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Hittite Online

Lesson 3

Sara E. Kimball and Jonathan Slocum

The Telepenus of this text was a real Hittite king, unlike the Hattic god of the Telepenus myth from whom the king took his name. King Telepenus ruled toward the end of the Old Kingdom period (1525-1500 B.C.E.) and apparently composed this document as a way of providing a solution to the bloody chaos that prevailed in the royal family around the question of succession to the throne. The Hittite royal family (salli hassa:tar, literally 'great family') was composed not only of the king and his immediate family but also of numerous relatives who made up the kingdom's nobility. The nobility made up the king's advisory council, or pankus, the body Telepenus enjoins to warn off those who would harm members of the nobility. It would be comforting to think that they always acted nobly, but like modern people they often acted in their own, short-sighted interest, and they were keenly interested in the kingship. The Hittite king might have several wives, a primary wife, wives of the "second rank" (or ta:n pe:das), and, in addition, a number of recognized mistresses. Such a family structure had the potential to create a volatile situation, since the king's wives and mistresses would inevitably bear him sons who, as they grew to manhood, might harbor royal ambitions, and as the history of the Hittite monarchy attests might act ruthlessly in their pursuit of power.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The text itself, which is preserved in a number of copies in Neo-Hittite writing, including a version in Akkadian, begins with an account of Hittite dynastic history from the reign of the first Hittite king, Labarna I, and covers events through the reign of Telepenus himself. In it, history is used skillfully to support the argument that rules for the succession need to be codified. The text begins by claiming that in the reigns of the earlier kings the royal family, the people, and the army were united, and the Hittite kingdom prospered and was victorious in battle. It then goes on to account various assassinations of Hittite kings and palace intrigues that, according to Telepenus, provoked divine disfavor and left the kingdom weak and vulnerable to its enemies. Telepenus himself was involved in such intrigues. He and his wife, the sister of the Hittite king, Huzziyas, were targets of an assassination plot which Telepenus attributes to his brother-in-law, and later both Telepenus' wife, Isparariyas, the queen, and his son Ammunas were apparently murdered. Interestingly, although Telepenus apparently deposed Huzziyas and exiled his brothers to the country, he describes his own ascension to the throne with the formulaic phrase "when I seated myself on the throne of my father."

The extracts provided below give Telepenus' account of his ascension to the kingship and his codification of the rules of succession. The former gives a flavor of the internal violence of the Old Kingdom, while the latter provides the conclusions Telepenus drew from that bloody history. The institution of the L/Uantiyant- (from anda 'in(to)' plus tiyant-, participle of tiya- 'step', literally 'the man who steps in') involved the adoption of a son-in-law as heir to the family fortune. It is described in the Hittite law code as recourse for common folk who had no sons, and similar institutions are attested in other ancient and modern societies. No doubt Telepenus, an in-law himself, regarded this custom with a certain amount of self interest. It would be reassuring to think that Telepenus' rules for the royal succession were followed by subsequent generations, but later Hittite historical texts suggest that Telepenus' rules were often disregarded.

nu MHu-uz-zi-ya-as LUGAL-u-e-et

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and # The following extract is from paragraphs 22-23, lines 9-19.
  • MHu-uz-zi-ya-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Huzziya-> Huzziyas -- Huzziyas
  • LUGAL-u-e-et -- verb; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-u-e-et> become -- became king # third person singular preterit -- the Hittite reading is hassue:t from a verb hassue:- "become king" that is built from the stem ha:ssus "king."

MTe-le-pe-nu-us-sa-az FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-an NIN-ZU DAM har-ta

  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us-sa-az -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- And Telepenus
  • FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Istapariya-> Istapariyas -- Ispatariyas
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-an -- adjective; accusative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- oldest
  • NIN-ZU -- noun; Sumerogram <NIN> sister + Akkadian enclitic 3rd person singular possessive pronoun <-ZU>... -- his sister # The Hittite word for sister was nekas, and presumably the word was pronounced in Hittite when the document was read. The possessive pronoun, however, follows Akkadian spelling conventions for possessive pronouns added to stems ending in dentals, because the Akkadian word for sister was aha:tu; the construct state aha:t, the stem to which possessive pronouns were added, plus the possessive pronoun -s^u, is spelled aha:zzu.
  • DAM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DAM> wife, marriage -- as wife
  • har-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- had as wife

ma-a-nu-us-kan MHu-uz-zi-ya-as ku-en-ta nu ut-tar is-du-wa-a-ti nu-us MTe-le-pe-nu-us ar-ha par-ah-ta

  • ma-a-nu-us-kan -- adverb; modal particle <man>... + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-us> them + locatival particle <-kan>... -- them # The modal particle man normally has a short vowel. The vowel may, however, have been lengthened here because, as the first word in its clause, man was accented.
  • MHu-uz-zi-ya-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Huzziya-> Huzziyas -- Huzziyas
  • ku-en-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- would have killed
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- but
  • ut-tar -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <uttar> affair, matter -- the plot
  • is-du-wa-a-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <isduwa-> be known -- became known
  • nu-us -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-us> them -- them
  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus -- Telepenus
  • ar-ha -- preverb; <arha> away -- off
  • par-ah-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <parh-> chase, drive -- drove

5 SHESHMESH-SHU

  • 5 -- numeral; <5> five -- five # The Hittite reading is unknown.
  • SHESHMESH-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram <SHESH> brother + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SHU> his, her -- he had... brothers # The Hittite reading is negnes.

nu-us-ma-as NMESH tag-ga-as-ta pa-a-n-du-wa-az a-sa-an-du

  • nu-us-ma-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative of <sume:s> they -- for them
  • NMESH -- noun; Sumerogram <> house + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- houses
  • tag-ga-as-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- constructed
  • pa-a-n-du-wa-az -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- ... # The quotative particle -wa- is used here to indicate that this is what Telepenus said to Huzziyas's brothers.
  • a-sa-an-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- ...

nu-wa-za az-zi-ik-kan-du ak-ku-us-kan-du

  • nu-wa-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- ...
  • az-zi-ik-kan-du -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <e:d-> eat -- let them eat!
  • ak-ku-us-kan-du -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <egw> drink -- let them drink! # The formula "Let (them) eat (and) drink!" meant "Let them remain alive!"

