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Hittite Online

Lesson 4

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

The collection of Hittite legal texts is generally referred to as The Laws, suggesting that it does not make up a document produced by a central authority but rather it is a compilation of civil and criminal law traditionally observed by society, as illustrated by the excerpts given here from among somewhat over two hundred clauses. The earliest record of it dates to the Old Kingdom, about 1650 B.C., but that refers to still earlier versions. Many copies have survived, four from the Old Kingdom alone; these maintain the collection with little or no change. As a general characteristic, the provisions require cooperation rather than vengeance or imprisonment for offenses. Like the initial clauses given here, some deal with criminal offenses such as abduction, theft, homicide and so on. Others deal with civil offenses related to marriage, management of livestock, and various services. Further knowledge of the practice of law in Hittite society is provided by texts on court proceedings and statements by the king or other administrators, but the basic information on legal practice of the Hittites is given in The Laws.

Reading and Textual Analysis

All 10 clauses given here are included in the collection catalogued as "KBo VI," mostly KBo VI 3. The first three clauses (1, 2, 5) deal with criminal offenses; they illustrate nicely the identification of specific offenses and the resultant punishment. The third is especially notable in specifying different punishments according to the type and place of offense. In all three, the sentence translated "he shall look to his house for it" has been the subject of great attention and a variety of interpretations. By what is probably the best interpretation, it indicates that the estate of the person performing a criminal action will be involved in any penalty.

The fourth and fifth clauses (9, 10) deal with less serious offenses; among other things, they illustrate that legal practice has undergone change from former times.

The sixth and seventh clauses (28, 37) deal with civil offenses and are self-explanatory. But if, as in the seventh (37, from KBo VI 2 with a near-duplicate in KBo VI 3), a criminal offense occurs in the attempt at solution, the perpetrator is outlawed as a wolf and subject to the usual punishments for such a criminal offense.

The last three clauses (66, 86, 55) also deal with civil offenses, and illustrate the extent to which the laws deal with minor infractions. Yet the last, 55 (from KBo VI 13 and 26), seems to lead to a remarkably serious punishment. It is explained in accordance with a widespread belief associating a snake with a specific person, and making it clear when killing the snake that a similar action is to strike its surrogate.

1 - tak-ku L-an na-as-ma MUNUS-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi 4 SAG.DU pa-a-i L-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • L-an -- noun; Sumerogram <L> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a man # The Hittite reading is probably pisnan from pisena- "male human being" as opposed to antuwahhas- "person, human being."
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • MUNUS-an -- noun; Sumerogram <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a woman # The Hittite reading of Sumerian MUNUS is disputed.
  • su-ul-la-an-na-az -- noun; ablative singular of <sulla:tar-> quarrel -- in a quarrel
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- kills
  • a-pu-u-un -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <apa:-> that -- that one
  • ar-nu-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arnu-> bring -- produces # In other words, the killer produces the corpse.
  • -- conjunction; Akkadogram <> and -- and
  • 4 -- numeral; <4> four -- four # The Hittite reading is me:u-.
  • SAG.DU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate of <SAG.DU> head, human being, worker -- workers # Sumerian SG.DU probably lacks plural marking because the preceding numeral indicates plurality.
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- provides
  • L-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram <L> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ku> whether, or -- whether a man
  • MUNUS-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ku> whether, or -- or a woman # The enclitic conjunction sequence -kku ... -kku is archaic and marks a disjunction. For the type, cf. e.g., English 'whether ... or not'.
  • par-na-as-se-e-a -- noun; allative of <pe:r, parn-> house + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> his + enclitic conjunction <-a-> but -- but to his house
  • su-wa-a-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <suwa:ye-> look -- he looks # The expression parnassea sua:izzi means that responsibility devolves upon the house and estate of the culprit.

2 - tak-ku ARAD-an na-as-ma GEME-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi 2 SAG.DU pa-a-i L-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ARAD-an -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a male slave # The Hittite reading is hurtalan.
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • GEME-an -- noun; Sumerogram <GEME> female slave + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a female slave
  • su-ul-la-an-na-az -- noun; ablative singular of <sulla:tar-> quarrel -- in a quarrel
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- kills
  • a-pu-u-un -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <apa:-> that -- that one
  • ar-nu-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arnu-> bring -- produces
  • -- conjunction; Akkadogram <> and -- and
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two # The Hittite reading is unclear.
  • SAG.DU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate of <SAG.DU> head, human being, worker -- workers
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- provides
  • L-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram <L> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ku> whether, or -- whether a man
  • MUNUS-na-ku -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement <-na-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ku> whether, or -- or a woman
  • par-na-as-se-e-a -- noun; allative of <pe:r, parn-> house + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> his + enclitic conjunction <-a-> but -- but to his house
  • su-wa-a-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <suwa:ye-> look -- he looks

5 - tak-ku LDAM.GR URUHa-at-ti ku-is-ki ku-en-zi 1 ME MA.NA K.BABBAR pa-a-i par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi tak-ku I-NA KUR URULu--i-ya na-as-ma I-NA KUR URUPa-la-a 1 ME MA.NA K.BABBAR pa-a-i a-as-su-se-et-ta sar-ni-ik-zi ma-a-an I-NA KUR URUHa-at-ti nu-za -na-at-tal-la-an-pat ar-nu-uz-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • LDAM.GR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <DAM.GR> merchant -- a merchant # The Hittite reading is unattallan as in the final line of the passage.
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of the land of Hatti
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- kills
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • ME -- numeral; Akkadian <ME:> one hundred -- hundred
  • MA.NA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MANA> mina -- mina # The Sumerian mina was a unit of measure for precious metals. Coins had not yet been invented.
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- provides
  • par-na-as-se-e-a -- noun; allative of <pe:r, parn-> house + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> his + enclitic conjunction <-a-> but -- but to his house
  • su-wa-a-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <suwa:ye-> look -- he looks
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the territory # The Hittite reading is udni:.
  • URULu--i-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Lu:iya-> Luvian territory -- Luwiya # The phrase KUR URUCity-Name is the regular expression for the territory including and controlled by the designated city-state.
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the territory
  • URUPa-la-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Pala:-> Palaic territory -- Pala
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • ME -- numeral; Akkadian <ME:> one hundred -- hundred
  • MA.NA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MANA> mina -- mina
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- provides
  • a-as-su-se-et-ta -- noun; accusative plural neuter of <a:ssu-> goods, possessions + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular neuter <-ssett> his + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and -- and his wares
  • sar-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- he shall replace
  • ma-a-an -- conjunction; <ma:n> if, when -- if
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the territory
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • -na-at-tal-la-an-pat -- noun; accusative singular animate of <unatalla-> merchant + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- the merchant himself # Presuably if the homicide occurred within Hittite home territory it was reasonable to expect the killer to produce the body of the merchant for burial.
  • ar-nu-uz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <arnu-> bring -- produces

