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Hittite Online

Lesson 6

Sara E. Kimball and Jonathan Slocum

This document, called by modern scholars the "Apology (apologia) of Hattusilis III" recounts the life and military exploits of one of the most successful Hittite kings. Not only was Hattusilis successful in his military exploits, both before and after his assumption of the kingship, he and his wife, Puduhepa, instituted religious reforms within the Hittite kingdom and engaged in extensive diplomatic relations with other great powers of the time such as Egypt and Assyria. As in other historical texts from the Empire period, the king is shown as the beneficiary of divine aid from a special protector. In this document, the deity who protects Hattusilis from his sickly childhood throughout his reign is the Goddess Ishtar. She not only aids him in battle, but she also guides the major events of his personal life.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Hattusilis, the youngest son of Mursilis, was, by his own account, a frail child. In the first two paragraphs (document sections 2-3), Ishtar, in the guise of Hattusilis's brother Muwattallis, appears to his father in a dream and demands that he hand the child over to serve her as priest. This apparently did have the intended effect of strengthening the child and prolonging his life, since Hattusilis went on to become a successful general, serving under his brother king Muwattallis and reestablishing control over the territory charged to his command.

The 3rd paragraph (from document section 9) concerns another crucial event in Hattusilis's life: his marriage to Puduhepa, daughter of Pentipsarris, a priest in the Kizzuwatnan town of Lawanzantiyas. Queen Puduhepa, who was also a priestess in the service of Ishtar, was a formidable personality in her own right, conducting private diplomatic correspondence with, for example, the Egyptian Pharaoh, fostering the children of nobles, and arranging for diplomatic marriages. Significantly too, Puduhepa seems to have initiated a revival of Kizzuwatnan religious practice in the capital city. We know from other documents that she ordered the chief scribe to have recopied earlier religious rituals, presumably those collected from Kizzuwatnan sources during the Middle Kingdom period. The marriage and start of Hattusilis's family occurred before Hattusilis became king. Instead of inheriting the kingship directly, Hattusilis seized it by force. When Muwattallis, the brother of Hattusilis, died, he apparently left no male heirs of the "first rank" (sons of his primary wife). Following the rules of succession laid down by Telepenus, a son of the "second rank", Urhi-Teshup, who took the throne name Mursilis upon assuming the kingship. Hattusilis remained a powerful figure in the court, however. His success as a military commander and administrator seems to have provoked resentment within court circles, and at one point the "apology" relates how he was falsely accused of malfeasance but, with the divine protection of Ishtar, acquitted. Although he initially supported his nephew the king, he later deposed him, once again claiming the divine guidance and support of Ishtar as his authority.

2 - SA DISHTAR par-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-tar me-ma-ah-hi

  • SA -- preposition; Akkadian preposition functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive <SA> of -- of
  • DISHTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive <ISHTAR> Ishtar -- Ishtar
  • par-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <para: handanda:tar> divine might, power -- divine power
  • me-ma-ah-hi -- verb; 1st person singular present of hi-conjugation <me:ma-, me:miya-> say, speak -- I will proclaim

na-at DUMU.NAM.LU.U19.LU-as is-ta-ma-as-du

  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- it
  • DUMU.NAM.LU.U19.LU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU.NAM.LU.U19.LU> humankind, human beings + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- humankind
  • is-ta-ma-as-du -- verb; 3rd person plural imperative of mi-conjugation <istamass-> hear, listen -- hear

nu `zi-la-du-wa SA DUTUSHI DUMU-SHU DUMU.DUMU-SHU NUMUN DUTUSHI DINGIRMESH-as-kan is-tar-na A-NA DISHTAR na-ah-ha-a-an e-es-du

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • `zi-la-du-wa -- adverb; <ziladuwa> henceforth, in the future -- from henceforth # The Glossenkeil "`" may indicate that this word was borrowed from Luvian.
  • SA -- preposition; Akkadian preposition functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive <SA> of -- of
  • DUTUSHI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular animate <DUTUSHI> my majesty -- of my majesty
  • DUMU-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his son
  • DUMU.DUMU-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <DUMU.DUMU> grandson + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SU> his -- his grandson
  • NUMUN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural <NUMUN> seed, descendant -- and descendants
  • DUTUSHI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <DUTUSHI> my majesty -- of my majesty
  • DINGIRMESH-as-kan -- noun; Sumerogram <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating dative-locative plural) + locative participle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- the gods
  • is-tar-na -- postposition; <istarna> among -- among
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DISHTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <ISHTAR> Ishtar -- Ishtar
  • na-ah-ha-a-an -- verb participle; accusative singular neuter of hi-conjugation <nahh-> fear, revere -- revered
  • e-es-du -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- be

3 - A.BU-YA-an-na-as-za MMur-si-li-is 4 DUMUMESH MHal-pa-su-lu-pi-in MNIR.GL-in MHa-at-tu-si-li-in FDINGIRMESH.ARAD-in-na DUMU.MUNUS-an ha-as-ta

  • A.BU-YA-an-na-as-za -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my + enclitic personal pronoun <-annas> (indicating 2nd person plural accusative) + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- my father
  • MMur-si-li-is -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Mursili-> Mursilis -- Mursilis
  • 4 -- numeral; <4> four -- four
  • DUMUMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative animate <DUMU> son, child + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- children
  • MHal-pa-su-lu-pi-in -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Halpasulupi-> Halpasulupis -- Halpasulupis
  • MNIR.GL-in -- proper noun; Sumerogram <NIR.GL> strength + Hittite phonetic complement <-in> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- Muwattallis # This is a rebus-like spelling for Muwattallis. Sumerian NIR.GA/L is to be read as muwa-, "strength".
  • MHa-at-tu-si-li-in -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Hattusili-> Hattusilis -- Hattusilis
  • FDINGIRMESH.ARAD-in-na -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DINGIRMESH.ARAD> servant of the god + Hittite phonetic complement <-inn-> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- Massanauzzi # The Sumerogram DINGIRMESH is to be read massan- after the Luvian word for "god," massani-.
  • DUMU.MUNUS-an -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a daughter
  • ha-as-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <ha:s-, hass-> give birth, beget -- begot

nu-za hu-u-ma-an-da-as-pat EGIR-ez-zi-is DUMU-as e-su-un

  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • hu-u-ma-an-da-as-pat -- adjective; genitive plural of <hu:mant-> all, each, every + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- of all
  • EGIR-ez-zi-is -- adjective; Sumerogram <EGIR> after + Hittite phonetic complement <-ezzis> (indicating superlative nominative singular animate) -- the youngest # The Hittite word for "last," or "youngest," was appezziya-. The Sumerogram EGIR is normally read as a:ppan or a:ppanda.
  • DUMU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- child
  • e-su-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- I was