i-da-a-lu-ma-as-ma-as-kan le-e ku-is-ki tag-ga-as-si

  • i-da-a-lu-ma-as-ma-as-kan -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <ida:lu> evil, harm + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative <-smas> they + locatival particle <-kan>... -- but evil to them
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <le:> no, not -- not
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- any
  • tag-ga-as-si -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- I contrived

nu tar-si-ke-mi a-pe-e-wa-mu i-da-lu i-e-er u-ga-wa-ru-us HUL-lu -UL i-ya-mi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • tar-si-ke-mi -- verb; 1st person singular present iterative of <te:-, tar-> declare, promise -- I declare # The verb te:-, tar- is suppletive.
  • a-pe-e-wa-mu -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <apa:-> that + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me -- they... me
  • i-da-lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <ida:lu> evil, harm -- harm
  • i-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- they did
  • u-ga-wa-ru-us -- personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative <u:k> I + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-us> them -- them
  • HUL-lu -- noun; Sumerogram <HUL> evil, harm + Hittite phonetic complement <-lu> (functioning here as accusative singular neuter) -- harm
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> no, not -- not
  • i-ya-mi -- 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- I will do

ma-a-an-sa-an MTe-le-pe-nu-us I-NA GISHGU.ZA A-BI-YA e-es-ha-at nu URUHa-as-su-wa la-ah-ha pa-a-un nu URUHa-as-su-wa-an har-ni-in-ku-un

  • ma-a-an-sa-an -- conjunction <ma:n> if, when + locatival particle <-ssan> on, over -- when
  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus -- Telepenus
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- on
  • GISHGU.ZA -- noun; Sumerogram <GU.ZA> throne -- throne
  • A-BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive singular <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- of my father
  • e-es-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular middle preterite of <e:s-> sit -- seated myself
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • URUHa-as-su-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative <Hassuwa-> Hassuwas -- to the city of Hassuwas
  • la-ah-ha -- noun; allative of <la:hha-> military campaign -- on a campaign
  • pa-a-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go -- I went
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • URUHa-as-su-wa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Hassuwa-> Hassuwas -- the city of Hassuwa
  • har-ni-in-ku-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harnink-> destroy -- I destroyed

ERINMESH-za-mi-is-sa URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi e-es-ta nu URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi hu-ul-la-an-za-is ki-sa-at

  • ERINMESH-za-mi-is-sa -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <ERINMESH> army, infantry + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... + 1st person singular possessive pronoun nominative singular animate of <-miss-> my + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and -- And my army
  • URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi -- proper noun; dative-locative of <Zizzilippi> Zizzilippi -- in Zizzilippi
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- was
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi -- proper noun; dative-locative of <Zizzilippi> Zizzilippi -- in Zizzilippi
  • hu-ul-la-an-za-is -- noun; nominative singular animate of <hullanza-> battle -- a battle
  • ki-sa-at -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <ki:s-> become, happen -- occurred

nu sal-la-as-pat ha-as-sa-an-na-as e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ... # The extract that follows is from paragraphs 27-30, lines 31 to 49.
  • sal-la-as-pat -- noun; genitive singular of <salli-> big, great + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- even among
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-as -- noun; genitive singular of <hassa:tar-> family -- family # The Hittite term for the royal family was literally "the great family". It could be abbreviated to simply hassa:tar 'the family'.
  • e-es-har -- noun; nominative singular neuter <e:shar> blood, bloodshed -- bloodshed
  • pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <pangariya-> be common -- became common

nu FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-as MUNUS.LUGAL BA-S

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Istapariya-> Istapariyas -- Istapariyas
  • MUNUS.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -- the queen # The Hittite reading is hassussaras.
  • BA-S -- verb; Sumerogram functioning here as 3rd person singular preterite <BA-S> die -- died

EGIR-pa-ma -er MAm-mu-na-as DUMU.LUGAL BA-S

  • EGIR-pa-ma -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- and afterwards
  • -er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- it happened that
  • MAm-mu-na-as -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Ammuna-> Ammuna -- Ammuna
  • DUMU.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince -- prince
  • BA-S -- verb; Sumerogram functioning here as 3rd person singular preterite <BA-S> die -- died

nu si--na-an an-tu-us-si-is-sa tar-si-ik-kan-zi ka-a-sa-wa URUHa-at-tu-si e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • si--na-an -- noun; genitive plural of <sius> god -- of the gods
  • an-tu-us-si-is-sa -- noun; nominative plural animate of <antuwahhas> human being, person + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and -- the men
  • tar-si-ik-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural iterative of mi-conjugation <te:-, tar-> declare, promise -- are saying # This verb is a historical present.
  • ka-a-sa-wa -- exclamation; <ka:s> behold, look + quotative particle <-wa>... -- look
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • e-es-har -- noun; nominative singular neuter <e:shar> blood, bloodshed -- bloodshed
  • pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <pangariya-> be common -- has become common

nu MTe-le-pe-nu-us URUHa-at-tu-si tu-li-ya-an hal-zi-ih-hu-un

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • MTe-le-pe-nu-us -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Telepenu-> Telepenus -- Telepenus
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • tu-li-ya-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <tuliya-> council -- the council
  • hal-zi-ih-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <halza:i-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- I summoned

ki-it pa-an-da-la-az URUHa-at-tu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-as DUMU-an i-da-lu le-e ku-is-ki i-ya-zi nu-us-si-sa-an GR-an tak-ke-es-zi

  • ki-it pa-an-da-la-az -- adverb; <ki-it pa-an-da-la-az> from now on -- from now on
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-as -- noun; genitive singular of <hassa:tar-> family -- of the royal family
  • DUMU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a son
  • i-da-lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <ida:lu> evil, harm -- harm
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <le:> no, not -- no
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- one
  • i-ya-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- do
  • nu-us-si-sa-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it + locatival particle <-san> over -- against him
  • GR-an -- noun; Sumerogram <GR> knife, dagger + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a dagger
  • tak-ke-es-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <taks-, takkis-> construct, contrive, use -- use

LUGAL-us-sa-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as-pat DUMU.LUGAL DUMURU ki-ik-ki-is-ta-ru