9 - tak-ku L.U19.LU SAG.DU-ZU ku-is-ki hu-u-ni-ik-zi ka-ru- 6 GN K.BABBAR pi-is-ke-er nu hu-u-ni-in-kan-za 3 GN K.BABBAR da-a-i A-NA .GAL 3 GN K.BABBAR da-as-ke-er ki-nu-na LUGAL-us SHA .GAL pe-es-si-et nu-za hu-u-ni-in-kan-za-pat 3 GN K.BABBAR da-a-i

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • L.U19.LU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <L.U19.LU> person -- a person's
  • SAG.DU-ZU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <SAG> head + Akkadian enclitic 3rd person singular possessive pronoun <-ZU>... -- head # Although the Hittite word underlying the Sumerogram is harsar 'head', the corresponding word in Akkadian, qaqqu, has a stem ending in a dental, and the spelling of the possessive pronoun follows Akkadian spelling conventions, i.e qaz-zu.
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • hu-u-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <hu:nink-> harm, injure -- injures
  • ka-ru- -- adverb; <karu:> before, previously -- previously
  • 6 -- numeral; <6> six -- six # The Hittite reading is unknown.
  • GN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GN> shekel -- shekels
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pi-is-ke-er -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- they used to give
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • hu-u-ni-in-kan-za -- verb; nominative singular animate of participle <hu:ninkant-> injured -- the injured person
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three # Related forms in tri- and teri- occur, and it seems likely that the numeral was inherited from Indo-European, but its exact reading is unknown.
  • GN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GN> shekel -- shekels
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- he takes
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- for
  • .GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular of <.GAL> palace -- the palace
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three
  • GN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GN> shekel -- shekels
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • da-as-ke-er -- verb; iterative 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- they used to take
  • ki-nu-na -- adverb; <kinun> now + enclitic conjunction <-a-> but -- but now
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • SHA -- preposition Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • .GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <.GAL> palace -- the palace
  • pe-es-si-et -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pe:ssiya-> throw -- has waived
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • hu-u-ni-in-kan-za-pat -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <hu:nink-> harm, injure + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- the injured party alone
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three
  • GN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GN> shekel -- shekels
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- takes

10 - tak-ku L.U19.LU-an ku-is-ki hu--ni-ik-zi ta-an is-tar-ni-ik-zi nu a-pu-u-un sa-a-ak-ta-a-iz-zi pe-e-di-is-si-ma L.U19.LU-an pa-a-i nu -ri-is-si an-ni-es-ke-ez-zi ku-it-ma-a-na-as la-a-az-zi-at-ta ma-a-na-as la-az-zi-at-ta-ma nu-us-se 6 GN K.BABBAR pa-a-i LA.ZU-ya ku-us-sa-an a-pa-a-as-pat pa-a-i

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • L.U19.LU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <L.U19.LU> person + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a person # The Hittite reading is antuhsan.
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • hu--ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <hu:nink-> harm, injure -- injures
  • ta-an -- sentence particle; <ta> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- him
  • is-tar-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <istarnink-> take sick, sicken -- makes... ill
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • a-pu-u-un -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <apa:-> that -- for him
  • sa-a-ak-ta-a-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <sakta:i-> perform sick maintenance -- he performs sick maintenance
  • pe-e-di-is-si-ma -- noun; dative singular of <pe:da> place + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular dative of <-sis> his, her, its + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- in his place
  • L.U19.LU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <L.U19.LU> person + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a person
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- he provides
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • -ri-is-si -- noun; Sumerogram <> house + Hittite phonetic complement <-ri-> (indicating dative-locative singular) + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-ssi> his, her, its -- his estate # The Hittite reading is pe:ri-ssi.
  • an-ni-es-ke-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present iterative of <anniya-> do, work -- to work
  • ku-it-ma-a-na-as -- conjunction; <kuitma:n> until, while + enclitic personal pronoun; nominative singular animate of <-as> he, she, it -- while he
  • la-a-az-zi-at-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <lazziya-> get better -- recovers
  • ma-a-na-as -- adverb; <ma:n> if, when + enclitic personal pronoun; nominative singular animate of <-as> he, she, it -- when he
  • la-az-zi-at-ta-ma -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <lazziya-> get better + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- recovers
  • nu-us-se -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative of <-ssi> he, she, it -- him
  • 6 -- numeral; <6> six -- six
  • GN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <GN> shekel -- shekels
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- will give
  • LA.ZU-ya -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <A.ZU> doctor + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and -- and the doctor's # The enclitic conjunction -a- is normally written -ya- after Sumerograms.
  • ku-us-sa-an -- noun; accusative singular of <kussan> fee, price -- fee
  • a-pa-a-as-pat -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <apa:-> that + emphasizing particle <pat> himself -- he... himself
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- will also pay

28 - tak-ku DUMU.MUNUS L-ni ta-ra-an-za ta-ma-i-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi ku-us-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi-ma nu ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as L-as ku-it ku-it pe-es-ta ta-as-se sar-ni-ik-zi at-ta-as-sa an-na-as -UL sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku-wa-an at-ta-as an-na-as-sa ta-me-e-da-ni L-ni pi-an-zi nu at-ta-as an-na-as-sa sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku at-ta-as-sa an-na-as mi-im-ma-i na-an-si-kan tuh-sa-an-ta

