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Hittite Online

Lesson 9

Sara E. Kimball, Winfred P. Lehmann, and Jonathan Slocum

Although the Hittite political texts may be of greatest interest to us today, as indicated by the selections included in these lessons, religious texts like those in Lessons 8 through 10 make up far more of the materials left to us. Among these are recordings of the rituals. In contrast with the festivals, which are elaborate celebrations involving the gods, the rituals deal with individual problems, such as the one represented here. They have been referred to as examples of sympathetic magic. They are carried out by qualified persons, who are referred to as Old Women when they are females, as in the Tunnawi ritual. Among their topics, specific rituals deal with birth and development of individuals, removal of deficiencies or evils like the uncleanness that has supposedly brought about the inability of the ritualist to have children. As in this ritual, which involves activity next to a river, there are specific steps that need to be taken to overcome the deficiency. These are elaborated in great detail in the remainder of the ritual, and presumably at the end have succeeded in "purifying the twelve parts of the body of the ritualist and also reestablished his or her generative faculty."

Reading and Textual Analysis

The first passage given here identifies the problem of the ritualist as experiencing uncleanness and then states items of the specific ritual that will lead to a cure. The second passage specifies the animals involved, and then the clothing of a female ritualist. The following paragraph does the same for a male, followed by a list of the ingredients that the Old Woman must take along to the river bank which should remove the "evil uncleanness". Some of these must be given to the spirit of the river, such as part of a thin loaf of bread and a jug of wine, as she collects clay for fashioning objects involved in the cleansing. In the morning the ritualist comes to the river bank, puts on the black clothes, and is subjected to various actions by the Old Woman, such as having objects made from the clay of the river bank passed over him or her, all with appropriate statements by the Old Woman. These are listed in thirty further sections, the last of which provides the assurance of purification as given above.

6 - na-as ma-ah-ha-an wa-ap-pu-i a-ri nu 1 NINDA.SIG wa-ap-pu-wa-as DINGIR.MAH par-si-ya na-at-sa-an wa-ap-pu-i da-a-i

  • na-as -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative animate of <-as> he, she, it -- she
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- conjunction; <mahhan> as, how, when -- when
  • wa-ap-pu-i -- noun; dative singular of <wappu-> river bank -- at the river bank
  • a-ri -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <ar-> arrive -- arrives
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • NINDA.SIG -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.SIG> thin bread -- thin bread
  • wa-ap-pu-wa-as -- noun; genitive singular of <wappu-> river bank -- of the River Bank
  • DINGIR.MAH -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular <DINGIR.MAH> presiding deity, Mother Goddess -- for the Mother Goddess # The Hittite reading is Hannahanna.
  • par-si-ya -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <pars-, parsiya-> break, crumble -- she crumbles
  • na-at-sa-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it + locatival particle <-ssan> (indicating upward motion) -- and... it
  • wa-ap-pu-i -- noun; dative-locative singular of <wappu-> river bank -- on the river bank
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:i-, tiya-> place, put -- places

NINDA.I.E.D.A me-ma-al se-er is-hu-u-wa-i

  • NINDA.I.E.D.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.I.E.D.A> sweet oil cake -- sweet oil cake
  • me-ma-al -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <me:mal> meal -- and meal
  • se-er is-hu-u-wa-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <se:r ishuwa-> scatter -- she scatters (... on it)

nu GESHTIN si-pa-an-ti nu me-ma-i

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • GESHTIN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <GESHTIN> wine -- wine # The Hittite reading is wiyanan.
  • si-pa-an-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <sipa:nt-> make a libation, sacrifice -- she libates
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • me-ma-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <me:ma-, me:miya-> say, speak -- she says

7 - wa-ap-pu-wa-as DINGIR.MAH-as ka-a-sa EGIR-pa tu-uk -wa-nu-un

  • wa-ap-pu-wa-as -- noun; genitive singular of <wappu-> river bank -- of the River Bank
  • DINGIR.MAH-as -- proper noun; Sumerogram <DINGIR.MAH> presiding deity, Mother Goddess + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular) -- O, Mother Goddess # Since the vocative was moribund, even in the earliest texts, the nominative is normally used as the case of direct address.
  • ka-a-sa -- interjection; <ka:sa> behold, lo -- behold
  • EGIR-pa -- adverb Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-pa>... -- back
  • tu-uk -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular dative of <zik> you -- to you
  • -wa-nu-un -- verb; 1st person singular preterite of mi-conjugation <uwa-, we-> come -- I have come

nu-kan ka-a-sa IM-as ku-e-ez wa-ap-pu-wa-az da-an-za nu zi-ik wa-ap-pu-as DINGIR.MAH tu-e-el SHU-TI-KA da-a nu ku-u-un EN.SISKUR a-pe-e-ez sa-pi-ya-i na-an 12 UZUR par-ku-nu-ut

  • nu-kan -- sentence particle; <nu> and + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- ...
  • ka-a-sa -- interjection; <ka:sa> behold, lo -- behold
  • IM-as -- noun; Sumerogram <IM> clay + Hittite phonetic complement <-as> (indicating nominative singular animate) -- this clay
  • ku-e-ez -- relative pronoun; ablative singular of <kui-> that, which, who -- from whatever
  • wa-ap-pu-wa-az -- noun; ablative singular of <wappu-> river bank -- river bank
  • da-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- is taken
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • zi-ik -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular nominative <zik> you -- you
  • wa-ap-pu-as -- noun; genitive singular of <wappu-> river bank -- of the River Bank
  • DINGIR.MAH -- proper noun; Sumerogram functioning here as vocative <DINGIR.MAH> presiding deity, Mother Goddess -- O, Mother Goddess
  • tu-e-el -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular genitive of <zik> you -- your
  • SHU-TI-KA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular of <SHU> hand + Akkadian phonetic complement <-TI> (indicating abstract noun) + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 2nd person singular of <-KA> your -- in your hand # The Akkadian phonetic complement is derived from Akkadian qatim, genitive singular of qatu 'hand'. The expression was, however, read in Hittite, and the Hittite word for 'hand' in the dative singular was kissri:
  • da-a -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- take
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • ku-u-un -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular animate of <ka:-, ki:-> this -- this
  • EN.SISKUR -- noun; Sumerogram accusative singular animate of <EN.SISKUR> lord of the ritual -- the patient # This expresssion, literally 'lord' or 'master' of the ritual, the SISKUR, refers to the person on whose behalf the ritual is performed.
  • a-pe-e-ez -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular of <apa:-> that -- him or her # The opening lines state that the ritual may be performed on behalf of a man or a woman.
  • sa-pi-ya-i -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of mi-conjugation <sapiya-> cleanse, scrub, rub -- scrub
  • na-an -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative animate of <-an> him, her, it -- him or her
  • 12 -- numeral; <12> twelve -- twelve
  • UZUR -- noun; Sumerogram; singular functioning here as accusative <R> limb -- limbs # The noun probably lacks plural marking because the preceding numeral signals plurality. The determiner UZU 'meat' indicates things made of flesh.
  • par-ku-nu-ut -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of mi-conjugation <parkunu-> clean, purify -- purify