  • LUGAL-us-sa-an -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) + locative participle <-ssan> on, over -- king
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as-pat -- adjective; genitive singular of <hantezziya-> first, oldest + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- of the first rank only
  • DUMU.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince -- a prince
  • DUMURU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian phonetic complement <-RU>... -- a son
  • ki-ik-ki-is-ta-ru -- verb; 3rd person singular middle imperative of <kikkis-> become -- let become

tak-ku DUMU.LUGAL ha-an-te-ez-zi-is NU.GL nu ku-is ta-a-an pe-e-da-as DUMURU nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • DUMU.LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince -- prince
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-is -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- a first-ranked
  • NU.GL -- verb; Sumerogram <NU.GL> there is not -- there is no
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who is
  • ta-a-an pe-e-da-as -- noun; genitive singular of <ta:n pe:da-> second rank -- of the second rank
  • DUMURU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian phonetic complement <-RU>... -- a son
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • a-pa-a-as -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <apa:-> that -- one
  • ki-sa-ru -- verb; 3rd person singular middle imperative of <ki:s-> become, happen -- let become

ma-a-an DUMU.LUGAL-ma IBILA NU.GL nu ku-is DUMU.MUNUS ha-an-te-ez-zi-is nu-us-si-is-sa-an Lan-ti-ya-an-ta-an ap-pa-an-du nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru

  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <ma:n> if, when -- but if
  • DUMU.LUGAL-ma -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.LUGAL> king's son, prince + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- prince
  • IBILA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <IBILA> male heir -- male heir
  • NU.GL -- verb; Sumerogram <NU.GL> there is not -- there is no
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who is
  • DUMU.MUNUS -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter -- a daughter
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-is -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- first-ranked
  • nu-us-si-is-sa-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi-> he, she, it + locatival particle <-ssan> on, over -- for her
  • Lan-ti-ya-an-ta-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <antiyant-> adopted son and son-in-law -- antiyant-man # When there was no son in a family it was a custom, not only in the royal family but also among commoners, to adopt a young man and marry him to a daughter in order to carry on the family line.
  • ap-pa-an-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <e:pp-> take, seize -- let them take
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • a-pa-a-as -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <apa:-> that -- him
  • ki-sa-ru -- verb; 3rd person singular middle imperative of <ki:s-> become, happen -- let... become

UR-RA-AM SE-RA-AM ku-is am-mu-uk EGIR-an-da LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri na-pa SHESHMESH-SHU DUMUMESH-SHU L.MESHga-e-na-as-si-is ha-as-sa-an-na-as-sa-as ERINMESH-SHU ta-ru-up-pa-an-te-es a-sa-an-du

  • UR-RA-AM SE-RA-AM -- adverb; Akkadian <URRAM SERAM> in the future -- In the future
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- whoever
  • am-mu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <ammuk> me -- me # The use of the dative here may be a mistake. One of the duplicates, which preserves this section of the text, has the genitive ammel.
  • EGIR-an-da -- postposition; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement <-an-da>... -- after # (The reading a-ap-pa-an-da is indicated.)
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • ki-sa-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <ki:s-> become, happen -- becomes
  • na-pa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-apa> (indicating completed action) -- and
  • SHESHMESH-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <SHESH> brother + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his brothers
  • DUMUMESH-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <DUMU> son, child + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his sons
  • L.MESHga-e-na-as-si-is -- noun; nominative plural animate of <gaena-> male relative by marriage, in-law + enclitic possessive pronoun 3rd person singular nominative plural animate of <-sis> his, her, its -- his in-laws # The noun gaenas has the archaic nominative plural ending -as from Indo-European *-o:s.
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-as-sa-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <hassa:nna-> family + enclitic possessive pronoun 3rd person singular nominative singular animate of <-sas>... -- his family # The stem hassa:nna- has been made from the stem of the genitive of hassa:tar 'family', hassa:nnas
  • -- conjunction; Akkadogram <> and -- and
  • ERINMESH-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram <ERINMESH> army, infantry + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SHU> his, her -- his army
  • ta-ru-up-pa-an-te-es -- participle nominative plural animate of <tarupp-> be assembled, be united -- united
  • a-sa-an-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- let be

nu-za -wa-si LKR-an ut-ne-e ku-ut-ta-ni-it tar-ah-ha-an har-si

  • nu-za -- sentence particle <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- then
  • -wa-si -- verb; 2nd person singular present of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- you (shall) come
  • LKR-an -- noun; Sumerogram <LKR> enemy + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- the enemy
  • ut-ne-e -- noun; accusative plural neuter of <utne:-> land, country -- (his) lands
  • ku-ut-ta-ni-it -- noun; instrumental singular of <kuttar> upper arm, shoulder -- with (your) strong arm
  • tar-ah-ha-an har-si -- verb; 2nd person singular of hark-perfect <tarhhant- har-, hark-> overcome, conquer -- you (shall) conquer

ki-is-sa-an-na le-e te-e-si ar-ha-wa par-ku-nu-um-mi par-ku-nu-si-ma-za -UL ku-it-ki

  • ki-is-sa-an-na -- adverb; <kissan> thus, as follows + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- and the following
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <le:> no, not -- not
  • te-e-si -- verb; 2nd person singular present of mi-conjugation <te:-, tar-> declare, promise -- say
  • ar-ha-wa -- adverb; <arha> away + quotative particle <-wa>... -- thoroughly
  • par-ku-nu-um-mi -- verb; 1st person singular present of <parkunu-> clean, purify -- I will issue pardons? # The verb parkunu- literally means "make clean," but it can mean "pardon" (i.e. "cleanse of the stigma of wrong-doing"). It is unclear whether this passage refers to reforming the behavior of the Hittite ruling class, in which case the meaning "clean up, reform" would be more apt, or whether it refers to treating wrong-doers with leniency, an approach Telepenus takes elsewhere in the text. In the latter case, the translation "pardon" would be more appropriate.
  • par-ku-nu-si-ma-za -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <parkunu-> clean, purify + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- while you, yourself, pardon?
  • -UL ku-it-ki -- adjective; Akkadian negative <U:L> not + indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- nothing

nu-za an-da im-ma ha-at-ki-is-nu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-sa-an-za-kan le-e ku-in-ki ku-en-ti -UL SIG5-in