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • DUMU.MUNUS -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter -- girl
  • L-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <L> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- to a man # The Hittite reading is pisni or piseni.
  • ta-ra-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <te:-, tar-> declare, promise -- is promised
  • ta-ma-i-sa-an -- pronoun; nominative singular animate of <taima:i-> other + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- another
  • pit-te-nu-uz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pittenu-> take away -- abducts her
  • ku-us-sa-an -- noun; accusative singular of <kussan> fee, price -- brideprice
  • pit-te-nu-uz-zi-ma -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pittenu-> take away + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- and steals
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as -- adjective; nominative singular animate of <hantezziya-> first, oldest -- the first
  • L-as -- noun; Sumerogram <L> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- man
  • ku-it ku-it -- indefinite relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kui kui> whatever -- whatever
  • pe-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- he paid
  • ta-as-se -- sentence particle; <ta> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-sse> he -- to him
  • sar-ni-ik-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- makes restitution
  • at-ta-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- the father
  • an-na-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother -- and mother
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- do not
  • sar-ni-in-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- make restitution
  • tak-ku-wa-an -- conjunction <takku> if + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- if her # This is an unusual spelling of takku 'if' plus -an with a hiatus-filling glide, perhaps indicating a pronunciation [takuw-an].
  • at-ta-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father -- the father
  • an-na-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- and mother
  • ta-me-e-da-ni -- pronoun; dative singular of <tama:i-> other -- to another
  • L-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <L> man, person + Hittite phonetic complement <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- man
  • pi-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- give
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • at-ta-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father -- the father
  • an-na-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- and mother
  • sar-ni-in-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <sarnink-> make restitution -- do make restitution
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • at-ta-as-sa -- noun; nominative singular animate of <atta-> father + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- the father
  • an-na-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <anna-> mother -- and mother
  • mi-im-ma-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <mimma-> refuse, reject -- refuse # The compound subject attass-a annas "father-and mother" is viewed as a single unit and takes singular verb agreement.
  • na-an-si-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it + enclitic personal pronoun 3rd person singular dative of <-si-> him, her it + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- her from him
  • tuh-sa-an-ta -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <tuhhus-> cut off, separate -- they shall separate

37 - tak-ku MUNUS-an ku-is-ki pit-te-nu-uz-zi EGIR-an-da-ma-as-ma-as sar-di-ya-as pa-iz-zi tak-ku 2 LMESH na-as-ma 3 LMESH ak-kan-zi sar-ni-ik-zi-il NU.GL zi-ik-wa UR.BARRA ki-sa-at

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • MUNUS-an -- noun; Sumerogram <MUNUS> woman + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a woman
  • ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- someone
  • pit-te-nu-uz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pittenu-> take away -- abducts
  • EGIR-an-da-ma-as-ma-as -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement <-an-da>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative <-smas> they -- but after them # The phonetic complement in EGIR-an-da indicates a Hittite reading a:ppanda.
  • sar-di-ya-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <sardiya-> helper -- a helper # The duplicate KBo VI 3 has the nominative plural in -e:s as well as the third person plural of pa:i-, pa:nzi, which would make more sense, since the law concerns the killing of two or more of a group of men who go after the abductor to rescue the girl.
  • pa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go -- goes after
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • 2 -- numeral; <2> two -- two
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- men
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • 3 -- numeral; <3> three -- three
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- men
  • ak-kan-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <a:k-, akk-> die -- die
  • sar-ni-ik-zi-il -- noun; nominative singular of <sarnikzil> restitution -- restitution
  • NU.GL -- verb; Sumerogram <NU.GL> there is not -- there is no
  • zi-ik-wa -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular nominative <zik> you + quotative particle <-wa>... -- you
  • UR.BARRA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <UR.BARRA> wolf -- a wolf
  • ki-sa-at -- verb; 2nd person singular middle preterite of <ki:s-> become, happen -- have become # Apparently this is a quotation of a formula declaring the abductor to be an outlaw.

66 - tak-ku GU4.APIN.LL tak-ku ANSHE.KU.RA tu-u-ri-ya-u-wa-as tak-ku GU4B tak-ku ANSHE.MUNUS.AL.LAL ha-a-li-as har-ap-ta tak-ku MSH.GAL e-na-an-za tak-ku UDU.SG.MUNUS tak-ku UDU.NIT a-sa-u-ni har-ap-ta is-ha-as-si-sa-an -e-mi-ya-az-zi na-an-za sa-ku-wa-as-sa-ra-an-pat da-a-i LN-ZU-an -UL e-ep-zi

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • GU4.APIN.LL -- noun; Sumerogram nominative singular of <GU4.APIN.LL> plow ox -- a plow ox
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ANSHE.KU.RA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ANSHE.KU.RA> horse -- a horse
  • tu-u-ri-ya-u-wa-as -- adjective; genitive singular of <tu:riyawar> harness -- draft
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • GU4B -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <GU4B> heifer -- a heifer
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ANSHE.MUNUS.AL.LAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ANSHE.MUNUS.AL.LAL> mare -- a mare
  • ha-a-li-as -- noun; dative-locative plural of <ha:li-> corral -- corral
  • har-ap-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harp-> separate -- wanders to
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • MSH.GAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <MSH.GAL> he-goat -- a he-goat
  • e-na-an-za -- adjective; nominative singular of <enant-> tame? -- tame?
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • UDU.SG.MUNUS -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <UDU.SG.MUNUS> ewe -- a ewe
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • UDU.NIT -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <UDU.NIT> ram -- a ram
  • a-sa-u-ni -- noun; dative singular of <asa:war> fold -- to a fold
  • har-ap-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harp-> separate -- wanders
  • is-ha-as-si-sa-an -- noun; nominative singular of <isha:-> master + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative <-sis> his, her, its + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- and its master
  • -e-mi-ya-az-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <wemiya-> find -- finds
  • na-an-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- it
  • sa-ku-wa-as-sa-ra-an-pat -- adverb; <sakuwasaran> right + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- by right
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- takes
  • LN-ZU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <LN-ZU> thief + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- as a thief
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- not
  • e-ep-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <e:pp-> take, seize -- shall... seize

86 - tak-ku SHAH se-e-li-ya na-as-ma A.SH-ni GISHKIRI6-ni pa-iz-zi ta se-e-li-ya-as is-ha-a-as A.SH-na-as GISHKIRI6-as wa-al-ah-zi na-as a-ki na-an is-hi-is-si EGIR-pa pa-a-i tak-ku-an -UL-ma pa-a-i na-as LN-ZU-as ki-i-sa

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • SHAH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <SHAH> pig -- a pig
  • se-e-li-ya -- noun; allative of <se:li-> grain pile -- into a grain pile
  • na-as-ma -- conjunction; <nasma> or -- or
  • A.SH-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <A.SH> field + Hittite phonetic complement <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- into a field
  • GISHKIRI6-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <GISHKIRI6> orchard + Hittite phonetic complement <-ni> (indicating dative singular) -- into an orchard
  • pa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go -- goes
  • ta -- sentence particle; <ta> and -- and
  • se-e-li-ya-as -- noun; genitive singular of <se:li-> grain pile -- of the grain pile
  • is-ha-a-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <isha:-> master -- the owner
  • A.SH-na-as -- noun; Sumerogram <A.SH> field + Hittite phonetic complement <-na-as> (indicating genitive singular) -- of the field
  • GISHKIRI6-as -- noun; Sumerogram <GISHKIRI6> orchard + Hittite phonetic complement <-na-as> (indicating genitive singular) -- or of the orchard
  • wa-al-ah-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <walh-> attack, strike -- strikes
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- and it
  • a-ki -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <a:k-, akk-> die -- dies
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- it
  • is-hi-is-si -- noun; dative singular of <isha:-> master + enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular of <-ssi> his, her, its -- to its master
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... -- back
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gives
  • tak-ku-an -- conjunction; <takku> if + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- it
  • -UL-ma -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> no, not + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but not
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gives
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- he
  • LN-ZU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <LN-ZU> thief + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- a thief
  • ki-i-sa -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ki:s-> become, happen -- becomes

