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Hittite Online

Lesson 5

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

Murshilish II (roughly 1321-1295 B.C.) took over the Hittite kingdom at its height after a brief reign by his brother Arnuwandash II (roughly 1322-1321). His father, Shuppiluliumash (roughly 1344-1322) had rebuilt the capital, Hattusa, known today as Bogazky, and reorganized local government, establishing the so-called New Kingdom which was maintained from the time of his accession to approximately 1200 B.C. He conducted a successful campaign against Arzawa in southwestern Anatolia while maintaining conflicts with the kingdom of Mitanni in the southeast and establishing a firm foothold in Syria. Murshilish continued the warfare, as indicated by the first selection from his Annals given here regarding Arzawa.

The second selection illustrates how he solidified his control, first to the land of the Seha river to the east and then to the country of Mira to the southeast. In the third selection we are informed that he did not take over the mountainous land of Azzi to the far east of Anatolia, but was content to control the citizens as vassals. While we have no knowledge of the activities of the sixth year Festival, his attendance at it signifies that under his control the Hittite kingdom enjoyed peace while also being at its highest level.

Reading and Textual Analysis

One of the remarkable features of Murshilish's rule was the production of annals. Among these is a set concerning the military deeds of his father, but that has been poorly maintained. On his own career he compiled two, one a lengthy account covering his entire career, and the other exerpted here covering the first ten years of his reign. Besides informing us of his military activities it illustrates his social and religious activities.

The second excerpt illustrates how he solidified his control over areas that he and his father had conquered, establishing social ties as well as military assistance. By different procedures indicated in the third selection he protects the country of Azzi without taking over its governance. His success in general, as in Arzawa he credits to the Stormgod, here labeled Mighty, and also to another deity not included in these excerpts, the Sungodess of Arinna, who was the highest female Divine among the earlier Hattic peoples and then maintained as special protector of the Hittite kings. His annals may have been prompted by accounts kept by the Bablyonian rulers and are the fullest of any of the Hittite rulers.

  • Lines 9b-19 are taken from Year 3 of the Annals: KBo III 4 = 2 BoTU 48.
  • Lines 33-45 are taken from Year 4 of the Annals: KUB XIV 15 = 2 BoTU 51 B(B).
  • Lines 28-41 are taken from Year 10 of the Annals: KBo IV 4 = 2 BoTU 58 B.

9b - A-NA MU-uh-ha-L-ma LTE4-MU u-i-ya-nu-un

  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • MU-uh-ha-L-ma -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular of <Uhhaziti> Uhhaziti -- Uhhaziti # The name is written as a semi-rebus combination of the Hittite syllables uh-ha plus the Sumerogram L "man", which is read in Luvian as ziti.
  • LTE4-MU -- noun; functioning here as accusative singular of <LTE4-MU> messenger -- a messenger
  • u-i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wiya-> send -- I sent

10-12a - nu-us-si ha-at-ra-a-nu-un ARADMESH-YA-wa-at-tak-kan ku-i-e-es an-da -e-er nu-wa-ra-as-ta EGIR-pa ku-it -e-wa-ak-ke-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa -UL pa-is-ta

  • nu-us-si -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- and to him
  • ha-at-ra-a-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <hatra:i-> write -- I wrote
  • ARADMESH-YA-wa-at-tak-kan -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular <-tta> you + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- my servants... to you
  • ku-i-e-es -- relative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who
  • an-da -e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <anda uwa-> come to -- came
  • nu-wa-ra-as-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-war> (indicating continuing action) + locatival particle <-asta> (indicating continuing action) -- and now
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... -- back
  • ku-it -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since -- because
  • -e-wa-ak-ke-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wewakk-> demand -- I demand

12b - nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa -UL pa-is-ta nu-wa-mu-za DUMU-la-an hal-zi-es-se-es-ta

  • nu-wa-ra-as-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle locatival particle <-war> (indicating continuing action) + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- them to me
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... -- back
  • -UL -- adverb Akkadian negative <U:L> no, not -- not
  • pa-is-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gave
  • nu-wa-mu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- me
  • DUMU-la-an -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a child
  • hal-zi-es-se-es-ta -- verb; iterative 2nd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <halza:i-, haliya-> call out, recite, invite -- you have kept on calling

13-14 - nu-wa-mu-za te-ep-nu-us-ke-et ki-nu-na-wa e-hu nu-wa za-ah-hi-ya-u-wa-as-ta-ti nu-wa-an-na-as DU BE-L-YA DI-NAM ha-an-na-a-

  • nu-wa-mu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- me
  • te-ep-nu-us-ke-et -- verb; iterative 2nd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tepnusk-> diminish, belittle -- have been belittling
  • ki-nu-na-wa -- adverb; <kinuna> now + quotative particle <-war>... -- but now
  • e-hu -- exclamation; <ehu> come on -- come on
  • nu-wa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... -- ...
  • za-ah-hi-ya-u-wa-as-ta-ti -- verb; 1st person plural present middle of mi-conjugation <zahhiya-> fight -- we will fight
  • nu-wa-an-na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us -- us
  • DU -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <DU> Stormgod -- the Stormgod
  • BE-L-YA -- noun; Akkadogram <BE:LU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my Lord
  • DI-NAM -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular of <DI-NAM> case -- the case
  • ha-an-na-a- -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <hanna-> decide judicially -- let decide

15-17a - ma-ah-ha-an-ma i-ya-ah-ha-at nu GIM-an I-NA HUR.SAGLa-wa-sa a-ar-hu-un nu-za DU NIR.GL EN-YA pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-a-tar te-ek-ku-us-sa-nu-ut nu GISHkal-mi-sa-na-an si-ya-a-it