nam-ma wa-ap-pu-wa-as IM-an da-a-i

  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- then
  • wa-ap-pu-wa-as -- noun; genitive singular of <wappu-> river bank -- of the riverbank
  • IM-an -- noun; Sumerogram <IM> clay + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- clay
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- she takes

nam-ma-as sa-ku-ni-ya pa-iz-zi

  • nam-ma-as -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular nominative of <-as> he, she, it -- she
  • sa-ku-ni-ya -- noun; allative singular of <sakuniya-> spring -- to the spring
  • pa-iz-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <pa:i-> go -- goes

nu 1 NINDA.SIG par-si-ya na-at sa-ku-ni-ya-as pu-ru-ut da-a-i

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • 1 -- numeral; <1> one -- one
  • NINDA.SIG -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.SIG> thin bread -- thin bread
  • par-si-ya -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <pars-, parsiya-> break, crumble -- crumbles
  • na-at -- sentence particle; <nu> and + enclitic personal pronoun; 3rd person singular accusative neuter of <-at> he, she, it -- and it
  • sa-ku-ni-ya-as -- noun; genitive singular of <sakuniya-> spring -- of the spring
  • pu-ru-ut -- noun; accusative singular of <purut> mud, soil, earth -- namely the mud
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- she takes

NINDA.I.E.D.A me-ma-al su-uh-ha-i

  • NINDA.I.E.D.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <NINDA.I.E.D.A> sweet oil cake -- sweet oil cake
  • me-ma-al -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <me:mal> meal -- and meal
  • su-uh-ha-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <suhha-> scatter -- she scatters

nu GESHTIN si-pa-an-ti nu me-ma-i

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • GESHTIN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular animate of <GESHTIN> wine -- wine
  • si-pa-an-ti -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <sipa:nt-> make a libation, sacrifice -- she libates
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- and
  • me-ma-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <me:ma-, me:miya-> say, speak -- says

8 - zi-ik-kan ma-ah-ha-an sa-ku-ni-is GE6-az KI-az pu-ru-ut EGIR sa-ra-a sa-ku-ni-es-ke-si nu e-da-ni an-tu-uh-si A-NA EN.SISKUR ISH-TU UZURHI.A-SHU i-da-lu pa-ap-ra-tar QA-TAM-MA arha mu-ta-a-i

  • zi-ik-kan -- tonic personal pronoun; 2nd person singular nominative <zik> you + locatival particle <-kan> (indicating downward motion) -- you # This is a nominative used as a vocative.
  • ma-ah-ha-an -- adverb; <mahhan> as, how, when -- just as
  • sa-ku-ni-is -- noun; nominative singular of <sakuni-> spring -- O spring # The i-stem form is a variant of sakuniyas. The nominative is used as a vocative here.
  • GE6-az -- adjective; Sumerogram <GE6> dark + Hittite phonetic complement <-az> (indicating ablative singular) -- dark # The Hittite reading is dankuiyaz.
  • KI-az -- noun; Sumerogram <KI> earth, world + Hittite phonetic complement <-az> (indicating ablative singular) -- from the... earth # The Hittite reading is takna:z.
  • pu-ru-ut -- noun; nominative singular of <purut> mud, soil, earth -- mud
  • EGIR -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again -- back
  • sa-ra-a sa-ku-ni-es-ke-si -- verb; 2nd person singular present iterative of <sara: sakuniya-> bubble up -- keep bubbling... up
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- in the same way
  • e-da-ni -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular of <e-> this -- to this
  • an-tu-uh-si -- noun; dative singular of <antuwahhas> human being, person -- person
  • A-NA -- preposition; Akkadogram <ANA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the dative-locative) -- for
  • EN.SISKUR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as dative singular of <EN.SISKUR> lord of the ritual -- for the patient
  • ISH-TU -- preposition; Akkadogram <ISHTU> (functioning as graphic indicator of the ablative) -- from
  • UZURHI.A-SHU -- noun; Sumerogram <R> limb + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... + Akkadian enclitic possessive pronoun; 3rd person singular <-SHU> his, her -- his limbs
  • i-da-lu -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ida:lu-> evil, harm -- evil
  • pa-ap-ra-tar -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <papra:tar> impurity -- impurity
  • QA-TAM-MA -- adverb; Akkadogram <QA-TAM-MA> just so -- in the same way # The Hittite reading is apenissan.
  • arha mu-ta-a-i -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of mi-conjugation <arha muta:i-> remove -- remove

nam-ma sa-ku-ni-ya-as IM-an da-a-i

  • nam-ma -- adverb; <namma> furthermore, moreover -- then
  • sa-ku-ni-ya-as -- noun; genitive singular of <sakuniya-> spring -- of the spring
  • IM-an -- noun; Sumerogram <IM> clay + Hittite phonetic complement <-an> (indicating accusative singular animate) -- clay
  • da-a-i -- verb; 3rd person singular present of hi-conjugation <da:-> take -- she takes

ku-e-et-ma-an-ma MUNUS.SHU.GI ke-e da-as-ke-ez-zi EGIR-an-ma-as-sa-an D-i pe-ra-an GISHZA.LAM.GARHI.A SHA GI ka-ru- i-ya-an-ta

