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Hittite Online

Lesson 8

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

Unlike the speakers of the other Indo-European languages, the Hittites have many prayers among their literary products. These probably resulted from influence by their Semitic neighbors. From the book of Daniel, Chapter 6, we know that the Hebrews prayed three times a day, but lengthy prayers like those of the Hittites are not recorded in the Old Testament. For the most part the Psalms, if considered to be prayers, are general hymns of praise. Nor are they as lengthy nor as specifically directed at problems as those of the Hittites.

The plague prayers of Mursilis II, circa 1321-1295, are highly specific, as the sections from one included here illustrate. The other selection details the effects of the plague without indicating a possible reason for it. As here, the prayer is read to the god by a scribe sent by the king.

Reading and Textual Analysis

This prayer is highly structured. In the first section included here, the purpose of the prayer is stated, that being to remove the plague that has affected the kingdom since the days of Mursilis's father, Suppiluliumas I. Mursilis then absolves himself of the blame, and seeks the reason for it. An oracle tells him of two tablets, the second of which is summarized in the second section included here. While the source of the plague might seem to us to be the prisoners brought back after the war with the Egyptians, Mursilis finds from a further oracle as the source that the Hattians broke their word, which they had given in a treaty made under oath to the Hattian Storm-god. Mursilis then indicates the steps he has taken to appease the Storm-god. He has presented him and also other gods with offerings, while confessing that humans are sinful, as was his father, though he himself has committed no sin. Becoming poetic he points out that a bird takes refuge in its nest, and the nest then saves its life. Similarly, if a servant repents and appeals to his lord, the lord will not punish him. Mursilis has now confessed the sin of his father. But if that is not the reason for people dying, he makes a final request to the Storm-god that he inform him in a dream, or an oracle, or through a prophet, ending with the request that the Storm-god save his life and let the plague abate.

  • The 1st paragraph is based on KUB XIV 10 + KUB XXVI 86.
  • The 2nd paragraph covers KUB XIV 8 lines 13-24.

DIM URUHa-at-ti BE-L-YA DINGIRMESH URUHa-at-ti BE-LUMESH-YA u-i-ya-at-mu MMu-ur-si-li-is su-um-me-e-el ARAD-KU-NU

  • DIM -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as vocative singular <DIM> Stormgod -- O, Stormgod
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • BE-L-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative <BE-L-> lord + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my Lord
  • -- conjunction; Akkadogram <> and -- and
  • DINGIRMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as vocative <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- gods
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • BE-LUMESH-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative <BE:LU> lord, master + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my Lords
  • u-i-ya-at-mu -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wiya-> send + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter <-at> he, she, it + enclitic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative <-mu> me -- has sent me
  • MMu-ur-si-li-is -- proper noun; nominative singular animate of <Mursili-> Mursilis -- Mursilis
  • su-um-me-e-el -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person plural genitive <sume:s> you -- your
  • ARAD-KU-NU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular of <ARAD> slave, servant, vassal + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 2nd person plural <-KUNU> your -- servant

i-it-wa A-NA DIM URUHa-at-ti BE-L-YA A-NA DINGIRMESH BE-LUMESH-YA ki-is-sa-an me-mi

  • i-it-wa -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <i:-> go -- go
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DIM -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <DIM> Stormgod -- to the Stormgod
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • BE-L-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative <BE-L-> lord + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- My Lord
  • -- conjunction; Akkadogram <> and -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <A-NA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DINGIRMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- gods
  • BE-LUMESH-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as vocative <BE:LU> lord, master + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- My Lords
  • ki-is-sa-an -- adverb; <kissan> thus, as follows -- as follows
  • me-mi -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <me:ma-, me:miya-> say, speak -- speak

ki-i-ma ku-it i-ya-at-ten

  • ki-i-ma -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ka:-, ki:-> this + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- this
  • ku-it -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <kui-> who, what -- what
  • i-ya-at-ten -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <iya-> do, make -- have you done

nu-wa-kan I-NA SHBI KUR URUHa-at-ti hi-in-kan tar-na-at-ten

  • nu-wa-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- now
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- in
  • SHBI -- noun; Sumerogram <S> heart, innards + Akkadian phonetic complement <BI> in -- the interior
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive <KUR> land, territory -- of the land
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • hi-in-kan -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <hinkan> plague -- the plague
  • tar-na-at-ten -- verb; 2nd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <tarna-> let loose -- you have let loose

nu-wa KUR URUHa-at-ti hi-in-ga-na-az a-ru-um-ma me-ek-ki ta-ma-as-ta-at

  • nu-wa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... -- and
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • hi-in-ga-na-az -- noun; ablative singular of <hinkan> plague -- by the plague
  • a-ru-um-ma -- adverb; <arumma> sorely -- sorely
  • me-ek-ki -- adverb; <mekki> greatly -- greatly
  • ta-ma-as-ta-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite middle of mi-conjugation <tamass-> press, oppress -- has been... oppressed

nu-wa PA-AN A-BI-YA PA-AN SESH-YA ak-ki-is-ki-ta-at

  • nu-wa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... -- ...
  • PA-AN -- preposition; Akkadogram <PANI> before, under -- under # The spelling PA-AN is an abbreviation for PANI, which normally stands for the postposition pe:ran. Compare ammuk peran below.
  • A-BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative singular <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • PA-AN -- preposition; Akkadogram <PANI> before, under -- under
  • SESH-YA -- noun; Sumerogram <SHESH> brother + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my brother
  • ak-ki-is-ki-ta-at -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular preterite middle of <a:k-, akk-> die -- there was continual dying # The verb is used impersonally here, and the iterative marks extended action

ku-it-ta-ya-wa-az am-mu-uk A-NA DINGIRMESH ki-is-ha-at nu-wa ki-nu-un-ma am-mu-uk pe-ra-an ak-ki-is-ki-it-ta-ri