nu-za ku-it-ma-an nu-u-wa DUMU-as e-su-un SHA KUSHKA.TAB.ANSHE-za e-su-un

  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • ku-it-ma-an -- adverb; <kuitman> when, while -- while
  • nu-u-wa -- adverb; <nu:wa> still, yet -- still
  • DUMU-as -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- a child
  • e-su-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- I was
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • KUSHKA.TAB.ANSHE-za -- noun; Sumerogram <KA.TAB.ANSHE> donkey + Hittite phonetic complement <-za> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- foolish
  • e-su-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- I was

nu DISHTAR GASHAN-YA A-NA MMur-si-li A.BI-YA -et MNIR.GL-in SHESH-YA u-i-ya-at

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • DISHTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <ISHTAR> Ishtar -- Ishtar
  • GASHAN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <GASHAN> lady + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my lady
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • MMur-si-li -- proper noun; dative singular of <Mursili-> Mursilis -- Mursilis
  • A.BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative singular of <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • -et -- noun; Akkadogram <> dream + Hittite phonetic complement <-et> (indicating instrumental singular) -- in a dream
  • MNIR.GL-in -- proper noun; Sumerogram <NIR.GL> strength + Hittite phonetic complement <-in> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- Muwattallis
  • SHESH-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <SHESH> brother + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my brother
  • u-i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wiya-> send -- sent

A-NA MHa-at-tu-si-li-wa MU.KAMHI.A ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an-te-es

  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- for
  • MHa-at-tu-si-li-wa -- proper noun; dative singular of <Hattusili-> Hattusilis + quotative particle <-wa>... -- Hattusilis # This is an example of a possessive dative.
  • MU.KAMHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram <MU> year + Sumerogram <KAM> a measure of time + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... -- the years
  • ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an-te-es -- adjective; nominative plural animate of <maninkuwant-> short -- are short

-UL-wa-ra-as TI-an-na-as nu-wa-ra-an-mu am-mu-uk pa-ra-a pa-a-i nu-wa-ra-as-mu Lsa-an-ku-un-ni-is e-es-du nu-wa-ra-as TI-an-za

  • -UL-wa-ra-as -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not + quotative particle <-war>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative of <-as> he, she, it -- not he
  • TI-an-na-as -- noun; Sumerogram <TI> life + Hittite phonetic complement <-a:nnas> (indicating genitive singular) -- of life # In other words, "He will not live long."
  • nu-wa-ra-an-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-war>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- him to me
  • am-mu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <ammuk> me -- ...
  • pa-ra-a pa-a-i -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <para: pa:i-> give -- give
  • nu-wa-ra-as-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-war>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative <-as> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- and... him... my
  • Lsa-an-ku-un-ni-is -- noun; nominative singular animate of <sankunni-> priest -- priest
  • e-es-du -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- let... be
  • nu-wa-ra-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-war>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative <-as> he, she, it -- then he
  • TI-an-za -- verb; Sumerogram <TI> life + Hittite phonetic complement <-anza> (indicating nominative singular animate participle) -- will live

nu-mu A-BU-YA DUMU-an sa-ra-a da-a-as nu-mu A-NA DINGIRLIM ARAD-an-ni pe-es-ta

  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me -- me
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • DUMU-an -- noun; Sumerogram <DUMU> son, child + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- a child
  • sa-ra-a da-a-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <sara: da:-> offer, take -- offered
  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me -- me
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DINGIRLIM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LIM> deity -- the goddess
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-a:nni> (indicating dative singular) -- to her service
  • pe-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gave

nu-za A-NA DINGIRLIM Lsa-an-ku-un-ni-ya-an-za BAL-ah-hu-un

  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- for
  • DINGIRLIM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LIM> deity -- the goddess
  • Lsa-an-ku-un-ni-ya-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <sankunniya-> serve as priest -- serving as priest
  • BAL-ah-hu-un -- verb; Sumerogram <BAL> make sacrifice + Hittite phonetic complement <-ahhun> (indicating 1st person singular preterite hi-conjugation) -- I made sacrifice

nu-za-kan A-NA SH DISHTAR GASHAN-YA `lu--lu u-uh-hu-un

  • nu-za-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- in
  • SH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular of <SHU> hand -- the hand
  • DISHTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive <ISHTAR> Ishtar -- of Ishtar
  • GASHAN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <GASHAN> lady + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my lady
  • `lu--lu -- noun; accusative singular neuter <lu:lu> prosperity? -- prosperity? # The Glossenkeil "`" probably indicates that this word was borrowed from Luvian. The word's exact meaning is unclear, but it indicates a favorable condition of some sort.
  • u-uh-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <au-, u-> look, see -- I saw

nu-mu DISHTAR GASHAN-YA SH-za IS-BAT na-as-mu-kan pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-te-es-ta

  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me -- me
  • DISHTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <ISHTAR> Ishtar -- Ishtar
  • GASHAN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <GASHAN> lady + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my lady
  • SH-za -- noun; Sumerogram <SHU> hand + Hittite phonetic complement <-za> (indicating ablative singular) -- by the hand
  • IS-BAT -- verb; Akkadian 3rd person singular preterite of <SA:BATU> seize, take -- took
  • na-as-mu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative <-as> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- she... me
  • pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-te-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <para: handante:ss-> show divine guidance -- showed... divine guidance

9 - GIM-an-ma ISH-TU KUR Mi-iz-ri EGIR-pa i-ya-ah-ha-ha-at nu-za I-NA KUR URULa-wa-za-an-ti-ya A-NA DINGIRLUM BAL-u-wa-an-zi i-ya-ah-ha-ha-at nu-za DINGIRLUM i-ya-nu-un

  • GIM-an-ma -- conjunction; Sumerogram <GIM> when + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but when # The Sumerogram is to be read as mahhan.
  • ISH-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <ISHTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • Mi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... -- back again
  • i-ya-ah-ha-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular middle preterite of <iya-> go, march -- I went
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- then
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URULa-wa-za-an-ti-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative <Lawazantiya-> Lawazantiya -- of Lawazantiya
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DINGIRLUM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LUM> deity -- the Goddess
  • BAL-u-wa-an-zi -- verb; Sumerogram <BAL> make sacrifice + Hittite phonetic complement <-uwanzi> (indicating infinitive) -- to make sacrifice
  • i-ya-ah-ha-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular middle preterite of <iya-> go, march -- I went
  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • DINGIRLUM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LUM> deity -- to the Goddess
  • i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- I made sacrifice

nu-za DUMU.MUNUS MPe-en-ti-ip-sa-ri LSANGA FPu-du-he-pa-an ISH-TU INIM DINGIRLIM DAM-an-ni da-ah-hu-un

