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Hittite Online

Lesson 7

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

The bronze tablet introduced here, containing the state treaty of Tuthalijas IV, circa 1260-1240 B.C., was found in Boğazköy in 1986. It provides an excellent example of such treaties as well as information on the state of the Hittite Empire at the time. After noting that his father, Hattušiliš III (circa 1283-1260 B.C.) had deposed Urhi-Teššup (circa 1285-1283), the son of Muwattalliš (circa 1313-1285), it absolves his second son, Kurunta, of any blame and permits him to maintain his position as king in the southern land of Tarhuntašša. In addition it goes on at length to specify the boundaries of that land in detail. The third paragraph here indicates that Tuthalijaš has continued the arrangement after the godhead accepted him and he became king. The find is especially interesting in that it states specifically that the tablet was produced for such a purpose.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Among the interests in the treaty is the basis for the favoring of Kurunta. As noted in the first paragraph presented here, Muwattališ had given Kurunta to Hattušiliš to raise. There may then have been a brotherly relation between him and Tuthalijaš. But while he maintains fraternal arrangements with Kurunta, Tuthalijaš states clearly in further sections of the treaty that he has authority over him so that he will protect him and his descendants in his small land, as will also the descendants of Tuthalija in the future. Moreover, Kurunta has limitations as well as responsibilities. Hattušiliš had deprived him of cavalry, so that in the future as well he will have only the obligation to provide foot soldiers for the king of Hatti is he is attacked or if he sets out to attack others; but will not be required to provide garrisons. That is to say, all the provisions that had been arranged previously will be maintained. In the concluding sections a long list of gods and goddesses is recorded as witnesses to the treaty. It is concluded with the statement that the scribe producing the tablet, Halwaziti, has written it for or in the presence of the son of the king as well as numerous other notable royals.

2 - A-BU-YA ku-wa-pi MHa-at-tu-si-li-is A-NA MÚR-hi-te-es-su-up-as DUMU MMu-u-wa-at-ta-al-li me-na-ah-ha-an-da ku-ru-ri-ah-ta na-an LUGAL-iz-na-an-ni ar-ha ti-it-ta-nu-ut A-NA M DLAMMA-ma-kan wa-as-tul Ú-UL ku-it-ki a-as-ta

  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • ku-wa-pi -- conjunction; <kuwāpi> when, where -- when
  • MHa-at-tu-si-li-is -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Hattusili-> Hattusilis -- Hattusilis
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- ...
  • MÚr-hi-te-es-su-up-as -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Urhi-Tesupa-> Urhi-Teshup -- Urhi-Teshup # The nominative here is probably a mistake for the dative.
  • DUMU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <DUMU> son, child -- son
  • MMu-u-wa-at-ta-al-li -- noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Muwattalli-> Muwattallis -- of Muwattallis
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- postposition; <mēnahhanda> facing, opposite -- against
  • ku-ru-ri-ah-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <kururiyahh-> make war, revolt -- revolted
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- him
  • LUGAL-iz-na-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-iznānni> (indicating dative singular) -- kingship
  • ar-ha ti-it-ta-nu-ut -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of <arha tittanu-> depose -- deposed from
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- to
  • M DLAMMA-ma-kan -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <DLAMMA> Kuruntas + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- Kuruntas
  • wa-as-tul -- noun; nominative singular of <wastul> sin, fault, blame -- blame
  • Ú-UL ku-it-ki -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not + indefinite pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- none whatsoever
  • a-as-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <āss-> remain -- was attached

MEŠ URUHa-at-ti ku-it im-ma ku-it wa-as-ti-ir M DLAMMA-as-ma-kan Ú-UL ku-wa-ap-pi-ki an-da e-es-ta

  • MEŠ -- noun; Sumerogram <> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... -- The people
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • ku-it im-ma ku-it -- adverb; <kuit imma kuit> however -- however
  • wa-as-ti-ir -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <wasta-> sin, err -- were at fault
  • M DLAMMA-as-ma-kan -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DLAMMA> Kuruntas + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- but Kuruntas
  • Ú-UL ku-wa-ap-pi-ki -- adverb; <natta kuwappiki> in no way whatsoever -- in no way whatsoever
  • an-da e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <anda ēs-> be in -- was in

an-ni-sa-an-pat-an MNIR.GÁL-is LUGAL-us A-NA A-BU-YA MHa-at-tu-si-li sal-la-nu-um-ma-an-zi pi-ya-an har-ta na-an an-ni-sa-an-pat A-BU-YA sal-la-nu-us-ke-et

  • an-ni-sa-an-pat-an -- adverb; <anissan> previously + emphasizing particle <-pat>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person accusative singular animate of <-an> him, her, it -- already before
  • MNIR.GÁL-is -- proper noun; Sumerogram <NIR.GÁL> strength + Hittite phonetic complement <-is> (functioning here as nominative singular animate) -- Muwattallis # This is a rebus-like spelling. The Sumerian adjective NIR.GÁL 'strong' was read in Hittite and Luvian as muwa- 'strength, vitality'.
  • LUGAL-us -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- the king
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- to
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- to my father
  • MHa-at-tu-si-li -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular of <Hattusili-> Hattusilis -- Hattusilis
  • sal-la-nu-um-ma-an-zi -- verb; infinitive of mi-conjugation <sallanu-> raise, rear -- to raise
  • pi-ya-an har-ta -- verb participle; accusative singular neuter of hi-conjugation <pāi-, piya-> give + 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- had handed over
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- him
  • an-ni-sa-an-pat -- adverb; <anissan> previously + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- already before
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • sal-la-nu-us-ke-et -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <sallanu-> raise, rear -- had raised

3 - ma-ah-ha-an-ma A-BU-YA MÚR-hi-te-es-su-pa-an LUGAL-iz-na-ni ar-ha ti-it-ta-nu-ut M DLAMMA-an-ma A-BU-YA da-a-as na-an I-NA KUR URU DU-ta-as-sa LUGAL-iz-na-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-ut