  • ku-it-ta-ya-wa-az -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since + enclitic conjunction <-a> and + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and + quotative particle <-wa>... + enclitic reflexive particle <-az>... -- since # The two instances of enclitic conjunctions, -a- and -ya-, seem to be a mistake.
  • am-mu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative of <u:k> I -- I
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • DINGIRMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative <DINGIR> god + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- to the gods
  • ki-is-ha-at -- verb; 1st person singular preterite middle of <ki:s-> become, happen -- I became
  • nu-wa -- sentence particle; <nu> and + quotative particle <-wa>... -- and
  • ki-nu-un-ma -- adverb; <kinuna> now + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- and now
  • am-mu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular dative of <u:k> I -- me
  • pe-ra-an -- postposition; <pe:ran> beside, in the presence of -- under
  • ak-ki-is-ki-it-ta-ri -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular present middle of <a:k-, akk-> die -- there is continual dying

ka-a-as MU.20.KAM ku-it-kan I-NA SH KUR URUHa-at-ti ak-ki-is-ki-it-ta-ri

  • ka-a-as -- exclamation; <ka:s> behold, look -- behold
  • MU.20.KAM -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <MU> year + numeral; <20> twenty + Sumerogram <KAM> a measure of time -- the twentieth year
  • ku-it-kan -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- since
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- within
  • SH -- noun; Sumerogram <S> heart, innards -- the interior
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive <KUR> land, territory -- of the territory
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • ak-ki-is-ki-it-ta-ri -- verb; iterative 3rd person singular present middle of <a:k-, akk-> die -- there is continual dying

nu-kan ISH-TU KUR URUHa-at-ti hi-in-kan ar-ha -UL-pat ta-ru-up-ta-ri

  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- ...
  • ISH-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <ISHTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative <KUR> land, territory -- from the land
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • hi-in-kan -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <hinkan> plague -- the plague
  • ar-ha ta-ru-up-ta-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite middle of <arha tarupp> eliminate -- be eliminated
  • -UL-pat -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> no, not + emphasizing particle <-pat>... -- never

am-mu-uk-ma-az S-az-ma la-ah-la-ah-hi-ma-an -UL tar-ah-mi N.TE-az-ma-za pit-tu-li-ya-an nam-ma -UL tar-ah-mi

  • am-mu-uk-ma-az -- tonic personal pronoun; 1st person singular nominative of <u:k> I + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic reflexive particle <-az>... -- I
  • S-az-ma -- noun; Sumerogram <S> heart, innards + Hittite phonetic complement <-az> (indicating ablative singular) + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- from my heart # The Hittite reading is kardaz.
  • la-ah-la-ah-hi-ma-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <lahlahhiya-> agitation, worry -- the worry
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- not
  • tar-ah-mi -- verb; 1st person singular present of <tarh-> conquer, overcome -- overcome
  • N.TE-az-ma-za -- noun; Sumerogram <N.TE> soul + Hittite phonetic complement <-az> (indicating ablative singular) + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic reflexive particle <-za>... -- from my soul
  • pit-tu-li-ya-an -- noun; accusative singular animate of <pittuliya-> anguish -- the anguish
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- moreover
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> not -- not
  • tar-ah-mi -- verb; 1st person singular present of <tarh-> conquer, overcome -- overcome

SHA-NU- TUP-PU-ma SHA URUKu-ru-us-ta-am-ma LMESH URUKu-ru-us-ta-am-ma ma-ah-ha-an DU URUHa-at-ti I-NA KUR URUMi-iz-ri pe-e-da-as

  • SHA-NU- -- adjective; Akkadian adjective functioning here as nominative singular neuter <SHANU:> second -- the second
  • TUP-PU-ma -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular neuter <TUPPU> tablet -- tablet
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • URUKu-ru-us-ta-am-ma -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Kurustama-> Kurustama -- the town of Kurustama
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the men
  • URUKu-ru-us-ta-am-ma -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Kurustama-> Kurustama -- of the town of Kurustama
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- how
  • DU -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <DU> Stormgod -- the Stormgod
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- into
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUMi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • pe-e-da-as -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pe:da-> bring, take -- brought

nu-us-ma-as DIM URUHa-at-ti ma-ah-ha-an is-hi--ul A-NA LMESH URUHa-at-ti me-na-ah-ha-an-da i-ya-at