  • nu-za -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- and
  • DUMU.MUNUS -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter -- the daughter
  • MPe-en-ti-ip-sa-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Pentipsari-> Pentipsaris -- of Pentipsaris
  • LSANGA -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <LSANGA> priest -- the priest
  • FPu-du-he-pa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular animate of <Puduhepa-> Puduhepa -- Puduhepa
  • ISH-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <ISHTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- at
  • INIM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative singular of <INIM> word, matter, affair -- the command
  • DINGIRLIM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LIM> deity -- of the Goddess
  • DAM-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <DAM> wife, marriage + Hittite phonetic complement <-a:nni> (indicating dative singular) -- in marriage
  • da-ah-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- I took

nu ha-an-da-a-u-en

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • ha-an-da-a-u-en -- verb; 1st person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <handa:i-> order, arrange, marry -- we married

nu-un-na-as DINGIRLUM SHA LMU-DI DAM a-as-si-ya-tar pe-es-ta

  • nu-un-na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural dative <-nnas> us -- and to us
  • DINGIRLUM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LUM> deity -- the Goddess
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • LMU-DI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive singular of <LMU-DI> husband -- husband
  • DAM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <DAM> wife, marriage -- (and) wife
  • a-as-si-ya-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <a:ssiya:tar> love -- the love
  • pe-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gave

nu-un-na-as DUMU.NITAMESH DUMU.MUNUSMESH i-ya-u-en

  • nu-un-na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural dative <-nnas> us -- to us
  • DUMU.NITAMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural of <DUMU.NITA> son + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- sons
  • DUMU.MUNUSMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative of <DUMU.MUNUS> girl, daughter + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- (and) daughters
  • i-ya-u-en -- verb; 1st person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- we had

nam-ma-mu DINGIRLUM GASHAN-YA -at QA-DU TI-ma-mu ARAD-ah-ha-hu-ut

  • nam-ma-mu -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- and to me
  • DINGIRLUM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LUM> deity -- the Goddess
  • GASHAN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <GASHAN> lady + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my lady
  • -at -- verb; Sumerogram <> dream + Hittite phonetic complement <-at> (indicating 3rd person singular preterite) -- (appeared) in a dream
  • QA-DU -- adverb; Akkadogram <QADU> along with -- along with
  • TI-ma-mu -- noun; Sumerogram nominative singular neuter <> house + Akkadian phonetic complement <-TI> (indicating abstract noun) + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- (your) household... me
  • ARAD-ah-ha-hu-ut -- verb; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, serve + Hittite phonetic complement <-ah-ha-hu-ut> (indicating 2nd person singular preterite middle) -- serve

nu A-NA DINGIRLIM QA-DU TI-YA ARAD-ah-ha-ha-at

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DINGIRLIM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LIM> deity -- to the Goddess
  • QA-DU -- adverb; Akkadogram <QADU> along with -- along with
  • TI-YA -- noun; Sumerogram nominative singular neuter <> house + Akkadian phonetic complement <-TI> (indicating abstract noun) + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my household
  • ARAD-ah-ha-ha-at -- verb; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, serve + Hittite phonetic complement <-ah-ha-ha-at> (indicating 1st person singular preterite middle) -- I did service

nu-un-na-as -er ku-it e-es-su-u-en nu-un-na-as-kan DINGIRLUM an-da ar-ta-at

  • nu-un-na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural dative <-nnas> us -- and... us
  • -er -- noun; Sumerogram <> house + Hittite phonetic complement <-er> (indicating nominative singular) -- the household
  • ku-it -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kui-> that, which, who -- that
  • e-es-su-u-en -- iterative verb; 1st person plural preterite of <iya-> do, make -- we established
  • nu-un-na-as-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural dative <-nnas> us + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- among us
  • DINGIRLUM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LUM> deity -- the Goddess
  • an-da ar-ta-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite middle of <anda ar-> stand -- stood

nu-un-na-as -er pa-ra-a i-ya-an-ni-is ka-ni-is-su-u-wa-ar-ma-at SHA DISHTAR GASHAN-YA e-es-ta

  • nu-un-na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person plural dative <-nnas> us -- and our
  • -er -- noun; Sumerogram <> house + Hittite phonetic complement <-er> (indicating nominative singular) -- household
  • pa-ra-a i-ya-an-ni-is -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <para: iya> prosper? -- prospered? # The verb para: iyanna:i- means literally "go forward"; its meaning in this context is not entirely clear.
  • ka-ni-is-su-u-wa-ar-ma-at -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <kanissuwar> recognition, favor + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- the favor
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • DISHTAR -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive <ISHTAR> Ishtar -- of Ishtar
  • GASHAN-YA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <GASHAN> lady + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my lady
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <e:s-> be -- had

Lesson Text

2 SA DISHTAR par-ra-a ha-an-da-an-da-tar me-ma-ah-hi
na-at DUMU.NAM.LU.U19.LU-as is-ta-ma-as-du
nu `zi-la-du-wa SA DUTUSHI DUMU-SHU DUMU.DUMU-SHU NUMUN DUTUSHI DINGIRMESH-as-kan is-tar-na A-NA DISHTAR na-ah-ha-a-an e-es-du

3 A.BU-YA-an-na-as-za MMur-si-li-is 4 DUMUMESH MHal-pa-su-lu-pi-in MNIR.GL-in MHa-at-tu-si-li-in FDINGIRMESH.ARAD-in-na DUMU.MUNUS-an ha-as-ta
nu-za hu-u-ma-an-da-as-pat EGIR-ez-zi-is DUMU-as e-su-un
nu-za ku-it-ma-an nu-u-wa DUMU-as e-su-un SHA KUSHKA.TAB.ANSHE-za e-su-un
nu DISHTAR GASHAN-YA A-NA MMur-si-li A.BI-YA -et MNIR.GL-in SHESH-YA u-i-ya-at
A-NA MHa-at-tu-si-li-wa MU.KAMHI.A ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an-te-es
-UL-wa-ra-as TI-an-na-as nu-wa-ra-an-mu am-mu-uk pa-ra-a pa-a-i nu-wa-ra-as-mu Lsa-an-ku-un-ni-is e-es-du nu-wa-ra-as TI-an-za
nu-mu A-BU-YA DUMU-an sa-ra-a da-a-as nu-mu A-NA DINGIRLIM ARAD-an-ni pe-es-ta nu-za A-NA DINGIRLIM Lsa-an-ku-un-ni-ya-an-za BAL-ah-hu-un
nu-za-kan A-NA SH DISHTAR GASHAN-YA `lu--lu u-uh-hu-un
nu-mu DISHTAR GASHAN-YA SH-za IS-BAT na-as-mu-kan pa-ra-a ha-an-da-an-te-es-ta