  • ma-ah-ha-an-ma -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but when
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • MÚr-hi-te-es-su-pa-an -- proper noun; accusative singular of <Urhi-Tesupa-> Urhi-Teshup -- Urhi-Teshup
  • LUGAL-iz-na-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-iznānni> (indicating dative singular) -- kingship
  • ar-ha ti-it-ta-nu-ut -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of <arha tittanu-> depose -- deposed... from
  • M DLAMMA-an-ma -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DLAMMA> Kuruntas + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but Kuruntas
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • da-a-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- took
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- him
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- to
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <KUR> land, territory -- in the country
  • URU DU-ta-as-sa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative-locative <DUtassa> Tarhuntassas -- of Tarhuntassas # The Sumerogram DU was read as Tarhunt-, the Luvian name for the Stormgod.
  • LUGAL-iz-na-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-iznānni> (indicating dative singular) -- in kingship
  • ti-it-ta-nu-ut -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <tittanu-> appoint, establish -- established

nu-us-si A-BU-YA ku-it is-hi-ú-ul i-ya-at ZAGMEŠ-is-si ma-ah-ha-an da-is nu-us-si A-BU-YA TUP-PAHI.A RI-KIL-TI i-ya-at

  • nu-us-si -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- with him
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • ku-it -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kui-> that, which, who -- that
  • is-hi-ú-ul -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <ishiūl> treaty -- treaty
  • i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- made
  • ZAGMEŠ-is-si -- noun; Sumerogram <ZAG> border, boundary + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- borders for him
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- how
  • da-is -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dāi-, tiya-> place, put -- established
  • nu-us-si -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- for him
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • TUP-PAHI.A -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative singular of <TUPPU> tablet + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... -- tablets
  • RI-KIL-TI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive singular of <RIKILTU> treaty -- treaty
  • i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- made

na-at M DLAMMA-as har-zi

  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative neuter <-at> he, she, it -- them
  • M DLAMMA-as -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DLAMMA> Kuruntas + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- Kuruntas
  • har-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- possesses # In other words, a copy of the earlier treaty was in Kuruntas's possession.

ZAGMEŠ-ma-as-si ki-is-sa-an ti-ya-an-te-es IŠ-TU KUR URUPi-ta-as-sa-at-ta HUR.SAGHa-u-wa-a-as `kan-ta-an-na URUZa-ar-ni-ya-as URUSa-na-an-tar-wa-as ZAG-as URUZa-ar-ni-ya-a-as-ma-kan `kan-ta-an-na I-NA KUR ÍDHu-u-la-ya a-as-sa-an URUSa-na-an-tar-wa-as-ma-kan I-NA KUR URUPi-ta-as-sa a-as-sa-an-zi

  • ZAGMEŠ-ma-as-si -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <ZAG> border, boundary + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- borders for him
  • ki-is-sa-an -- adverb; <kissan> thus, as follows -- thus
  • ti-ya-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of hi-conjugation <dāi-, tiya-> place, put -- are established
  • IŠ-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <IŠTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the town
  • URUPi-ta-as-sa-at-ta -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as ablative singular <Pitassa-> Pitassas + enclitic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular dative <-tta> you -- Pitassas
  • HUR.SAGHa-u-wa-a-as -- noun; Sumerogram <HUR.SAG> mountain + proper noun; stem form functioning here as nominative singular animate <Hauwā-> Hauwas -- Mt. Hauwas
  • `kan-ta-an-na -- noun; nominative plural animate of <kantanna> Kantana -- the Kantana # Apparently a kantanna was a topographical feature associated with cities and mountains. Its meaning, however, is otherwise unclear.
  • URUZa-ar-ni-ya-as -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Zarniyāsa-> Zarniyas -- Zarniyas
  • URUSa-na-an-tar-wa-as -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Sanantarwa-> Sanantarwas -- Sanantarwas
  • ZAG-as -- noun; Sumerogram <ZAG> border, boundary + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular) -- borders
  • URUZa-ar-ni-ya-a-as-ma-kan -- proper noun; genitive singular of <Zarniyāsa-> Zarniyas + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- Zarniyas
  • `kan-ta-an-na -- noun; nominative plural animate of <kantanna> Kantana -- the Kantana
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <KUR> land, territory -- the country
  • ÍDHu-u-la-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative <Hūlaya> Hulaya river -- the river Hulaya # The determinative ÍD normally precedes the names of rivers.
  • a-as-sa-an -- verb participle; nominative singular neuter of mi-conjugation <āss-> remain -- remaining
  • URUSa-na-an-tar-wa-as-ma-kan -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Sanantarwa-> Sanantarwas + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- but the town of Sanantarwas
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the town
  • URUPi-ta-as-sa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as dative singular <Pitassa-> Pitassas -- Pitassas
  • a-as-sa-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <āss-> remain -- remain

4 - IŠ-TU KUR URUPi-it-as-sa-ma-as-si an-na-az URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as ZAG-as e-es-ta

  • IŠ-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <IŠTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the town
  • URUPi-it-as-sa-ma-as-si -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as ablative <Pitassa-> Pitassas + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- Pitassas for him
  • an-na-az -- adverb; <annaz> previously -- previously
  • URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Nahhanta-> Nahhantas -- the town of Nahhantas
  • ZAG-as -- noun; Sumerogram <ZAG> border, boundary + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular) -- the border
  • e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- was

nu-kan A-NA TUP-PI RI-KIL-TI ŠA A-BU-YA DKASKAL.KUR URUA-ri-im-ma-at-ta ZAG-as i-ya-an-za ki-nu-na-as-si DUTUŠI an-na-al-li-in ZAG EGIR-pa te-eh-hu-un

  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- on
  • TUP-PI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <TUPPI> tablet -- the... tablet
  • RI-KIL-TI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive singular of <RIKILTU> treaty -- treaty
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • DKASKAL.KUR -- noun; functioning here as nominative singular <DKASKAL.KUR> river source -- the river source
  • URUA-ri-im-ma-at-ta -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Arimatta-> Arimattas -- of Arimattas
  • ZAG-as -- noun; Sumerogram <ZAG> border, boundary + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular) -- the border
  • i-ya-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- was made
  • ki-nu-na-as-si -- adverb; <kinuna> now + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- now for him
  • DUTUŠI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate <DUTUŠI> my majesty -- my majesty
  • an-na-al-li-in -- adjective; accusative singular animate of <annalli-> old, previous -- previous
  • ZAG -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <ZAG> border, boundary -- the... border
  • EGIR-pa te-eh-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of <āppa dāi-, tiya-> re-establish -- I have re-established

nu-us-si IŠ-TU KUR URUPi-ta-as-sa IŠ-TU KUR URUA-ri-im-ma-at-ta URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as URUHa-ut-ta-as-sa-as-sa ZAG-as URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as-ma-kan URUHa-ut-ta-as-sa-as-sa I-NA KUR ÍDHu-u-la-ya a-as-sa-an-te-es

