The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Latin Online

Lesson 10

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The great epic poet, Virgil -- Virgilius Maro -- was born on October 15, 70 B.C. in Cisalpine Gaul, where his father reputedly had a small estate. He received an excellent education, after which he returned to the estate and began his writings. Besides the Aeneid, these include the Eclogues and the Georgica. He later became an intimate of the court of the Emperor, Caesar Augustus, and thanks to his patronage was able to enjoy a life of leisure. Among other friends, he was highly respected by Horace. He died on September 22, 19 B.C. in Brundisium, in the company of the Emperor on their return to Italy from Athens.

The Aeneid was the last of his great works. With its glorification of the founders of Rome, it reflects his attachment to the Roman court. Written in hexameters, it is patterned after the Homeric epics. These begin with a word characterizing them -- the Iliad with the word for wrath, the Odyssey with the word for man. Virgil innovated by giving two words as indicating the central content of the epic -- arms and the man. Milton followed him in this respect, beginning Paradise Lost with the line: Of man's first disobedience and the fruit of that forbidden tree... The Aeneid was widely read throughout the Middle Ages and later. In earlier times, every educated person could recite its beginning verses. There are numerous translations into verse and prose -- among those into verse, one by John Dryden published in 1697, and another by William Morris published in 1875. There are also numerous editions and commentaries.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The Aeneid builds on the tradition of the founding of Rome as depicted by Livy in the texts of the first two lessons of LATOL, especially the first. Ascribing the early era to one of the Trojan heroes, it provides a similar function as that of the Homeric epics for the Greeks in proposing a long and illustrious history of the Romans. The first six books with their climax in the stay of Aeneas with Dido and then his departure from her foreshadow the conflict between Rome and Carthage. The sixth book includes the visit of Aeneas to Hades, where he sees Dido, but she disdains him after her suicide. The book is said to have greatly influenced Dante in his production of The Divine Comedy. The second six books deal with the landing in Latium and the conquest of Italy by Aeneas, which was accomplished in twenty days. But as with Livy, the gap between the arrival of Aeneas in Italy, presumably in the twelfth century, and the actual founding of Rome by Romulus, presumably in the eighth, is passed over. Aeneas himself was killed in a battle; his body was not found, and by one tradition it was assumed that he was carried up to heaven.

Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque venit
Litora -- multum ille et terris jactatus et alto
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram,
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem
Inferretque deos Latio -- genus unde Latinum
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae.

  • arma -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <arma, armorum> arms -- arms
  • virumque -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vir, viri> man + conjunction <-que> and -- and a man
  • cano -- verb; 1st person singular present of <canō, canere, cecinī, cantum> sing -- I sing about
  • Trojae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Troja, Trojae> Troy -- of Troy
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • primus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <primus, prima, primum> first -- as the first
  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • oris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <ora, orae> mouth, boundary, coast -- the coasts
  • Italiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Italia, Italiae> Italy -- to Italy
  • fato -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <fatum, fati> fate, divine utterance -- by fate
  • profugus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <profugus, profuga, profugum> fugitive -- in flight
  • Laviniaque -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <Lavinius, Lavinia, Lavinium> Lavinian + conjunction <-que> and -- and to the Lavinian
  • venit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum> come -- came
  • litora -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <litus, litoris> shore -- shores
  • multum -- adverb; <multum> greatly -- very much
  • ille -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- he
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- both
  • terris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <terra, terrae> earth, land -- on land
  • jactatus -- verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect passive participle of <jactō, jactāre, jactāvī, jactātum> throw -- tossed about
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • alto -- adjective used as substantive; ablative singular neuter of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- on sea
  • vi -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <vis, vis> power, strength -- by the power
  • superum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive masculine plural of <superus, supera, superum> higher, gods -- of the gods
  • saevae -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <saevus, saeva, saevum> fierce, cruel -- of fierce
  • memorem -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <memor, memoris> mindful, remembering -- relentless
  • Junonis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Juno, Junonis> Juno -- of Juno
  • ob -- preposition; <ob> because of -- because of
  • iram -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ira, irae> anger -- anger
  • multa -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <multus, multa, multum> many -- many things
  • quoque -- adverb; <quoque> also -- also
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • bello -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <bellum, belli> war -- in battle
  • passus -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle passive of <patior, patī, passus sum> suffer, endure -- he suffered
  • dum -- conjunction; <dum> while -- while
  • conderet -- verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive imperfect of <condō, condere, condidī, conditum> found -- he founded
  • urbem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- the city
  • inferretque -- verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive imperfect of <inferō, inferre, intulī, inlātum> introduce, produce + conjunction <-que> and -- and brought in
  • deos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <deus, dei> god -- the gods
  • Latio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Latium, Latii> Latium -- to Latium
  • genus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <genus, generis> kind, class -- the race
  • unde -- adverb; <unde> from whence -- from which place
  • Latinum -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <Latinus, Latina, Latinum> Latin -- Latin
  • Albanique -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <Albanus, Albana, Albanum> Alban + conjunction <-que> and -- and the Alban
  • patres -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <pater, patris> father -- fathers
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • altae -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- of lofty
  • moenia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <moenia, moenium> walls -- the walls
  • Romae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Roma, Romae> Rome -- Rome