  • ma-ah-ha-an-ma -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but when
  • i-ya-ah-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular preterite middle of <iya-> go, march -- I marched
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • GIM-an -- conjunction Sumerogram <GIM> when + Hittite phonetic complement <-an>... -- when
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- at
  • HUR.SAGLa-wa-sa -- noun; Sumerogram <HUR.SAG> mountain + proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular of <Lawasa> Lawasa -- Mt. Lawasa
  • a-ar-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <a:r-> arrive, reach -- I arrived
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • DU -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <DU> Stormgod -- Stormgod
  • NIR.GL -- adjective; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <NIR.GL> strength -- the mighty
  • EN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <EN> lord + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my Lord
  • pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-a-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <para: handanda:tar> divine might, power -- divine might
  • te-ek-ku-us-sa-nu-ut -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tekkunuss-> show, display -- displayed
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GISHkal-mi-sa-na-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <GISHkamisana:-> log, thunderbolt -- a lightning bolt
  • si-ya-a-it -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of <siya-> shoot, hurl -- hurled

17b-18a - nu GISHkal-mi-sa-na-an am-me-el KARASHHI.A-YA us-ke-et

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GISHkal-mi-sa-na-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <GISHkamisana:-> log, thunderbolt -- the thunderbolt
  • am-me-el -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular genitive of <u:k> I -- my
  • KARASHHI.A-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <KARASH> troops, army + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- army
  • us-ke-et -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- saw

18b - KUR URUAr-za-u-wa-ya-an us-ke-et

  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUAr-za-u-wa-ya-an -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as nominative singular animate of <Arzawa> Arzawa + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- it
  • us-ke-et -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- saw

18c-19 - nu GISHkal-mi-sa-na-as pa-it nu KUR URUAr-za-u-wa GUL-ah-ta SHA MUuhha-L-ya URUA-pa-a-sa-an URU-an GUL-ah-ta

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GISHkal-mi-sa-na-as -- noun; nominative singular animate of <GISHkamisana:-> log, thunderbolt -- the thunderbolt
  • pa-it -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go -- went
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUAr-za-u-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Arzawa> Arzawa -- of Arzawa
  • GUL-ah-ta -- verb; Sumerogram <GUL> strike + Hittite phonetic complement <-ahta> (indicating 3rd person singular preterite indicative) -- struck # The Hittite reading is walhta.
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • MUuhha-L-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <MUuhha-L> Uhhaziti + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and -- and Uhhaziti's
  • URUA-pa-a-sa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular of <URUApa:sa-> Apasa -- Apasa
  • URU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- city # The Hittite reading is happeriyan.
  • GUL-ah-ta -- verb; Sumerogram <GUL> strike + Hittite phonetic complement <-ahta> (indicating 3rd person singular preterite indicative) -- struck

33 - nu-za MMa-na-pa-DU-an KUR DSe-e-ha-ya ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un

  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • MMa-na-pa-DU-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <ManapaDU> Manapa-Datta -- Manapa-Datta
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory -- of the... land # The Hittite reading is udniyas.
  • DSe-e-ha-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <DSe:ha->... + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and -- Seha river
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-a:nni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • da-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- I took

34 - nam-ma I-NA KUR URUMi-ra-a EGIR-pa -wa-nu-un nu KUR URUMi-ra-a ta-ni-nu-nu-un

  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mira:-> Mira -- of Mira
  • EGIR-pa -wa-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of <a:ppa uwa-> come back -- returned
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mira:-> Mira -- of Mira
  • ta-ni-nu-nu-un -- 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taninu-> set in order, fortify -- I fortified

35 - nam-ma URUAr-sa-ni-in URUSa-a-ra-u-wa-an URUIm-pa-an-na -e-te-nu-un na-as BD-es-na-nu-un

  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • URUAr-sa-ni-in -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Arsani-> Arsani -- the city of Arsani
  • URUSa-a-ra-u-wa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Sa:rawa-> Sarawa -- the city of Sarawa
  • URUIm-pa-an-na -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Impana-> Impa + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and -- and the city of Impa
  • -e-te-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wete-> build -- I built # In other words, Mursilis fortified these cities.
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • BD-es-na-nu-un -- verb; Sumerogram <BD> fortify + Hittite phonetic complement <-esnanun> (indicating 1st person singular preterite) -- I fortified

36-37a - na-as ERINMESH a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un URUHa-a-pa-nu-wa-an-na ERINMESH a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un

  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • ERINMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive animate <ERINMESH> army, infantry -- of troops
  • a-sa-an-du-la-az -- noun; ablative singular of <asandula-> garrison -- with a garrison
  • e-ep-pu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:pp-> take, seize -- I garrisoned
  • URUHa-a-pa-nu-wa-an-na -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Ha:panuwa> Hapanuwa + enclitic conjunction <-a-> and -- and the city of Hapanuwa
  • ERINMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive animate <ERINMESH> army, infantry -- of troops
  • a-sa-an-du-la-az -- noun; ablative singular of <asandula-> garrison -- with a garrison
  • e-ep-pu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:pp-> take, seize -- I garrisoned

37b - nam-ma I-NA URUMi-ra-a MMas-hu-i-lu-wa-an EN-iz-na-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un

  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- in
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative-locative singular <Mira:> city of Mira -- the city of Mira
  • MMas-hu-i-lu-wa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Mashuiluwa-> Mashuwiluwas -- Mashuwiluwas
  • EN-iz-na-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <EN> lord + Hittite phonetic complement <-izna:nni> (indicating dative-locative singular) -- in lordship
  • ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tittiya-> establish, settle -- I established

38a - nu A-NA MMas-as-hu-i-lu-wa kis-sa-an me-ma-ah-hu-un

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • MMas-as-hu-i-lu-wa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular animate of <Mashuiluwa->... + quotative particle <-wa>... -- Mashuwiluwas
  • kis-sa-an -- adverb <kissan> thus, as follows -- the following
  • me-ma-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <me:ma-, me:miya-> say, speak -- I said

38b-39 - zi-ik-wa-kan MPSH.TUR-as PA-NI A-BI-YA pit-ti-ya-an-ti-li an-da -et nu-wa-at-ta A-BU-YA sa-ra-a da-a-as

  • zi-ik-wa-kan -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular nominative <zik> you + quotative particle <-wa>... + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- you
  • MPSH.TUR-as -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as vocative <PS.TUR> Mashuiliuwa -- Mashuiliuwa
  • PA-NI -- preposition; Akkadogram <PANI> before, under -- before
  • A-BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative singular <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • pit-ti-ya-an-ti-li -- adverb; <pittiyantili> as a fugitive -- as a fugitive
  • an-da -et -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <anda uwa-> come to -- came
  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- you
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • sa-ra-a da-a-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <sara: da:-> offer, take -- took... in