  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- ...
  • an-da im-ma -- adverb; <anda imma> indeed -- even
  • ha-at-ki-is-nu-si -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <hatkesnu-> oppress, constrict, arrest -- order arrests
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-sa-an-za-kan -- noun; genitive singular of <hassa:nna-> family + phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... + locatival particle <-kan>... -- member of the royal family
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <le:> no, not -- not
  • ku-in-ki -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- anyone
  • ku-en-ti -- verb; 2nd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- kill # Although a mi-conjugation verb, the verb kuen- often takes the hi-conjugation second person singular ending, because the regular kue:n-si would become kuesi with loss of the stem-final -n.
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> no, not -- not
  • SIG5-in -- adjective; Sumerogram <SIG5> good, well + Hittite phonetic complement <-in>... -- good # The Hittite reading of SIG5-in is unknown.

nam-ma ku-i-sa LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri nu SHESH-as NIN-as i-da-lu sa-an-ah-zi su-me-es-sa pa-an-ku-us-si-is

  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • ku-i-sa -- indefinite relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisa> whoever -- whoever
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- king
  • ki-sa-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <ki:s-> become, happen -- becomes
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • SHESH-as -- noun; Sumerogram <SESH> brother + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (functioning here as genitive singular) -- a brother
  • NIN-as -- noun; Sumerogram <NIN> sister + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (functioning here asgenitive singular) -- or a sister
  • i-da-lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <ida:lu> evil, harm -- harm
  • sa-an-ah-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <sanh-> seek, attempt -- attempts
  • su-me-es-sa -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person plural nominative <sume:s> you + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and -- and you are
  • pa-an-ku-us-si-is -- noun; nominative singular animate of <pankus> advisory council + enclitic possessive pronoun 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-sis> his, her, its -- his council

nu-us-si kar-si te-et-te-en ki-i-wa e-es-na-as ut-tar tup-pi-az a-u

  • nu-us-si -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- him
  • kar-si -- adverb; <karsi> frankly -- frankly
  • te-et-te-en -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <te:-, tar-> declare, promise -- say
  • ki-i-wa -- pronoun; demonstrative pronoun nominative singular neuter of <ka:-, ki:-> this + quotative particle <-wa>... -- this
  • e-es-na-as -- noun; genitive singular of <e:shar> blood, bloodshed -- of bloodshed # The loss of h in the genitive is archaic.
  • ut-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <uttar> affair, matter -- story
  • tup-pi-az -- noun; ablative singular of <tuppi-> tablet -- from the tablet
  • a-u -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- look # The expression tuppiaz au, literally "look with the tablet," seems to mean "read" or "study."

ka-ru--wa e-es-har URUHa-at-tu-si ma-ak-ke-es-ta nu-wa-ra-ta-pa DINGIRMESH-is sal-la-i ha-as-sa-an-na-i da-a-er

  • ka-ru--wa -- adverb; <karu:> before, previously + quotative particle <-wa>... -- previously
  • e-es-har -- noun; nominative singular neuter <e:shar> blood, bloodshed -- bloodshed
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in Hattusas
  • ma-ak-ke-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <makke:ss> become numerous -- have become numerous
  • nu-wa-ra-ta-pa -- sentence particle <nu> and + enclitic pronoun 2nd person singular dative <-ta> you + locatival particle <-apa> (indicating completed action) -- and for you
  • DINGIRMESH-is -- noun; Sumerogram <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Hittite phonetic complement <-is> (functioning here as nominative plural animate) -- the gods
  • sal-la-i -- adjective dative-locative singular of <salli-> big, great -- on the royal
  • ha-as-sa-an-na-i -- noun; dative-locative singular of <hassanna:-> family -- family # Salli- and hassanna:- take an irregular form of the dative-locative with the ending -ai here.
  • da-a-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <da:i-, tiya-> place, put -- have placed

Lesson Text

nu MHu-uz-zi-ya-as LUGAL-u-e-et
MTe-le-pe-nu-us-sa-az FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-an NIN-ZU DAM har-ta
ma-a-nu-us-kan MHu-uz-zi-ya-as ku-en-ta nu ut-tar is-du-wa-a-ti nu-us MTe-le-pe-nu-us ar-ha par-ah-ta
5 SHESHMESH-SHU
nu-us-ma-as NMESH tag-ga-as-ta pa-a-n-du-wa-az a-sa-an-du
nu-wa-za az-zi-ik-kan-du ak-ku-us-kan-du
i-da-a-lu-ma-as-ma-as-kan le-e ku-is-ki tag-ga-as-si
nu tar-si-ke-mi a-pe-e-wa-mu i-da-lu i-e-er u-ga-wa-ru-us HUL-lu -UL i-ya-mi
ma-a-an-sa-an MTe-le-pe-nu-us I-NA GISHGU.ZA A-BI-YA e-es-ha-at nu URUHa-as-su-wa la-ah-ha pa-a-un nu URUHa-as-su-wa-an har-ni-in-ku-un
ERINMESH-za-mi-is-sa URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi e-es-ta nu URUZi-iz-zi-li-ip-pi hu-ul-la-an-za-is ki-sa-at
nu sal-la-as-pat ha-as-sa-an-na-as e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti
nu FIs-ta-pa-ri-ya-as MUNUS.LUGAL BA-S
EGIR-pa-ma -er MAm-mu-na-as DUMU.LUGAL BA-S
nu si--na-an an-tu-us-si-is-sa tar-si-ik-kan-zi ka-a-sa-wa URUHa-at-tu-si e-es-har pa-an-ga-ri-ya-at-ta-ti
nu MTe-le-pe-nu-us URUHa-at-tu-si tu-li-ya-an hal-zi-ih-hu-un
ki-it pa-an-da-la-az URUHa-at-tu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-as DUMU-an i-da-lu le-e ku-is-ki i-ya-zi nu-us-si-sa-an GR-an tak-ke-es-zi
LUGAL-us-sa-an ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as-pat DUMU.LUGAL DUMURU ki-ik-ki-is-ta-ru
tak-ku DUMU.LUGAL ha-an-te-ez-zi-is NU.GL nu ku-is ta-a-an pe-e-da-as DUMURU nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru
ma-a-an DUMU.LUGAL-ma IBILA NU.GL nu ku-is DUMU.MUNUS ha-an-te-ez-zi-is nu-us-si-is-sa-an Lan-ti-ya-an-ta-an ap-pa-an-du nu LUGAL-us a-pa-a-as ki-sa-ru
UR-RA-AM SE-RA-AM ku-is am-mu-uk EGIR-an-da LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri na-pa SHESHMESH-SHU DUMUMESH-SHU L.MESHga-e-na-as-si-is ha-as-sa-an-na-as-sa-as ERINMESH-SHU ta-ru-up-pa-an-te-es a-sa-an-du
nu-za -wa-si LKR-an ut-ne-e ku-ut-ta-ni-it tar-ah-ha-an har-si
ki-is-sa-an-na le-e te-e-si ar-ha-wa par-ku-nu-um-mi par-ku-nu-si-ma-za -UL ku-it-ki
nu-za an-da im-ma ha-at-ki-is-nu-si ha-as-sa-an-na-sa-an-za-kan le-e ku-in-ki ku-en-ti -UL SIG5-in
nam-ma ku-i-sa LUGAL-us ki-sa-ri nu SHESH-as NIN-as i-da-lu sa-an-ah-zi su-me-es-sa pa-an-ku-us-si-is
nu-us-si kar-si te-et-te-en ki-i-wa e-es-na-as ut-tar tup-pi-az a-u
ka-ru--wa e-es-har URUHa-at-tu-si ma-ak-ke-es-ta nu-wa-ra-ta-pa DINGIRMESH-is sal-la-i ha-as-sa-an-na-i da-a-er