  • nu-us-ma-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural accusative of <sume:s> they -- them
  • DIM -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <DIM> Stormgod -- the Stormgod
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- how
  • is-hi--ul -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <ishiu:l> treaty -- a treaty
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- with
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the men
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • me-na-ah-ha-an-da -- postposition; <me:nahhanda> facing, opposite -- with
  • i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- made

nam-ma-at ISH-TU DU URUHa-at-ti li-in-ga-nu-wa-an-te-es

  • nam-ma-at -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural animate of <-at> he, she, it -- moreover... them
  • ISH-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <ISHTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- by
  • DU -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative <DU> Stormgod -- the Stormgod
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • li-in-ga-nu-wa-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of <linganu-> place under oath -- placed under oath

nu LMESH URUHa-at-ti ku-it LMESH URUMi-iz-ri ISH-TU DIM URUHa-at-ti li-in-ga-nu-wa-an-te-es e-se-er

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and now
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the men
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • ku-it -- conjunction; <kuit> because, since -- since
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- with the men
  • URUMi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • ISH-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <ISHTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- by
  • DIM -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular <DIM> Stormgod -- the Stormgod
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • li-in-ga-nu-wa-an-te-es -- verb participle; nominative plural animate of <linganu-> place under oath -- under oath
  • e-se-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of <e:s-> be -- were

nu -e-er LMESH URUHa-at-ti pe-ra-an wa-ah-nu-e-er nu-kan NI-ISH DINGIRLIM LMESH URUHa-at-ti hu-u-da-a-ak sar-ri-i-e-er

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • -e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- came
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the men
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • pe-ra-an wa-ah-nu-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of <pe:ran wahnu-> get the upper hand -- got the upper hand
  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- under
  • NI-ISH DINGIRLIM -- noun; Sumerogram accusative singular of <NI-ISH DINGIRLIM> oath -- the oath
  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative animate <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- the men
  • URUHa-at-ti -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Hatti> Hatti -- of Hatti
  • hu-u-da-a-ak -- adverb; <hu:da:k> at once, immediately -- at once
  • sar-ri-i-e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of hi-conjugation <sarra-> break, transgress -- broke

nu A-BU-YA ERINMESH ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH u-i-ya-at nu ZAG KUR Mi-iz-ri KUR Am-ga wa-al-ah-hi-ir

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • ERINMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <ERINMESH> army, infantry -- infantry
  • ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH> chariot fighter -- (his) chariot fighters
  • u-i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wiya-> send -- sent
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • ZAG -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <ZAG> border, boundary -- the border
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory -- of the teritory
  • Mi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative-locative <KUR> land, territory -- at the land
  • Am-ga -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Amga> Amga -- of Amga
  • wa-al-ah-hi-ir -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <walh-> attack, strike -- they attacked

nam-ma-ya u-i-ya-at nu nam-ma wa-al-ah-hi-ir

  • nam-ma-ya -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and -- and furthermore
  • u-i-ya-at -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <wiya-> send -- he sent
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • nam-ma -- conjunction; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- furthermore
  • wa-al-ah-hi-ir -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <walh-> attack, strike -- they attacked

LMESH URUMi-iz-ri ma-ah-ha-an na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-ta-at

  • LMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as ablative <L> man, person + Sumerian plural marker <-MESH>... -- with the men
  • URUMi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- how
  • na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-ta-at -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite middle of <nahsariya-> fear, become afraid -- became afraid

na-at -e-er nu A-NA A-BI-YA DUMU-SHU LUGAL-u-iz-na-an-ni an-ku -e-ke-er

  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural nominative animate of <-at> he, she, it -- they
  • -e-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- came
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- to
  • A-BI-YA -- noun; Akkadogram functioning here as dative singular <ABI> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- to my father
  • DUMU-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SHU> his, her -- his son
  • LUGAL-u-iz-na-an-ni -- noun; Sumerogram <LUGAL> king + Hittite phonetic complement <-uizzna:nni> (indicating dative singular) -- for kingship
  • an-ku -- adverb; <anku> outright -- outright
  • -e-ke-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <we:k-, wekk-> demand, ask -- asked

nu-us-ma-as ma-ah-ha-an A-BU-YA a-pe-e-el DUMU-SHU pe-e-es-ta na-an ma-ah-ha-an pe-e-hu-te-er

  • nu-us-ma-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person plural dative of <sume:s> they -- to them
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- how
  • A-BU-YA -- noun; Sumerogram <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my -- my father
  • a-pe-e-el -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular of <apa:-> that -- his
  • DUMU-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <DUMU> son, child + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SHU> his, her -- his son
  • pe-e-es-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of hi-conjugation <pa:i-, piya-> give -- gave
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- and him
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- when
  • pe-e-hu-te-er -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <pe:hute-> lead away, take away -- they took away

na-an-kan ku-e-en-ni-ir

  • na-an-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- and him
  • ku-e-en-ni-ir -- verb; 3rd person plural preterite of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- they killed

A-BU-YA-ma `ka-pi-la-az-at-ta na-as I-NA KUR Mi-iz-ri pa-it nu KUR URUMi-iz-ri wa-al-ah-ta

  • A-BU-YA-ma -- noun; Sumerogram <ABU> father + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 1st person singular <-YA> my + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- and my father
  • `ka-pi-la-az-at-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite middle of <kappila:i-> become angry -- became angry # The Glossenkeil, represented with "`", indicates that the word is a borrowing from Luvian.
  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- he
  • I-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <INA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative) -- into
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • Mi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular of <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • pa-it -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go -- went
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular <KUR> land, territory -- the land
  • URUMi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • wa-al-ah-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of <walh-> attack, strike -- they attacked