  • ku-e-et-ma-an-ma -- adverb; <kuitman> when, while + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- but while
  • MUNUS.SHU.GI -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative singular animate of <MUNUS.SHU.GI> old woman, wise woman -- the wise woman
  • ke-e -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ka:-, ki:-> this -- these things
  • da-as-ke-ez-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present iterative of <da:-> take -- is taking
  • EGIR-an-ma-as-sa-an -- adverb; Sumerogram <EGIR> back, again + Hittite phonetic complement <-an>... + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and + locatival particle <-san> (indicating downward motion) -- meanwhile
  • D-i -- noun; Sumerogram <D> river + Hittite phonetic complement <-i> (indicating dative singular) -- the river # The Hittite reading is ha:pi.
  • pe-ra-an -- postposition; <pe:ran> beside, in the presence of -- beside
  • GISHZA.LAM.GARHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <ZA.LAM.GAR> ceremonial tent + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... -- tents
  • SHA -- preposition; Akkadogram <SHA> (functioning as graphic indicator of the genitive) -- of
  • GI -- noun; Sumerogram genitive singular or plural of <GI> reed -- of reeds # The Hittite word for 'reed' is n:ata-.
  • ka-ru- -- adverb; <karu:> before, previously -- previously
  • i-ya-an-ta -- verb participle; accusative plural neuter of <iya-> do, make -- have been built

i-ya-an-zi-ma ku-wa-pi

  • i-ya-an-zi-ma -- verb; 3rd person plural present of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make + enclitic conjunction <-ma> but, and -- do they make it
  • ku-wa-pi -- interrogative adverb; <kuwa:pi> when, where -- where

nu ku-wa-pi har-sa-u-wa-ar ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an NU.GL GISHAPIN -UL a-ra-an-za nu GISHZA.LAM.GARHI.A a-pi-ya i-ya-an-zi

  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • ku-wa-pi -- adverb; <kuwa:pi> when, where -- where
  • har-sa-u-wa-ar -- noun; nominative singular of <harsauwar> cultivation -- cultivation
  • ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an -- adverb; <maninkuwan> nearby, near -- nearby
  • NU.GL -- verb; Sumerogram <NU.GL> there is not -- there is no
  • GISHAPIN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as nominative <GISHAPIN> plow -- the plow
  • -UL -- adverb; Akkadian negative <U:L> no, not -- not
  • a-ra-an-za -- verb participle; nominative singular animate of <a:r-> arrive, reach -- has come
  • nu -- sentence particle; <nu> and -- ...
  • GISHZA.LAM.GARHI.A -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <ZA.LAM.GAR> ceremonial tent + Sumerian plural marker <-HI.A>... -- the tents
  • a-pi-ya -- adverb; <apiya> then, there -- there
  • i-ya-an-zi -- verb; 3rd person singular present of mi-conjugation <iya-> do, make -- they build

Lesson Text

6 na-as ma-ah-ha-an wa-ap-pu-i a-ri nu 1 NINDA.SIG wa-ap-pu-wa-as DINGIR.MAH par-si-ya na-at-sa-an wa-ap-pu-i da-a-i
NINDA.I.E.D.A me-ma-al se-er is-hu-u-wa-i
nu GESHTIN si-pa-an-ti nu me-ma-i

7 wa-ap-pu-wa-as DINGIR.MAH-as ka-a-sa EGIR-pa tu-uk -wa-nu-un
nu-kan ka-a-sa IM-as ku-e-ez wa-ap-pu-wa-az da-an-za nu zi-ik wa-ap-pu-as DINGIR.MAH tu-e-el SHU-TI-KA da-a nu ku-u-un EN.SISKUR a-pe-e-ez sa-pi-ya-i na-an 12 UZUR par-ku-nu-ut
nam-ma wa-ap-pu-wa-as IM-an da-a-i
nam-ma-as sa-ku-ni-ya pa-iz-zi
nu 1 NINDA.SIG par-si-ya na-at sa-ku-ni-ya-as pu-ru-ut da-a-i
NINDA.I.E.D.A me-ma-al su-uh-ha-i
nu GESHTIN si-pa-an-ti nu me-ma-i

8 zi-ik-kan ma-ah-ha-an sa-ku-ni-is GE6-az KI-az pu-ru-ut EGIR sa-ra-a sa-ku-ni-es-ke-si nu e-da-ni an-tu-uh-si A-NA EN.SISKUR ISH-TU UZURHI.A-SHU i-da-lu pa-ap-ra-tar QA-TAM-MA arha mu-ta-a-i
nam-ma sa-ku-ni-ya-as IM-an da-a-i
ku-e-et-ma-an-ma MUNUS.SHU.GI ke-e da-as-ke-ez-zi EGIR-an-ma-as-sa-an D-i pe-ra-an GISHZA.LAM.GARHI.A SHA GI ka-ru- i-ya-an-ta
i-ya-an-zi-ma ku-wa-pi
nu ku-wa-pi har-sa-u-wa-ar ma-ni-in-ku-wa-an NU.GL GISHAPIN -UL a-ra-an-za nu GISHZA.LAM.GARHI.A a-pi-ya i-ya-an-zi

Translation

6 When she arrives at the river bank, she crumbles one thin bread for the Mother Goddess of the River Bank and places it on the river bank. She scatters sweet oil cake and meal on it. She libates wine and she says:
7 "O, Mother Goddess of the River Bank, behold, I have come back to you." "From whatever river bank this clay is taken, take the clay in your hand, scrub the patient with it and purify him or her in his or her twelve body parts." Then she takes clay of the river bank. And, moreover, she goes to the spring. And she crumbles one thin bread, and she takes it -- (namely) the mud of the spring. She scatters sweet oil cake and meal. And she libates wine and says:
8 "Just as you, O, spring, keep bubbling back up from the dark earth, in the same way, for the patient, from his or her limbs remove evil impurity." Then she takes clay of the spring. But while the wise woman is taking these things, meanwhile reed tents have been built previously beside the river. (The scribe:) "Where do they build them?" (The wise woman:) "Where there is no cultivation nearby, where the plow has not come, they build the tents there."