40-41a - nu-wa-du-za LHA-T-NU i-ya-at nu-wa-at-ta MUNUSMu-u-wa-at-tin a-pe-el DUMU.MUNUS-ZU MUNUS KU-YA A-NA DAMUT-TU-SHU pe-es-ta

  • nu-wa-du-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-du-> you + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- you
  • LHA-T-NU -- noun; Akkadogram <LHATANU> son-in-law -- son-in-law
  • i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- made
  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular dative <-tta> you -- to you
  • MUNUSMu-u-wa-at-tin -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Muwatti-> Muwattis -- Muwattis
  • a-pe-el -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular of <apa:-> that -- his
  • DUMU.MUNUS-ZU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter + Akkadian 3rd person singular enclitic possessive pronoun <-ZU> his -- daughter
  • MUNUS KU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <MUNUS KU> sister + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my sister
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- in
  • DAMUT-TU-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram <DAM> wife, marriage + Akkadian phonetic complement <-UTTU> (abstract suffix) + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SHU> his, her -- in marriage
  • pe-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gave

41b-42a - EGIR-an-ma-wa-ar-as-ta -UL ti-i-ya-at nu-wa-at-tak-kan LMESH.KR-KA se-er -UL ku-en-ta

  • EGIR-an-ma-wa-ar-as-ta -- adverb; Sumerogram preverb <EGIR> back, again + functioning here as phonetic complement <-an>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + quotative particle <-war>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-ta> you -- he # The Sumerogram EGIR, read in Hittite as a:ppan, is a preverb that belongs with the verb tiyat below.
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- not
  • ti-i-ya-at -- 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <a:ppan tiya-> look after -- look after
  • nu-wa-at-tak-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you + locatival particle <kan> (indicating downward action) -- you
  • LMESH.KR-KA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Sumerogram <KR> enemy + Akkadian 2nd person singular enclitic possessive pronoun <-KA> your -- your enemies
  • se-er -- preverb; <se:r> over, above -- ... # The preverb belongs with kuenta below.
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- did not
  • ku-en-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- attack

42b-43a - nu-wa-at-ta am-mu-uk EGIR-an ti-i-ya-nu-un nu-wa-tak-kan LMESH.KR-KA se-er ku-e-nu-un

  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- you
  • am-mu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative of <u:k> I -- I # This is an example of Neo-Hittite ammuk for Old Hittite u:k.
  • EGIR-an ti-i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <a:ppa tiya-> look after -- have looked after
  • nu-wa-tak-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- and... for you
  • LMESH.KR-KA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Sumerogram <KR> enemy + Akkadian 2nd person singular enclitic possessive pronoun <-KA> your -- your enemies
  • se-er ku-e-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <se:r kue:n-> kill, strike -- I have attacked

43b-45a - nam-ma-wa URUDIDLI.HI.A -e-te-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as BD-es-na-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as ERINMESH a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un

  • nam-ma-wa -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover + quotative particle <-wa>... -- Moreover
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker <-DIDLI.HI.A>... -- cities
  • -e-te-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wete-> build -- I built
  • nu-wa-ra-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-war>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • BD-es-na-nu-un -- verb; Sumerogram <BD> fortify + Hittite phonetic complement <-esnanun> (indicating 1st person singular preterite) -- I fortified
  • nu-wa-ra-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-war>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- them
  • ERINMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive animate <ERINMESH> army, infantry -- of troops
  • a-sa-an-du-la-az -- noun; ablative singular of <asandula-> garrison -- with a garrison
  • e-ep-pu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:pp-> take, seize -- I garrisoned

45b - nu-wa-at-ta I-NA URUMi-ra-a EN-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un

  • nu-wa-at-ta -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative <-tta> you -- you
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • URUMi-ra-a -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative-locative singular <Mira:> city of Mira -- in the city of Mira
  • EN-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <EN> lord + Hittite phonetic complement <-a:nni> (indicating dative-locative singular) -- in lordship
  • ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tittiya-> establish, settle -- I established

28-32a - ma-ah-ha-an-ma LMESH URUAz-zi a--er URUDIDLI.HI.A BD-kan ku-it za-ah-hi-ya-az kat-ta da-as-ke-u-wa-an te-eh-hu-un nu LMESH URUAz-zi ku-i-e-es URUDIDLI.HI.A BD N4pe-e-ru-nu-us HUR.SAGMESH-us par-ga-u-e-es na-ak-ki-i ASH-RIHI.A EGIR-pa har-ker na-at na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-da-ti nu-mu LMESH SHU-GI KURTI me-na-ah-ha-an-da -e-er

  • ma-ah-ha-an-ma -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but when
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the people
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of the city of Azzi
  • a--er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- saw
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker <-DIDLI.HI.A>... -- cities
  • BD-kan -- adjective; Sumerogram <BD> fortify + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- fortified
  • ku-it -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since -- since
  • za-ah-hi-ya-az -- noun; ablative singular of <zahhiya-> battle -- through battle
  • kat-ta da-as-ke-u-wa-an te-eh-hu-un -- verb; supine of <katta da:-> take, capture + verb; 1st person singular preterite of <da:i-, tiya-> place, put -- I had begun to capture
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the people
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of the city of Azzi
  • ku-i-e-es -- relative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker <-DIDLI.HI.A>... -- cities
  • BD -- adjective; Sumerogram <BD> fortify -- fortified
  • N4pe-e-ru-nu-us -- noun; accusative plural animate of <pe:runu-> hill fort -- hill forts
  • HUR.SAGMESH-us -- noun; Sumerogram <HUR.SAG> mountain + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating accusative plural animate) -- mountains
  • par-ga-u-e-es -- adjective; accusative plural animate of <parku-> high -- high # This is an example of the Neo-Hittite spread of the nominative plural ending -e:s to accusative function.
  • na-ak-ki-i -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <nakki-> heavy, important, steep -- steep
  • ASH-RIHI.A -- noun; Akkadogram <ASH-RI> place + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... -- places
  • EGIR-pa har-ker -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of <a:ppa hark> hold out in -- held out in
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural nominative <-at> he, she, it -- they # This is an example of the sporadic Neo-Hittite use of the original nominative-accusative singular of the third person enclitic personal pronoun as an animate nominative plural.
  • na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-da-ti -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite middle of mi-conjugation <nahsariya-> fear, become afraid -- took fright
  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- to me
  • LMESH SHU-GI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural animate of <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Sumerogram <SHU-GI> old -- the elders
  • KURTI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory + Akkadian <TI> (abstract suffix) -- of the land
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- adverb; <me:nahhanda> facing, opposite -- before me
  • -e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- came