9 GIM-an-ma ISH-TU KUR Mi-iz-ri EGIR-pa i-ya-ah-ha-ha-at nu-za I-NA KUR URULa-wa-za-an-ti-ya A-NA DINGIRLUM BAL-u-wa-an-zi i-ya-ah-ha-ha-at nu-za DINGIRLUM i-ya-nu-un
nu-za DUMU.MUNUS MPe-en-ti-ip-sa-ri LSANGA FPu-du-he-pa-an ISH-TU INIM DINGIRLIM DAM-an-ni da-ah-hu-un
nu ha-an-da-a-u-en
nu-un-na-as DINGIRLUM SHA LMU-DI DAM a-as-si-ya-tar pe-es-ta
nu-un-na-as DUMU.NITAMESH DUMU.MUNUSMESH i-ya-u-en
nam-ma-mu DINGIRLUM GASHAN-YA -at QA-DU TI-ma-mu ARAD-ah-ha-hu-ut
nu A-NA DINGIRLIM QA-DU TI-YA ARAD-ah-ha-ha-at
nu-un-na-as -er ku-it e-es-su-u-en nu-un-na-as-kan DINGIRLUM an-da ar-ta-at
nu-un-na-as -er pa-ra-a i-ya-an-ni-is ka-ni-is-su-u-wa-ar-ma-at SHA DISHTAR GASHAN-YA e-es-ta

Translation

2 I will tell of Ishtar's divine power; let mankind hear it. And, from henceforth, among the gods of my majesty, of his son, of his grandson, of the descendants of my majesty, let there be reverence toward Ishtar.
3 My father, Mursilis, begat us four children, Halpasulupis, Muwattallis, Hattusilis and Massanauzzis, a daughter. And of all of them, I was the last (i.e. the youngest) child. And while I was still a child, I was foolish. Ishtar, My Lady, sent my brother Muwattalis to my father Mursilis in (i.e. by means of) a dream, (saying) "For Hattusilis, the years are short. He will not live long. Give him to me and let him be my priest. Then he will live." And my father offered me, a child, and he gave me to the service of the deity. And serving as a priest to the deity, I made sacrifice. And in the hand of Ishtar, My lady, I saw prosperity(?). And Ishtar, My Lady, took me by the hand, and she showed me divine guidance.
9 When, however, I came back from the land of Egypt, I went to the city of Lawanzantiyas to make libations to the Goddess; and I made sacrifice to the Goddess. And, at the command of the Goddess, I took Puduhepa, the daughter of Pentipsarris, the priest, in marriage; and we married. And the Goddess gave to us the love of husband and wife. And we had (lit. "made") sons and daughters. And the Goddess, my lady, appeared to me in a dream (saying), "Serve me along with your household." And I did service to the Goddess, along with my household. And the Goddess stood among us (in) the household that we established, and our household prospered(?), and it had the favor of My Lady, Ishtar.

Grammar

26. The Ablative.

As in Greek and Sanskrit, the ablative is the case that denotes separation or origin: it is often used to indicate motion away from a location. For example:

    DSIN-as-wa-kan   nepisaz   mausta
    moon-it-quotative-locatival   from heaven (abl.)   fell
    "The moon, it fell from heaven."
    karizz-a-kan   GIM-an   URU-az   se:hur   IM-an   a:rri
    flood-and-locatival   as   from the city (abl.)   filth   mud   washes
    "As the flood washes filth (and) mud from the city..."
    arunaz   ehu
    from the sea (abl)   come
    "From the sea, come!"
26.1. Motion away

In the following passage from the "Proclamation of Anittas," the city names Ne:saz and Za:lpuwaz in the ablative indicate motion away from a place and are opposed to the allatives Za:lpuwa and Ne:sa, which indicate motion towards a place:

    karu:   MU:hnas   LUGAL   URUZa:lpuwa
    previously   Uhna   king   of Zalpa
    DSiusummin   URUNe:saz   URUZa:lpuwa   pe:das
    Siusummi   from Neza (abl.)   to Zalpa (all.)   had carried
    appezziyan-a   MAnittas   LUGAL.GAL   DSiusummin
    later-but   Anittas   Great King   Siusummi
    URUZa:lpuwaz   a:ppa   URUNe:sa   pe:dahhun
    from Zalpa (abl.)   back   to Nesa (all.)   I carried
    "Previously, Uhna, King of Zalpuwa, had carried Siusummi from Nesa to Zalpuwa. But later, (I), Anitta, the Great King, carried Siusummi back from Zalpuwa to Nesa."
26.2. Without verbs of motion

In sentences without verbs of motion, nouns in the ablative may often be translated by English prepositional phrases with "from":

    takku   amiyaraza   GISHINBAM   kuiski   a:rgi
    if   from an irrigation ditch (abl.)   fruit trees   someone   cuts off
    "If someone cuts fruit trees off from an irrigation ditch..."
    ammuk-ma-aza   SH-az   lahlahhiman   U:L   tarhmi
    I-but-reflexive   from heart (abl.)   worry   not   overcome
    "But I cannot overcome the worry from (my) heart."
26.3. Consequence

The ablative may also have the sense "as the result of":

    takku   L-an   nasma   MUNUS-an   sullanaz   kuiski   kuenzi
    if   man   or   woman   quarrel (abl.)   someone   kills
    "If someone kills a man or a woman as the result of a quarrel."
26.4. Akkadian ISHTU

The Akkadian preposition ISHTU often accompanies a noun in the ablative case. The following passage from the ritual of Tunnawi uses both Akkadograms with phonetic complements spelled -az to mark nouns as ablative and Akkadian ISHTU:

    zik-kan   mahhan   sakunis   GE6-az (abl.)   KI-az (abl.)
    you-locatival   just as   spring   dark-from   earth-from
    purut   EGIR   sara: sakuneskesi        
    mud   back   keeps bubbling up        
    nu   edani   antuhsi   ANA   EN.SISKUR
    and   for this   for person   for   patient
    ISHTU   UZURHI.A-SHU   idalu   papratar    
    (from)   from limbs (abl)-his   evil   impurity    
    QA-TAM-MA   muta:i            
    just so   remove            
    "Just as you, spring, keep gushing up mud from the dark world, just so, from the limbs of this person, the patient, remove evil impurity!"
26.5. Postpositions

The ablative is used with some postpositions, and again, the sense is one of separation or distance. For example, with katta, kattan "down" the sense is "down from":

    DUTU-us-kan   nepisaza   katta   sakuwayat
    The Sungod-locatival   from heaven (abl.)   down   looked
    "The Sungod looked down from heaven."
26.6. Spatial relations

Some adverbs indicating spatial relations are made from the ablative case forms of pronouns, for example ape:z "from there" and ke:z "from here" (from the ablatives of apa:- "that" and ka:- "this"). Others may be made from the ablatives of nouns or adjectives.

    ku:nnaz-tit   iyatta
    on right (abl.)-your   walks
    "He walks on your right."