  • nu-us-si -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- for him
  • IŠ-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <IŠTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the town
  • URUPi-ta-as-sa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Pitassa-> Pitassas -- of Pitassas
  • IŠ-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <IŠTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the town
  • URUA-ri-im-ma-at-ta -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as ablative singular of <Arimatta-> Arimattas -- of Arimattas
  • URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Nahhanta-> Nahhantas -- of Nahhantas
  • URUHa-ut-ta-as-sa-as-sa -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Hautassa-> Hautassas + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- and of Hautassas
  • ZAG-as -- noun; Sumerogram <ZAG> border, boundary + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular) -- the border
  • URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as-ma-kan -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Nahhanta-> Nahhantas + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- but Nahhantas
  • URUHa-ut-ta-as-sa-as-sa -- proper noun; nominative singular of <Hautassa-> Hautassas + enclitic conjunction <-a> and -- and Hautassas
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • ÍDHu-u-la-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive <Hūlaya> Hulaya river -- of the river Hulaya
  • a-as-sa-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of mi-conjugation <āss-> remain -- are remaining

15 - ma-ah-ah-an-ma-za A-BU-YA ku-wa-pi DINGIRLIM ki-sa-at nu KUR.KURHI.A ku-it a-ar-sa ti-ya-at

  • ma-ah-ah-an-ma-za -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- but
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • ku-wa-pi -- adverb; <kuwāpi> when, where -- when
  • DINGIRLIM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LIM> deity -- a god
  • ki-sa-at -- verb; 3rd person singular middle preterite of <kīs-> become, happen -- became # The idiom "to become a god" (i.e. "to die") is applied to Hittite kings. There is evidence from other texts that Hittite kings were treated as deified beings.
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • KUR.KURHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural of <KUR.KUR> lands + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... -- lands
  • ku-it -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <kui-> that, which, who -- whichever
  • a-ar-sa ti-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <ārsa tiya-> remain in waiting -- remained in waiting

M DLAMMA-as-ma-mu a-pe-e-da-ni-ya me-e-hu-ni se-er ak-ta nu-mu pa-ah-ha-as-ta

  • M DLAMMA-as-ma-mu -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DLAMMA> Kuruntas + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me -- Kuruntas... for me
  • a-pe-e-da-ni-ya -- demonstrative pronoun; dative-locative singular of <apā-> that + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and -- at that
  • me-e-hu-ni -- noun; dative-locative singular of <mēhur> time -- time
  • se-er ak-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <sēr āk-, sēr akk-> be prepared to die -- was prepared to die
  • nu-mu -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular accusative <-mu> me -- me
  • pa-ah-ha-as-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pahhas-> protect -- he protected

nu MA-ME-TEMEŠ ku-e le-en-qa-an har-ta nu-kan Ú-UL ku-it-ki wa-ah-nu-ut

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • MA-ME-TEMEŠ -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as accusative plural of <MAMĒTU> oath + Sumerian plural marker <-MEŠ>... -- the oaths
  • ku-e -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <kui-> that, which, who -- which
  • le-en-qa-an har-ta -- verb participle; accusative singular neuter of <link-> swear an oath + 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <har-, hark-> have, hold -- he had sworn
  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • Ú-UL ku-it-ki -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not + indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter <kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- in no way
  • wa-ah-nu-ut -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wahnu-> turn -- did he turn aside

ma-ah-ha-an-ma-mu DINGIRLUM da-a-as nu LUGAL-iz-zi-ah-ha-at

  • ma-ah-ha-an-ma-mu -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- when
  • DINGIRLUM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <DINGIR> god + Akkadian phonetic complement <-LUM> deity -- the god
  • da-a-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <dā-> take -- took
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • LUGAL-iz-zi-ah-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular preterite middle of mi-conjugation <hassuwezziya-> become king -- I became king # The Hittite reading is *hassuezziahhat

nu A-NA M DLAMMA is-hi-ú-ul ki-is-sa-an i-ya-nu-un

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- then
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- with
  • M DLAMMA -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DLAMMA> Kuruntas -- Kuruntas
  • is-hi-ú-ul -- noun; nominative singular of <ishiūl> treaty -- a treaty
  • ki-is-sa-an -- adverb; <kissan> thus, as follows -- as follows
  • i-ya-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- I made

A-NA TUP-PI RI-KIL-TI ŠA A-BU-YA-kan ku-i-e-es URUDIDLI.HI.A Ú-UL ki-ya-an-ta-ri nu a-pu-u-us URUDIDLI.HI.A IŠ-TU A.ŠÀ A.GÀR NAM.RA hu-u-ma-an-ta-za A-NA M DLAMMA LUGAL KUR URU DU-ta-as-sa ARAD-an-ni AD-DIN

  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- on
  • TUP-PI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative-locative singular <TUPPU> tablet -- the tablet
  • RI-KIL-TI -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as genitive singular of <RIKILTU> treaty -- of the treaty
  • ŠA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ŠA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • A-BU-YA-kan -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- my father
  • ku-i-e-es -- relative pronoun; nominative plural animate of <kui-> that, which, who -- which
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker <-DIDLI.HI.A>... -- towns
  • Ú-UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <ŪL> not -- not
  • ki-ya-an-ta-ri -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <ki-> lie -- are placed # The deponent ki- is acting as passive of dāi- 'place, put here'.
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • a-pu-u-us -- demonstrative pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative animate of <apā-> that -- those
  • URUDIDLI.HI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative plural animate <URU> city + Sumerian plural marker <-DIDLI.HI.A>... -- towns
  • IŠ-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <IŠTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • A.ŠÀ A.GÀR -- noun; Sumerogram ablative plural of <A.ŠÀ A.GÀR> field and meadow -- field and meadow
  • NAM.RA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative plural of <NAM.RA> captive, colonist -- deportees
  • hu-u-ma-an-ta-za -- adjective; ablative plural of <hūmant-> all, each, every -- all
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • M DLAMMA -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DLAMMA> Kuruntas -- Kuruntas
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <LUGAL> king -- king
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URU -- noun; Sumerogram <URU> city -- of the city
  • DU-ta-as-sa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <DUtassa> Tarhuntassas -- of Tarhuntassas
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-ānni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • AD-DIN -- verb; Akkadian 1st person singular preterite of <NADĀNU> give -- I gave

ku-is-kan im-ma ku-is ŠÀBI KUR ÍDHu-u-la-ya e-es-zi nu-kan hu-u-ma-an A-NA M DLAMMA LUGAL KUR DU-ta-as-sa ARAD-an-ni a-as-sa-an ZAGHI.A-ya-as-si EGIR-pa SIG₅-in te-eh-hu-un