ERINMESH-ya-kan ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH SHA KUR Mi-iz-ri ku-en-ta

  • ERINMESH-ya-kan -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate of <ERINMESH> army, infantry + enclitic conjunction <-ya> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- the infantry and
  • ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural animate <ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH> chariot fighter -- the chariot fighters
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • KUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular <KUR> land, territory -- of the land
  • Mi-iz-ri -- proper noun; stem form functioning here as genitive singular <Mizri-> Egypt -- of Egypt
  • ku-en-ta -- verb; 3rd person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <kue:n-> kill, strike -- attacked

Lesson Text

DIM URUHa-at-ti BE-L-YA DINGIRMESH URUHa-at-ti BE-LUMESH-YA u-i-ya-at-mu MMu-ur-si-li-is su-um-me-e-el ARAD-KU-NU
i-it-wa A-NA DIM URUHa-at-ti BE-L-YA A-NA DINGIRMESH BE-LUMESH-YA ki-is-sa-an me-mi
ki-i-ma ku-it i-ya-at-ten
nu-wa-kan I-NA SHBI KUR URUHa-at-ti hi-in-kan tar-na-at-ten
nu-wa KUR URUHa-at-ti hi-in-ga-na-az a-ru-um-ma me-ek-ki ta-ma-as-ta-at
nu-wa PA-AN A-BI-YA PA-AN SESH-YA ak-ki-is-ki-ta-at
ku-it-ta-ya-wa-az am-mu-uk A-NA DINGIRMESH ki-is-ha-at nu-wa ki-nu-un-ma am-mu-uk pe-ra-an ak-ki-is-ki-it-ta-ri
ka-a-as MU.20.KAM ku-it-kan I-NA SH KUR URUHa-at-ti ak-ki-is-ki-it-ta-ri
nu-kan ISH-TU KUR URUHa-at-ti hi-in-kan ar-ha -UL-pat ta-ru-up-ta-ri
am-mu-uk-ma-az S-az-ma la-ah-la-ah-hi-ma-an -UL tar-ah-mi N.TE-az-ma-za pit-tu-li-ya-an nam-ma -UL tar-ah-mi

SHA-NU- TUP-PU-ma SHA URUKu-ru-us-ta-am-ma LMESH URUKu-ru-us-ta-am-ma ma-ah-ha-an DU URUHa-at-ti I-NA KUR URUMi-iz-ri pe-e-da-as
nu-us-ma-as DIM URUHa-at-ti ma-ah-ha-an is-hi--ul A-NA LMESH URUHa-at-ti me-na-ah-ha-an-da i-ya-at
nam-ma-at ISH-TU DU URUHa-at-ti li-in-ga-nu-wa-an-te-es
nu LMESH URUHa-at-ti ku-it LMESH URUMi-iz-ri ISH-TU DIM URUHa-at-ti li-in-ga-nu-wa-an-te-es e-se-er
nu -e-er LMESH URUHa-at-ti pe-ra-an wa-ah-nu-e-er nu-kan NI-ISH DINGIRLIM LMESH URUHa-at-ti hu-u-da-a-ak sar-ri-i-e-er
nu A-BU-YA ERINMESH ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH u-i-ya-at nu ZAG KUR Mi-iz-ri KUR Am-ga wa-al-ah-hi-ir
nam-ma-ya u-i-ya-at nu nam-ma wa-al-ah-hi-ir
LMESH URUMi-iz-ri ma-ah-ha-an na-ah-sa-ri-ya-an-ta-at
na-at -e-er nu A-NA A-BI-YA DUMU-SHU LUGAL-u-iz-na-an-ni an-ku -e-ke-er
nu-us-ma-as ma-ah-ha-an A-BU-YA a-pe-e-el DUMU-SHU pe-e-es-ta na-an ma-ah-ha-an pe-e-hu-te-er
na-an-kan ku-e-en-ni-ir
A-BU-YA-ma `ka-pi-la-az-at-ta na-as I-NA KUR Mi-iz-ri pa-it nu KUR URUMi-iz-ri wa-al-ah-ta
ERINMESH-ya-kan ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH SHA KUR Mi-iz-ri ku-en-ta

Translation

O, Stormgod of Hatti, my Lord, and gods of Hatti, my Lords, Mursilis your servant has sent me, (saying) go and speak to the Stormgod of Hatti and to the gods, My Lords, as follows: "What is this that you have done? You have let loose the plague in the interior of the land of Hatti. And the land of Hatti has been sorely, greatly oppressed by the plague. Under my father (and) under my brother there was constant dying. And since I became priest of the gods, there is now constant dying under me. Behold, it is twenty years since people have been continually dying in the interior of Hatti. Will the plague never be eliminated from the land of Hatti? I cannot overcome the worry from my heart; I cannot overcome the anguish from my soul."
The second tablet concerned the town of Kurustamma--how the Stormgod of Hatti brought the men of Kurustamma into the territory of Egypt (and) how the Stormgod of Hatti made a treaty between them and the men of Hatti. And they were put under oath by the Stormgod of Hatti and the men of Egypt were (bound) under oath by the Stormgod of Hatti. And the men of Hatti got the upper hand and immediately the men of Hatti broke the oath (of the treaty). My father sent infantry and chariot fighters and they attacked the border territory at Amga. And, moreover, he sent (more troops); and again, they attacked. (The tablet related) How the men of Egypt became afraid. They came, and they asked my father outright for his son for kingship. And when they led him away, they killed him. And my father became angry, and he went into Egyptian territory, and he attacked the infantry and chariot fighters of Egypt.