(from ku:nna- 'right')

    iskisaz   EGIR-pa   iyatta:ri
    backwards (abl.)   back   he walks
    "He retreats backwards."

(from iskis- 'back')

    ANA   LSANGA-as   DU   GB-laza
    to   the priest   of the Stormgod   on the left (abl.)
    iyatta            
    she walks            
    "She walks to the left of the priest of the Stormgod."

(from GUB-la- 'left' -- Sumerogram, Hittite reading unkown)

26.7. With parkui-

The ablative may also be used with the adjective parkui- "pure," "free of impurities" in the sense "free of something" (usually something undesirable):

    nu-za   DINGIRMESH   ida:lawaz   uddanaz    
    and-reflexive   gods   evil (abl.)   words (abl.)    
    linkiyaz   hu:rdiyaz   e:shanaz   isgaruwaz   hu:mandazzi-ya
    oath (abl.)   curse (abl.)   murder (abl.)   tears (abl.)   from all (abl.)-and
    parkuwae:s   e:sten            
    free   let you be            
    "May you, O gods, be free of evil words, perjury, curse, murder, tears, and of all (similar things)."
27. nt-stem Adjectives and Nouns

The suffix -nt- is fairly common in Hittite. Forms made with this suffix include adjectives (e.g., hu:man- 'all'), participles (e.g., asa:nt- participle of e:s-, as- 'be' or tarant- participle of te:-, tar- 'say'), including participles used nominally (e.g., appa:nza 'captive' from appant-, participle of e:pp-, app- 'seize', or iyant- 'sheep', originally the participle of i-, midd. iya- 'go'), and some nouns including, for example, gimmant- 'winter' or ispant- 'night'. Adjectives with the suffix -went-, (e.g., kisduwant- 'hungry' beside ka:sza, kest- 'hunger') are also nt-stems, as is the ergative suffix (nominative singular -anza, nominative plural -antes).

By regular sound change, the stem-final -t is lost in the nominative-accusative singular neuter (e.g., hu:man from *hu:mant). In the nominative singular animate, the combination of the stem-final -t and the nominative ending -s is spelled -za.

The adjective hu:mant- 'all' is widely attested, and its paradigm may be taken as representative of the inflection of -nt-stems:

    Singular       Plural
nom.anim.   hu:man-za       hu:mant-es
acc.anim.   hu:mand-an       hu:mand-us
nom.-acc.n.   hu:man       hu:mant-a
gen.   hu:mant-as       hu:mand-an, hu:mand-as
dat./loc.   hu:mant-i       hu:mand-as
inst.   hu:mant-et        
abl.   hu:mant-aza, hu:mand-az       hu:manda-za
28. Derived Verbs

The verbal suffixes -nu-, -e:ss-, and -ahh- play an important role in Hittite word formation, making verbs derived from verbal roots, from adjectives, and from nouns. The suffix -nu-, which can be added to verbal, nominal, or adjectival stems, is causative in value; in other words, it adds the sense "make someone do the action of a verb," or "make someone or something take on the qualities expressed by an adjective or noun." The suffix -ahh- is added to adjectives. Its sense is similar to that of -nu- in that it means "make someone or something take on the qualities expressed by the base adjective." The suffix -e:ss-, which was originally primarily attached to adjectives, denotes entry into a state. Its sense is "become the quality expressed by the adjective."

28.1. Causatives in -nu-

Verbs with the suffix -nu- take mi-conjugation endings. Since an earlier sequence of *uw became um in Hittite, the first person plural present and preterit mi-conjugation endings -weni and -wen show up as -meni (or -mmeni) and -men after the suffix -nu-. It should be noted that the common spelling with uw in the third person plural present and imperative indicates that the final u of the suffix became w before the endings -anzi and -andu. The verb wahnu- 'make turn, swing' is related to we:h- 'turn', and parkunu- 'cleanse, purify' is from the adjective parkui- 'clean, pure'. The final i of the adjective is regularly dropped with the addition of the suffix:

Present        
Singular        
1   wah-nu-mi   parku-nu-mi
2   wah-nu-si   parku-nu-si
3   wah-nu-zzi   parku-nu-zzi
Plural        
1   wah-nu-meni   parku-nu-mmeni
2   wah-nu-tteni   parku-nu-tteni
3   wah-nuw-anzi   parku-nuw-anzi
Preterit        
Singular        
1   wah-nu-nun   parku-nu-nun
2       *parku-nu-tten
3   wah-nu-t   parku-nu-t
Plural        
1   wah-nu-men   parku-nu-men
2   *wah-nu-tten   *parku-nu-tten
3   wah-nu-er   parku-nu-er
Imperative        
Singular        
1        
2   *wah-nu-t   parku-nu-t
3   *wah-nu-ttu   parku-nu-ddu
Plural        
1        
2   *wah-nu-tten   parku-nu-tten
3   *wah-nuw-andu   parku-nuw-andu

The verb in -nu- may have meanings quite close to those of the verb or adjective from which it is formed, or it may develop extended meanings not paralleled by its base. The adjective salli- means "big", and the derivative in -nu-, sallanu-, literally "make big," can mean "raise (children)." For example, this passage from the bronze tablet on which a treaty between the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV and Kurunta of Tarhuntassa is recorded uses the verb in this sense in both the infinitive and in the iterative:

    annisan-pat-an   MNIR.GL-is   LUGAL-us   ANA   ABU-YA    
    before-emphatic-him   Muwattallis   the king   to   father-my    
    MHattusili   sallanummanzi   piyan   harta   n-an   annisan-pat
    Hattusilis   to raise   given   had   and-him   already-indeed
    ABU-YA   sallanusket                
    father-my   raised                
    "Previously Muwattalli, the king, had given him to my father, Hattusilis, to raise, and indeed, my father had already raised him."

The basic meaning of the adjective parkui- is "pure," "free from" (impurities), (physically or ritually) "clean"; it can also mean "innocent" in a legal context. The derived verb parkunu- has the literal meaning "clean, purify," and it can mean "declare (someone) innocent", "clarify (a matter), "reform" (cf. English "clean up" in the meaning "reform"), for example:

    TGNG.LMMESH-kan   ke:zza   arranzi
    festival-clothes-locatival   with this   they wash
    n-at   parkunuwanzi    
    and-them   they clean    
    "And they wash festive garments with this and clean them."
             
    nu   ku:n   EN.SISKUR   ape:z   sapiya
    and   this   patient   with it   scrub
    n-an   12   UZUR   parkunut    
    and-him   twelve   body part(s)   purify    
    "Scrub this patient with it and purify the twelve parts of (his) body."