  • ku-is-kan im-ma ku-is -- indefinite relative pronoun; nominative singular animate of <kui- imma kui-> whichever + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- whatever
  • ŠÀBI -- noun; Sumerogram <ŠÀ> heart, innards + Akkadian phonetic complement <BI> in -- within
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory -- the... land
  • ÍDHu-u-la-ya -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive <Hūlaya> Hulaya river -- Hulaya river
  • e-es-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <ēs-> be -- is
  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- ...
  • hu-u-ma-an -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <hūmant-> all, each, every -- all
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- for
  • M DLAMMA -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DLAMMA> Kuruntas -- Kuruntas
  • LUGAL -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <LUGAL> king -- king
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory -- of the town
  • DU-ta-as-sa -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <DU-tassa> Tarhuntassas -- of Tarhuntassas
  • ARAD-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Hittite phonetic complement <-ānni> (indicating dative singular) -- in vassalship
  • a-as-sa-an -- verb participle; nominative singular neuter of mi-conjugation <āss-> remain -- remains
  • ZAGHI.A-ya-as-si -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate of <ZAG> border, boundary + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- the borders... for him
  • EGIR-pa te-eh-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of <āppa dāi-, tiya-> re-establish -- I have re-established
  • SIG₅-in -- adverb; Sumerogram <SIG₅> good, well + Hittite phonetic complement <-in>... -- well # The Hittite reading of SIG5-in is unknown.

NA₄he-kur SAG.UŠ-as-si EGIR-pa pe-eh-hu-un

  • NA₄he-kur -- noun; accusative singular animate of <hekur> rock sanctuary -- the... rock sanctuary
  • SAG.UŠ-as-si -- adjective; Sumerogram <SAG.UŠ> permanent + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular dative <-ssi> he, she, it -- permanent... to him
  • EGIR-pa pe-eh-hu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <āppa pāi-, āppa piya-> give back -- I have returned

nu-kan zi-la-ti-ya NA₄he-kur SAG.UŠ A-NA NUMUN M DLAMMA ar-ha le-e ku-is-ki da-a-i

  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and
  • zi-la-ti-ya -- adverb; <zilatiya> henceforth, in the future -- henceforth
  • NA₄he-kur -- noun; accusative singular animate of <hekur> rock sanctuary -- the... rock sanctuary
  • SAG.UŠ -- adjective; Sumerogram <SAG.UŠ> permanent -- permanent
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- from
  • NUMUN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative plural <NUMUN> seed, descendant -- the descendents
  • M DLAMMA -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive <DLAMMA> Kuruntas -- of Kuruntas
  • ar-ha da-a-i -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <arha dā-> take away -- let... take away
  • le-e ku-is-ki -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular of <lē kuisk-> no one -- no one

Lesson Text

2 A-BU-YA ku-wa-pi MHa-at-tu-si-li-is A-NA MÚR-hi-te-es-su-up-as DUMU MMu-u-wa-at-ta-al-li me-na-ah-ha-an-da ku-ru-ri-ah-ta na-an LUGAL-iz-na-an-ni ar-ha ti-it-ta-nu-ut A-NA M DLAMMA-ma-kan wa-as-tul Ú-UL ku-it-ki a-as-ta
MEŠ URUHa-at-ti ku-it im-ma ku-it wa-as-ti-ir M DLAMMA-as-ma-kan Ú-UL ku-wa-ap-pi-ki an-da e-es-ta
an-ni-sa-an-pat-an MNIR.GÁL-is LUGAL-us A-NA A-BU-YA MHa-at-tu-si-li sal-la-nu-um-ma-an-zi pi-ya-an har-ta na-an an-ni-sa-an-pat A-BU-YA sal-la-nu-us-ke-et

3 ma-ah-ha-an-ma A-BU-YA MÚR-hi-te-es-su-pa-an LUGAL-iz-na-ni ar-ha ti-it-ta-nu-ut M DLAMMA-an-ma A-BU-YA da-a-as na-an I-NA KUR URU DU-ta-as-sa LUGAL-iz-na-an-ni ti-it-ta-nu-ut
nu-us-si A-BU-YA ku-it is-hi-ú-ul i-ya-at ZAGMEŠ-is-si ma-ah-ha-an da-is nu-us-si A-BU-YA TUP-PAHI.A RI-KIL-TI i-ya-at
na-at M DLAMMA-as har-zi
ZAGMEŠ-ma-as-si ki-is-sa-an ti-ya-an-te-es IŠ-TU KUR URUPi-ta-as-sa-at-ta HUR.SAGHa-u-wa-a-as `kan-ta-an-na URUZa-ar-ni-ya-as URUSa-na-an-tar-wa-as ZAG-as URUZa-ar-ni-ya-a-as-ma-kan `kan-ta-an-na I-NA KUR ÍDHu-u-la-ya a-as-sa-an URUSa-na-an-tar-wa-as-ma-kan I-NA KUR URUPi-ta-as-sa a-as-sa-an-zi

4 IŠ-TU KUR URUPi-it-as-sa-ma-as-si an-na-az URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as ZAG-as e-es-ta
nu-kan A-NA TUP-PI RI-KIL-TI ŠA A-BU-YA DKASKAL.KUR URUA-ri-im-ma-at-ta ZAG-as i-ya-an-za ki-nu-na-as-si DUTUŠI an-na-al-li-in ZAG EGIR-pa te-eh-hu-un
nu-us-si IŠ-TU KUR URUPi-ta-as-sa IŠ-TU KUR URUA-ri-im-ma-at-ta URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as URUHa-ut-ta-as-sa-as-sa ZAG-as URUNa-ah-ha-an-ta-as-ma-kan URUHa-ut-ta-as-sa-as-sa I-NA KUR ÍDHu-u-la-ya a-as-sa-an-te-es