Grammar

41. Iteratives

Virtually every Hittite verb may make a formation called the iterative through the addition of a suffix to the verb stem. By far the most common suffix for forming iteratives was the suffix -ske-, -ska-, but a handful of verbs makes iteratives using the suffixes -anna- or -ssa-. These suffixes seem to be synonymous with the more frequent -ske-, -ska-. The general function of the iterative suffixes is to mark the action of the verb as extending over a noticeable period of time or as repeated. This general sense, however, is modified by the basic meaning of the verb and by context, in particular by accompanying adverbs. Iteratives may often be translated into English by "keeps on (doing something)" or, in the past tense, "kept on (doing something)," or "would (do something)" as in a sentence that describes a habitual action in the past like "He would eat pancakes for breakfast every Sunday."

41.1. Habitual activity

One use of the iterative is, indeed, to indicate that a particular activity is habitual. For example, in this passage from an Old Hittite text, the implication of the iterative hatreskezzi, iterative of hatra:i- 'write', is that one of the king's customary activities is to send written instructions to his noblemen, the L.MESHDUGUD. The iterative may be contrasted with the perfect hazzian harzi, which concerns a particular tablet that the king has had inscribed:

    ma:n-smas   ABI   parnas-ma   tarna
    when-you   father   to houses-but   lets go
    nu-smas   ma:nhhanda   hatreskezzi    
    and-to   you   just as   he writes (iter.)
    natta-smas   L.ME^SDUGUD-as   tuppi   hazzian harzi
    not-for you   dignitaries   tablet   written has
    "When (my) father lets you go to (your) houses, just as he customarily writes to you, has he not inscribed a tablet for you dignitaries?"

In the "Law Code" and other texts, the adverb karu: 'previously' is used with the iterative in the past tense to strengthen the idea that a particular penalty used to be the customary one:

    takku   L.U19.LU-as   SG.DU-ZU   kuiski   hu:nikzi
    if   of a person   head-his   someone   injures
    karu:   6   GN   K.BABBAR   pisker
    previously   six   shekels   silver   they used to give (iter.)
    "Previously... they used to give six shekels of silver."

The following, from a spell recited by the ritual practitioner, Tunnawi, presents the action of a spring bubbling up mud as customary, or eternal:

    zik-kan   mahhan   sakunis   GE6-az   KI-az   purut   EGIR
    you-locatival   as   spring   from dark   from earth   mud   back
    sara: sakuneskesi                        
    keep bubbling up (iter.)                        
    "Just as you, O spring, keep bubbling up mud from the dark earth..."
41.2. Extensive action

The iterative may be used for an action that is marked as extending over a continuous period of time. The action may be continuous, or it may be on-going but interrupted. Adverbs may be used to delimit the period of time during which the action is occurring, or to specify a particular time during which an action continues. An endpoint for the action may be specified or implied:

    ki:-ma-kan   tuppi   DUB.SAR   ANA   DINGIRLIM
    this-but-locatival   tablet   scribe   before   deity
    anda   UD-at UD-at   memiskezzi        
    to   daily   will read (iter.)        
    "This tablet the scribe shall read daily before the deity."
                     
    nu-us-kan   ishanas   DUTU   DIM-ni   paranta
    and-them-locatival   of blood   Sungod   Stormgod   across
    idalu   memisket   n-us   alwanzahhisket    
    unfavorably   kept speaking (iter.)   and-them   kept bewitching (iter.)    
    "He kept mentioning them unfavorably to the Sungod of Blood and the Stormgod, and he kept bewitching them."

The action of raising a child may be viewed as an ongoing one:

    n-an   annisan-pat   ABU-YA   sallanusket
    and-him   already-indeed   father-my   raised (iter.)
    "And indeed, my father had already raised him."

Similarly, calling out "like a wolf" in a ritual is viewed as an on-going action, and the iterative of halzai- 'call out', which takes the suffix -ssa-, is used:

    nu   UR.BAR.RA-ili   halzissai
    and   in wolf fashion   calls out (iter.)
    "He keeps calling out like a wolf."

In this passage from the "Law Code," the period of time during which a substitute keeps working in the house of someone who has been injured is limited by the phrase kuitma:n-as la:zziatta 'until he (the victim) recovers'.

    nu   ri-ssi   anniskezzi   kuitma:n-as   la:zziatta
    and   in house-his   he keeps working (iter.)   until-he   recovers
    "He (a substitute worker provide by the offender) keeps working in his (the victim's) house until he recovers."
41.3. Repeated action

The iterative may mark action performed on a series of objects. In other words, the action is viewed as repeated. The repeated actions may follow closely upon each other in time and space, or they may be separated temporally, spatially, or both.

In this passage, giving birth to a litter of piglets is viewed as a series of actions. Naturally, each birth follows relatively closely after the previous one:

    nu-za   1   SAH   mahhan   SAH.TURHI.A   mekkus   haskezzi
    and-reflexive   one   sow   just as   piglets   many   gives birth (iter.)
    "Just as one sow gives birth to many piglets..."
                             
    MUNUS.SHU.GI   DUGhupuwa-ya   hassi   anda   lahuskezzi
    old woman   vessels-and   hearth   into   keeps pouring (iter.)
    "And the old woman keeps emptying the vessels onto the hearth."

In the following, from a report to the king from a provincial outpost, the enemy's harvesting Hittite grain is viewed as a continuous action, though one that is necessarily distributed over time and space:

    LKR-wa   pangarit   ispandaz   kuwapi   VI ME   LKR
    enemy-quotative   in force   by night   in place   600   enemy
    kuwapi-ma   IV ME   LKR   yattari   nu-wa-kan    
    in place-but   400   enemy   is marching   and-quotative-locatival    
    halkius   arha waraskezzi                
    grain   lit. up-harvests (iter.)                
    "The enemy is marching in force in the night -- in one place 600 enemy, in another 400 enemy, and they keep on harvesting the grain."

