēhūni   hūdāk   katta paitten
    and   at night-time   immediately   down go
    "At night time, go down immediately!"

The compound kattanda pāi- is found without a particle in, for example:

    n-e   namma   hattesnas   kattanda nūmān pānzi
    and-they   moreover   to holes   down negative they go
    "And they do not want to go back down into (their) holes again."

The postposition katta 'down', modifying a noun with the ablative occurs with pai- and with the particle -kan rather than -asta in the following sentence from a fairly early text:

    n-at-kan   katta   IŠTU KÁ.GAL-az   URUDāuniya   pānzi
    and-they-locatival   down   from the gate (abl.)   city of Dauniya   they go
    "And they go down from the Dauniya gate."
48.2. Examples of -ssan

The uses and meaning of the particle -ssan are somewhat clearer. It may have an affinity with the dative, locative, and allative, and may add the idea of superposition ("over, upon, on"), proximity, or accompaniment. It does occur often with a dative-locative and/or with the preverb and adverb sēr 'over, upon', for example:

    serr-a-ssan   harnamma   BAPPIR   IŠTU   KAŠ   harnan   lahuwai
    over-and-over   yeast   BAPPIR   with   beer   fermented   he pours
    n-at   anda immiyanzi                    
    and-them   into mixes                    
    "He pours over them (herbs) yeast (and) BAPPIR fermented with the beer, and he mixes them together."

Similarly, s:er and -ssan occur with huwāī- in the following sentence about vegetation growing over the sleeping god Telepenus:

    sēr-s-a-ses-san   halenzu   huwaīs
    over-but-him-over   halenzu-plant   ran
    "But over him the halenzu-plant grew."

It is possible that the sense 'over' is conveyed by sēr rather than -ssan, but the particle may also be used without sēr but with a dative-locative or allative. In many of these instances, -ssan may indicate a goal:

    nu-mu-ssan   zigg-a   KARAŠ-pat   hūdāk   arnut
    and-to me   you-and   troops-those same   immediately   bring
    "And you, bring those same troops to me immediately!"
                     
    LUGAL-us-san   DU-as   NA4huwasiya   anda paizzi
    king-over-to   of the Stormgod   stele   into goes
    "The king enters (the enclosure) to the stele of the Stormgod."

The particle may also strengthen or add the idea of a goal. In the first sentence, -ssan accompanies the adverb apiya 'there'; in the second sentence, however, it may be that -ssan alone imparts the idea of location:

    nu-ssan   apiya   iyaddumat
    and-locatival   there   go (pl.)
    "Go there!"
             
    n-as   KUR   URUHattusi   ŪL   hūisuwezzi   aki-pat-ssan
    and-he   land   Hattusas   not   lives   he dies-instead-locatival
    "He will not go on living in Hattusas; instead, he will die there."
48.3. The Particle -kan

The function of -kan is much harder to describe because it is so rare in early texts, in which its original, limited, meaning may have been preserved, and it is so common in later texts, where it has clearly replaced other particles.

49. Enclitic Conjunctions

The Hitite conjunctions -a 'but', -ma 'but, moreover', and -a, -ya 'and' are enclitic. That is, they have no independent accent but instead instead attach to a preceding independently accented word. Each of the enclitic conjunctions precedes all other enclitic particles and pronouns in the enclitic string.

49.1. Adversative -a-

The conjunction -a- 'but' is found mainly in early texts, and, although it is found in these texts beside the enclitic conjunction -ma, which is similar in meaning, -ma gradually spread at the expense of -a-, until -a- was eliminated. After vowels or idiograms it is spelled -ya, and after consonants it is spelled -a. Generally, it is attached to the initial word in its clause. Enclitic -a- may be used to conjoin two clauses, for example:

    takkuw-as   attas-sas-a   É-ri   aki
    If-she   her-father's-but   in house   dies
    "But if she dies in her father's house..."
                 
    DINGIRDIDLI.HI.A-s-a   DUMUMEŠ-us   A.AB.BA-az   sarā dāer
    gods-but   children   out of sea   up took
    "But the gods took the boys up out of the sea."
                 
    takku   kussan-a   natta   piyan
    if   wage-but   not   paid
    "But if the wage is not paid..."
                 
    DTelepenus-a   arha iyannis
    Telepenus-but   away ran
    "But Telepenus ran away."
49.2. -ma-

The enclitic particle -ma is very common. Its basic function is to indicate a correlation between adjacent clauses or between words or phrases within clauses. Often, it has an adversative sense and may be translated 'but'. However, its more general use is to mark that two or more items or actions belong together. It can be used to join clauses. In the following the adversative sense is fairly clear.

    ammuk-ma-az   ŠÀ-az   lahlahhiman   ŪL   tarhmi
    I-but-reflexive   from heart   worry   not   overcome
    "But I cannot overcome the worry from (my) heart."
                     
    takku   natta-ma   taranzi   nu   natta   paimi
    if   not-but   they say   then   not   I go
    "But if they don't say, I will not go."