55 - tak-ku L EL-LAM MUSH-an ku-en-zi ta-me-el-la SHUM-an te-ez-zi 1 MA.NA K.BABBAR pa-a-i tak-ku ARAD-ma a-pa-a-as-pat a-ki

  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • L -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <L> man, person -- a man
  • EL-LAM -- adjective; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <EL-LAM> free -- free
  • MUSH-an -- noun; Sumerogram <MUSH> snake + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a snake
  • ku-en-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- kills
  • ta-me-el-la -- pronoun; genitive singular of <dama:i-> other, another + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and -- and another's
  • SHUM-an -- noun; Sumerogram <SHUM> name + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (functioning here as accusative singular neuter) -- name # The Hittite reading is la:man.
  • te-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <te:-, tar-> declare, promise -- says
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • MA.NA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MANA> mina -- mina
  • K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver
  • pa-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- he gives
  • tak-ku -- conjunction; <takku> if -- if
  • ARAD-ma -- noun; Sumerogram nominative singular animate of <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- he is a slave, however
  • a-pa-a-as-pat -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <apa:-> that + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- he himself
  • a-ki -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <a:k-, akk-> die -- dies

Lesson Text

1 tak-ku L-an na-as-ma MUNUS-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi 4 SAG.DU pa-a-i L-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

2 tak-ku ARAD-an na-as-ma GEME-an su-ul-la-an-na-az ku-is-ki ku-en-zi a-pu-u-un ar-nu-zi 2 SAG.DU pa-a-i L-na-ku MUNUS-na-ku par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi

5 tak-ku LDAM.GR URUHa-at-ti ku-is-ki ku-en-zi 1 ME MA.NA K.BABBAR pa-a-i par-na-as-se-e-a su-wa-a-ez-zi tak-ku I-NA KUR URULu--i-ya na-as-ma I-NA KUR URUPa-la-a 1 ME MA.NA K.BABBAR pa-a-i a-as-su-se-et-ta sar-ni-ik-zi ma-a-an I-NA KUR URUHa-at-ti nu-za -na-at-tal-la-an-pat ar-nu-uz-zi

9 tak-ku L.U19.LU SAG.DU-ZU ku-is-ki hu-u-ni-ik-zi ka-ru- 6 GN K.BABBAR pi-is-ke-er nu hu-u-ni-in-kan-za 3 GN K.BABBAR da-a-i A-NA .GAL 3 GN K.BABBAR da-as-ke-er ki-nu-na LUGAL-us SHA .GAL pe-es-si-et nu-za hu-u-ni-in-kan-za-pat 3 GN K.BABBAR da-a-i

10 tak-ku L.U19.LU-an ku-is-ki hu--ni-ik-zi ta-an is-tar-ni-ik-zi nu a-pu-u-un sa-a-ak-ta-a-iz-zi pe-e-di-is-si-ma L.U19.LU-an pa-a-i nu -ri-is-si an-ni-es-ke-ez-zi ku-it-ma-a-na-as la-a-az-zi-at-ta ma-a-na-as la-az-zi-at-ta-ma nu-us-se 6 GN K.BABBAR pa-a-i LA.ZU-ya ku-us-sa-an a-pa-a-as-pat pa-a-i

28 tak-ku DUMU.MUNUS L-ni ta-ra-an-za ta-ma-i-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi ku-us-sa-an pit-te-nu-uz-zi-ma nu ha-an-te-ez-zi-ya-as L-as ku-it ku-it pe-es-ta ta-as-se sar-ni-ik-zi at-ta-as-sa an-na-as -UL sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku-wa-an at-ta-as an-na-as-sa ta-me-e-da-ni L-ni pi-an-zi nu at-ta-as an-na-as-sa sar-ni-in-kan-zi
tak-ku at-ta-as-sa an-na-as mi-im-ma-i na-an-si-kan tuh-sa-an-ta

37 tak-ku MUNUS-an ku-is-ki pit-te-nu-uz-zi EGIR-an-da-ma-as-ma-as sar-di-ya-as pa-iz-zi tak-ku 2 LMESH na-as-ma 3 LMESH ak-kan-zi sar-ni-ik-zi-il NU.GL zi-ik-wa UR.BARRA ki-sa-at

66 tak-ku GU4.APIN.LL tak-ku ANSHE.KU.RA tu-u-ri-ya-u-wa-as tak-ku GU4B tak-ku ANSHE.MUNUS.AL.LAL ha-a-li-as har-ap-ta tak-ku MSH.GAL e-na-an-za tak-ku UDU.SG.MUNUS tak-ku UDU.NIT a-sa-u-ni har-ap-ta is-ha-as-si-sa-an -e-mi-ya-az-zi na-an-za sa-ku-wa-as-sa-ra-an-pat da-a-i LN-ZU-an -UL e-ep-zi

86 tak-ku SHAH se-e-li-ya na-as-ma A.SH-ni GISHKIRI6-ni pa-iz-zi ta se-e-li-ya-as is-ha-a-as A.SH-na-as GISHKIRI6-as wa-al-ah-zi na-as a-ki na-an is-hi-is-si EGIR-pa pa-a-i tak-ku-an -UL-ma pa-a-i na-as LN-ZU-as ki-i-sa

55 tak-ku L EL-LAM MUSH-an ku-en-zi ta-me-el-la SHUM-an te-ez-zi 1 MA.NA K.BABBAR pa-a-i tak-ku ARAD-ma a-pa-a-as-pat a-ki