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso
Quidve dolens regina deum tot volvere casus
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
Impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

  • Musa -- noun, feminine; vocative singular of <Musa, Musae> Muse -- Oh Muse,
  • mihi -- pronoun; dative singular of <ego> I -- me
  • causas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- the reasons
  • memora -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <memorō, memorāre, memorāvī, memorātus> relate, tell -- tell
  • quo -- interrogative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <qui, quae, quod> which, what -- for what
  • numine -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <numen, numinis> authority -- authority
  • laeso -- verb; perfect participle passive of <laedō, laedere, laesī, laesum> strike, offend -- offended
  • quidve -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> who, what + conjunction <-ve> or -- or ... what
  • dolens -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present participle of <doleō, dolēre, doluī, dolitum> suffer, be angry -- angry
  • regina -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <regina, reginae> queen -- queen
  • deum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <deus, dei> god -- of the gods
  • tot -- adjective number; <tot> so much, so many -- so many
  • volvere -- verb; infinitive of <volvō, volvere, volvī, volūtum> pass through, undergo -- to undergo
  • casus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <casus, casus> fall, misfortune, chance -- misfortunes
  • insignem -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <insignis, insignis, insigne> distinguished -- distinguished
  • pietate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <pietas, pietatis> piety -- for piety
  • virum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vir, viri> man -- a man
  • tot -- adjective number; <tot> so much, so many -- so many
  • adire -- verb; infinitive of <adeō, adīre, adiī, adītum> approach, encounter -- to encounter
  • labores -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <labor, laboris> labor, effort -- hardships
  • impulerit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <impellō, impellere, impulī, impulsum> drive, move -- drove
  • tantaene -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <tantus, tanta, tantum> such + interrogative adverb <-ne> ... -- Are such
  • animis -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <animus, animi> soul, mind -- minds
  • caelestibus -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <caelestis, caelestis, caeleste> celestial -- in the celestial
  • irae -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <ira, irae> anger -- angers

Urbs antiqua fuit (Tyrii tenuere coloni)
Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli.

  • urbs -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- city
  • antiqua -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <antiquus, antiqua, antiquum> ancient -- an ancient
  • fuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- There was
  • Tyrii -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <Tyrius, Tyria, Tyrium> Tyrian -- Tyrian
  • tenuere -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <teneō, tenēre, tenuī, -> hold, control, understand -- controlled
  • coloni -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <colonus, coloni> farmer, settler -- settlers
  • Karthago -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Karthago, Karthaginis> Carthage -- Carthage
  • Italiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Italia, Italiae> Italy -- Italy
  • contra -- preposition; <contra> opposite, facing -- opposite
  • Tiberinaque -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <Tiberinus, Tiberina, Tiberinum> of Tiber + conjunction <-que> and -- and the Tiberine
  • longe -- adverb; <longe> by far -- and far from
  • ostia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ostium, ostii> mouth, entrance -- the mouths
  • dives -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <dives, divitis> rich -- rich in
  • opum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- wealth
  • studiisque -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <studium, studii> application, study + conjunction <-que> and -- and the ... pursuits
  • asperrima -- adjective; nominative singular feminine superlative of <asper, aspera, asperum> rough, harsh -- harshest
  • belli -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <bellum, belli> war -- of war

quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam
posthabita coluisse Samo: hic illius arma,
hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse,
si qua fata sinant, iam tum tenditque fovetque.