Grammar

36. R-, L- and N-stem nouns

Unlike the neuter r/n-stem nouns, the r-stem nouns have a suffix in -r- throughout their paradigms. The word for "hand," kessar, which is animate, retains an especially archaic kind of inflection. In the nominative singular, the archaic form kessar is often replaced by kessaras with -as the ending of nominative animate a-stems:

    Singular   Plural
nom.   kess-ar    
acc.   kess-er-an   kiss-er-us
gen   kis-r-as   *kiss-r-as
dat/loc.   kessar, kiss-ar-i, kis-r-i, kessar   kis-r-as
abl.   kiss-ar-a:    
inst   kiss-ar-az, kis-r-az    
all.   kiss-r-it    

The paradigms of other r-stem nouns are not as elaborate as that of kessar. These nouns have traditionally been understood as neuters, but evidence from adjectival and pronominal agreement suggests that at least some may originally have been animate. The nouns huppar 'bowl' and ku:rur 'war, hostility' illustrate the inflection of nouns in -ar- and -ur-. Like kessar, huppar sometimes adopts the ending of the animate a-stem nouns. Forms with the animate accusative a-stem ending -an are also found. Nominative-accusative plural neuter and nominative and accusative forms both occur. In some contexts, ku:rur is best translated as an adjective 'hostile'. Nominative-accusative plural neuter forms occur, and genitive and dative-locative plural forms end, like huppar, in -as, but accusative forms are not attested.

Singular        
nom.   hupp-ar, hupp-ar-as   ku:r-ur, ku:r-ur-as
acc.   hupp-ar, hupp-ar-an    
gen.   huppar-as   ku:r-ur-as
dat/loc.   hupp-ar-i   ku:-ur-i
abl.   hupp-ar-az, huppa-ra-za   ku:r-ur-an-za
inst.   hupp-ar-it   *ku:r-ur-it
all.   *huppar-a    
Plural        
nom/acc. neut.   hupp-ar-i   ku:-ur, ku:-ur-i
nom.   hupp-ar-as    
acc.   hupp-ar-us    
gen.   hupp-ar-as   *ku:-ur-as
dat/loc.   *hupp-ar-as   ku:-ur-as

L-stem nouns have a suffix with -l throughout their paradigms. Like the r-stems, they may, at least in part, have originally been animate. Ishiul 'instruction, treaty', which is related to the verb ishiya- 'bind', illustrates the inflection of a stem in -ul-. Me:mal 'meal' is a stem in -al-:

Singular        
nom.   ishi-ul   me:mal
acc.   ishi-ul   me:mal
gen.   ishi-ul-as   me:mal-as
dat/loc.   ishi-ul-i   *me:mal-i
abl.   ishi-ul-aza    
inst.   *ishi-ul-it   me:mal-it
all.        
Plural        
nom/acc. neut.   ishi-ul-i    
37. The Allative

With verbs of motion or setting in motion, the allative is the case that indicates goal. Its ending is -a or -a:. The allative is an archaism and normally found in older texts and in later copies of older texts:

    namma-as   sakuniya (all.)   paizzi
    moreover-she   to the spring   goes
    "Moreover, she goes to the spring."
             
    n-as   a:sga   para: paizzi
    and-he   to the gate (all.)   goes onward
    "He goes onward to the gate."
             
    D-pa   ishuwai
    into the river (all.)   she scatters
    "She scatters into the river"

The dative-locative, with or without a postposition, was also used to indicate goals in early texts, and in texts composed in the period of the Hittite Empire, the allative was gradually replaced by the dative-locative:

    n-at-kan   kariz   aruni   anda   pida:u
    and-it-locatival   flood   to the sea (dat.)   into   let carry
    "Let the flood carry it into the sea (or 'The flood shall carry it into the sea')."
38. Relative and Indefinite Pronouns and Clauses

In Hittite, as in English, the relative and interrogative pronouns and adverbs are identical in form:

Singular   animate       neuter
nom.   kuis       kuit
acc.   kuin       kuit
gen.       kue:l    
dat/loc.       kuedani    
abl.       kue:z    
Plural            
nom.   kuye:s       kue
acc.   kuyus       kue
gen.            
dat/loc.       kuedas    
abl.            

Hittite sentences with relative clauses are composed of at least two clauses: a main clause and a subordinate relative clause modifying a noun in the main clause. Either the main clause or the relative clause may have additional subordinate clauses (e.g., adverbial clauses). As in English, the relative pronoun or adverb need not have the same syntactic function as the noun it modifies in the relative clause. One way in which Hittite relative clauses differ from English relative clauses is that the main clause often has a pronoun or noun that refers back to the relative pronoun.

    GUD-ya-wa-mu   kuin   tet   nu-war-an-mu   uppi
    ox-and-quotative-me   that   you said   and-quotative-it-me   send
    "And the ox that you promised me, send it to me."
                     