Translation

1 If someone kills a man or a woman in a quarrel, he (the killer) produces the body (lit. 'that one') and gives (in recompense) four people (lit. 'heads') -- whether (he kills) a man or a woman -- he shall look to his house for it.
2 If someone kills a male slave or a female slave in a quarrel, he (the killer) produces the body (lit. 'that one') and gives (in recompense) four people (lit. 'heads') -- whether (he kills) a man or a woman -- he shall look to his house for it.
5 If someone kills a Hittite merchant, he shall give one hundred mina of silver. He shall look to his house for it. If (the killing occurs) in the land of Luwiya or in the land of Pala, the shall pay one hundred mina of silver and restore his goods. If (the killing occurs) in the land of Hatti, he shall also produce the merchant himself (for burial).
9 If someone injures a person's head, they used to give 6 shekels of silver: the injured person took three shekels of silver, and they used to take three shekels of silver for the palace. But now, the king has waived the palace share, so that the injured person alone takes three shekels of silver.
10 If someone injures a person and makes him ill, he performs sick maintenance for him. In his place, he provides a person to work his estate while he recovers. When he recovers, (the assailant) will give him six shekels of silver, and he will also pay the doctor's fee himself.
28 If a daughter (is) promised to a man, and another (man) abducts her and steals the bride price, the one who abducts her, gives the first man whatever he paid (as bride-price) and he makes restitution to him. The (woman's) father and mother do not make restitution (to the original prospective son-in-law). If the father and mother give her to another man, then the father and mother do make restitution (to the original prospective son-in-law). If the mother and father refuse (to make restitution), they shall separate her from him (the second man).
37 If someone abducts a woman and a (group of) helper(s) goes after them, if two or three men are killed, there is no restitution: 'You (sg.) have become a wolf.'
66 If a plow ox, a draft horse, if a heifer, (or) a mare wanders into (another owner's) corral; if a tame? he-goat, if a ewe, if a ram strays into (another owner's) fold, and its owner finds it, he shall take it back by right. He (the animal's owner) shall not seize him (the corral or fold's owner) (as) a thief.
86 If a pig goes into a grain-heap, a field, (or) a garden, and the owner of the grain-heap, field, (or) garden strikes it and it dies, he shall give it back to its owner. But if he does not give it (back), he shall become a thief.
55 If a free man kills a snake and speaks another's name (while killing it), he shall pay forty shekels of silver. If he (the offender) is a slave, however, he himself shall die (i.e. 'be executed').

Grammar

16. Demonstrative Pronouns

Hittite has two widely attested demonstrative pronouns: one that indicates that what it refers to is nearby, corresponding to English "this," and another that indicates that the referent is more distant, corresponding to English "that." As with the tonic personal pronouns, and the relative and interrogative pronouns, the demonstratives have a set of pronominal endings distinct from nominal endings.

The demonstrative ka:- 'this (one)' has a stem that alternates between ka:-, k-, ki:- and ke:-. In early texts, the the nominative-accusative neuter singular ki:- is kept distinct from the nominative-accusative neuter plural and nominative plural animate ke:. In later texts, however, one finds ke: functioning as a nominative-accusative singular neuter and ki: functioning as a nominative plural animate and nominative-accusative plural neuter. The instrumental occurs in three forms, one with the pronominal ending -anda, one with the ending -t that occurs with both nouns and pronouns, and another with the ending -anna. In the genitive plural, the original ending -enzan was eventually replaced by the -l of the singular.

    anim.       neut.
Singular            
nom.   ka:s       ki:, ke:
acc.   ku:n       ki:, ke:
gen.       ke:l    
dat/loc.       ke:dani    
abl.       ke:z    
inst.       ke:danta, ke:danna, ke:t, ki:t    
             
Plural            
nom.   ke:, ki:       ke:, ki:
acc.   ku:s       ke:, ki:
gen.       ke:nzan, ke:l    
dat/loc.   ki:tas, ke:das        

The demonstrative apa:- 'that (one)' is also used as a third person pronoun. Its archaic genitive plural ape:nzan was replaced by ape:das with the nominal genitive plural ending.

    anim.       neut.
Singular            
nom.   apa:s       ape:
acc.   apu:s       ape:
gen.       ape:l    
dat/loc.       ape:dani    
abl.       ape:z    
inst.       ape:t    
Plural            
nom.            
acc.            
gen.       ape:nzan, ape:das    
dat/loc.       ape:das    
abl.       ape:daz    

As noted above, ka:- is used to refer to people or objects considered relatively near, while apa:- refers to people or objects considered relatively distant. When used as a third person pronoun, apa:- literally means 'that one'.

    nu-mu   ki:   IGI-zi   L-natar-mit
    and-to-me   this   first   manly deed-my
    "This was my first manly deed."
                 
    nu   ka:sa   kedani   uddani:   LIM   DINGIRLIM   tuliya   halziuen
    and   look   for this   for matter   1000   gods   to the assembly   we called
    "Look, for this matter, we have called the thousand gods to the assembly!"
                                 
    takku   L-an   nasma   MUNUS-an   sullannaz   kuiski   kuenzi
    if   man   or   woman   from a quarrel   someone   kills
    apu:n   arnuzi                    
    that one   he brings back                    
    "If someone kills a man or a woman as the result of a quarrel, (the murderer) brings (back) that one (the body)."
                             
    takku   L.U19.LU-an   kuiski   hnikzi    
    if   person   someone   injures    
    t-an   istarnikzi   nu   apu:n   sa:kta:izzi
    and-him   makes sick   and   that one   he takes care of
    "If someone injures a person and makes him sick, (the offender) takes care of that one (the injured party)."

Adverbs, many of which describe spatial or temporal relations are formed from the case forms or stems of both demonstratives. For example: ka:ni 'here', ke:t 'on this side', kitpandalaz 'from now on', or kisssan 'in this way, thus' are from ka:-, while, for example, ape:da 'there', apiya 'there, then', apiyakku 'even there', and ape:nissan 'thus' are from apa:-, ape:-. Since apa:- may be used as a third person pronoun, it can take the reflexive suffix -ila, making the reflexive pronoun apa:sila 'himself, herself, itself'.

The word ka:sa, which is used to begin sentences, is conventially translated "look!, lo!" or "behold," and is found beside a ka:sma of similar function is also from the stem of ka:-. Its force was perhaps originally to draw the listner's attention to an utterance, and it is perhaps more literally translatable as "here, then!":

Beside the demonstratives ka:- and apa:- Hittite has a third set of pronouns from a stem tamai-, tama-, tame- 'other, another'. The animate accusative plural is found only in the Empire period, a time during which the original accusative plural animate ending -us could be used for the nominative plural in pronouns and nouns.

    anim.       neut.
Singular            
nom.   tama:is       tamai
acc.   tama:in        
gen.       tame:l, tame:das    
dat/loc.       tammatta, dame:dani    
abl.       tame:daz    
inst.            
all.            
Plural            
nom.   damaus       tama:i
acc.   damaus       tama:i
dat/loc.   tame:das        

The following sentence from the "Law Code" provides an example of tama:i- in the genitive:

    takku   LEL-LAM   MUSH-an   kuenzi   tamell-a   SHUM-an   tezzi
    if   free man   snake   kills   and-another's (gen.)   name   says
    "If a free man kills a snake and pronounces another's name..."
17. The Enclitic String

Sentences with more than one enclitic are quite common, and the enclitic function words in such sentences appear in a rigid order after the word or sentence connective to which they are attached.