Translation

And Huzziyas became king. And Telepenus had Istapariyas, his eldest sister, as wife. Huzziyas would have killed them, but the plan became known, and Telepenus drove them (the assassins) off. He (Huzziyas) had five brothers. (Telepenus) constructed houses for them, (saying) "Let them go and remain (there); let them eat and drink, and do no harm to them." And I (Telepenus) say: "They harmed me, but I will not harm them." When I, Telepenus, seated myself upon the throne of my father, I went on a military campaign to Hassuwas and destroyed the city of Hassuwas. My army was also in Zizzilippas, and in Zizzilippas a battle occurred.
And now bloodshed became common even among the royal family itself. Istapariya, the queen, died. And afterwards it happened that Ammunas, the prince, died. And the 'men of the god' are saying: "Look, in Hattusas, bloodshed has become common." Then I, Telepenus, summoned the council in Hattusas, (saying): "From now on, in Hattusas, let no one do evil to a son of the royal family (or) use a dagger against him. A son of the first rank, a prince, only should become king. If there is no first-ranked prince, (then) let one who is of the second rank become king. If there is no royal male heir, let them take an antiyant-man for a first-ranked daughter, and let him become king. In the future, whoever becomes king after me, let his brothers, his sons, his relatives by marriage, the men of his family, and his army be united. Then you shall come with your strong arm and conquer the enemy's lands. And don't say the following: 'I will issue pardons.' You pardon nothing; you even order arrests! Do not kill anyone among the (royal) family. That is not good. Moreover, he who becomes king and seeks evil against brother (or) sister-you, are his advisory council. Tell him frankly: 'Study this story of bloodshed from the tablet. Previously bloodshed became common in Hattusas and the gods have placed it for you on the royal family.'"

Grammar

11. Enclitics

In Hittite a number of forms corresponding to grammatical function words appear as enclitics. An enclitic is a word with no independent stress of its own that is attached to a preceding word with which it forms a single accentual unit. A comparable example from English would be the reduced form of "not," "n't," used in negative contractions (e.g., "didn't" or "shouldn't"). We will look at specific uses of enclitics in more detail in later sections; these are a few basics.

Special forms of the personal and possessive pronouns and certain conjunctions are enclitic. The particle -wa- (-war- before vowels), which signals that a sentence is quoted speech, the particle -za- (called a reflexive particle, which modifies both nouns and verbs), the so-called locational particles (-kkan, -ssan, -asta, and -apa, which also affect the meanings of verbs) and the so- called emphasizing particle -pat are also enclitics.

The enclitics (except for the emphasizing particle -pat, which modifies individual words), and the conjunctions when they connect elements within the sentence, are attached to the first fully stressed word of a sentence or clause; for example:

    DTelepenus-a   arha   iyannis
    Telepenus-but   away   stomped
    "But Telepenus stomped away."
             
    pe:di-iss-ma   L.U19.LU-an   pa:i
    In-place-his-but   a person   he gives
    "But in his place, he gives a man."
             
    ug-a-war-us   HUL   U:L   iyami
    I-but-quotative particle-them   harm   not   will do
    "But I will not do them harm."

The Akkadian prepositions ANA 'on', INA 'in', 'into', and SHA 'of', since they were merely markers of grammatical relations and not parts of the Hittite sentence, do not count as the sentence's first word:

    INA   GUNNI-ma   kalmi:sanis   wisu:riyantati
    In   the hearth-and   the logs   were stifled
    "And in the hearth, the logs were stifled."

When a Sumerogram or Akkadogram stands for a Hittite word, however, the Hittite word is part of the sentence, and enclitics may be attached to it:

    UDU-us-za   SILA4-ZU   mimmas
    The ewe-reflexive particle   her lamb   rejected
    "The ewe rejected her lamb."
11.1. Sentence particles and enclitics

Often, the enclitics are attached to a sentence particle. This may be nu, which is found in texts from all periods, or su or ta, which only occur in early texts and copies of early texts. The sentence particles may themselves indicate relationships between clauses, and are sometimes to be translated as "and," "but," or "then," although nu in particular sometimes functions as a semantically empty word that serves as a prop for enclitics.

    nu-wa-za   azzikkandu
    nu-quotative particle-reflexive particle   let (them) eat
    "Let them eat (for themselves)."
         
    nu-ssi   hatra:nuun
    nu-to him   I wrote
    "I wrote to him."
         
    nu-wa-mu-za   tepnusket
    nu-quotative particle-me-reflexive particle   he has belittled
    "He has belittled me."