It has been claimed too that iteratives are used to mark actions performed by multiple subjects. The following sentence can be interpreted in this fashion:

    1 LIM   MULHI.A   hukkuskanzi
    1,000   stars   recite a spell (iter)
    "The thousand stars are reciting a spell."

In this sentence, akkisk- the iterative of a:k-, akk- 'die' is used impersonally of an action that was necessarily performed by many subjects during a plague:

    nu-wa   PAN   ABI-YA   PAN   SESH-YA   akkisketat
    and-quotative   under   father-my   under   brother-my   was repeated dying(iter.)
    "Under my father (and) under my brother (i.e. during their reigns), there was repeated dying."
41.4. Inhibitive sense

When used in commands with the emphatic particle le: the iterative may have an inhibitive sense; in other words, the sense is "stop doing something that one has been continuously doing." In these two passages from letters written by scribes to other scribes, this use of the iterative lahlahhiske- 'keep on worrying' may be contrasted with the non-iterative form of the verb lahlahhiya- 'worry, be agitated'. In the first passage, the writer is telling his correspondent not to worry about the state of affairs in his household in Hattusas, an on-going situation. SHESH.DG.GA-YA 'my dear brother' is a courtesy title, used by officials of equal rank:

    ka:-ya   INA   -KA   hu:man   SIG5-in
    here-and   in   household   all   well
    n-asta   SHESH.DG.GA-YA   le:   kuwatqa   lahlahhiskesi
    and-locatival   dear brother-my   not   in anyway   you keep worying (iter.)
    "And here in your household everything is well. My dear brother, stop worrying in any way."

In this passage from the same letter, by contrast, the scribe is advised not to worry about another official who has been attacked by the enemy but is apparently unharmed. The use of the non-iterative form suggests that worrying is viewed here as an action that is not to be considered on-going:

    MTahazzilinn-a   kuit   walhan harker    
    Tahhazili-and   because   he has been attacked    
    n-ssi   ka:sa   LTEMI   awan arha wet
    and-to-him   look   messenger   came away
    SIG5-anza-war-ssi-kan   le:   kuwatqa   lahlahiyasi
    well-quotative-to him-locatival   not   in any way   you worry
    "And Tahazzili -- because they have attacked him -- look, (his) messenger came away (with the news) 'It is well with him.' Don't worry in any way."
41.5. The supine

Hittite has a construction with the so-called supine form in -wan plus a form of da:i- 'put' (or, less frequently, tiya- 'step', harpp- 'take to', or karpp- 'lift, undertake'). It is used to focus attention on an action's initiation and can usually be translated with "begin to..." Although the supine need not be made from the iterative stem, the iterative stem is used far more frequently in such constructions than the non-iterative stem:

    nu-mu   RINMESH   peskewan da:er
    and-to me   troops   to give they began
    "And they (a conquered city) started to give me troops."
             
    mahhan-ma   LMESH   URUAzzi   auer   URUDIDLI.HI.A   BD-kan
    when-but   people   of Azzi   saw   cities   fortified
    kuit   zahhiyaz   katta daskeuwan tehhun            
    that   in battle   I had begun to take            
    "But when the people of Azzi saw that I had started taking fortified cities in battle..."

In the following, the expression meaning "become a god" is used of a king's dying:

    L.SHU.GI   kisat   n-as   DINGIRLIM-is   kikkiskewan dais
    old man   became   and-he   god   began to become
    "He became an old man and began to become a god (i.e. 'started dying')."

The use of the supine construction in this sentence implies that the dream began to recur:

    nu-mu   asi   memiyas   teshaniskewan tiyat
    and-to-me   the aforementioned   mattter   began to appear in a dream
    "And the aforementioned matter began to appear to me in a dream."
41. Questions

The scribes who wrote the Hittite documents did not use punctuation or any other special means to indicate questions. Questions that demand and answer "yes" or "no" are of the same syntactic form as statements. Presumably they were distinguished from statements in speech by intonation. The lack of punctuation means that the modern reader often has to infer that a sentence is a question from the context. Doing so is especially difficult, not only because of the lack of punctuation, which makes it difficult to determine whether a sentence is intended as a yes/no question, but also because the interrogative and relative pronouns and adverbs were identical.

41.1. Yes/No and Rhetorical Questions

On the one hand, determining whether a sentence is intended as a yes/no question is complicated by the fact that the Hittites were especially fond of rhetorical questions. On the other hand, the fact that a sentence seems to express a sentiment that might seem redundant, out of place, or peculiar in context may be a clue that it is to be interpreted as a rhetorical question.

This sentence, for example, if interpreted as a statement, would indicate that the speaker is condoning murder:

    e:shar   INA   KUR   URUK.BABBAR-ti   a:ra
    bloodshed   in   country   Hatti   right
    "Is bloodshed in Hatti right?"

This question comes from a letter from a Hittite king to an Assyrian king. Since there are no historical grounds for assuming that the two kings were brothers, the intent is presumably sarcastic:

    zik-za-kan   ammuk-a   1-edani   AMA-ni   hassantes
    you-reflexive-locatival   I-and   to one   to mother   born
    "Were you and I born of one mother?"

This rhetorical question from "The Apology of Hattusilis III" comes at a point in the document when Hattusilis has been complaining about how he has been treated by Urhi-Teshup, the king he installed after the death of Muwatallis, and just before he describes the battle in which he deposes Urhi-Teshup. The tone can be interpreted as self-justifying:

    n-an-kan   ANA   GISHGIGIR   waggariyanun
    and-him-locatival   in   chariot   I rebelled
    nasma-an-kan   SHA   -TI   waggariyanun
    or-him-locatival   of   house   I rebelled
    "Did I rebel against him in the chariot (i.e. 'as a military commander'), or did I rebel against him in the house (i.e. in a palace conspiracy)?"