Such combinations of enclitics can be though of as strings composed of locations, or "slots" that can be occupied by specific enclitic particles. The full enclitic string has five slots and can be represented as follows:

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    conjunctions   quotative   personal pronouns   reflexive   locational
    -a 'but', -ma   -war-, -wa-       -za-   -kkan, -ssan
    -a, -ya 'and'               -asta, -apa

Enclitic strings with each slot filled are rare, but strings with three enclitics are not uncommon and strings with four enclitics are not unknown. When the second-person singular dative-accusative pronoun -tta, the third person singular dative -ssi, and the first person plural dative-accusative -nnas- precede enclitics beginning with vowels, their initial consonants are often doubled. Similarly, when the locatival particles -ssan and -kkan, which always end the enclitic string, are preceded by enclitics ending in vowels, their initial consonants are often doubled.

17.1. Enclitic combinations

The following examples illustrate some of the possible combinations of enclitics:

ug-a-war-us

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    -a 'but'   -war-   -us       -kan

GUD-ya-wa-mu

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    -ya 'and, but'   -wa-   -mu       -kan

zik-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
                    -kan

mahhan-ma-za-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
    -ma-           -za-   -kan

nu-wa-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4
        -wa-           -kan

nu-tta-kkan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -tta-       -kkan

nu-za-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
                -za-   -kan

nu-mu-za

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -mu   -za    

nu-wa-mu-za

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
        -wa-   -mu-   -za-    

nu-war-at-san

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
        -war-   -at-       -san

n-an-za-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -an-   -za-   -kan
17.2. Before -za

When the second person singular dative-accusative pronoun -tta- precedes the reflexive particle -za, it shows up as -tu-, -ddu-. For example:

nu-wa-du-za

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
        -wa-   -du-   -za-    
17.3. Pronoun slot

More than one enclitic pronoun may occur in slot three, the pronoun slot, for example:

n-an-si-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -an- 2 sg. acc.anim.        
            -si- 3 sg. dat.       -kan

nu-war-an-mu

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            -an- 2 sg. acc.anim.        
        -war-   -mu- 1 sg. dat.        

n-as-mu-kan

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 5
            3 sg. nom.anim.        
            -mu- 1 sg. acc.       -kan

n-at-mu

    Slot 1   Slot 2   Slot 3   Slot 4   Slot 4
            3 sg. acc.anim.        
            -mu- 1 sg. dat.        

There are, however, restrictions on the case forms that may occur together in the pronoun slot. In a string with two personal pronouns, a third person pronoun generally precedes other pronouns, for example, nu-war-an-mu and n-at-mu with third person singular animate -an- and third person singular -at followed by first person singular -mu in dative function are possible, but strings such as *nu-mu-an and *nu-mu-at with the third person pronouns -an- and third person singular -at coming after the dative -mu- would not be expected.

Two dative pronouns may not co-occur. Therefore, if two pronouns with dative-accusative function do occur in an enclitic string, the first is to be interpreted as an accusative and the second as a dative, e.g. nu-tta-mu with dative-accusative -tta- and -mu- should be understood as 'and you to me'; nu-smas-mu with dative-accusative -smas- and dative-accusative -mu- is understood as 'and them to me'; and nu-mu-smas with dative-accusative -mu- and dative-accusative -smas- is understood as 'and me to them'. A string *nu-ssi-mu with -mu in dative function is not possible. Two accusative pronouns may also not cooccur. Therefore, a string like *n-an-us with the third person singular animate accusative pronoun -an- and the animate accusative plural pronoun is not a possible string.

A string with an accusative pronoun in direct object function will not have an enclitic pronoun in nominative function. Therefore, strings such as *nu-as-an with nominative singular animate -as- and accusative singular animate -an, and *n-e-an with nominative plural animate -e- and accusative singular animate -an, are not possible. This is because the enclitic nominative pronoun is used only with certain intransitive verbs.

18. Enclitic possessive pronouns

In addition to the tonic and enclitic personal pronouns, there was also a series of enclitic possessive pronouns in the archaic language. The pronouns are attached to the nouns they modify, and they agree in case and number with the nouns, for example: genitive attas-mas 'of my father' or dative-locative kissari-ti 'in your hand'. There are, however, no distinct forms for the ablative; where an ablative is required, the forms of the instrumental are used. These pronouns are found in early texts, in later copies of earlier texts, and in texts from the Empire period in which the content is traditional, such as myths, prayers, rituals, and festivals. Although the enclitic possessives seem robust in the oldest texts, the evidence suggests that they had dropped out of use in the living language by the Empire period, having been replaced by genitive forms of the tonic pronouns. Although Akkadian enclitic possessive pronouns are found in texts from all periods, it seems likely that by the Empire period, they were read with the genitives of the tonic pronouns rather than with Hittite enclitic pronouns. The enclitic possessive pronouns are clearly related to the enclitic and tonic personal pronouns, though the third person possessive pronoun resembles the defective third person pronouns -sye- and enclitic dative -ssi rather than a-. In the first, second, and third person possessive pronouns, stems with the vowel a alternate with stems with the vowels e and i. The second and third person enclitic possessives, which also have alternating stems, appear to be shortened forms of the tonic pronouns to judge from variant forms like the third person plural nominative-accusative neuter singular -summit and the dative-locative singular -summi.

There are enclitic possessive pronouns for the first, second, and third persons singular:

    1st person   2nd person   3rd person
Singular            
nom.   -mis, -mas   -tis   -sis, -sas
acc.   -man, -min   -tin   -san, -sin
nom/acc. neut.   -met, -mit   -tit   -sit, -set
gen.   -mas   -tas   -sas
dat/loc.   -mi   -ti   -si
inst.   -mit   -tit   -set, -sit
all.   -ma   -ta   -sa
voc.   -mi        
Plural            
nom.   -mis   -tis   -ses, -sis
acc.   -mus   -tus   -sus
nom/acc. neut.   -mit, -met       -set
gen.   -man        
dat/loc.       -tas    

There are also pronouns for the second and third person plural. A first person plural enclitic possessive does not seem to occur.