32b - na-at-mu GRMESH-as kat-ta-an ha-a-li-i-e-er

  • na-at-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural nominative <-at> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- at me
  • GRMESH-as -- noun; Sumerogram <GR> foot + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative plural) -- at my feet
  • kat-ta-an ha-a-li-i-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of <kattan haliya-> bow down, prostrate -- prostrated themselves

33 - nu-mu me-mi-er BE-LI-NI-wa-an-na-as le-e ku-it-ki har-ni-ik-ti

  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- to me
  • me-mi-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <me:ma-, me:miya-> say, speak -- they said
  • BE-LI-NI-wa-an-na-as -- noun; Akkadogram <BE:LU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person plural <-LI-NI> our + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us -- Our lord... us
  • le-e -- negative emphasizing particle; <le:> no, not -- do not
  • ku-it-ki -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- anyhow
  • har-ni-ik-ti -- verb; 2nd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harnink-> destroy -- destroy # The second person singular when used with the emphatic negative le: had imperative force. Mi-conjugation verbs with stem final velars often take the hi-conjugation ending -ti in the second person singular.

34a - nu-wa-an-na-as-za BE-LI-NI ARAD-an-ni da-a

  • nu-wa-an-na-as-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- us
  • BE-LI-NI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative singular <BE:LU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person plural <-LI-NI> our -- our lord
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-a:nni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • da-a -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- take

34b-35a - nu-wa A-NA BE-LI-NI ERNMESH ANSHE.KUR.RAHI.A pe-es-ke-u-wa-an ti-i-ya-u-e-ni

  • nu-wa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- to
  • BE-LI-NI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative singular <BE:LU> lord, master + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person plural <-LI-NI> our -- our lord
  • ERNMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural of <ERINMESH> army, infantry -- infantry
  • ANSHE.KUR.RAHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural of <ANSHU.KUR.RAHI.A> chariot troops -- (and) chariot fighters
  • pe-es-ke-u-wa-an -- verb; supine of <pa:i-, piya-> give + verb; 1st person plural present of <da:i-, tiya-> place, put -- we will begin providing

35b-36a - NAM.RA URUHa-at-ti-ya-wa-an-na-as-kan ku-is an-da nu-wa-ra-an pa-ra-a pi-i-ya-u-e-ni

  • NAM.RA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate of <NAM.RA> captive, colonist -- and the captive
  • URUHa-at-ti-ya-wa-an-na-as-kan -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural accusative <-nnas> us + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- of Hatti
  • ku-is -- relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- who
  • an-da -- postposition; <anda> in, into, at -- into
  • nu-wa-ra-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular animate accusative <-an> him, her, it -- him
  • pa-ra-a pi-i-ya-u-e-ni -- verb; 1st person plural present of hi-conjugation <para: pai-/piya-> hand over -- we will hand over

36b-37 - na-as nam-ma DUTUSHI -UL har-ni-in-ku-un na-as-za ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un na-as-za ARAD-ah-hu-un

  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative of <-as> I -- I
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • DUTUSHI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUTUSHI> my majesty -- my majesty # This expression, composed of Sumerian DUTU, the Sumerogram meaning "Sungod" plus an Akkadian phonetic complement SHI, derived from the Akkadian word for "Sungod", SHams^u, and conventionally translated as "My Sun" or "My Majesty", is the title by which Hittite kings habitually referred to themselves in texts written after the Old Kingdom period.
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- not
  • har-ni-in-ku-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <harnink-> destroy -- I did... destroy
  • na-as-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it + reflexive particle <-za>... -- them # This is Neo-Hittite usage for expected -us.
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-a:nni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • da-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- I took
  • na-as-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <-as> he, she, it + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and them
  • ARAD-ah-hu-un -- verb; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-ahhun> (indicating 1st person singular preterite) -- I made them vassals

38-39 - nu-mu MU.KAM-za ku-it se-er te-e-pa-u-e-es-sa-an-za e-es-ta nu nam-ma KUR URUAz-zi -UL da-ni-nu-nu-un nu LMESH URUAz-zi li-in-ga-nu-nu-un

  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- and for me
  • MU.KAM-za -- noun; Sumerogram <MU> year + Sumerogram <KAM> a measure of time + Hittite phonetic complement functioning here as ergative singular <-za>... -- the year
  • ku-it -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since -- because
  • se-er te-e-pa-u-e-es-sa-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <se:r tepauwe:ss-> become little, become short -- short
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- had becomme
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular neuter <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of Azzi
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- I did not
  • da-ni-nu-nu-un -- 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <taninu-> set in order, fortify -- fortify
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- instead
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the men
  • URUAz-zi -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city + proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Azzi-> Azzi -- of Azzi
  • li-in-ga-nu-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of <linganu-> place under oath -- I placed under oath

40a - nam-ma URUHa-at-tu-si -wa-nu-un

  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- to the city of Hattusas
  • -wa-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- I came

40b-41 - nu URUHa-at-tu-si gi-im-ma-an-da-ri-ya-nu-un nu-za EZENHI.A SHA MU.6.KAM i-ya-nu-un

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • URUHa-at-tu-si -- proper noun; dative-locative singular of <Hattusa-> Hattusas -- in the city of Hattusas
  • gi-im-ma-an-da-ri-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <gimandariya-> spend the winter, overwinter -- I spent the winter
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • EZENHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <EZEN> festival + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... -- the festivals
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • MU.6.KAM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <MU> year + numeral; <6> six + Sumerogram <KAM> a measure of time -- of the sixth year
  • i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- I celebrated