When the enclitic begins in a vowel, the sentence particle loses its final vowel:

    n-at   DUMU   NAM.L.U19.LU-as istmasdu
    nu-it   mankind   let them hear
    "And let mankind hear it."
             
    n-at-san   wappui   da:i
    nu-it-locatival particle "over"   on the river bank   she places
    "And she places it on the river bank."
             
    s-an   da:lahhun
    su-it   I abandoned
    I abandoned it (the city).    
         
    t-an   istarnikzi
    ta-him   makes sick
    "...makes him sick."
12. Personal Pronouns

Hittite has two types of personal pronoun. One is a series of pronouns that function as independent words with their own accents (tonic pronouns), while the other series consists of pronouns that have no independent accent of their own but are instead, enclitic. The pronouns of the first and second persons are descended from Indo-European pronominal precursors, but in the third person the demonstrative pronoun apa:-, "that (one)" generally serves also as a personal pronoun. A few forms from a stem siye:-, which is probably to be derived from a demonstrative stem, are also found in pronominal function in early texts. The following is a paradigm of the earliest forms of the first and second person tonic pronouns:

Tonic pronouns, first and second persons

    1 sg.   1 pl.   2 sg.   2 pl.
    "I, me"   "we, us"   "you"   "you"
nom.   u:k   we:s   zik   sume:s
acc.   ammuk   anza:s   tuk   suma:s
gen.   amme:l   anze:l   tue:l   sume:l
dloc   ammuk   anza:s   tuk   sume:s
abl   amme:daz   anze:daz   tue:daz   sume:daz

This system shows a number of analogical changes over the five hundred years during which the Hittite texts were attested. The original first person singular nominative u:k was eventually replaced by ammuk, the original accusative and dative-locative. The first person plural nominative we:s is archaic and was replaced by anza:s, the original accusative. The original second person plural nominative sume:s was partially replaced by suma:s from the accusative and dative-locative. In Neo-Hittite texts, the opposite development, replacement of the original accusative suma:s by the nominative sume:s, is also sporadically attested. For the second person plural genitive, an archaic form, sumenzan, is found in early texts. Its replacement, sume:l, was modeled after the genitive in -:el of other personal and demonstrative pronouns.

The following forms from the stem siye- are found. Although the complete paradigm is not attested, forms that occur include an endingless locative distinct from the dative-locative.

Forms of third person siye:-

gen.   siy:el
dloc.   sye:dani
loc   sye:t
abl   siye:z

The tonic pronouns and apa:- are occasionally strenghened with the suffix -ila or -il, giving them a meaning something like that of the emphatic use of English reflexive pronouns in sentences like She, herself, doesn't agree; for example:

    nasma-at   zik-ma   zikila   istamasti
    Moreover-it   you-but   you, yourself   hear
    "Moreover, if you--you yourself--hear it (something against the Hittite king)..."

Although the tonic pronouns are used for emphasis, for clarification of pronominal reference, and the second person is used for direct address, enclitic pronouns are more frequent, and two enclitic pronouns may occur within a single sentence. There are two sets of enclitic pronouns. One set functions as datives or accusatives in the first and second persons and as datives only in the third person. This set is clearly related to the corresponding tonic pronouns:

Dative and accusative pronouns

    Singular   Plural
1.   -mu   -nnas
2.   -tta, -ttu   -smas
3.   -ssi   -smas

Consonants are only be doubled after vowels in the cuneiform syllabary. Further, because of the limitations of the cuneiform syllabary, second and third person pronouns have to be spelled with a "dead" vowel, normally as -su-ma-as The second person singular pronoun shows up as -ttu (-ddu) before the reflexive particle -za and as -tta, -dda in other environments.

The second set of pronouns is third person only. These pronouns, which have an alternating stem in early texts, function as nominatives and accusatives and are marked for gender:

Third person pronouns

    Singular   Plural
Nominative Animate   -as   -at
Accusative Animate   -an   -us
Nominative-Accusative Plural   -at   -e

The plural forms of this set of pronouns underwent analogical change. After the earliest period, the third person plural nominative animate -e and nominative- accusative neuter were replaced by -at, the original form of the nominative- accusative neuter singular and the accusative animate plural was sporadically replaced by -as.

13. The Middle Voice

Verbs taking middle inflection may be stative, passive, medio-passive, or transitive. For more on the use of the middle see Grammar Point 11. The middle shows two sets of synchronically unrelated endings in the third person singular present and imperative, and attested paradigms may represent a blend of conjugations that were originally distinct in Indo-European, though a number of Hittite verbs may take both sets of endings. Traditionally, the third person singular present endings -a and -ari and the third person singular imperative ending -aru, have been termed "hi-conjugation," while the fuller set has been termed "mi-conjugation." There is, however, no hard and fast correlation between these endings and active mi- and hi-conjugation forms. One view regards the "hi-conjugation" endings (called here "middle two") as reflecting an Indo-European stative conjugation; that is a special set of endings for verbs that express states of affairs.

In Hittite, however, these endings occur with verbs that are not stative as well as with statives. By contrast, the "mi-conjugation" middle (or middle one), is characterized by variation in the form of the endings. The r-less endings of the present singular resemble the endings of the hi-conjugation, prompting some scholars to argue for various theories connecting the two in early Indo-European. The endings with -r- of the middle present have parallels in Italic, Celtic, and Tocharian. The middle preterit is characterized by endings with a dental stop, which was apparently voiced, since it was written as a single stop between vowels (e.g., first person singular preterit -VH-HA-TI = [-hhadi]). In the third person of the preterit, the final -i is original. It spread, however, to the first and second persons, while new third person singular and plural forms lacking the -i were, conversely, created on the model of the earlier first and second person endings. The reduplicated first person singular endings, present -hhahari, preterit -hhahhati, and imperative -hhaharu are found in Neo-Hittite texts.

13.1. Middle Endings
Present   Middle 1       Middle 2
1 sg.   -hha, -hhari, -hhahari        
2 sg.   -tta, -ttati        
3 sg.   -ttati, -tta       -a, -ari
1 pl.   -wasta, -wastari        
2 pl.   -ttuma, -ttumari        
3 pl.   -anta, -antari        
Preterit            
1 sg.   -hhat, -hhati, -hhahhati        
2 sg.   -tta, -ttati        
3 sg.   -tta, -ttati        
1 pl.   -wastat        
2 pl.   -ttumat, -ttumadi        
3 pl.   -antati, -antat        
Imperative            
1 sg.   -hharu, -hhaharu        
2 sg.   -hhut, -hhuti        
3 sg.   -ttaru       -aru
2 pl.   -ttumat, -ttumati        
3 pl.   -antaru        
13.2. Middle Paradigms

The following are paradigms of several verbs that are well attested in the middle. The verbs ki:s- 'become', and ar- 'stay', take only middle endings. Ki:s- and ar- take the middle two endings -a, -ari and -aru, as well as the middle one endings.