    2nd person   3rd person
Singular        
nom.   -smis   -smes
acc.       -sman
nom/acc. neut.   -smet   -summit, -smet
gen.        
dat/loc.   -smi   -summi, -smi
inst.       smit
all.       -sma
Plural        
nom.   -smes    
acc.       -smus
nom/acc. neut.        
dat/loc.       -smas

The following are some examples:

    kisras-ma-ssi   galulupe:s-ses   talugae:s
    of hand-but-her   fingers   long
    n-at-kan   miyawe:s-pat   galulupe:s
    and-they-locatival   soft-indeed   fingers
    "The fingers of her hand are long and they are indeed soft fingers."
             
    HUR.SAGTudhaliyas   pe:di-ti   e:s
    Mt. Tudhaliyas   place-in-your   be
    "Mt. Tudhaliyas, remain in your place!"
             
    GISHTUKULHI.A-us-sus-sta   ZAG.LU.ZA   da:hhun    
    weapons-their-locatival   shoulder   from   I took
    "I took their weapons from their shoulder(s)."
                 
    nu-mu   wasdul-mit   teddu
    and-to me   sin-my   let him tell
    "Let him tell me my sin."
             
    kardi-smi-ya-at-kan   da:hhun
    heart-and-your (pl.)-it-locatival   I took
    "And from your heart I have taken it (illness)."

The enclitic possessives are used in archaic texts after spatial adverbs, for example: se-e-er-sa-me-et (for se:r-smet 'above them'), or peran-tit 'before you'.

18.1. Sound Changes Accompanying Enclitic Possessives

The final -s of a noun is lost before a pronoun beginning with s, for example, *are:s-smes 'your companions' becomes are:s-mes.

In some texts, the final n of an accusative singular is subject to changes before the initial consonant of an enclitic possessive. The final n of the animate accusative singular may be lost before a pronoun beginning with s, for example, *arhan-ssan 'its border' shows up as arha-ssan.

The final n of the accusative may be lost or it may become m before the initial m of the first person singular pronoun. In the following sentence sahhan-met 'my feudal duty' shows up as sahha-met with the final n of sahhan 'feudal duty' lost before the m of the first person pronoun:

    ki:   GISHTUKUL-li-met   ki:-ma   sahha-met
    this   craft-my   this-but   feudal duty-my
    "This is my craft, but this is my feudal duty"

In this sentence, from an archaic prayer, the final n of the accusative becomes m:

    nu-za   tuekkam-mam   natta   paprahhun
    and-reflexive   body-my   not   defiled
    "I have not defiled my body."
19. The Dative-Locative

The Hittite dative-locative combines the forms and functions of two Indo-European case forms. The dative, the case used to signal a recipient, beneficiary, or goal of motion, and the locative, the case used to indicate where action was located. The ending -i, which is most common, is either from the Indo-European dative ending *-ei or from the Indo-European locative ending *-i. A few archaic locatives, so-called endingless locatives, are made with the bare stem (e.g., taga:n 'on earth'), but the ending -i tended to spread at the expense of the endingless locative in most paradigms.

19.1. Indirect Objects

The dative is the case of the indirect object, recipient, or beneficiary:

    nu-war-an   ammuk   para: pa:i
    and-quotative-him   to me (dat)   give over
    "Give him over to me."
             
    nu-ssi   hatra:nun
    and-to-him (dat.)   I wrote
    "And I wrote to him."
         
    nu-ssi   ABU-YA   TUPPAHI.A   RIKILTI   iyat
    and-for him (dat.)   father-my   tablets   treaty   made
    "My father made treaty tablets for him."

Nouns in the dative, whether inflected or not, may be accompanied by the Akkadian preposition ANA 'to'. When ANA precedes a Sumerogram or Akkadogram without a phonetic complement, or when it precedes a personal or place name in the stem form, it is a graphic indicator that the word that follows is a dative. The Akkadian preposition may, however, be used redundantly before Hittite nouns in the dative or before Sumerograms or Akkadograms with phonetic complements that indicate that they are datives:

    A-NA   MUhha-L-ma   LTE4MU   wiyanun
    to   to Uhhazitti-moreover (dat.)   a messenger   I sent
    "Moreover, to Uhhaziti I sent a messenger."
                 
    nu-mu   A-NA   DINGIRLIM   ARAD-anni   pesta
    and-me   to   of the deity   the service (dat.)   he gave
    "He gave me to the service of the deity."
                     
    nu-wa   memiyan   ANA   DUTUSHI   hatra:i
    and-quotative   word   to   to my majesty (dat.)   write
    "Send word to my majesty (by letter)."
                     
    INA   KUR   URULawzantiya   ANA   DINGIRLIM   BAL-uwanzi
    to   country   Lawanzantiyas   to   the deity (dat.)   to sacrifice
    iyahhahat                    
    I went                    
    "I went to the country of Lawanzantiyas to sacrifice to the deity."
19.2. Dative of Goal

With verbs of motion, the dative-locative may indicate a goal:

    n-as   mahhan   wappui   ari
    and-she   when   at the riverbank (dat.)   arrives
    "And when she arrives at the river bank..."
19.3. Possessive Dative

A dative in sentences with forms of the verb "to be" has a possessive sense. Such sentences can often be translated by English sentences with "to have":

    nu-mu   -er   kuit   e:sta
    and-to me (dat.)   house   what   was
    "What house I had (lit. 'What house was to me')..."
                 
    kanissu:war-wa-mu   SHA   DISHTAR-pat   GASHAN-YA   e:sta
    favor-quotative-to me (dat.)   of   Ishtar-herself   Lady-my   was
    "I had the favor or my lady Ishtar herself (lit. 'To me was the favor of my lady Ishtar herself')."

The possessive dative is also found in so-called nominal sentences in which a present form of "be" has been elided:

    ANA   MHattusili-wa   MU.KAMHI.A   maninkuwantes
    to   Hattusilis (dat.)-quotative   years   short
    "Hattusilis' years are short."
19.4. The Dative with Adjectives

The dative is used with adjectives indicating feelings, such as assu- 'dear' and nahhant- 'careful, respectful, fearful', to indicate the object of the emotion:

    n-asta   DISHKUR-unni-ma   ma:n   a:ssus   e:sta
    and-locatival   to the Stormgod (dat.)   when   dear   he was
    "And when he was dear to the Stormgod..."
                     
    nu   we:s   DINGIRMESH-as   kuit   nahhantes
    and   we   to the gods (dat.)   because   respectful
    "Because we are respectful to the gods..."
                     
    nu   ma:n   ANA   SAL.LUGAL   a:ssu
    and   if   to   to the queen (dat.)   agreeable
    "If it is agreeable to the queen..."
19.5. The Ethical Dative

Hittite has a construction like the "ethical dative" of many of the other Indo-European languages. In such constructions, a pronoun in the dative indicates that the subject of the sentence is the beneficiary of some action. The pronoun may often be translated with an English reflexive pronoun.

    le:-ta   na:hi
    negative-yourself (dat.)   fear
    "Don't fear for yourself."
         
    nu-nnas   DUMU.NITAMESH   DUMU.MUNUSMESH   iyawen
    and-for ourselves (dat.)   sons   (and) daughters   we made
    "And we had sons and daughters for ourselves."
                 