Lesson Text

9b A-NA MU-uh-ha-L-ma LTE4-MU u-i-ya-nu-un
10-12a nu-us-si ha-at-ra-a-nu-un ARADMESH-YA-wa-at-tak-kan ku-i-e-es an-da -e-er nu-wa-ra-as-ta EGIR-pa ku-it -e-wa-ak-ke-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa -UL pa-is-ta
12b nu-wa-ra-as-mu EGIR-pa -UL pa-is-ta nu-wa-mu-za DUMU-la-an hal-zi-es-se-es-ta
13-14 nu-wa-mu-za te-ep-nu-us-ke-et ki-nu-na-wa e-hu nu-wa za-ah-hi-ya-u-wa-as-ta-ti nu-wa-an-na-as DU BE-L-YA DI-NAM ha-an-na-a-
15-17a ma-ah-ha-an-ma i-ya-ah-ha-at nu GIM-an I-NA HUR.SAGLa-wa-sa a-ar-hu-un nu-za DU NIR.GL EN-YA pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-a-tar te-ek-ku-us-sa-nu-ut nu GISHkal-mi-sa-na-an si-ya-a-it
17b-18a nu GISHkal-mi-sa-na-an am-me-el KARASHHI.A-YA us-ke-et
18b KUR URUAr-za-u-wa-ya-an us-ke-et
18c-19 nu GISHkal-mi-sa-na-as pa-it nu KUR URUAr-za-u-wa GUL-ah-ta SHA MUuhha-L-ya URUA-pa-a-sa-an URU-an GUL-ah-ta

33 nu-za MMa-na-pa-DU-an KUR DSe-e-ha-ya ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un
34 nam-ma I-NA KUR URUMi-ra-a EGIR-pa -wa-nu-un nu KUR URUMi-ra-a ta-ni-nu-nu-un
35 nam-ma URUAr-sa-ni-in URUSa-a-ra-u-wa-an URUIm-pa-an-na -e-te-nu-un na-as BD-es-na-nu-un
36-37a na-as ERINMESH a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un URUHa-a-pa-nu-wa-an-na ERINMESH a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un
37b nam-ma I-NA URUMi-ra-a MMas-hu-i-lu-wa-an EN-iz-na-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un
38a nu A-NA MMas-as-hu-i-lu-wa kis-sa-an me-ma-ah-hu-un
38b-39 zi-ik-wa-kan MPSH.TUR-as PA-NI A-BI-YA pit-ti-ya-an-ti-li an-da -et nu-wa-at-ta A-BU-YA sa-ra-a da-a-as
40-41a nu-wa-du-za LHA-T-NU i-ya-at nu-wa-at-ta MUNUSMu-u-wa-at-tin a-pe-el DUMU.MUNUS-ZU MUNUS KU-YA A-NA DAMUT-TU-SHU pe-es-ta
41b-42a EGIR-an-ma-wa-ar-as-ta -UL ti-i-ya-at nu-wa-at-tak-kan LMESH.KR-KA se-er -UL ku-en-ta
42b-43a nu-wa-at-ta am-mu-uk EGIR-an ti-i-ya-nu-un nu-wa-tak-kan LMESH.KR-KA se-er ku-e-nu-un
43b-45a nam-ma-wa URUDIDLI.HI.A -e-te-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as BD-es-na-nu-un nu-wa-ra-as ERINMESH a-sa-an-du-la-az e-ep-pu-un
45b nu-wa-at-ta I-NA URUMi-ra-a EN-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-nu-un

28-32a ma-ah-ha-an-ma LMESH URUAz-zi a--er URUDIDLI.HI.A BD-kan ku-it za-ah-hi-ya-az kat-ta da-as-ke-u-wa-an te-eh-hu-un nu LMESH URUAz-zi ku-i-e-es URUDIDLI.HI.A BD N4pe-e-ru-nu-us HUR.SAGMESH-us par-ga-u-e-es na-ak-ki-i ASH-RIHI.A EGIR-pa har-ker na-at na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-da-ti nu-mu LMESH SHU-GI KURTI me-na-ah-ha-an-da -e-er
32b na-at-mu GRMESH-as kat-ta-an ha-a-li-i-e-er
33 nu-mu me-mi-er BE-LI-NI-wa-an-na-as le-e ku-it-ki har-ni-ik-ti
34a nu-wa-an-na-as-za BE-LI-NI ARAD-an-ni da-a
34b-35a nu-wa A-NA BE-LI-NI ERNMESH ANSHE.KUR.RAHI.A pe-es-ke-u-wa-an ti-i-ya-u-e-ni
35b-36a NAM.RA URUHa-at-ti-ya-wa-an-na-as-kan ku-is an-da nu-wa-ra-an pa-ra-a pi-i-ya-u-e-ni
36b-37 na-as nam-ma DUTUSHI -UL har-ni-in-ku-un na-as-za ARAD-an-ni da-ah-hu-un na-as-za ARAD-ah-hu-un
38-39 nu-mu MU.KAM-za ku-it se-er te-e-pa-u-e-es-sa-an-za e-es-ta nu nam-ma KUR URUAz-zi -UL da-ni-nu-nu-un nu LMESH URUAz-zi li-in-ga-nu-nu-un
40a nam-ma URUHa-at-tu-si -wa-nu-un
40b-41 nu URUHa-at-tu-si gi-im-ma-an-da-ri-ya-nu-un nu-za EZENHI.A SHA MU.6.KAM i-ya-nu-un