In correlating sentences with negatives, the sense may be 'nor':

    DUMU.LÚ.ULÙ.LU   ŪL   innara   uwanun
    mortal-man   not   by force   I come
    ŪL-ma   sullani   uwanun    
    not-but   for quarrel   I come    
    "I, mortal man, have not come on my own account, nor have I come for strife."

In other contexts, though -ma may be translated as 'but' or 'and', the sense is neither clearly adversative nor conjunctive; instead, the particle serves to mark that action continues. In this sense, -ma may be used to mark the beginning of a turning point in a narrative or it may be used in a sentence that begins a paragraph that changes topics in an extended text.

    mahhan-ma   hameshanza   kisat   man    
    when-but   spring   became   irrealis    
    INA   KUR   URUAzzi   taninumanzi   pāun
    into   country   of Azzi   to restore order   I went
    "But as soon as it became spring, I would have gone into the land of Azzi to restore order."
                     
    tuk-ma   DUTUŠI   kuit   KUR-TAM   ADDIN
    to you-but   my majesty   which   land   I have given
    nu-za   apāt   KUR-TAM   pahsi    
    and-reflexive   that   land   protect    
    "But protect the land which I, My Majesty, have given to you."
                     
    pēdi-ssi-ma   ZÀ.HA.LI-an   anenun
    in place-its-and   cress   I sowed
    "And on its site I sowed cress."
             
    ANA   MUhha-LÚ-ma   TE4MU   wiyanun
    to   Uhhazitti-moreover   messenger   I sent
    "Moreover, to Uhhaziti I sent a messenger."

The conjunction -ma may also mark the correlation, or equivalence, of words within adjacent clauses that are parallel or otherwise closely related. In the following sentence from the "Telpenus Myth," -ma marks the parallel between the ewe's treatment of her lamb and the cow's treatment of her calf. If the sentence were translated into English, a semicolon might be an appropriate way of indicating the relationship between the clauses:

    UDU-us-za   SILA4-ZU   mimmas
    ewe-reflexive   lamb-her   rejected
    GU4-ma   AMAR-ŠU   mimmas
    cow-and   calf-her   rejected
    "The ewe rejected her lamb; the cow rejected her calf."

Similarly, in the following from a ritual text, -ma marks the contrast between the appearance of the hawthorn bush in the spring, when it is in flower, and in the fall. This passage shows the overlap in function between contrastive -a and -ma, since in first clause contains -a, while the second contains -ma:

    hameshi-ya-z   BABBARTIM   wassasi
    in spring-but-reflexive   white   you wear
    BURU14-ma-z   isharwanda   wassasi
    at harvest time-but-reflexive   red   you wear

In negative constructions, -ma can mean 'nor' or 'neither ... nor':

    ŪL   iyat   kuitki   ŪL-ma   wastas   kuitki
    not   did   anything   not-but   sinned   any
    ŪL-ma-kan   dās   kuedanikki   kuitki        
    not-but-locatival   took   from anyone   anything        
    "He neither did anything, nor committed any sin, nor took anything from anyone."
49.3. Conjunctive -a-, -ya- 'and'

The correlative enclitic conjunction -a 'and' resembles -a 'but', and, indeed, it took scholars a number of years after Hittite was deciphered to distinguish the two. Like the particle -a 'but', it normally written -ya after vowels and often, though not always written as -ya after Sumerograms and Akkadograms. Unlike -a 'but', however, the conjunction -a 'and' causes gemination, or doubling, of a consonant that it follows. Also, unlike -a 'but', -a 'and' is not confined to early texts:

    GUD-ya-wa-mu   kuin   tet   nu-war-an-mu   uppi
    ox-and-quotative-me   that   you said   and-quotative-it-me   send
    "And the ox that you promised me, send it to me."
                     
    apedani-ya   uddani   wasduli   harteni
    for this-and   for matter   in sin   you hold
    "...and for this matter you hold (us) in sin."
                 
    memiyann-a-ssi     mematti
    word-and-to her   not   you speak
    "And you should not speak a word to her."
             
    lalesmess-a   ŪL   siyānza
    the invoice-and   not   sealed
    "And the invoice was not sealed."