The rhetorical question may provide its own grounds in the form of a conditional, temporal, or contrary-to-fact clause. The following is a quotation from a letter from the widow of the Egyptian pharoah Tuthankamen, who has been corresponding with Suppiluliuma I asking him to send one of his sons to be her new husband:

    DUMU.LUGAL-man-wa   kuwapi   e:sta    
    prince-irrealis-quotative   anywhere   was    
    anzas-man-wa   damedani   KUR-e   uwawen
    we-irrealis-quotative   to another   to country   we came
    ma:n-wa-nas   anzel   BELI   wesiskewen
    if-quotative-to us   of us   lord   we kept requesting
    "If we had a prince (suitable for marriage) anywhere, would we have come to a foreign land and kept requesting a lord for ourselves?"

Questions that are negated are often rhetorical questions that demand "yes" as an answer. In such questions, the negation is often, though not inevitably, the first word in its clause. The following is from a text sent by a Hittite prince to noblemen reminding them of their duty to protect the people:

    ma:n-smas   ABI   parnas-ma   tarna
    when-you   father   to houses-but   lets go
    nu-smas   ma:nhhanda   hatreskezzi    
    and-to you   just as   he writes (iter.)    
    natta-smas   L.ME^SDUGUD-as   tuppi   hazzian harzi
    not-for you   dignitaries   tablet   written has
    "When (my) father lets you go to (your) houses, just as he customarily writes to you, has he not inscribed a tablet for you dignitaries?"

In the following question, however, the negation comes within the clause:

    man   zik   U:L   arsaniese
    irrealis   you   not   be upset
    "Wouldn't you be upset?"

In questions, negatives reinforced by kuiski 'someone, anyone' or the adverb imma 'indeed, surely' are not normally clause initial:

    nu-wa-ta   U:L   imma   pehhi   pehhi-ta
    and-quotative-to you   not   indeed   I give   I give-to you
    "Won't I indeed give (it) to you? I (surely) will give (it) to you!"

In order to determine the causes of troubles or to make decisions about future actions, the Hittites routinely employed various kinds of oracles, many of which contain an exacting series of yes/no questions. Therefore, oracle texts, of which many are preserved, are good places to find such questions. The following is from an oracle about the possible causes of a god's anger:

    DINGIR-LUM-za   kidas   waskuwas   ser   TUKU.TUKU-wanza
    deity-reflexive   these   sins   over   angered
    "Is the god angry on account of these sins?"
42. Questions with Interrogative Pronouns, Adjectives, and Adverbs

As in English, questions that demand information rather than a yes/no answer are made with interrogative pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs. The interrogatives from the stem kui- have the same forms as the relative pronouns. Similarly, the rarer stem masi- is shared by relatives and interrogatives. Often, the interrogative word is the first word in the question:

    kuis-war-as-kan   kuenta
    who-quotative-them-locatival   killed
    "Who killed them?"
         
    kuit   iyanun   kuit
    what   I did   what
    "What have I done? What?"
             
    kuit-wa   wastul-tit
    what-quotative   sin-your
    "What is your sin?"
         
    kuedani-wa-za   menahhanda   ishamiskesi
    whom-quotative-reflexive   before   you are singing
    "Before whom are you singing?"
             
    kuwat-war-an   para: U:L pesti
    why-quotative-him   over not you give
    "Why didn't you hand him over?"
         
    kuwapit   armenun
    where   we have come
    "To where have we come?"
         
    DIM-as   DNIN.TU-ni   tet   mahhan   iyaweni
    Stormgod   to Hanannana   said   how   we act
    "The Stormgod said to Hannahanna, 'How shall we act?' (i.e., 'What shall we do?')"

The interrogative word does not always come at the front of the question clause, however. Certain elements, such as verbs or adverbial phrases, may be moved to the front for emphasis.

    nu-wa-mu   iwaru   kuit   pa:i
    and-quotative-to me   dowry   what   he gives
    "What dowry will he give me?"

Questions in the form of nominal sentences with the interrogative kuit 'what' following the demonstrative pronoun ki: are quite common:

    ki:   kuit
    this   what
    "What is this?"
         
    zik-wa-kan   apu:n   anda   kuwat   austa
    you-quotative-locatival   that (woman)   at   why   you looked
    "Why did you look at that (woman)?"
                     
    nu-wa   wattaru   ma:hhan   iyan
    and-quotative   fountain   how   is made
    "How is the fountain made?"

In the following exchange from the "Ritual of Tuwanni," the scribe who is taking the ritual from dictation questions the ritual practitioner about the location of the tent that is built for the ritual. The fact that the sentence is followed by a statement specifying a type of location indicates that it is a question.

Scribe:

    iyanzi-ma   kuwapi
    they make-but   where
    "Where do they make (the tent?)"

Tunnawi:

    nu   kuwapi   harsauwar   maninkuwan   NU.GL   GISHAPIN   UL   aranza
    and   where   cultivation   nearby   there is not   plow   not   arrived
    nu   GISHZA.LAM.GAR   apiya   iyanzi                
    and   tent   there   they make                
    "Where there is no cultivation nearby, (where) the plow has not come; they make the hut there."

Like kui-, the pronoun masi- is used in questions. The following, for example, is a rhetorical question, asked by King Hattusilis I, who is is recounting the aftermath of a rebellion:

    nu   masie:s   MUHI.A   pa:er   masiess-a-kan   huwa:er
    and   how many   years   have gone   how many-and-locatival   ran
    "How many years have passed, and how many (of the offenders) have escaped (retribution)?"
43. Infinitives

Hittite has two infinitive forms, both of which may be active or passive in sense. One, in -a:nna, is made from athematic verbs of the mi-conjugation that show an alternation, called ablaut, in the vowels of their roots, e.g. ada:nna 'to eat' from e:d-, ad- 'eat', or huganna 'to recite a spell' from hwe:k-, huk- 'strike'. The verb aus- 'see', which is mostly inflected as a hi-conjugation verb, but which makes the mi-conjugation third person singular present, preterite, and imperatives auszi, austa, and ausdu also make an infinitive in -a:nna, uwanna. All other verbs, whether mi-conjugation or hi-conjugation, make an infinitive in -wanzi. The infinitives of verbs in stem final u- have the shape -manzi (or -mannzi), since a sequence u plus w regularly becomes um, for example the infinitive of wahnu- 'make turn' is wahnumanzi, and the infinitive of sallanu- 'raise, make big' is sallanummanzi. Both types of infinitive have the same functions.