Translation

Year 3; lines 9b-19: But, to Uhhaziti I sent a messenger. I wrote him: "My subjects who came to you, because I now demanded (them) back, you have not given (them) back to me. And you have been calling me a child; and you have been belittling me. Now come on: we will fight one another. And the Stormgod, my lord, decide our case." And as I marched, when I arrived at Mt. Lawasa, then the mighty Stormgod, my lord, displayed (his) divine might. He hurled a thunderbolt. And my troops saw the thunderbolt and the country of Arzawa saw the thunderbolt. The thunderbolt went and struck the country of Arzawa and it struck Apasa, Uhhaziti's city.
Year 4; lines 33-45: I took Manappa-Datta of the Seha river land as vassal. And moreover I went back to the country of Mira and I fortified the country of Mira. Moreover, I built the cities Arsanini, Sarawa, and Impa and fortified them and garrisoned them with troops. And I garrisoned the city of Hapanuwa with troops. Furthermore, In Mira, I set up Mashuiluwas in overlordship. And I said the following to Mashuiluwas: "You, Mashuiluwas, came before my father as a fugitive and my father took you in and made you his son-in-law and gave you Muwattis, his daughter, my sister, in marriage. But he could not be concerned with you and (he could not) attack your enemies for you. But I am concerned with you, and I have attacked your enemies for you. And, moreover, I have built cities and fortified them and garrisoned them with troops. And I have settled you in lordship in Mira."
Year 10; lines 28-41: But when the people of Azzi saw that I had started taking fortified cities in battle, the people of Azzi, who held out in fortified cities, fortified rock forts, high mountains and high places, they became afraid. Then the elders of the county came before me and prostrated themselves at my feet. And they said to me: "Our lord, do not destroy us, Take us, our lord, into vassalship, and we will begin providing to our lord infantry and chariot fighters. And the Hittite captive who is among us, we will hand him over." Moreover, I, my majesty, did not destroy them and I took them in vassalship and I made them vassals. And because the year had become short for me, I did not fortify (Azzi); instead, I put the people of Azzi under oath and then I went to Hattusas and I spent the winter in Hattusas. Festivals of the sixth year (there).

Grammar

21. Iya-stem Adjectives and Nouns

A number of adjectives and a handful of nouns have a suffix -iya-. In some instances, forms with -iya- are found beside i-stem forms. Some of the nouns of this type may be former i-stems that have taken on a-stem inflection. Others, which were originally iya-stems, may either have adopted i-stem inflection by analogy, or they may have undergone a sound change in which the final a of the suffix was dropped. The adjective hantezziya- 'first', which is quite common, and which is sometimes spelled with the Sumerogram IGI plus phonetic complement, provides representative examples.

    animate       neuter
Singular           hantezz-i
nom.   hantezz-iya-s, hantezz-i-s       hantezz-i
acc.   hantezz-iya-n, hantezz-i-n        
gen.       hantezz-iya-s    
dat/loc.            
abl.       hantezz-iy-az    
inst.            
all.       hantezz-iy-a    
Plural            
nom.   hantezz-i-e:s        
acc.   hantess-i-us        
gen.       hantezz-iya-s    
22. r/n-stem nouns

Hittite has a number of neuter nouns in which a stem in -r, normally found in the nominative-accusative singular and plural, and sometimes in the locative singular, alternates with a stem in -n-. In the other Indo-European languages this is an archaic inflection retained only in scattered remnants, but Hittite not only possesses a number of archaic nouns with the original inflection fairly intact, the -r, -n- stem type of inflection is productive in Hittite and is used to form several kinds of verbal nouns.

The most archaic nouns of this type, such as wa:tar 'water' or e:shar 'blood', show an alternation both in the shapes of their roots and in the shapes of their suffixes according to case. Wa:tar retains the old collective-plural suffix -a:r in its nominative-accusative plural, while the attested forms of e:shar may reflect a mix of inherited singular and plural-collective forms.

Singular        
nom/acc.   wa:t-ar   e:sh-ar
gen.   wit-en-as   e:s-n-as, ish-an-as, e:sh-an-as
dat/loc.   wit-en-i   e:s-n-i, ish-an-i
abl.   wit-en-az   ish-an-za
inst.   wid-an-ta   e:sh-an-ta
all.        
Plural        
nom/acc.   wid-a:r    

The early instrumental widanta was later replaced by witenit, with a stem witen- based on the stem of the genitive, dative, and ablative. The loss of h between consonants in genitive e:snas and dative e:sni may have occurred in Indo-European or it may have been an inner Hittite development. Forms such as genitive ishanas were possibly inherited from an Indo-European collective inflection. It seems likely that forms with the stem e:sh-an- have adopted the root of the nominative-accusative.

In pa:hhur 'fire' the suffix alternates between -ur in the nominative-accusative singular and -wen- elsewhere in the paradigm, while in me:hur 'time', the suffix of the nominative-accusative is -ur and the suffix of the rest of the paradimg is -un-:

Singular        
nom/acc.   pa:hh-ur   me:h-ur
gen.   pa:hh-wen-as   me:h-un-as
dat/loc.   pa:hh-wen-i   me:h-in-i
abl.   pa:hh-wen-az   *me:h-un-az
inst.   pa:hh-wen-it    
all.       *me:h-un-a

Two other nouns, uttar 'word, thing, affair' and pattar 'basket, tray', have a suffix -ar that alternates with a suffix -an-. The plural of uttar, udda:r also retains the old collective suffix -a:r.

Singular        
nom/acc.   utt-ar   patt-ar
gen.   utt-an-as   *patt-an-as
dat/loc.   udd-an-i:   patt-an-i:
abl.   udd-an-az   patt-an-az
inst.   udd-an-ta   patt-an-it
all.        
Plural        
nom/acc.   udd-a:r    
dat/loc.   udd-an-as    
22.1. Complex Suffixes

Other neuter nouns of this type have complex suffixes which are the product of adding the suffixes -r and -n- to already existing nominal stems, some of which were themselves formed from verbal stems. Many of these nouns also have close relationships to verbs from which the base nouns were derived. Nouns in -a:war, -a:un-, such as asa:war 'sheepfold' and pata:war 'feather' seem originally to have been formed from -a:-stem nouns. The root of asa:war is related to the root as- beside e:s- 'be':

Singular        
nom/acc.   as-a:war   part-a:war
gen.   *as-a:un-as   part-a:un-as
dat.   as-a:un-i   *part-a:u-ni
abl.   as-a:un-az   part-a:un-az
inst.   *as-a:un-it   part-a:un-it
all.        

The complex suffix -essar, -esn- forms verbal nouns, for example, hannessar, 'law case, judgment' comes from hann- 'litigate, decide a court case'.