The verb weh- means "turn," and it is often used in the middle in the sense "go about," mill around," as in the following:

    nu-ssi   peran   hu:mantes   parkunwantes   wehanta
    and-him   before   all   purified   they go about
    "And all go about before him in a purified state."

The derivative wahnu-, however, means "make turn" and may have metaphorical meanings such as "alter."

    n-an-kan   U:L-pat   wahnunun
    and-it-locatival   not-certainly   I turned
    "And certainly I did not alter it (a tablet)."

With the preverb se:r "above" wahnu- can mean "wave (something) over" (someone or something):

    ug-a-smas-san   ERNMESH-an   se:r   3   SHU   wahnumi
    I-but-them-locatival   soldiers   over   three   times   I make turn
    "I wave the (clay statues of the) soldiers over them three times."

The mi-verb link- means "swear an oath," but the derivative linganu- means "make swear an oath," or "put under oath":

    n-as   linganunun   nu-tta
    and-them   I have put under oath   and-to you
    memian   sakuwasar   memandu
    word   truthfully   let them speak
    "I have put them under oath; let them tell you the truth."
28.2. Factitive verbs in -ahh-

Both mi-conjugation and hi-conjugation inflection is attested for verbs with the suffix -ahh-. Although the base from which maniyahh- 'distribute, entrust, administer, govern' has been formed has been lost, it is a well attested verb, and many of its inflected forms have been found:

Singular    
Present    
1.   maniy-ah-mi
2.   maniy-ah-ti
3.   maniy-ah-zi, maniy-ahh-i
Plural    
1.   *maniy-ah-weni
2.   *maniy-ah-teni
3.   *maniy-ahh-anzi
Preterit    
Singular    
1.   maniy-ahh-un
2   maniy-ah-ta
3.   maniy-ahh-is, maniy-ah-ta
Plural    
1.   *maniy-ahh-wen
2.   *maniy-ahh-ten
3.   maniy-ahh-ir
Imperative    
Singular    
2.   maniy-ah
3.   maniy-ah-du
Plural    
2.   maniy-ah-ten
3.   *maniy-ahh-andu

The effect of the suffix is to produce a verb that means make someone or something have the quality expressed by the adjective from which the verb is derived. One finds, for example, happinahh- 'make rich, enrich' beside happina- 'rich', dasawahh- 'make blind, blind' from dasuwant- 'blind', or newahh- 'make new, re-copy' beside ne:wa- 'new'. The following two sentences provide examples:

    ma:n   U:L-ma   nu-smas-san   uwanzi
    if   not-but   then-to-you-locatival   they come
    apiya   pe:di   tasuwahhanzi    
    there   in the place   they make blind    
    "If you don't (obey the king's orders), then they will come to you and will blind (you) on the spot."
                 
    n-at   luluwa:i   happinahhi-ya-at
    and-it   sustain   make rich-and-it
    "Sustain it (the country of Hatti), and enrich it"
28.3. Mi-conjugation verbs in -e:ss-

The central meaning of the mi-conjugation verbs in e:ss- is to become the possessor of the quality that the base adjective expresses. It should be noted that the archaic pattern for forming such verbs is to drop the suffix that characterizes the adjective. So, for example, ekuness- 'become cold' comes from the a-stem adjective ekuna- 'cold', tepaue:ss- 'become small, become short' is ultimately from te:pu- 'small, short', milite:ss- 'become sweet' is from miliddu- 'sweet', salless- 'grow, become big' is from salli- 'big', daluke:ss- 'become long' is from daluki- 'long', dankue:ss- 'become dark' is from dankui- 'dark', and innarawess- 'become strong' is from innarawant- 'strong'. The suffix has the shape -e:s- before consonants (e.g., te:pawe:sta 'it became short') and -e:ss- before vowels (e.g., ida:lauwessanzi 'they became evil'). The following are examples of how verbs in -e:ss- are used.

In this passage from the "Annals of Mursilis" the participle of te:pa:we:ss- is used with e:s- 'be'. The expression "the year had become short" means that fall had come and with it the end of the season during which the king waged war.

    nu-mu   MU.KAM-za   kuit   se:r te:pawe:ssanza e:sta
    and-to-me   year   because   had become short
    "And because the year had become short on me, ..."
                 
    GISHPESH   mahhan   miliddu   ANA   DIM
    fig   as   sweet   to   Stormgod
    URUKuliwisna   ZITUM   anda   QA:TAMMA   militisdu
    city of Kuliwisna   mood   into   likewise   sweeten
    "As the fig is sweet, let the mood of the Stormgod of Kuliwisna likewise become sweet."
28.4. Variable meaning

The following phrases, which use verb forms with different suffixes side-by-side, illustrate how the meanings of these suffixes differ.

This phrase has parkunu- 'make clean' beside harke:ss- 'become white' as the result of being cleaned (from harki- 'white'):

    ka:s-wa   GIM-an   ha:s   GADHI.A   iskunanta   parkunuzzi
    look-quotative   just as   soap   linens   dirty   makes clean
    nu-war-at   harke:zi                
    so-quotative-they   become white ...                
    "Just as this soap cleans dirty linens (so that) they become white..."

This phrase is very similar to the one above, except that it uses harganu- 'make white' in place of harke:ss- 'become white':

    n-at   GIM-an   ka:s   hassas   parkunut-at   harganut
    and-it   just as   this   soap   cleaned-it   made white
    "Just as this soap has cleaned it (and) made (it) white..."

In this sentence, which is about someone who has been accused of a crime and sentenced to trial by ordeal to determine guilt or innocence, parkue:ss- 'be proven innocent' (lit. 'become pure') contrasts with parkunu- 'make clean' in a metaphorical sense:

    ma:n-as   parkue:szi   nu-za   ZI-SHU   parkunuddu
    if-he   becomes pure   and-reflexive   mind-his   make clean
    "If he is proven innocent, let him consider himself exonerated. (lit. 'let him cleanse his own mind', with the reflexive particle -za)"

The sentence below discusses the defilement of items in a temple. It contrasts the participle of marsanu- 'desecrate' from marsa- 'false, defiled' with a:ppa suppiyahh- 'make pure again', with suppiyahh- 'make holy' from suppi- 'pure, holy':

    ma:nn-a   marsanuwan   kuitki   n-at   sekkanzi   mahhan   n-at
    if-and   desecrated   something   and-it   they know   as   and-it
    QA:TAMMA   EGIR-pa suppiyahhanzi                    
    just-as   again-make holy                    
    "And if something is desecrated, they will reconsecrate it in the way that they know."
29. The participle

The Hittite participle in -ant- is from an Indo-European active participle. It is inflected as an nt-stem. In most instances, any distinction in voice shown by the participle depends on whether the verb from which it is derived is transitive or intransitive. Normally, participles from transitive verbs, that is verbs that may take direct objects, are passive in sense (e.g., appa:nt- 'captured', nominal 'captive' from e:pp-, app- 'seize'; piyant- 'given' from pa:i- 'give'; or sekkant- 'known' from sa:kk-, sekk- 'know'). Participles from intransitive verbs, that is, verbs that do not take direct objects, are active and intransitive by contrast (e.g., pa:nt- 'gone' from pa:i- 'go' or maussant- 'fallen' from mu:-, mauss- 'fall'). Two exceptions to this pattern are ada:nt-, participle of e:d- 'eat', which is found in the sense "eaten" and akuwa:nt-, participle of eku-, aku- 'drink', which occurs in the sense "drunk."