15 ma-ah-ah-an-ma-za A-BU-YA ku-wa-pi DINGIRLIM ki-sa-at nu KUR.KURHI.A ku-it a-ar-sa ti-ya-at
M DLAMMA-as-ma-mu a-pe-e-da-ni-ya me-e-hu-ni se-er ak-ta nu-mu pa-ah-ha-as-ta
nu MA-ME-TEMEŠ ku-e le-en-qa-an har-ta nu-kan Ú-UL ku-it-ki wa-ah-nu-ut
ma-ah-ha-an-ma-mu DINGIRLUM da-a-as nu LUGAL-iz-zi-ah-ha-at
nu A-NA M DLAMMA is-hi-ú-ul ki-is-sa-an i-ya-nu-un
A-NA TUP-PI RI-KIL-TI ŠA A-BU-YA-kan ku-i-e-es URUDIDLI.HI.A Ú-UL ki-ya-an-ta-ri nu a-pu-u-us URUDIDLI.HI.A IŠ-TU A.ŠÀ A.GÀR NAM.RA hu-u-ma-an-ta-za A-NA M DLAMMA LUGAL KUR URU DU-ta-as-sa ARAD-an-ni AD-DIN
ku-is-kan im-ma ku-is ŠÀBI KUR ÍDHu-u-la-ya e-es-zi nu-kan hu-u-ma-an A-NA M DLAMMA LUGAL KUR DU-ta-as-sa ARAD-an-ni a-as-sa-an ZAGHI.A-ya-as-si EGIR-pa SIG₅-in te-eh-hu-un
NA₄he-kur SAG.UŠ-as-si EGIR-pa pe-eh-hu-un
nu-kan zi-la-ti-ya NA₄he-kur SAG.UŠ A-NA NUMUN M DLAMMA ar-ha le-e ku-is-ki da-a-i

Translation

2 When my father, Hattusilis, revolted against Urhi-Tessup, son of Muwattallis and deposed him from kingship, no blame whatsoever attached to (lit. "remained with") Kuruntas. However the people of Hatti had been at fault, Kuruntas was in no way whatsoever (involved) in (the wrong side). Already before, the king, Muwattallis, had given him (Kuruntas) to Hattusilis to raise, and already before, my father (i.e. Hattusilis) had raised him. Previously, Muwattallis, the king, had handed him over to my father, Hattusilis, to raise, and my father had raised him.
3 But when my father deposed Urhi-Tessup from kingship, my father took Kuruntas and set him up in kingship in Tarhuntassas. The treaty that my father made for him -- how he set the boundaries for him -- my father made a treaty-tablet (concerning them); and Karunta possesses it. Moreover, the boundaries are laid out for him as follows: for you, from the town of Pitassas, the borders are: Mt. Hawas, the Kantana of Zarniyas, and the town of Sanantarwas. The Kantana of Zarniyas to the Hulaya river-land remain (as borders). And the town of Santanarwas to the town of Pitassas remain (as borders).
4 From the town of Pitassas, the town of Nahhantas was the border. And, on the treaty tablet of my father, the river source of Arimattas was made the border. But for now, for him (Kuruntas), My Majesty has reestablished the previous border. From the town of Pitassas, from the town of Arimattas, the town of Nahhantas (and) the town of Hautassa are the border. But Nahhantas and Hautassa to the Huliya river-land remain (the border).
15 But when my father died (lit. "became a god"), whichever lands had remained waiting (to attack) at that time, Kuruntas was prepared to die for me. He protected me, and he kept the oath which he had sworn and in no way did he turn aside (from his loyalty). But when the god took me, and I became king, then I made a treaty with Kuruntas as follows: those towns which were not placed on the treaty tablet of my father, those towns, along with field and meadow, (and) all deportees, I gave to Kuruntas (to hold) in vassalship. And whatever is within the Hulaya river-land, all (of it) remains for Kuruntas, king of Tarhuntassas (to hold) in vassalship. I have reestablished the borders well for him. I have returned the permanent rock sanctuary to him; and henceforth, let no one take away the permanent rock sanctuary from the descendants of Kuruntas.

Grammar

31. The Instrumental

The instrumental case indicates an object or material with which something is done or (semi-adverbially) the way in which something is accomplished. It may usually be translated in English by the prepositions "by," "with," or "by means of":

    GÌR-it   sarā   pāun
    by foot (inst.)   up   I went
    "I went up by foot."
             
    nu   SILÁ   wetenit   katta ānsanzi
    and   lamb   with water (inst.)   down-wipe
    "They wipe down a lamb with water."
                 
    nu   (D)IS^TAR   GAS^AN-YA   A-NA   (M)Mursli   A.BI-YA
    and   Ishtar   lady-my   to   Mursilis   father-my
    U\-et   (M)NIR.GA\L   S^ES^-YA   wiyat        
    with a dream (inst.)   Muwatallis   brother-my   sent        
    "And Ishtar, My lady, sent Muwattallis, my brother, to my father in (lit. 'by means of') a dream."
                         
    ta   kalulupu-smus   gāpinit   hul:liemi
    and   fingers-their   with thread (inst.)   I wrap
    "I wrap their fingers with thread."
31.1. Causation

The instrumental can be used to indicate the cause of some actions:

    DUMU.LÚU19LURMEŠ   DINGIRMEŠ-s-a   kistanit   harkiyanzi
    humans   gods-and   from hunger (inst.)   perish
    "Humans and gods are perishing from hunger."
31.2. Containment

In English, we might speak of transporting a substance "in" a container. In Hittite, however, the container is often rendered in the instrumental case:

    kīdanda   pattanit   ekan   utiskemi
    this (inst.)   with bucket (inst.)   ice   I keep bringing
    "I keep bringing ice with this bucket."
                 
    nu   2   DUMUMEŠ.É.GAL   ANA   LUGAL   MUNUS.LUGAL
    and   two   sons of the palace   to   king   queen
    MĒQATI   hūparit   GUŠKIN   pēdanzi        
    hand-water   with a bowl (inst.)   golden   offer        
    "Two sons of the palace offer the king (and) queen hand-water in (lit 'with') a bowl."
31.3. Verbs meaning "fill"

Verbs meaning "fill" take a noun in the instrumental. Compare English "filled with water":

    anda-kan   halēnas   tessummius   tarlipit   sūwamus
    in-locatival   of clay   cups   with tarlipta-drink (inst.)   filled
    2-TAM   petumini            
    twice   we bring            
    "Twice, we bring in the cups of clay filled with tarlipta-drink."
31.4. Call by name

In the Hittite expression meaning "call by name," the word meaning "name" is in the instrumental:

    n-asta   DINGIRMEŠ   hūmandus   lamnit   halzai
    and-locatival   gods   all   by name (inst.)   he calls
    "And he calls all the gods by name."
31.5. Adverbs

Forms of the instrumental of some nouns are used adverbially to describe the manner in which action is performed.