Singular    
nom/acc.   hanness-ar
gen.   hannes-n-as
dat.   hannes-n-i
abl.   hanness-n-az
inst.   hannes-n-it
all.    

The suffix -a:tar is used to form abstract nouns from verbs. In nouns of this type, the nominative-accusative -a:tar alternates with a suffix -a:nn- from *-a:dn-. A frozen form of the allative -a:nna forms one type of infinitive. Papra:tar 'impurity', which is well attested, beside the verbs papre- 'be proven guilty' (i.e. 'impure'), papress- 'become impure', and paprahh- 'defile, make impure' is a representative noun of this type:

Singular    
nom/acc.   papra:tar
gen.   papra:nn-as
dat.   papra:nn-i
abl.   papra:nn-aza
inst.   *papra:nn-it
all.   *papra:nn-a

Verbal abstract nouns in -war, have a genitive in -was, from an earlier -wons with a regular sound change of ns to s. The suffix in -n is preserved in the supine in -wan, from an original endingless locative, and in the infinitive in -wanzi from an original dative. Because original sequences of uw became um, verbs with stems in final -u- make verbal nouns in -mar, -mas, supines with the suffix -uman, and infinitives in -umanzi. The verbal nouns are often found in the genitive in expressions like: takna:z da:uwas 'taking from the earth' with da:uwas, genitive of da:war, the verbal noun of da:- 'take', zahhiyas pe:dan 'place of battle, battlefield' with the genitive of zahhiyawar from zahhiya- 'fight'.

22.2. Pe:r, parn- 'house'

The noun *pe:r 'house' (normally written -er) has a stem par-n- in forms other than the nominative-accusative singular and plural. In the locative, the forms *pe:r without ending and *pe:r-i (written -er and -ri or -i) are found beside parn-i:

Singular    
nom/acc.   *pe:er, er
gen.   par-n-as
dat/loc.   par-n-i, *pe:r, *pe:r-i
abl.   par-n-az
inst.    
all.   par-n-a
Plural    
nom/acc.   *pe:r, -er
gen.   *par-n-as
dat/loc.   par-n-as
23. The Locative

The locative is the case that indicates the place in which an object or action is located.

    nu   -ri-ssi   anneskezzi
    and   in house-his (loc.)   he works
    "And he shall work in his house."
             
    pe:di-ssi-ma   Z.HA.LI-an   anenun
    in place (loc.)-its-(loc.)-and   cress   I sowed
    "And on its site I sowed cress."
             
    nu-ssan   ke:   hu:man   GIpaddani:   katta handaizzi
    and-locatival   this   all   in a basket (loc.)   she arranges
    "And all this she arranges in a basket."
                     
    nu-kan   h:li   sa:wa:tar   paripara:i
    and-locatival   in yard (loc.)   the horn   she blows
    "And in the yard she blows the horn."
23.1. Abstract locative

The locative may be abstract in meaning:

    namma   INA   URUMira:   MMashuiluwan   EN-iznanni   tittanunun
    moreover   in   the City of Mira   Mashuiluwa   in lordship (loc.)   I established
    "And I established Mashuilas in lordship in the city of Mira."
23.2. Action in time

The locative is used in adverbial expressions locating action in time, for example:

    GIM-an-ma   hameshi   tethai
    When-but   in spring (loc.)   it thunders
             
    nu   URUNe:san   ispandi   nakkit   da:s
    and   Nesa   in the night (loc.)   by force   I took
    "And I took Nesa in the night by force"
                     
    hantezzi-kan   UD-ti   UDUiyantan   inanas   DUTU-i
    in-first (loc)-locatival   in day (loc.)   sheep   of illness   to the Sungod
    sipantahhi                
    I sacrifice                
    "On the first day I offer a sheep to the Sungod of illness."
24. The Imperative

The second person singular and plural of the imperative function as do imperatives in the other Indo-European languages, to indicate commands.

    ammel-kan   assul   PANI   MPulli   halzai
    my-locatival   greetings   before   Pulli   read
    "Read my greetings to Pulli."
                     
    HI.A-uss-a-kan   arha   hu:da:k   waras
    grass-and-locatival   down   immediately   cut
    "Cut down the grass immediately."
                 
    n-at-mu   tuppiaz   hatra:i
    and-it-to-me   with a tablet   write
    "Write it to me with a tablet!"
             
    nu   kuedani   DINAM   e:szi   n-at-si   hanni
    and   to whoever   a law case   is   and-it-for him   judge
    n-an-kan   asnut                
    and-him-locatival   set right                
    "Whoever has a law case, judge it for him and set him right."
                         
    nu   tuliyan   halzisten
    and   the assembly   call (pl.)
    "Call the assembly!"
             
    nu-ssan   apiya   iyaddumat
    and-locatival   there   go (pl.)
    "Go there!"
24.1. Third person imperative

The third person imperative has modal-like functions. It can express a wish, or it can express a sense of obligation or of futurity. Often, it can act as an indirect sort of imperative, comparable to constructions in English with "shall," "should," "may," or "must."

    LUGAL-us   MUNUS.LUGAL-ass-a   huiswantes   asandu
    the king   the queen-and   alive   may they be
    "May the king and queen live! (i.e. 'Long live the king and queen!')"
                 
    na-at   DUMU.NAM.LU.U19.LU-as   istamasdu
    and-it   mankind   let them hear
    "And let mankind hear it."
             
    nu-tta   DINGIRMESH   assuli   pahsantaru
    and-you   the gods   in benevolence   may they protect
    "May the gods protect you in benevolence."
                 
    nu   auriyas   EN-as   DINAM   SIG5-in   hannau
    and   of watchtower   lord   law case   well   let him judge
    "The border lord should judge the case well (or 'Let the border lord judge the case well')."
24.2. Voluntive

The first person singular imperative, sometimes called a voluntive, expresses a wish, or may have a modal-like sense.

    teshit   uwallu
    with dream   let me see
    "Let me see (it) in (lit 'with') a dream."
         
    nu-mu   apppatar   hatra:ttin
    and-to-me   receipt   write
    nu   seggalu    
    and   I may know    
    "Write me a receipt, so that I may know."
             
    zig-a   attas-mis   e:s   ug-a   DUMU-as   e:slit
    but-you   father-my   be   I-but   son   let me be
    "You be my father and let me be (your) son."