29.1. Verbal adjective

The participle may be used as a verbal adjective (compare, e.g., English "melted butter"):

    1   UDU   huwiswandan   appanzi
    one   sheep   living   they take
    "They take one live sheep."
                 
    GISHBANHI.A-a-ssan   kuye:s   huettiyanta   GISHKAK..TAG.GAHI.A-ya
    bows-but-locatival   who   drawn   arrows-and
    harkanzi            
    they hold            
    "But those who hold drawn bows and arrows ..."

In some instances, participles that modify nouns seem to have lost, or at least loosened their connections to living verbs (compare, e.g., English "molten lava" with "molten," from an archaic participle of "melt"). For example, enant-, which means something like "tamed" or "trained" in the phrase MSH.GAL enanza 'tamed he-goat', is probably the participle of an otherwise unattested verb inu-. Although the verb a:rr- 'wash' is well attested, the participle arrant- seems to be used as an adjective in phrases like arranza halkis 'washed grain' or SHE arran 'washed barley'. Similarly, an adjectival liliwant- 'swift, urgent' apparently comes from the participle of liliwahh- 'hasten, hurry':

    NIM.LL   liliwandan   pie:t
    bee   swift   he sent
    "He sent the swift bee."
29.2. Transitive verbs

Participles of transitive verbs are used with forms of e:s- 'be' in a construction that may be translated by an English passive.

    hurtantes   eser
    cursed   they were
    "They were cursed."

(with hurtant-, participle of huwart- 'curse')

    nu   LMESH   URUHatti   kuit   LMESH   URUMizri
    and   people   of Hatti   because   people   of Egypt
    ISHTU   DIM   URUHatti   linganuwantes   eser    
    by   Stormgod   of Hatti   placed under oath   they were    
    "And the people of Hatti and the people of Egypt, because they had been placed under oath by the Stormgod of Hatti"

(with linganuwant-, participle of linganu- 'place under oath')

This construction also occurs in nominal sentences, in which a present form of "to be" is to be understood:

    KASKAL-us-mu   kuis   huettiyanza
    path-the-for-me   that   is drawn
    "The path that is drawn for me..."

(with huettiyant-, participle of huettiya- 'draw, drag')

29.3. Intransitive verbs

Participles of intransitive verbs are used with finite forms of e:s- 'be' in a construction that may be translated by an English active perfect. The sense remains intransitive:

    antuhsatar   pa:n   esta
    population   gone   was
    "The population had gone."

(with pa:nt- participle of pa:i- 'go')

    kuis-wa-mu-kan kuis   parranda   uwanza
    who-quotative-to me-locatival-who   over   has come
    "Whoever has come over to me..."

(with uwant-, participle of uwa- 'come')

    nu-ssan   ma:n   halkie:s   arantes   n-as-kan   arha warastin
    and-locatival   when   grain   ripened   and-it-locatival   harvest up
    "When the grain has ripened (lit. 'is standing'), harvest it up."

(with arant-, participle of ar- 'stand')

29.4. Other uses of participles.

The participle is occasionally used in a semi-adverbial sense:

    DIM-as   le:laniyanza   wezzi
    The Stormgod   furious   he came
    "Furious, the Stormgod came."
             
    n-as   arrandas   tu:riyanzi
    and-them   washed   they harness
    "After they (horses) are washed, they harness them."
    "(The horses) having been washed, they harness them."

The participle asant- of e:s- 'be' can have the meaning "true" (literally "as it is"):

    asanza   LUGAL-us
    true   king
    "the true king"

Occasonally participles may be nominalized; that is, used in noun functions. For example, in this phrase, aniyant- the participle of aniya- 'do, make, perform' in the nominative-accusative neuter is used in the sense "work":

    UD.KAM-as   aniyan   kuis   essai
    day's   work   who   performs
    "Who performs a day's work ..."

Similarly, appa:nt- and kuna:nt-, the participles of e:pp- 'capture' and kuen- 'strike, kill' can be used as nouns meaning "a captive" or "the dead."

The participle of a transitive verb, when used with forms of hark- 'have, hold', can have the sense "be kept" in the condition specified by the participle.

    nu-mu   munnan   harta
    and-me   hidden   he had kept
    "He had kept me hidden."
30. Conditional and Comparative Clauses

Conditional clauses, normally to be translated in English by clauses with "if," may take a number of forms in Hittite. To express factual conditions, two conjunctions meaning "if," takku and ma:n, are used. Ma:n is also used in contrary to fact (unreal conditions), and, in the meaning "when" to introduce time clauses. It may also be used as a conjunction meaning "whether." Since the meanings "if" and "when" are close, context determines whether a clause with ma:n is to be translated as conditional or temporal. Comparative clauses, or clauses in which a thing or an action is likened to another, are fairly frequent in Hittite. Comparative clauses use the subordinating conjunctions ma:n, ma:hhan, and mahhanda, each of which can mean "as" or "just as".

30.1. Conditional Clauses

The conjunction takku is found only in early texts and in later copies of early texts. It is very common in the law code, which may be viewed as a series of statements about the consequences of actions.

    takku   LDAM.GR   kuiski   kwe:nzi   1 ME   MANA
    if   merchant   someone   kills   one hundred   shekels
    K.BABBAR   pa:i                
    silver   he gives                
    "If someone kills a merchant, he gives (in compensation) one hundred shekels of silver."
                         
    takku   L.U19.LU-as   SG.DU-ZU   kuiski   hu:nikzi
    if   person's   head-his   someone   injures
    karu:   6   GN   K.BABBAR   pisker
    previously   six   shekels   silver   they used to give
    "If someone injures a person's head, previously six shekels of silver were given."

The conjunction ma:n in the meaning "if" is found in texts from the earliest period onward. It may also be used in indirect questions. The first sentence below is from the "Proclamation of Telepenus":

    kinuna   ma:n   DUMU.LUGAL   kuiski   wastai   nu   SAG.DU-az-pat
    but now   if   prince   any   sins   then   with head-his own
    sarnikdu                        
    let him atone                        
    "But now, if any prince sins, then let him atone with his own head."