    DKallis-wa-kan   kuedani   ANA   HUR.SAG   artari
    Kallis-quotative-locatival   on which   on   mountain   stands
    nu-wa   HUR.SAG   K.BABBAR GAR.RA   e:sta    
    and-quotative   mountain   silver-plated   is    
    "The mountain on which the divine Kallis stands is a silver plated mountain."
                     
    ki:-kan   tuppi   kuis   DUB.SHAR-as   halza:i
    this-locatival   tablet   who   scribe   reads
    n-an   D.A-as   hattannnas   LUGAL-us   hilimnass-a
    and-him   Ea   of wisdom   king   of the gate-house-and
    DUTU-us   assu:li   pahsantaru        
    Sungod   in favor   may protect        
    "May Ea, king of wisdom and Sungod of the gate-house protect in favor the scribe who reads this tablet."
                     
    nu   ISHTU   EME-YA   kuye:s   DINGIRMESH   halzihhun
    and   with   tongue-my   who   gods   I called upon
    nu   ANA   DINGIRMESH   arkuwanun        
    and   to   gods   I prayed        
    nu-mu-kan   DINGIRMESH-as   uwaniyanut   dapiyas        
    and-me-locatival   gods   intercede   all        
    "The gods who I called upon with my tongue -- I prayed to the gods -- intercede for me with all those gods."
38.1. Definite and Indefinite Relative Clauses

Hittite has two kinds of relative clauses: so-called determinate relative clauses, clauses in which the relative pronoun refers to a specific known entity, and indeterminate relative clauses, clauses in which the relative pronoun refers to an unspecified entity whose existence may be in doubt. The indeterminate clauses are similar in meaning to English clauses with the indefinite relative pronouns "whoever" and "whichever," etc., or to clauses in which the noun modified is preceded by an indefinite such as "any." Determinate and indeterminate clauses are distinguished by the position of the relative pronoun:

In indeterminate clauses, the relative is in initial position. It may be preceded only by a conjunction (with or without attached enclitics):

    kuis   IKRIBI   sarninkuwas   n-an   sarninkanzi
    whatever   votive offering   of restitution   and-it   they make restitution
    "Any votive offering which is to be made in restitution, they will make it (in) restitution."
                     
    n-asta   kuis   ku:s   NISH DINGIRMESH   sarriezzi
    and-locatival   anyone who   these   oaths   breaks
    n-an   ke:   NISH DINGIRMESH   appandu    
    and-him   these   oaths   let them seize    
    "Let these oaths seize anyone who breaks these oaths."
                     
    kuit   handa:n   apa:t   i:ssa
    whatever   fitting   that   he shall do
    "Whatever is fitting, that he shall do."

In determinate clauses, by contrast, the relative is never clause initial. It may precede or follow the noun or noun phrase it refers to:

    nu   IKRIBIHI.A-ma   kuye:s   sarnikuwe:s   n-as   sarninkanzi
    and   votive-offerings-but   that   restitution   and-them   they make restitution
    "But they will make in restitution those votive offerings which are to be made in restitution."
                         
    tuk-ma   DUTUSHI   kuit   KUR-TAM   ADDIN
    to you-but   my majesty   which   land   I have given
    nu-za   apa:t   KUR-TAM   pahsi    
    and-reflexive   that   land   protect    
    "But protect that land which I, my majesty, have given to you."
                     
    BE-LU-ma   kuyus   L. MESHTEMI   wie:skesi
    lord-but   whom   messengers   you keep sending
    n-as-kan   ammuk   para: naiskemi    
    and-them-locatival   I   will keep dispatching    
    "Lord, the messengers whom you keep sending, I will keep dispatching them (to their next stop)."
38.2. Non-restrictive Relative Clauses

Like English, Hittite made a distinction between restrictive, or identifying clauses, such as those give above, that identify a particular person or entity and non-restrictive, or commenting clauses, that simply provide a comment on the noun they modify. Non-restrictive clauses, which are relatively infrequent, always come after the main clause:

    nu-za   DKumarbis   GALAG-tar   ZI-ni   kattan daskezzi
    and-reflexive   Kumarbi   wisdom   into mind   takes
    UD.KAM-an   kuis   L   HUL-an   sallanuskezzi
    day   who   man   evil   raises
    "Kumarbi, who raises the day as an evil being, takes wisdom into his mind."
38.3. Relative Adverbs

Relative clauses may also contain relative adverbs modifying expressions of time or place, for example:

    n-as   seszi   kuwapi   nu-za-kan   apiya-pat   warpzi
    and-he   sleeps   where   and-reflexive   in-place-very-same   he bathes
    "And he sleeps in the very same place where he bathes."
38.4. Emphasis

Indefinite relative clauses are emphasized in a number of ways. The conjunctive particle -a 'but' is sometimes found attached to the relative pronoun, for example:

    namma   kuis-a   LUGAL-us   kisari
    moreover   whoever   king   becomes
    "Moreover, whoever becomes king..."

The relative pronoun may be repeated:

    L-as   kuis kuis   LUGAL-was   peran   e:szi
    man   whichever   king   in front of   sits
    "Whichever man sits in front of the king..."
                     
    kuit kuit   harkzi   t-at   sarnikzi
    whatever   gets lost   and-it   he compensates
    "He compensates whatever is lost."