Present        
1 sg.   ki:s-ha, ki:s-hahri   ar-hari, ar-hahari
2 sg.   ki:s-ta, ki:s-tati   ar-tati, ar-tari
3 sg.   ki:s-a, ki:s-ari   art-a, ar-tari
1 pl.       ar-wasta
2 pl.        
3 pl.   ki:s-anta, ki:s-antari   ar-anta, ar-andari
Preterit        
1 sg.   ki:s-hati, ki:s-hat, ki:s-hahari   ar-hati, ar-hahat
2 sg.   ki:s-at, ki:s-tat   ar-tat
3 sg.   ki:s-ati, ki:s-at   ar-tat
1 pl.       ar-wastat
2 pl.   ki:s-dumat   ar-dumat
3 pl.   ki:s-antati, ki:s-antat   ar-antat, ar-andari
Imperative        
2 sg.   ki:s-hut   ar-hut
3 sg.   ki:s-aru   ar-taru
2 pl.   ki:s-dumat   ar-dumat
3 pl.   ki:s-andaru   aran-taru

Iya- also takes only middle endings and does not take the stative endings, while pahhs-, which also forms an active, takes both stative endings and regular endings. It also may be used transitively in the middle.

Present        
1 sg.   pahhas-ha   iya-hhari
2 sg.   pahs-a, pahhas-ta   iya-ttati
3 sg.   pahs-ari   iya-tta, iya-ttari
1 pl.   pahs-uwasta    
2 pl.   pahhas-duma   iya-dduma
3 pl.   pahs-anta, pahhs-antari   iya-nta, iya-ntari
Preterit        
1 sg.   pahhas-hat, pahhas-hahat   iya-hhat
2 sg.       iya-tti
3 sg.   pahhas-tat   iya-tat
1 pl.        
2 pl.        
3 pl.       iya-antat
Imperative        
2 sg.       iya-hhut
3 sg.   pahs-aru   iya-ttaru
2 pl.   pahhas-dumat   iya-ddumat
3 pl.   pahhas-andaru   iya-ndaru
14. Uses of the Middle

Some verbs, deponents, are inflected only in the middle. Deponents are normally intransitive, (e.g., ki- 'lie', ki:s- 'become, happen, turn out', iya- 'go', e:s- 'sit', or ar- 'stay'). Some deponents may act as suppletive medio-passive correspondents of normally active verbs (e.g., ki- 'lie' beside da:i- 'put, place'; kue:n- 'kill' beside akk- 'die'; or ki:s- 'become, turn out, happen' beside the active mi-verb iya- 'do, make'); for example:

    ANA   TUPPI RIKALTI   SHA ABI-YA-kan   kuye:s   URUDIDLI.HI.A   U:L   kiyantari
    On   treaty tablet-his   of-my-father   that   cities   not   set down
    "The cities that are not set down on my father's treaty tablet..."

Compare the active da:i- 'put', meaning "set down" or "establish" (on a treaty tablet):

    ZAGMESH-is-si   mahhan   dais
    Boarders-for-him   how   he set down

The Hittite middle may be stative, for example:

    n-as   arha   kitta
    And-it   apart   lies
    "It lies apart."
             
    MU   2.KAM   hameshanza   SIG5-atta
    (For)   two years   spring   is good
    "For two years, the spring will be good."

The middle may have a sense akin to that of the Greek middle, indicating that the action in some way affects the subject: for example:

    DUTU-as   karpiyatta
    Sungod   is angry
    "The Sungod is angry."

The middle may also indicate that the subject undergoes a change of state; for example:

    L-as   witti   meyanni   armiyatta   n-as   SIG5-atta
    The man   every   year   will become sick   and-he   will recover
    "The man will become sick every year and will recover."
                         
    nu   DUMU   miyari
    And   a son   is born
    "And a son is born."
             
    mahahan-ma-za   ABU-YA   kuwa-pi   DINGIRLIM   kisat
    "But when my father became a god (i.e. 'died and was deified')..."
    nu   uttar   isduwa:ti
    and   plot   became known
    "The plot became known."
             
    nu   sallas-pat   hassanas   e:shar   pangariyattati
    But   among great-even   family   bloodshed   has become common
    "But now, bloodshed has become common even among the royal family."
                     
    kuita   imma   mieshati
    Even   when   I grew up
    "Even when I grew up..."

The middle is also used to make sentences akin to the English passive in which the patient (the noun that would be the direct object of a corresponding active sentence) appears in the nominative, for example:

    INA   GUNNI-ma   kalmi:sanis   wisu:riyantati
    In   the-hearth-but   logs   were stifled
    "In the hearth, the logs were stifled."
                 
    nu   EZEN4   DSIN   EZEN4   te:thuwas-a
    And   the festival   of the moon   (and) the festival   of thunder
    anda imiyattati   n-at   taksan   kisantari    
    are mingled   and-they   together   take place    
    "The festival of the moon and the festival of thunder are mingled, and they take place jointly."

Compare with the active:

    nu   ki:   hu:man   ANA   ZD.DA SHE   isni   menahhanda   immiyami
    and   this   all   with   barley meal   into dough   against   I mix
    "All this I mix with barley meal into dough."

When the passive has an agent (the noun that would be the subject in a corresponding active sentence), the agent takes the dative case:

    DUTU-i-kan   kuis   a:ssiyattari
    By-the-Sungod   who   is loved
    "...who is loved by the Sungod."

The middles of some verbs may be transitive, for example:

    nu-mu   pahhasta
    And-me   he protected
    "He protected me."
         
    1   NINDA   SIG   wappuwaas   DMAH   parsiya
    One   thin-bread   of the river bank   for the goddess   I crumble    
    "She crumbles one thin loaf for the mother-goddess of the river bank."
15. The Genitive

The genitive is the case of possession. Nouns in the genitive normally occur before the heads of the noun phrases they modify, but they may occur after the head, especially if the head is a Sumerogram or Akkaodogram:

    namma   wappuwas   IM-an   da:i
    moreover   of the river bank (gen.)   clay   she takes
    "Moreover, she takes clay of the riverbank."
                 
    n-at   sakuniyas   purut   da:i
    And-it   of-the-spring (gen.)   mud   she takes
    "She takes it, the mud of the spring..."
                 
    dankuwayas-at   taknas   KASKAL-an   paiddu
    dark (gen.)-it   of earth (gen.)   the road   let travel
    "Let it travel the road of the dark earth."
                 
    n-us   arunas   erhus   ye:t
    And-them   of-the-sea (gen.)   borders   he made
    "And he made them borders of the sea."