This sentence, from a ritual text, sets different conditions for treating men and women:

    nu   EN.SISKUR.SISKUR   ma:n   L    
    and   patient   if   man    
    n-as-zan   SHA   DIM   GISHSH.A   esari
    and-he-locatival   of   Teshup   chair   he sits
    ma:n-as   MUNUS-ma   n-as-zan   SHA   DHebat
    if-she   woman-but   and-she-locatival   of   Hebat
    ANA   GISHGR,GUB   esari        
    on   footstool   sits        
    "If the patient (treated in a ritual) is a man, he sits down on the chair of Teshup; but if the patient is a woman, she sits on the stool of Hebat."

Conditional clauses with ma:n are often used in the openings of rituals to indicate the ritual's purpose.

    ma:n   antuwahhas   alwanzahhanza   n-an   kissan   aniyami
    if   person   bewitched   and-him   thus   I treat
    "If a person has been bewitched, I treat him as follows."

Ma:n may be used in indirect questions in the sense "if" or "whether":

    ma:n-mu-kan   annaz-ma   kartaz   ki:   gulsta
    if-to me-locatival   from mother-reflexive   from womb   this   inscribed
    ug-at-za   a:ppan   MUNUSENSI-ta   natta   kussanka
    I-it-reflexive   after   female dream interpreter   not   even
    punussan                
    I asked                
    "I never even inquired of a female dream interpreter if (or 'whether') this (illness) was ordained for me from my mother's womb."

The conjunction kuit, 'because' joins independent clauses, expressing a logical relationship between a main clause and a qualifying clause that provides the reasons for actions or occurrences. It is placed neither at the head of the sentence nor at the head of the qualifying clause. Instead, it normally follows full phrase of the clause. The effect of this placement may be to focus attention on the immediate reason for the actions taken in the result clause. For example, kuit often follows the subject of the sentence, the agent leading to the action.

    nu-mu   MU.KAM-za   kuit   se:r te:paue:ssanza e:sta        
    and-for-me   the year   because   had become short        
    nu   nam-ma   KUR   URUAzzi   -UL   daninunuun
    and   moreover   the land   of Azzi   not   garrisoned
    "And because the year had become short on me, I did not garrison the land of Azzi."
                         
    L.ME^S   URUNuhasiwa   kuit   ku:ruriyahhir
    people   Nuhasiya   because   have become hostile
    nu-war-as   arha harnik        
    and-quotative-them   destroy utterly        
    "Because the people of Huhasiya have commenced hostilities, destroy them utterly!"
                 
    mahhan-ma   hameshanza   kisat    
    when-but   spring   became    
    nu   MUhha.L-is   kuit   GIG-at
    and   Uhhaziti   because   had taken sick
    n-as-kan   aruni   e:sta    
    and-he-locatival   in sea   was    
    "But when it became spring, because Uhhaziti had taken sick, he was in the sea (i.e. 'on an island')."

In this sentence, kuit follows SHU:RIPU 'cold', the reason for the king's retreat to the river Astarpa:

    SHU:RIPU   kuit   karu:   kisat    
    cold   because   already   became    
    namma   EGIR-pa   INA   DAstarpa   uwanun
    moreover   back   to   river Astarpa   I went
    "Because it had already become cold, I went back to the river Astarpa."
30.2. Comparative Clauses

Comparative clauses are especially common in ritual texts in descriptions of ritual actions in which a thing is endowed with the baneful qualities that the ritual practitioner is removing from the patient. In these rituals, the practitioner likens the object to something harmful and performs ritual actions upon it or likens an action to removing harm from the patient. Alternatively, the practioner may use a comparison to a desirable state to wish something good for the patient. Comparative clauses are often complemented by clauses using the correlative adverb apenissan (or the Akkadogram QA:TAMMA) meaning "(just) so" or "likewise."

Ma:n, which has a number of functions, including use as a postposition meaning "like," may be used as a conjunction meaning "just as" in comparative clauses. It is found within the clause and not initially:

    ka:s   L.U19.LU-as   ma:n   karu:   n-as   EGIR-pa   apenissan
    this   person   just as   before   and-he   again   just so
    e:stu                        
    be (let him be)                        
    "Just as this person was before, may he be just so again."
                             
    DUTU-us   DIM-as   ma:n   uktu:res
    Sungod   Stormgod   just as   eternal
    LUGAL-us   MUNUS.LUGAL-ass-a   QA:TAMMA   uktu:res
    king   queen-and   likewise   eternal
    asantu            
    let them be            
    "Just as the Sungod (and) the Stormgod are eternal, so, likewise let the king and queen be eternal."

Ma:hhan is more commonly used as a subordinating conjunction meaning "like," "as," or "just as." The following sentence, which is much like the sentence with ma:n above, suggests that it could be essentially a synonym of ma:n in this sense:

    ki:   NA4pe:ru   ma:hhan   uktu:ri    
    this   boulder   just as   eternal    
    BE:LU     DAM-SHU   DUMUMESH-SHU   QA:TAMMA
    lord   and   wife-his   children-his   likewise
    uktu:res   asantu            
    eternal   let them be            
    "Just as this boulder is eternal, let the lord (i.e. the king), his wife, and his children be eternal."
                     
    mahhan-wa-tta   a:ssu   nu-wa   QA:TAMMA   iya
    as-quotative-to-you   good   and-quotative   likewise   do
    "Do as seems good to you."

The comparative clause may be complemented by a clause that lacks a correlative adverb:

    nu   sankus   alil   mahhan   nu-za   parkiyat
    and   sankus   plant   just as   and-reflexive   grew
    tuell-a   SHA   DU   ZI-KA   parktaru    
    your-and   of   Stormgod   soul-your   let it grow    
    "Just as the sankus flower grew, may your soul, O Stormgod, grow."

The subordinating conjuncttion ma:hhanda (also written ma:nhhanda and ma:n handa) seems to be exclusively used in comparative clauses. It is presumably a compound of ma:n and the adverb handa 'facing' in origin. The evidence is unclear, but it may be an archaism confined to early texts and copies of these texts. The following is from a text written by an Old Kingdom prince, perhaps Mursilis I, to his noblemen:

    ma:n-smas   ABI   parnas-ma   tarna    
    when-you   father   to houses-but   lets go    
    nu-smas   ma:nhhanda   hatreskezzi        
    and-to-you   just as   he writes        
    natta-smas   L.ME^SDUGUD-as   tuppi   hazzian   harzi
    not-for-you   dignitaries   tablet   written   has
    "When (my) father lets you go to (your) houses, just as he customarily writes to you, has he not inscribed a tablet for you dignitaries?"