The relative pronoun in indefinitie clauses is sometimes strengthened with the adverb imma, which when used independently means 'indeed, surely', and this adverb often comes between repeated relative pronouns:

    kuis-kan imma kuis   SHA-BI   KUR   DHulaya   es:zi
    whoever-locatival-indeed-who   inside   land   Hulaya river   is
    "Whoever is in the Hulaya river land..."
                     
    kuedani imma kuedani   ITU-mi
    in-whatever-indeed-in-which   in month
    "in whatever month"

In addition to the relative-interrogative pronoun and adjective in kui- Hittite also had remnants of a interrogative and indefinite relative made from a stem masi-. Although the pronoun itself is relatively rare, its stem masi- forms the basis for several relative adverbs and adjectives, such as masiwan 'as much as, how much as, however many times', or masianki 'however many times'. Its use seems to parallel that of kui- in indefinite relatives.

    nu-kan   INA   URUZithara   masiye:s
    and-locatival   in   Zithara   however many
    DINGIRMESH   SH   DINGIRLIM    
    deities   of   temple    
    n-at   hu:mandus-pat   SIXSA-antat    
    and-they   all-surely   were determined by oracle    
    "However many deities (are) in the temple in Zithara, they were all determined by oracle (as causes of the king's sickness)."

As with kui-, indeterminate relative clauses may be strengthened by repeating the pronoun or by the addition of the adverb imma 'indeed'.

38.5. Indefinite Pronouns

In addition to relative and interrogative pronouns, Hittite has a series of indefinite pronouns meaning "someone," "something," "anyone," or "anything." These are made from the relative-interrogative pronoun to which a particle spelled ki, ka, ga or qa is attached. They are used in non-relative sentences in which the referent of the pronoun is an unknown person or thing.

Singular   animate       neuter
nom.   kuiski, kuiska       kuitki, kuitka
acc.   kuinki       kuitki, kuitka
gen.       kuelka, kuelki    
dat/loc.       kuedanikki    
abl.       kuezga    
Plural            
nom.   kuye:sqa        
acc.   kuyuga        
gen.            
dat/loc.       kuedasqa    
             
    takku   LDAM.GR   URUHatti   kuiski   kuenzi
    if   merchant   Hatti   someone   kills
    "If someone kills a merchant of the city of Hatti..."
                     
    takku   GU4-s   A.SHHI.A-ni   kuelqa   aki
    if   cow   in field   someone's   dies
    "If a cow dies in someone's field..."
                     
    nu   ANA   KUR   LKR   nawi kuitman   kuedanikki   pa:un
    and   to   country   hostile   before   any   I went
    "Before I went into any hostile country..."

When the indefinite pronouns are used with negative particles, their sense is "no one," "nobody," "nothing," etc.:

    le: kuitki   sannaskesi
    nothing   conceal
    "Keep nothing secret."
         
    n-at-za   para:   le kuiski   kuedanikki   memai
    and-it-reflexive   to   nobody   to anyone   say
    "Let nobody tell it to anyone."
39. The Uses of har-, hark-

The verb har-, hark- basically means 'have, hold, keep'. Its stem-final consonant is lost before endings beginning with consonants, and the resulting paradigm has a stem that alternates between har- (e.g., harzi 'she has') and hark- (e.g., harkanzi 'they have'):

Present   Singular   Plural
1.   har-mi   har-wani, har-weni
2   har-si, har-ti   har-teni
3.   har-zi   hark-anzi
Preterit        
1.   hark-un   har-wen
2.   har-ta   har-ten
3.   har-ta   hark-er
Imperative        
2.   hark   har-ten
3.   har-du   hark-andu

The loss of the stem-final k is not the result of a regular sound change (compare, for example, har-ak-zi 'it perishes', a spelling for /hargtsi/, stem harg-) but the loss may have come about because the verb is used very commonly, especially as an auxiliary verb in a construction much like the English perfect with "have." Compare the reduction of the verb in forms of the English perfect in which the auxiliary verb "have" has been contracted (e.g., "I've fed the cat") for a similar sort of reduction in a common auxiliary verb. The second person singular imperative, spelled har-ak, indicates that the stem-final consonant was not lost before a pause.

39.1. Basic meaning

The verb often has the simple meaning 'have':

    GISHTUKUL-ma   kuin   apiya   harkun
    weapon-but   that   there   I had
    "But the weapon that I had there..."

It may also mean 'hold', both in the literal sense and in the sense 'restrain':

    SG   dankuin   harmi
    wool   black   I hold
    "I hold the black wool."
             
    nepis   te:kan-a   harsi
    heaven   earth-and   you hold
    "You hold heaven and earth."
             
    nu   appu:nn-a-wa   hahhimas   harzi
    and   him-and-quotative   frost   holds
    "And frost holds (or restrains) him too."
39.2. Use with Adjectives, Particples, and Locatives

With an adjective or participle from an intransitive verb, constructions with hark- can mean 'hold' or 'keep' something in the state denoted by the adjective or participle:

    n-an   TI-nuan   hartin
    and-him   alive   keep
    "Keep him alive!"