    LU-as-wa-mu-kan   BA.USH
    man-quotative-me (dat)-locatival   died
    "My husband died on me."
19.6. Dative with Comparatives

Comparative consructions are relatively rare in Hittite, but the dative is the case used for the standard against which something is compared:

    nu-wa-kan   ANA   ERNMESH-KA   ERNMESH-YA   mekki
    and-quotative-locatival   to   army-my (dat.)   army-your   numerous
    "My army is more numerous than your army."
20. I-Stem Adjectives and Nouns

Hittite had a number of i-stem adjectives and nouns formed with suffixes containing a suffix -i-, which become -y- before vowels. This suffix was often spelled iy before a, and was normally spelled -i- before e. To this suffix, nominal and adjectival endings were added. As with the u-stems, nouns and adjectives were affected by various analogical changes. For example, adjectives sometimes took nominal inflection and vice versa. Originally, however, the adjectives had a suffix of the shape -i- in the nominative and accusative singular animate, in the neuter singular, and in the neuter nominative accusative plural. This suffix alternated with a suffix beginning with a in the rest of the paradigm. The paradigm was, however, affected by a sound change in which y was lost between vowels fairly early, and i-stems sometimes have case forms in -a- plus ending; in other words, individual forms of i-stem adjectives can look like a-stems. The y, however, tended to be analogically restored, and case forms with a suffix -ay- before vowels are also found. The original form of the neuter nominative-accusative plural ended in the suffix -i, likely with regular lengthening of the suffix vowel, but this was eventually replaced by a form -iy-a with the neuter nominative-accusative ending -a of other nouns and adjectives. The paradigm of the adjective salli- 'big, great' is representative:

    animate       neuter
Singular            
nom.   sall-i-s       sall-i
acc.   sall-i-n       sall-i
gen.       sal-as, sall-ay-as    
dat/loc.       sall-ai    
abl.       sall-az, sall-ay-az    
Plural            
nom.   sall-a-es, sall-ay-es       sall-i:, sall-iy-a
acc.   sall-ay-us, sall-i-us       sall-i:, sall-iy-a

In addition to the i-stem adjectives, there are also a handful of adjectives in which a suffix -i-, -y- is added to a stem in final -u, which is often spelled uw before vowels. As with other i-stem adjectives, forms in which the y of the suffix has been lost between vowels are found beside forms in which y has been restored analogically. The nominative-accusative neuter also originally ended in -i, but the regular nominative-accusative plural ending -a was eventually extended to these forms. Occasionally, forms that follow the declension of i-stem nouns occur, for example, nominative plural animate parku-y-e:s for parkuw-ay-e:s 'pure'. The paradigm of parkui- 'pure' is representative:

    animate       neuter
Singular           parku-i
nom.   parku-i-s       parku-i
acc.   parku-i-n        
gen.       par-kuw-as, parkuw-ay-as    
loc.       par-kuw-i    
abl.       parkuw-ay-az    
inst.       parkuw-a:i-t    
Plural            
nom.   parkuw-a:es       parku-i, parkuw-ay-a
acc.           parku-i, parkuw-ay-a
loc.       parkuw-ay-as    

The declension of the i-stem nouns parallels that of u-stem nouns. The suffix has the shape -i- or -y- before vowels throughout the paradigm. The words halki- 'grain' and pu:ri- 'lip, rim, edge' provide representative examples of animate i-stem nouns. Halki- is used as a collective in the plural, and a collective form with the neuter plural ending halki is found. Halki- is also often attested as DHalki- 'deified grain'. Pu:ri- is well attested in the plural as an animate noun.

Singular        
nom.   halk-i-s   pu:r-i-s
acc.   halk-i-n   pu:r-i-n
gen.   halk-iy-as   *pu:r-iy-as
dat/loc.   halk-i   pu:r-i
abl.   halk-iy-aza   *pu:r-iy-az
inst.   halk-i-t   *pu:r-i-t
all.   halk-iy-a    
Plural        
nom.   halk-i-e:s   pu:r-y-e:s
acc.   halk-i-us   pu:r-i-us
gen.       *pu:r-iy-as
dat/loc.       pu:r-iy-as
abl.       pu:r-iy-az
inst.       pu:r-i-t

Beside the nouns with a suffix -i-, -iy- throughout their paradigms, there are also a handful of nouns in which a suffix -i-, -iy- alternates with a suffix -a:i-, -a:y-. Although the inflection of nouns of this type may in some cases have been influenced by the inflection of the nouns with -i-, -iy-, the declension of these nouns was originally parallel to that of the nouns in -a:u-, -a:w-. The noun linga:i- 'oath', which is very common, is mostly animate, although a few neuter forms, are found, while hasta:i- 'bone' is neuter. The agreement of adjectives and nouns suggests that at least some ostensibly singular forms of the latter are best taken as collectives meaning "bones." Loss of y between vowels is found in forms like animate accusative ling-a-us for *ling-ay-us. The dative-locatives linga:i and hasta:i have a suffix and ending that is presumably from *ay:-i or *-ay:-ei with contraction of the suffix and ending.

Singular        
nom.   ling-ai-s   hast-a:i
acc.   ling-ai-n   hast-a:i
gen.   link-iy-as   hast-iy-as
dat/loc.   ling-a-i   hasta:-i
abl.   link-iy-az   *hast-iy-az
inst.       hast-i-t
all.   link-iy-a    
Plural        
nom.   ling-a-us    

The neuter noun ke:r, kard-, kardi- 'heart' is anomalous in having three stems. One stem, ke:r, normally written as the Akkadogram SH with phonetic complement (i.e. SH-er) is found in the nominative-accusative singular and plural and with the dative-locative ending -i. The stem kard- is found in the ablative and allative, while the i-stem kard-i-, kard-iya- occurs in the genitive and in the instrumental. The dative-locative kard-i is presumably also an i-stem form.

Singular    
nom/acc.   ker, kert-i
gen.   kart-iy-as
dat/loc.   gerd-i, kard-i
abl.   kart-az
inst.   kardi-t
all.   kart-a
Plural    
nom/acc.   ker