Genitives are especially apt to occur after the head of the noun phrase when the head is written ideographically, but this placement is not obligatory:

    takku   ANSHE.KU.RA   tu:riyauwas   ...   ha:lias   harapta
    if   donkey   of harnessing (gen.)   ...   to folds   strays
    "If a donkey of harnassing (i.e. 'a trained donkey') ... strays to the folds..."
                         
    EZEN   hameshandas-ma   U:L   D-anza
    festival   of spring (gen.)-but   not   (was) celebrated
    "But the festival of spring had not been celebrated."
                 
    takkuw-as   attas-sas-a   -ri   aki
    If-she   her-father's (gen.)-but   in house   dies
    "But if she dies in her father's house..."
                 
    takku   LEL-LAM   MUSH-an   kuenzi   tamell-a   SHUM-an   tezzi
    if   free man   snake   kills   and-another's (gen.)   name   says
    "If a free man kills a snake and pronounces another's name..."

In archaic texts, an enclitic possessive pronoun may redundantly accompany a noun or pronoun in the genitive:

    attas-ttas-wa   SAG.DU-set   waggariya
    father's (gen.)-of your (gen.)-quotative   head-his   revolt
    "Revolt against your father, his head! (i.e. Revolt against your father's person!)"
15.1. Use of Akkadian to indicate possession

The Akkadian preposition SHA is often used to indicate that a following noun is the genitive, especially with Sumerograms or Akkadograms. Proper names and place names in Hittite are normally uninflected following SHA. Presumably the Hittite words that the Sumerograms and Akkadograms stood for were inflected as genitives when pronounced.

    SHA   MUuhha-L-ya   URUApa:san   URU-an   GUL-ahta
    of   Uhhaziti-and   Apasa   city   it struck
    And it struck Uhhaziti's city, Apasa."                
                     
    SHA   DISHTAR   para: handandatar   memahhi
    of   Ishtar   divine power   I will tell
    "I will tell of Ishtar's divine power."

Akkadian enclitic possessive pronouns are often attached to Sumerograms or Akkadograms to indicate possessiion. In the sentence below, the Akkadian first person enclitic possessive -YA is attached to the Akkadogram meaning "father."

    .BU-YA-nnas-za   MMursiliis   4   DUMUMESH   ...   hasta
    father-my-us-reflexive   Mursilis   four   children   ...   fathered
    "My father, Mursilis, fathered us four children..."

The Akkadian possessive pronoun may be used redundantly alongside a noun in the genitive or a tonic (accented) personal pronoun in the genitive:

    nu   GISHkalmisanan   ammel   KARASHHI.A-YA   usket
    and   thunderbolt   my (gen.)   army-my   saw
    "And my army saw the thunderbolt."
                     
    nu   LUGAL-was   SHUM-SHU   a:ssu   memisketten
    and   king's (gen.)   name-his   well   speak
    "And speak well of the king's name!"
15.2. Partitive apposition

Possession may also be indicated by so-called partitive apposition. In such constructions, composed of two nouns in the same case, the first noun is the equivalent in meaning to a genitive. For example, this phrase from the Law Code has two nouns in the accusative, A.SH-an 'field' and ZAG-an 'boundary', which are literally to be translated as "a field (its) boundary." A later copy of the Law Code replaces the first accusative by the genitive A.SH-as:

    takku   A.SH-an   ZAG-an   kuiski   parsiya
    if   field   border   someone   breaks
    "If someone breaks the border of a field..."

In the following sentence the two nouns in partitive apposition, aruni 'sea' and ZAG-si 'shore', are in the dative-locative:

    URULulluwayas-san   KUR-e   aruni   ZAG-si   e:szi
    Lulluwayas-locatival   country   at the sea   at its shore   is
    "The country Luluwaya is at the shore of the sea."
15.3. Predicative genitives

The genitives of the stressed personal pronouns are used as predicates to express possession. They may be used with forms of the verb "to be" or in nominal sentences:

    nu-war-at   ammel   asanzi
    and-quotative-they   of me   are
    "They are mine."
             
    KR   URUAlasiya-wa   ammel
    land   Alasiya-quotative   of me
    "The land of Alasiya is mine!"
             
    asi-man-wa   URU-as   ammel   kisari
    that-irrealis-quotative   city   mine   becomes
    "I wish that city were mine."

Genitives can also be used as quasi-adjectives in the predicates of sentences; for example, huiswannas, genitive of the verbal abstract huiswa:tar 'life' (spelled with the Sumerogram TI) is used in the following from the Apology of Hattusilis III:

    U:L-war-as   TI-annas
    neg.-quotative-he   of life
    "He is not of life (i.e. He will not live)."
15.4. Genitive of material

The genitive may be used to indicate the material out of which something is made or composed:

    nu   isnas   pu:rpuran   iyanzi
    and   of dough (gen.)   a lump   they make
    "They make a lump of dough."
                 
    nu   UR.TUR.RA   appuzziyas   ienzi
    and   dog-small   of tallow (gen.)   they make
    "They make a small dog of tallow."
15.5. Partitive genitive

Like Greek and Latin, Hittite has a partitive genitive. That is, the genitive expresses the idea that something is a part of a larger whole:

    humandas-pat   EGIR-izzis   DUMU-as   esun
    of all-very   last   of the children   I was
    "I was the very last (i.e. the youngest) of all the children."
                 
    NIM.LL   teriyas   UD-as   miuwas   UD-as
    bees   of three (gen.)   of days (gen.)   of four (gen.)   of days (gen.)
    KASKAL-an   pa:ndu            
    journey   let them go            
    "Let the bees go on a journey of three days, of four days!"
15.6. Nominal genitives

Genitive forms may be used nominally. For example, the genitive of tayazzil 'theft', tayazzilas, can be used in the sense "person of theft" (Ltayazzilas), in other words, "thief." Such nouns formed from genitives may come to be fully inflected. We find, for example, Lkurura- 'enemy' from Lkururas 'man of war', genitive of ku:ur 'war', Ltaksula- 'friend, ally' from Ltaksulas, genitive of taksul 'alliance, peace', and Lwastula- 'sinner' from wastulas genitive of wastul 'sin, fault'.