Such constructions also occur with nouns in the locative:

    apedani-ya   uddani   wasduli   harteni
    for this-and   for matter   in sin (loc.)   you hold
    "...and for this matter you hold (us) in sin."
39.3. The Perfect

Hittite has perfect and past perfect constructions that use hark- as an auxiliary verb and that look remarkably like the perfect in English. Instead of being made with the auxiliary plus past participle as in English, however, the Hittite construction uses the only participle in the language, the participle in -ant in the nominative-accusative singular neuter. Normally, the verb is transitive. It is important to remember that although the hark-perfect is usually to be translated by appropriate forms of the English present and past perfect, simple past tense forms of any verb can be translated by the English perfect when the context demands such translations.

The present perfect is composed of hark- plus the nominative-accusative neuter of the participle:

    ANSHE.KUR.RAMESH   tu:riyan harti
    horses   harnessed you have
    "You (singular) have harnessed the horses."
         
    n-at   waranti   pahhuni   piyan harzi
    and-it   burning   fire   given he has
    "He has given it to burning fire."
                 
    sumas-ma-az   kuin   maklandan   markan-harteni
    for you-but-reflexive   whatever   thin-one   cut up you have
    "But whatever thin (animal) you have cut up for yourselves..."

The construction of the past perfect is essentially the same, except the auxiliary verb is in the past tense:

    EN-YA   ZI-an   U:L   warsiyanuwan harkun
    lord-my   soul   not   appeased I had
    "I had not appeased the soul of my lord."
                 
    nu   antuhsatar   U:L   tarnan hartin
    and   humanity   not   let loose you had
    "You had not abandoned humanity."

The combination of participle plus auxiliary may be broken up by the conjunction kuit 'because':

    nu-mu   istamassan   kuit   harker
    and-me   heard   because   they had
    "And because they had heard me..."

There are relatively few examples of the hark-perfect made with intransitive verbs:

    nu-za   LKR   halkius   warsu:wanzi   arha tarnan harta
    and-reflexive   enemy   grain   to harvest   gone away had
    "The enemy had gone off to harvest the grain."
                     
    nu   ma:n   L.MESHMESHEDI   kue:z   parasnan harkanzi
    and   if   guards   to the side   squatted they have
    "If he throws (the towel) to the side where the guards have squatted..."
40. The Reflexive Particle

The particle -za (or -az), often called the reflexive particle, is used to indicate that the action of the verb affects the subject of the sentence in some way. Compare, for example, the English sentence with the reflexive pronoun 'himself', "He made himself a sandwich." Since this sort of construction with a reflexive pronoun indicating that the action benefits the subject is fairly uncommon in English, it is only rarely that we would translate Hittite sentences with -za into English sentences with reflexive pronouns.

The verb ha:s- 'give birth' or 'beget' is often, though not inevitably, used with -za; ha:s- plus -za can be translated with an English reflexive:

    nu-za   MUNUS-za   DUMU.NITA-an   hasta
    and-reflexive   woman   son   bore
    "And the woman bore herself a son (or, more idiomatically: 'And the woman bore a son')."

The verb e:s- can mean 'sit, take a seat', or 'seat one's self'. With -za, however, it means 'seat oneself':

    ma:an-san   MTelepenus   INA   GISHGU-za        
    when-locatival   Telepenus   on   on throne        
    ABI-YA   e:shat   nu   URUHassuwa   lahha   pa:un
    father-my   sat   then   Hassuwa   on campaign   I went
    "When I, Telepenus, sat (or 'seated myself') upon the throne of my father, then I went on a military campaign to Hassuwa."

In the first clause of the following sentence, a plant is said to have grown on behalf of itself:

    nu   sankus   alil   mahhan   nu-za   parkiyat
    and   sankus   plant   just as   and-reflexive   grew
    tuell-a   SHA   DU   ZI-KA   parktaru    
    your-and   of   Stormgod   soul-your   let grow    
    "Just as the sankus flower grew, may your soul, O Stormgod grow."

Again, in this sentence from the "Plague Prayer of Mursilis" the action is supposed to affect the subject:

    ammuk-ma-az   SH-az   lahlahhiman   U:L   tarhmi
    I-but-reflexive   from heart   worry   not   overcome
    "But I cannot overcome the worry from (my) heart."

The compound verb pe:ran weriya- with -za means 'involve oneself with'. The following sentence is a nominal sentence made with the participle:

    ANA   L.ME^S   URUMira-ma-wa-za   peran le: weriyanza
    with   men   Mira-but-quotative-reflexive   do not be involved
    "Don't be involved with the men of Mira."

Sometimes the effect of -za is to change the meaning of the verb subtly. For example, the verb halza:i- generally means 'recite, call out', or sometimes 'read'. It can also mean 'summon'. In this sentence, a participant in a ritual calls out the Hattic word missa: 'take':

    nu   ka:s   missa:   halza:i
    and   this   missa   calls out
    "And this (person) calls out 'missa'."

With -za, however, the meaning is 'invite':

    nu-za   1 LIM   DINGIRMESH   halzai:s
    and-reflexive   one thousand   gods   he called
    "And he invited the thousand gods (to a feast)."

The verb mimma- means 'refuse' without -za:

    takku   attass-a   annas   mimmai
    if   father-and   mother   refuse
    "If the father and mother refuse (to make compensation to their daughter's jilted fiance)..."

With -za, however, the meaning of mimma- is 'reject':

    UDU-us-za   SIL-ZU   mimmas
    ewe-reflexive   lamb-her   rejected
    "The ewe rejected her lamb."