43.1. Purpose or goal

As in English, the Hittite infinitive may express a purpose or goal:

    INA   KUR   URULawzantiya   ANA   DINGIRLIM   BAL-uwanzi   iyahhahat
    to   country   Lawanzantiyas   to   deity   to sacrifice (inf.)   I went
    "I went to the country of Lawanzantiyas to sacrifice to the deity."
                             
    nu   EN.SISKUR   warpuwanzi   paizzi
    and   patient   to wash (inf.)   goes
    "The patient goes to wash."
                 
    n-as   D-i   arrumanzi   pehudanzi
    and-them   to the river   to be washed (inf.)   they take
    "They take them to the river to be washed."
                 
    annissan-pat-an   MNIR.GL-is   LUGAL-us   ANA   ABU-YA
    before-already-him   Muwattallis   king   to   father-my
    MHattusli   sallanummanzi   piyan harta        
    Hattusilis   to raise (inf.)   given had        
    "Already before, the king, Muwattalli, had given him to Hattusili to raise."
43.2. Infinitive as object

The infinitive may be the object of some verbs. For example, wek- 'ask for, demand' often takes the infinitive akuwanna 'to drink' in ritual texts:

    LSANGA   akuwanna   wekzi
    priest   to drink (inf.)   asks
    "The priest asks to drink"

An infinitive is often the object of sanh- 'seek' in the sense 'try'.

    1-as 1-an   kunanna   le:   sanhanzi
    one another   to kill (inf.)   not   seek
    "One should not seek to kill another."

Mazz-, which otherwise means 'endure, withstand', means 'dare' with the infinitive:

    ma:n   apa:s-ma   memiyauwanzi   U:L   mazzazzi
    if   he-but   to tell (inf.)   not   dare
    "But if he doesn't dare to tell..."
                     
    uwanna   U:L   mazatti
    to look (inf.)   not   you dare
    "You don't dare to look."
43.3. Infinitive with object

The infinitive itself may take a direct object:

    apa:s-ma-mu   harkanna   sanhta
    he-but-me   to destroy (inf.)   he sought
    "He sought to destroy me."
43.4. Adverbial infinitives

Infinitives may also be used adverbially. In the following, liliwahhnuwani is the infinitive of the verb liliwahh- 'move swiftly':

    mahhan-ta   ka:s   tuppianza   anda wemiyazzi    
    as soon as-you   this   tablet   reaches    
    nu   MAHAR   DUTUSHI   liliwannuwanzi   u:nni
    and   before   my majesty   in a hurry   drive
    "As soon as this tablet reaches you, travel to my majesty in a hurry ."
44. N-stem and S-stem Nouns

Hittite preserves a number of nouns with archaic inflection and stems in -n- or -s-. Both sorts of declension, though inherited from Indo-European, are quite rare.

44.1. N-stems

The neuter nouns la:man 'name' and te:kan 'earth' preserve an archaic inflection in which both the shape of the root and the shape of the suffix change according to case form. In la:man a stem la:m-an in the nominative-accusative alternates with a stem lam-n- in the other cases, and in the word for 'earth' the nominative-accusative te:k-an alternates with a stem tag-a:n in the locative and a stem tak-n- in the other cases:

Singular        
nom/acc.   la:man   te:kan
gen.   lam-n-as   tak-n-a:s
dat.   lam-n-i   tak-n-i:
loc.       taga:n
abl.   *lam-n-az   tak-n-a:z
inst.   lam-n-it    
all.       tak-n-a:
Plural        
nom/acc.        
nom.        
acc.        
gen.        
dat/loc.   lam-n-as    

Animate n-stems, for example kutruwa-, kutruwen- 'witness' and ishima:-, ishima:n- 'cord, rope', are inflected partially as a-stems and partially as n-stems. The suffix of the former noun is wen- and the suffix of the latter noun is -ma:n-. The a-stem forms of these animate nouns were probably formed on the model of the nominatives, in which earlier forms of the suffixes were *-wan-s and *-man-s and the original *n was lost before the animate ending -s by regular sound change. The neuter n-stem sahhan 'feudal service', by contrast, is of a type in which neither the root sahh- nor the suffix -an- changes shape according to case.

Singular            
nom.   kutr-uwa-s   ishi-ma:-s   sahhan
acc.       ishi-man-an   sahhan
gen.           sahhan-as
dat/loc.   kutr-u-i       sahhan-i
abl.       ishi-man-az   sahhan-az
inst.       ishi-man-da   sahhan-it
all.            
Plural            
nom.   kutr-uwen-es   ishi-ma:n-es    
acc.   kutru:s   ishi-ma:n-us    
gen.            
dat/loc.            
44.2. S-stems

A handful of Hittite nouns have stems that end in vowel plus -s. Perhaps the most common of these is the neuter noun ne:pis 'heaven'. This noun shows an invariant stem ne:pis throughout its paradigm. In the paradigm of the neuter s-stem a:is 'mouth', however, the stem a:is- in the nominative-accusative singular, alternates with a stem iss- elsewhere in the paradigm. Both nouns are attested only in the singular.

Singular        
nom/acc.   ne:pis   a:is
gen.   ne:pis-as   *iss-a:s
dat-loc.   ne:pis-i   iss-i:
abl.   ne:pis-az   iss-a:z
inst.       *iss-it
all.   ne:pis-a   iss-a:
45. Postpositions

In Hittite the function words that are the equivalent of English, Latin, or Greek prepositions normally come after the nouns which they govern. The technical term for such a function word that follows its noun is postposition. Like prepositions, postpositions generally specify spatial or temporal relations, though they may also take on less concrete meanings. Many postpositions also function as adverbs or as preverbs. We find a comparable situation in English, for example in the use of the English function word 'down' in "down the river" (preposition); "she tossed the ball down" (adverb); and "she lived her reputation down" (verbal particle). As in Latin and Greek, Hittite postpositions cause the nouns they govern to take specific case forms, and many postpositions may take more than one case form.