The conjunction -a 'and' is often used to join nouns within a clause. Generally, the enclitic is attached to the second noun, but it may occasionally be attached to the first, as in the last phrase.

    n-at-kan   DINGIRMEŠ-as   antuhsass-a   āssu
    and-it-locatival   to gods   men-and   dear
    "It is dear to gods and men."
                 
    nepis   tēkan-a   harsi
    heaven   earth-and   you hold
    "You hold heaven and earth."
             
    takku   attass-a   annas   mimmai
    if   father-and   mother   refuse
    "If the father and mother refuse (to make compensation to their daughter's jilted fiance)..."

The following sentence, from an Old Hittite historical text, has both -a 'but' and -a 'and':

    GI^SBANHI.A-a-ssan   kuyēs   huettiyanta
    bows-but-locatival   who   drawn
    GIŠKAK.Ú.TAG.GAHI.A-ya   harkanzi    
    bows arrows-and   they hold    
    "But those who hold drawn bows and arrows..."
49.4. The Akkadogram Ù

In some instances the Akkadogram Ù 'and' is employed as a conjunction. It is not known how it was read in Hittite.

      NA4pēru   māhhan   uktūri    
    this   boulder   just as   eternal    
    BĒLU   Ù   DAM-ŠU   DUMUMEŠ-ŠU   QĀTAMMA
    lord   and   wife-his   children-his   likewise
    uktūres   asantu            
    eternal   let them be            
    "Just as this boulder is eternal, let the lord (i.e. the king), his wife, and his children be eternal."
49.5. Omitted Conjunctions

Finally, clauses or phrases within a sentence may be closely connected but not conjoined with an overt conjunction:

    ītten   azzikatten   akkuskatten
    go   keep eating   keep drinking
    "Go, keep eating (and) drinking! (i.e., 'remain alive')"
50. The Modal Particle man

Hittite, unlike Greek and Latin, had neither a subjunctive nor an optative. Instead, sentences that denote unreal, or contrary to fact conditions, potential conditions, or wishes, were signaled with the irrealis particle man. Normally, the particle is spelled ma-an as distinct from the conjunction mān (spelled ma-a-an), but examples of the particle spelled ma-a-an are sometimes found. The reasons behind this variation in spelling are not entirely clear.

50.1. Use in contrary-to-fact clauses

The particle man, sometimes called the "irrealis particle" is used with verbs in the past tense to indicate contrary to fact conditions, actions that the subject would or might have taken that were prevented or that simply did not occur for some reason.

For example, in the following sentence from the "Annals of Mursilis," the reason Mursilis does not go on a military campaign into Azzi is that the people of Azzi hear that he is coming and capitulate in advance of his expedition:

    mahhan-ma   hameshanza   kisat   man   INA   KUR   URUAzzi
    when-but   spring   became   irrealis   into   country   of Azzi
    taninumanzi   pāun                    
    to restore order   I went                    
    "But as soon as it became spring, I would have gone into the land of Azzi to restore order."

In this sentence from the "Proclamation of Telepenus," Telepenus claims that his brother-in-law would have killed him and his wife had not the brother-in-law's intentions become known:

    mān-us-kan   MHuzziyas   kuenta   nu   uttar   isduwāti
    irrealis-them-locatival   Huzziyas   killed   but   plan   became known
    "Huzziyas would have killed them, but the plan became known."

In this sentence from Mursili's "Annals" the contrary to fact clause with man begins the sentence. The expression "the year had become short" means that winter, the season during which Hittite kings did not campaign, was closing in:

    man   INA   URUHayasa   pāun-pat
    irrealis   into   Hayasa   I went-also
    nu-za   MU.KAM-za   ser tēpauēssanza    
    and-reflexive   year   had become short    
    "I would also have gone to Hayasa (to attack it), but the year had become short."

The particle can be present in both the conditional clause and in the result clause:

    man   tiyat   man-as-kan   suhhaz   katta   maustat
    irrealis   stepped   irrealis-she-locatival   from roof   down   fell
    "Had she (the goddess, Hebat) taken a step, she would have fallen down from the roof."
50.2. Use With the Present-Future

Sentences with man and verbs in the present-future and nominal sentences with man express possible actions. This sentence from the "Deeds of Suppiluliuma" begins with a clause with the conjuction mān 'if', and suggests a possible outcome if the conditions expressed in the if-clause are fulfilled:

    mān-wa-mu   1-an   DUMU-KA   paisti
    if-quotative-to me   one   son-your   you give
    man-war-as-mu   MUTIYA   kisari    
    irrealis-quotative-he-to me   husband   become    
    "If you give me one (of) your son(s), he could become my husband."
50.3. Use in Wishes

Man may also be used to express a wish of a speaker or of the subject of a sentence:

    asi-man-wa   URU-as   ammel   kisari
    that-irrealis-quotative   city   mine   becomes
    "I wish that city were mine."
                 
    man-wa   MDUTUŠI   TI-eszi
    irrealis-quotative   his majesty   lives
    "I hope his majesty lives."