    ZI-it   menahhanta     kuedani   iyasi
    willfully (inst., lit. 'with soul')   towards   not   anyone   act
    "Do not act willfully towards anyone."

The adverb pangarit 'in large numbers, in force' is probably from the instrumental of an otherwise lost noun *pangar- 'large number'. Compare the verb derived from this noun pangariya- 'become widespread':

    nu-mu   KÚRHI.A   ŠA   KUR   Alasiya   pangarit   zahhiya   wet
    and-me   enemy   of   country   Alasiya   in force   for battle   came
    "The Alasiyan enemy came against me in large numbers for battle."

The word nakkit 'by force' is from the instrumental of nakki- 'heavy, important'.

    nu   URUNēsan   ispandi   nakkit   dās
    and   Nesa   in the night   by force   I took
    "And I took Nesa in the night by force."
31.6. Ablative

In texts written after the earliest period, the ablative gradually takes over the function of the instrumental:

    URU-an   zahhiyaz   katta dahhun
    the city   with battle   I conquered
    "I conquered the city in (or 'with') a battle (abl.)."
32. T-Stem Nouns

Hittite nouns with stems in final -t- are normally animate, though, depending on meaning, they may make collective plurals. For example, the noun aniyatt- 'equipment' makes the plural aniyatta. Some nouns in stem-final -t seem to be archaic. However, there is also a class of abstract nouns in -att-, such as aniyatt- from aniya- 'work, do', made from verbal stems. The nominative singular, which is a combination of the stem-final -t plus the animate ending -s is spelled -za or -az. The paradigms of kutt- 'wall', kāst- 'hunger' and the abstract nahsaratt- 'fear' beside nahsariya- 'be afraid, become afraid' are illustrative:

Singular                    
nom.   kūzza       kāsza       nahsaraz, nahsaraza
acc.   kutt-an       gāst-an       nahsaradd-an
gen.   kutt-as               *nahsaratt-as
dat./loc   kutt-i       kāst-i       nahsaratt-i
abl.   kutt-az       *kāst-az       nahsaratt-aza
inst.           kāst-it        
Plural                    
nom.   kutt-es               nahsaratt-es
acc.   kudd-us               nahsarradd-us
gen.   *kutt-as               nahsaratt-as
dat./loc.   kutt-as               nahsaratt-as
33. Adverbial Temporal Clauses

Hittite makes adverbial subordinate clauses indicating the time when something happened using several different conjunctions. Since each of the conjunctions used also has non-temporal meanings, for example introducing conditional or comparative clauses, clauses indicating time are recognized in context. The conjunctions mān, māhhan, and kuwāpi are to be translated as 'when' or 'as soon as', but kuitman seems closer in meaning to English 'while' or 'until'. Mān and māhhan are usually first in their clauses, while the placement of kuwāpi seems somewhat more flexible.

33.1. Adverbial Clauses with mān 'when'

Adverbial time clauses with the conjunction mān are found in the earliest texts and in copies of early texts, suggesting both that mān is one of the earliest conjunctions used to introduce time clauses and that it fell out of use after the earliest period. The following is from the Old Hittite "Legend of the Queen of Kanesh."

    mān   MUHI.A   istarna   pāer        
    when   years   meanwhile   went        
    nu   MUNUS.LUGAL   namma   30   MUNUS.DUMU   hāsta
    and   queen   moreover   thirty   daughters   gave birth to
    "When the years meanwhile passed by, the queen, in addition, gave birth to thirty daughters."

In this sentence from the "Proclamation of Telepenus," the use of mān can be contrasted with the use of the conjunctions māhhan and kuwāpi in the "Annals of Mursilis" below:

    māan-san   MTelepenus   INA   GIŠGU-za   ABI-YA   ēshat
    when-locatival   Telepenus   on   throne   of-father-my   sat
    nu   URUHassuwa   lahha   pāun        
    and   Hassuwa   on campaign   I went        
    "When I, Telepenus, seated myself upon the throne of my father, I went on a military campaign to Hassuwa."
33.2. Adverbial Clauses with māhhan 'when'

Clauses of time with the conjunction māhhan are first attested slightly later than those with mān. Possibly māhhan could introduce time clauses in the earliest Hittite, and our lack of examples from the earliest period is accidental. It is also possible, however, that māhhan may have replaced mān in this function fairly early. Unlike the clauses with mān, clauses with māhhan are common.

    mahhan-ta   kās   tuppianza   anda wemiyazzi    
    as soon as-you   this   tablet   reaches    
    nu   MAHAR   DUTUŠI   liliwanuwanzi   ūnni
    and   before   my majesty   in a hurry   drive
    "As soon as this tablet reaches you, travel in a hurry to my majesty."
                     
    mahhan-ma   hameshanza   kisat   man   INA   KUR   (URU)Azzi
    when-but   spring   became   [irrealis]   into   country   of Azzi
    taninumanzi   pāun                    
    to restore order   I went                    
    "But as soon as it became spring, I would have gone into the land of Azzi to restore order."

In texts from the period of the Hittite Empire, māhhan is often written with the Sumerogram GIM plus the phonetic complement -an:

    GIM-an-ma   ABU-YA   BA.UŠ   ŠEŠ-YA-ma-za-kan
    when-but   father-my   died   brother-my-but-reflexive-locatival
    ANA   GIŠGU.ZA   ABI-ŠU   ēsat
    on   throne   father-his   seated himself
    "But when my father died, my brother seated himself on the throne of his father."
33.3. Adverbial Clauses with kuwāpi 'when'

The relative adverb kuwāpi, which usually means 'where', can also be used to signal adverbial clauses of time. In the following sentence, the conjunction is to be understood as introducing two clauses "when my father was fighting with Urhi-Tessup" and "and (when) he deposed him from kingship":

    ABU-YA   kuwapi   MHattusilis   ANA   MÚrhitessupas
    father-my   when   Hattusilis   with   Urhitessup
    DUMU   MMūwattalli   menahhanda   kururiahta    
    son   Muwattallis   against   started fighting    
    n-an   LUGAL-iznanni   arha tittanut        
    and-him   from kingship   deposed        
    ANA   M.DLAMMMA-ma-kan   wastul   ŪL kuitki   āsta
    to   Kurunta-but-locatival   blame   not any   remained
    "When my father, Hattusilis, began fighting with Urhi-Tessup, son of Muwattallis, and deposed him from kingship, no fault attached to (lit. 'remained with') Kurunta."