For example, me:nahhanda 'facing, against, opposite' usually takes a dative-locative:

    na-as-kan   LUGAL-i   menahhanda   tiyazi
    and-he-locatival   the king (dat-loc)   opposite   steps
    "He takes a position opposite the king."

The postpositions istarna 'in the midst of, among', tapusza 'alongside (of)', and andurza 'inside (of)' may take a noun in the dative-locative. Since many actions in rituals involve the hearth, one finds these postpositions with the word for 'hearth'.

    hassi   istarna   pe:di
    hearth (dat-loc.)   in the midst of   in place
    "in a place in the midst of the hearth"
             
    hassi:   tapusza
    hearth (dat-loc.)   alongside
    "alongside the hearth"

This phrase uses the Sumerogram GUNNI plus phonetic complement for dative-locative hassi: 'hearth':

    GUNNI-si   andurza
    hearth (dat-loc.)   inside
    "inside the hearth"

Tapusza may also take a noun in the genitive:

    parsulli   hassa:s   tapusza
    bread crumbs   of the hearth (gen.)   alongside
    "bread crumbs alongside of the hearth"

The postposition pe:ran 'before' may take the accusative:

    ha:ssan   pe:ran   da:i
    the hearth (acc.)   before   he places
    "He places (it) before the hearth."

It may also take the genitive, however:

    t-an   hassa:s   pe:ran   tiyanzi
    and-it   hearth (gen.)   before   they place
    "They place it before the hearth."

The postpositions ha:nda and handas 'for the sake of, because of, out of regard for' are normally followed by a noun in the dative:

    a:ssiyanni   handas
    of love (dat.-loc)   for the sake
    "for the sake of love"
         
    SHA   SHESH-YA   nakkiyanni   handas
    of   brother-my   importance (dat-loc.)   out of regard for
    "out of regard for my brother's importance"

In this phrase, the Akkadian preposition ANA signals that the following noun is to be understood as a dative:

    ANA   SHESH-YA   handas
    dative   my brother (dat.-loc)   out of consideration
    "out of consideration for my brother"

With many postpositions, differences in the case of the preceding noun may contribute to subtle differences in meaning. The preverbs a:ppa and a:ppan, 'following, after, behind', for example, often take the genitive:

    attas-mas   a:ppan
    father-my (gen.)   after
    "after my father"
         
    kuis   ammel   a:ppan   LUGAL-us   ki:sari
    who   me (gen.)   after   king   becomes
    "who becomes king after me..."

But a:ppa may also take the ablative, the case of separation, as in:

    tuzziyaz   a:ppa
    army (abl.)   behind
    "behind the army"

katta, and kattan, meaning 'down, below, under' can take the genitive:

    hassa:s   katta   edi   parsana:n harzi
    hearth (gen.)   down by   there   squatted he has
    "He has squatted there down by the hearth."

But with the dative-locative, the meaning is 'located under':

    GISHBANSHUR-i   katta
    table (dat.-loc)   under
    "under the table"

With the ablative, the meaning is 'down from' as in:

    URU-az   katta
    from the city (abl.)   down
    "down from the city"

With the dative-locative anda and andan mean 'into', for example:

    -ri   anda
    the house (dat.)   into
    "into the house"

Used with the genitive, however, they mean 'in' or 'at':

    istananas   anda   DINGIRMESH   wisu:riyanantati
    altars (gen.)   at   gods   were stifled
    "At (their) altars the gods were stifled."

The postposition iwar 'like' is used with the genitive in similies:

    nu-za   LMESH   huelpi   GA.RASSAR   iwar   arha karapta
    and-reflexive   men   fresh   leek (gen.)   like   you eat up
    "You eat up men like (one would eat up) a fresh leek."

The word ma:n, which has a number of other functions, may be used as a postposition following a genitive with the sense 'like' in similies:

    suminzan-a   RMESH-am-man   UR.BAR.RA-as   ma:n   pangur   I-EN   e:stu
    your-but   servants-my   of the wolf (gen.)   like   clan   one   let be
    "Let your clan, my servants, be united like (that) of the wolf."

The closely related ma:hhan may also be used as a postposition meaning 'like':

    nu-war-as   arha   dannarus   DUGUTLHI.A   mahhan
    and-quotative-them   away   empty   vessels   like
    duwarniskesi                
    you will keep breaking                
    "You will keep breaking them up like empty vessels."
45.1. Frozen case forms

Etymologically, many postpositions are frozen case forms of nouns; tapusza and andurza, for example, are from ablatives. Postpositions formed from different case forms may have somewhat different meanings. For example, katta and kattan normally mean 'down', but the related katti means 'with'. The postposition se:r, formed from the endingless locative of an old noun, retains its locatival sense and means 'upon' or 'up upon' as in:

    HUR.SAG-i   se:r
    mountain (loc.)   upon
    "upon the mountain"
         
    suhhi   se:r
    roof (loc.)   up upon
    "up upon the roof"

The related sara: 'up', which is formed from an old allative, and is used with both the dative-locative and the allative, however, often has the sense of 'up to':

    HUR.SAG-i   sara:
    mountain (dat.-loc)   up to
    "Up to the mountain"
         
    suhha   sara:
    roof (all.)   up to
    "up to the roof"
45.2. With enclitic pronouns

When used with enclitic pronouns, the postpositions, as independently accented words, naturally precede the pronouns they govern:

  • katti-mmi 'with me'
  • katti-tti 'with you'
  • se:r-smet 'over them' (spelled se-e-er-sa-me-et)
  • pe:an-ttit 'in front of you'

In early texts, the final -n- of pe:ran may become m before the initial m of the first person singular enclitic pronoun (i.e. pe:ram-mit for pe:ram-mit) or it may be lost before the initial s of the third person singular and second and third person plural pronouns (i.e. pe:rasset for pe:ran-sset).