Although there is no special form for the first person plural imperative, the first person plural of the indicative can also be used to express a wish:

    kinun-a-wa   ehu   nu-wa   zahhiyawastati    
    now-but-quotative   come on   and-quotative   we fight    
    nu-wa-nnas   DU   BELI-YA   DINAM   hanna:u
    and-quotative-for-us   the Stormgod   lord-my   case   let judge
    "Now come, let us fight (or 'we will fight'); let the Stormgod, my lord, judge the case for us."
24.3. Negative adverb le:

Forms of the second person present and third person present can also have imperative or modal force when used with the negative adverb le:.

    memiyann-a-ssi   le:   mematti
    word-but-to-her   not   you speak
    "You should not speak a word to her."
             
    nu   sara:zzi   DI-sar   le:   katterahte:ni
    and   superior   court case   not   make low
    kattera-ma   hannessar   le:   sara:zziyahteni    
    inferior-but   court case   not   make superior    
    "Do not disparage a superior court case, nor make an inferior case prevail."
                     
    nu-wa   BE:LI:NI:-NI   INA   URUHayasa   le:   pa:isi
    and-quotative   lord-our   against   Hayassa   not   he goes
    "Let our lord not go against Hayasa."
24.4. Archaic forms of "come, go"

Hittite preserves two archaic forms of the imperative of the verb meaning "come, go." One, ehu can be roughly translated as "come" or "come on!"

    kinun-a-wa   ehu   nu-wa   zahhiyawastati
    now-but-quotative   come on   and-quotative   we fight
    "Now come, let us fight!"
                 
    arunaz   ehu
    from the sea   come on
    "From the sea, come!"

The other archaic imperative, i:-, is preserved in the second person singular i:t and the second person plural i:tten.

    i:t-wa   ANA   DIM   URUHatti   BEL-YA
    go-quotative   to   Stormgod   of Hatti   lord-my
    "Go to the Stormgod of Hatti, my lord!"
                     
    i:tten   azzikatten   akkuskatten
    go   keep eating   keep drinking
    "Go, keep eating (and) drinking (i.e., 'remain alive')!"

The two may be used together:

    ehu   ha:ras   i:t
    come on   eagle   go
    "Come on eagle, go!"
25. The quotative particle

The quotative particle -war- is used to indicate quoted speech. It takes the form -war- when it occurs before enclitics beginning with vowels, and it shows up as -wa- when it occurs before enclitics beginning with consonants. At the end of a phrase, it also shows up as -wa:

  • nu-war-an and-quotative-him
  • nu-war-asta and-quotative-locatival
  • nu-wa-tta and-quotative-you
  • nu-wa-za and-quotative-reflexive
  • nu-wa and-quotative

Normally, -war- is attached to the first word of each clause in a passage of quoted speech, as in the following passage from the Apology of Hattusilis III that quotes what Ishtar said to Hattusilis' father, Mursilis, in a dream. Note that the quotative particle can be rendered in English as "saying":

    nu   DISTAR   GASAN-YA   ANA   MMursli
    and   Ishtar   lady-my   to   Mursilis
    A.BI-YA   -et   MNIR.GL-in   SHESH-YA   wiyat
    father-my   with dream   Muwattallis   brother-my   sent
    ANA   MHattusli-wa   MU.KAMHI.A   maninkuwantes    
    for   Hattusilis-quotative   years   short    
    U:L-war-as   TI-annas   nu-war-an   ammuk    
    not-quotative-he   of life   and-quotative-him   to me    
    para: pa:i   nu-war-as-mu   Lsankunnis   e:sdu    
    hand over   and-quotative-he-to me   priest   let be    
    nu-war-as   TI-anza            
    and-quotative-he   living            
    "Ishtar, My Lady, sent Muwattalis, my brother, to my father, Mursilis by means of a dream, (saying): 'For Hattusilis(-wa), the years are short. He(-war) is not for life. Give him(-war) to me and let him(-war) be my priest. Then he(-war) (will) live.'"

Quoted speech may also be introduced by a verb of speaking or saying:

    nu   siunan   antusiss-a   tarsikkanzi
    and   of gods   men-and   are saying
    ka:sa-wa   URUHattusi   e:shar   pangariyattati
    look-quotative   in Hattusas   bloodshed   has become widespread
    "And now the men of the gods are saying: 'Look(-wa) bloodshed has become widespread in Hattusas.'"

Sometimes the adverb kissan "thus" or "the following" is used, with or without a verb of speaking or saying, to introduce quoted speech:

    nu   wet   ABI   DUTUSHI   ANA   MMadduwatta
    and   came   father   of my majesty   to   Madduwattas
    kissan   namma   memista   ka:sa-wa-tta        
    thus   moreover   said   look-quotative-to-you        
    KR   HUR.SAGZippasla:   ADDIN   nu-wa-za        
    country   Mt. Zippasala   I have given   and-quotative-reflexive        
    apu:n-pat   esi                
    that-itself   be                
    "And the father of my majesty came (and), moreover, said the following, to you, Madduwattas, 'Look,(-war) to you I have given the mountain land of Zippasla; so(-wa) occupy it!'"

The verb hatra:i- 'write' is treated as a verb of speaking, and quotations from letters are marked with the quotative particle -war-, -wa-. In the following, the king is quoting a letter that he has received from one provincial official to two other officials to whom he is writing:

    ka:sa-mu   MPisenis   URUKasepuraz   hatrai:it    
    look-to me   Piseni   from Kasepura   wrote    
    LKR-wa   pangarit   ispandaz        
    enemy-quotative   in force   by night        
    kuwapi   VI ME   LKR   kuwapi-ma   IV ME
    in place   600   enemy   in place-but   400
    LKR   yattaru   nu-wa-kan   halkius   arha waraskezzi
    enemy   is marching   and-quotative   grain   harvests up
    "Look, Piseni wrote me from Kasepura: 'The enemy(-wa) is marching in force by night -- 600 enemy in one place, 400 enemy in another, and he(-wa) is harvesting up the grain.'"