The following two sentences from the "Annals of Mursilis" suggest that, in introducing time clauses, māhhan and kuwāpi were essentially synonyms.

    mahhan-ma-za-kan   DUTUŠI                
    when-but-reflexive-locatival   my majesty                
    ANA   GIŠGU.ZA   ABI-YA   ēshat        
    on   throne   father-my   seated myself        
    nu-mu   arahzenas   KUR.KUR   KÚR   kuyēs   kūruriyahhir
    then-on-me   surrounding   lands   hostile   that   made war
    "But when (I), my majesty, had seated himself on the throne of my father, the surrounding hostile lands that had made war on me..."
                         
    nu-za-kan   ANA   GIŠGU.ZA   ABI-YA   kuwapi
    and-reflexive-locatival   on   throne   father-my   when
    ēshat   nu-za     arahzenas   KUR.KURMEŠ
    seated myself   and-reflexive   these   surrounding   lands
    KÚR   INA   MU.10.KAM   tarhhun    
    hostile   in   ten years   I defeated    
    "When I had seated myself on the throne of my father, I defeated these surrounding enemy lands in ten years."
33.4. Adverbial Clauses with kuitman 'while, until'

The conjunction kuitman, as noted above, means 'while' or 'until'. It is generally used to signal adverbial clauses that indicate action taking place in the background of some other action, for example:

    nu-za   kuitman   nūwa   DUMU-as   esun
    and-reflexive   while   still   child   I was
    ŠA   KUŠKA.TAB.ANŠE-za   esun        
    of   donkey   I was        
    "And while I was still a child, I was foolish."
    kuētman-ma   MUNUS.ŠU.GI   kēdas   kezzi    
    While-but   old woman   these   from there    
    EGIR-an-ma-ssan   ÍD-i   peran        
    in her absence-but-locatival   river   beside        
    GIŠZA.LAM.GARHI.A   ŠA   GI   karū   iyanta
    tents   of   reed   already   made
    "But while the 'old woman' is getting these (things), from there, in (her) absence, beside the river, tents of reeds have already been made."

The following passage from the Law Code, which specifies the restitution someone is to make for injuring someone else, illustrates a contrast between kuitman 'until' and mān 'when':

    nu   Éri-ssi   anniskezzi   kuitm:an-as   lāzziatta
    and   in-house-his   he keeps working   until-he   recovers
    mān-as   lāzziatta-ma            
    when-he   recovers-but            
    nu-ssi   6   GÍN   KÙ.BABBAR   pāi
    then-to-him   six   shekels   silver   he gives
    "He (a substitute worker provided by the offender) keeps working in his (the victim's) house until he recovers. But when he recovers, he (the offender) gives him six shekels of silver."

When used with the negative adverb nāwi 'not yet', kuitman means 'before', or literally "while ...as not yet ...":

    nu   nekuz mehur   kuitman-kan   DUTU-us   nāwi   ūpzi
    and   in the night time   while-locatival   sun   not yet   rises
    "And during the night, before the sun arises..."
                         
    kuitman   gimmanza   nāwi   zinnattat
    while   winter   not yet   ended
    "Before winter had ended..."
34. The emphasizing particle -pat

The function of -pat is to emphasize, define, specify, or limit the element within the sentence to which it is attached. It may be attached to virtually any part of speech or to entire clauses. It is not part of the enclitic chain; indeed if a chain of enclitics is attached to a word to which -pat is also attached, the particle -pat precedes the enclitic chain (cf. ammel-pat-wa-za or aki-pat-ssan below).

34.1. Previous mention

A common use of -pat is to refer back to an item or action that has been mentioned immediately before. It can often be translated as 'the very' (noun), 'the same', or 'the very same':

    A.BU-YA-nnas-za   MMurslis   4   DUMUMEŠ   ...   hasta
    father-my-us-reflexive   Mursilis   four   children   ...   fathered
    humandas-pat   EGIR-izzis   DUMU-as   esun        
    of-all-very   last   child   I was        
    "My father, Mursilis, fathered us four children ... (and) I was the very last (i.e., 'the youngest') of all the children."
                         
    n-as   seszi   kuwapi   nu-za-kan
    and-he   sleeps   where   and-reflexive
    apiya-pat   warpzi        
    in the place-very-same   he bathes        
    "And he sleeps in the very same place where he bathes."
                 
    EGIR-pa-ma-as   kuwapi   wezzi   n-as
    back-but-he   when   goes   and-he
    āppa-ya-pat   apūn   KASKAL-an   wezzi
    back-and-very   that   route   he goes
    "But when he returns, he also returns by the very same route as before."
34.2. Reflexive, etc.

When attached to a noun, -pat may add the sense of a reflexive pronoun or it may be translated by 'own' or 'only':

    MMadduwattas-pat   nekumanza   isparzasta
    Madduwattas-himself   naked   escaped
    "Madduwattas himself escaped naked."
    ammel-pat-wa-za   GU4   dahhi
    my-own-quotative-reflexive   ox   I take
    "I will take my own ox."
    nu   sumās   DINGIRMEŠ-as   URUHattusas-pat
    and   for you   gods   Hatti-only
    handān   parkui   KUR-e    
    true   pure   land    
    "Only Hatti is a true, pure land for you, gods."
34.3. Clauses

When -pat modifies a clause, it can have meanings such as "in addition, instead, rather, even though," and "surely," or "certainly":

    namma   tuzziyas-mis   hwettiyanun-pat
    then   army-my   drew up-in addition
    "Then, in addition, I drew up my army."
             
    n-as   KUR   URUHattusi   ŪL   hūisuwezzi
    and-he   land   Hattusas   not   lives
    aki-pat-ssan                
    he dies-instead-locatival                
    "He will not go on living in Hattusas; instead, he will die there."
                     
    nu-mu   kappin-pat   DUMU-an   DIŠTAR   URUSamuha
    and-me   small-although   child   Ishtar   Samuha
    ANA   ABU-YA   wēkta        
    dative   father-my   demanded        
    "Even though I was a small child, Ishtar of Samuha demanded me from my father."
                     
    n-at   akkandu-pat
    and-they   die-surely
    "And they shall surely die."
         
    n-an-kan   ŪL-pat   wahnunun
    and-it-locatival   not-certainly   I turned
    "And certainly I did not alter it (a tablet)."

This sentence has the irrealis particle man used to express a wish of the speaker, and -pat used to emphasize the wish:

    iyami-man-pat-wa   kuitki
    I do irrealis-surely-quotative   something
    "I certainly would like to do something."
35. Coordinating Conjunctions

Hittite has a number of both independent words and enclitics that may be used to conjoin sentences, clauses, phrases, and words.

35.1. Nu

The loosest sort of connection between clauses is signaled by the sentence-initial particle nu, and, indeed, the translation of nu often depends as much upon the interpretation of individual readers of the logical relationship between sentences or clauses as it does on outside evidence. In translating a Hittite text into idiomatic English, it is often neither necessary nor desirable to translate nu, and it has, in fact, been suggested that nu is often used as a more or less empty prop to which clause-initial enclitics are attached. Nu was not the only sentence-initial connective in Hittite, In early texts, it is found beside the rarer su and ta, which also take the clause-initial enclitics, and which presumably shared functions with nu, but su and ta were eventually eliminated from the language. In texts from the Empire period, nu very frequently begins sentences, though by no means all sentences begin with nu.

Nu may begin an independent sentence following another independent sentence, and its function in such sequences is similar to that of English and as a connector of independent sentences:

    nu-war-an   ammuk   parā pāi
    and-quotative-him   to me   give
    nu-war-as-mu   sankunis   ēsdu
    and-quotative-he-to-me   priest   let him be
    "Give him to me, (and) he will be my priest."

The particle may occur at the beginning of a clause that describes action that follows the action of the initial clause temporally or action that is the logical result of the action of the initial clause, and in such sequences, it may be translated as 'then' or 'so'. Again, nu should be considered a coordinating conjunction in such sequences of sentences.

    nu-mu   apppatar   hatrāttin   nu   seggalu
    and-to-me   receipt   write   so   I may know
    "Write me a receipt, so that I may know."

In some sequences of independent sentences, nu may have a mildly adversative sense and can be translated by 'but':

    mān-us-kan   MHuzziyas   kuenta   nu   uttar   isduwāti
    irrealis-them-locatival   Huzziyas   killed   but   plan   became known
    "Huzziyas would have killed them, but the plan became known."
                         
    man   INA   URUHayasa   pāun-pat
    irrealis   into   Hayasa   I went-also
    nu-za   MU.KAM-za   ser tēpauēssanza    
    and-reflexive   year   had become short    
    "I would also have gone to Hayasa (to attack it), but the year had become short."

Nu may also be used to connect clauses clauses that amplify or qualify dependent temporal, result, or relative clauses:

    māan-san   MTelepenus   INA   GIŠGU-za   ABI-YA   ēshat
    when-locatival   Telepenus   on   throne   father-my   sat
    nu   URUHassuwa   lahh   pāun        
    and   Hassuwa   on campaign   I went        
    "When I, Telepenus, seated myself upon the throne of my father, then I went on a military campaign to Hassuwa."
                         
    kuis   ammel   āppan   LUGAL-us   kīsari
    who   me   after   king   becomes
    nu   URUHattus-an   āppa   asasi    
    and   Hattusas   again   settles    
    n-an   nepisas   DIŠKUR-as   hazziettu    
    and-him   of heaven   the Stormgod   let him smite    
    "Whoever becomes king after me and settles Hattusas again, may the Stormgod of Heaven smite him!"
35.2. namma 'when'

The adverbial conjunction namma, 'then', 'next', 'moreover' or 'furthermore', can have the effect of indicating that one action follows closely upon another, or that action is being resumed. It often, though not inevitably, comes at the beginning of a clause or sentence, indicating the resumption or continuation of some action. It may also introduce the end of an on-going activity, having a meaning something like 'finally'. Like its English counterparts, it does not begin texts, but it may be used to begin a paragraph within a text, indicating a connection with the previous paragraph. The following sentences from the "Ritual of Tuwananni" follow a spell which the ritual practioner recites and indicate that she is now performing further actions designed to benefit the patient:

    namma   wappuwas   IM-an   dāi
    moreover   of the spring   clay   she takes
    namma-as   sakuniya   paizzi    
    moreover-she   to the spring   goes    
    "Moreover, she takes clay of the river bank (and), moreover, she goes to the spring."

Namma may also be used to indicate a series of consecutive actions:

    namma   LÚKUR   ispandaza   anda ari
    Then   enemy   by night   arrived
    namma-as   arha sarrattari        
    then-they   split up        
    "Then the enemy arrived by night and (then they) split up."

It may follow a sentence particle such as nu with or without attached enclitics. In this sentence, the nominative enclitic personal pronoun is necessary, because the verb is an intransitive verb that requires an explicit subject:

    n-as   namma   aruni   zahhiya   pait
    and-he   then   to the sea   to battle   went
    "Then he went to the sea to battle."
35.3. nasma and nassu 'or'

The conjunctions nasma and nassu, both of which mean 'or' or 'either', are disjunctive in force. They may be used to contrast clauses, for example:

    nu-ssi-kan   É   ABI-ŠU   arha danzi    
    and-to-him-locatival   estate   father-his   take away    
    n-at   nassu   damēdani   kuedanikki   pianzi
    and-it   either   to another   to anyone   they give
    nasma-at   INA   É.GAL   danzi    
    or-it   for   palace   they take    
    "They take his father's estate from him and either give it to someone else or take it for palace (i.e. confiscate it for the palace's use)."

nasma and nassu are also used to oppose elements within a phrase:

    takku   LÚ-an   nasma   MUNUS-an   sullanaz   kuiski   kuenzi
    if   man   or   woman   quarrel   someone   kills
    "If someone kills a man or a woman as the result of a quarrel."
                             
    takku   ÌR-as   nasma   GEME-as   huwāi
    if   male slave   or   female slave   runs
    "If (either) a male slave or a female slave runs away..."

The particle m:an may be used as a conjunction in the sense 'whether':

    mān   hargaēs   mān   dankuwaēs   ŪL kuitki   duqqāri
    whether   white   or whether   black   not at all   is important
    "Whether (the rams) are white or black is not at all important."