  • quam -- relative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- It
  • Juno -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Juno, Junonis> Juno -- Juno
  • fertur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum> bear, carry -- is said
  • terris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <terra, terrae> earth, land -- lands
  • magis -- adverb; <magis> more -- more than
  • omnibus -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • unam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <unus, una, unum> one, alone -- alone
  • posthabita -- verb; ablative singular feminine of perfect passive participle of <posthabeō, posthabēre, posthabuī, posthabitum> place after, esteem less -- was esteemed less
  • coluisse -- verb; infinitive perfect of <colō, colere, coluī, cultum> dwell in, cultivate -- to have cherished
  • Samo -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <Samos, Sami> Samos -- even Samos
  • hic -- adverb; <hīc> here, now -- here (were)
  • illius -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- her
  • arma -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <arma, armorum> arms -- arms
  • hic -- adverb; <hīc> here, now -- here
  • currus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <currus, currus> chariot -- her chariot
  • fuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- was
  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • regnum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- the leading kingdom
  • dea -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <dea, deae> goddess -- the goddess
  • gentibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <gens, gentis> race, clan -- among the peoples
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- to be
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • qua -- indefinite pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- by some way
  • fata -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <fatum, fati> fate, divine utterance -- the fates
  • sinant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <sinō, sinere, sīvī> permit, allow -- would permit it
  • iam -- adverb; <iam> already -- already
  • tum -- adverb; <tum> then -- then
  • tenditque -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <tendō, tenere, tenuī, tentum> stretch, pursue + conjunction <-que> and -- she both pursued
  • fovetque -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtum> warm, favor + conjunction <-que> and -- and favored it

Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci
audierat Tyrias olim quae verteret arces.

  • progeniem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <progenies, -> offspring, race -- a race
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • enim -- conjunction; <enim> for, indeed -- indeed
  • Troiano -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <Troianus, Troiana, Troianum> Trojan -- Trojan
  • a -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • sanguine -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <sanguis, sanguinis> blood -- blood
  • duci -- verb; infinitive passive of <dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum> lead, consider -- would be drawn
  • audierat -- verb; 3rd person singular pluperfect of <audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum> hear -- she had heard
  • Tyrias -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <Tyrius, Tyria, Tyrium> Tyrian -- Tyrian
  • olim -- adverb; <olim> some day -- some
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • verteret -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <vertō, vertere, vertī, versum> turn, overturn -- would overturn
  • arces -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <arx, arcis> citadel, fortress -- citadels

Lesson Text

Arma virumque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque venit
Litora -- multum ille et terris jactatus et alto
Vi superum, saevae memorem Junonis ob iram,
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem
Inferretque deos Latio -- genus unde Latinum
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae.
Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso
Quidve dolens regina deum tot volvere casus
Insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
Impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?
Urbs antiqua fuit (Tyrii tenuere coloni)
Karthago, Italiam contra Tiberinaque longe
Ostia, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli.
quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam
posthabita coluisse Samo: hic illius arma,
hic currus fuit; hoc regnum dea gentibus esse,
si qua fata sinant, iam tum tenditque fovetque.
Progeniem sed enim Troiano a sanguine duci
audierat Tyrias olim quae verteret arces.

Translation

I sing of arms and the man, who as first (among the Romans) came from the coasts of Troy to the Lavinian shores in flight driven by fate. Tossed about on lands and the sea by the might of the gods, he suffered many things also in battle through the relentless anger of fierce Juno as he brought the gods to Latium, whence the Latin race and the Alban fathers and also the walls of lofty Rome.
Remind me of the causes, oh Muse, offended for what authority, or angry at what the queen of the gods caused a man outstanding in piety to undergo so many troubles, to suffer so many labors. Are there such angers in the celestial minds?
There was an ancient city (Tyrian colonists maintained it), Carthage, a long way opposite Italy and the mouths of the Tiber, rich in wealth and very fierce in the pursuits of war, which alone Juno is said to have cherished more than all others, even esteeming Samos less. Here were her arms; here, her chariot. This was the ruling power among the races for the goddess, and as the fates permitted, she favored and supported it. But she had heard that a race from Trojan blood would at some time overturn the Tyrian citadels.

References

46. Texts.

As a result of the long and detailed attention, the texts of the Latin authors have been fixed. For example, the texts of the first two lessons are identical in the publication by Mauritius Mueller (Leipzig: Teubner, 1892) and that of the Loeb Classical Library published in 1919 and reprinted numerous times to 1998. And the text of Einhard's biography of Charlemagne was fixed after numerous other editions in that of O. Holder-Egger (Hannover, 1911), which has subsequently been reprinted.

Unless a text with extensive commentary is desired, readers of the Latin texts will do well to use the editions of the Loeb Classical Library, which have the added advantage of including translations. These are readily available from the Harvard University Press (Cambridge, Mass. and London, England). The texts that have been widely read in schools and universities, such as those of Caesar and Virgil, are readily available. They have been published with introductions and commentaries, often also with glossaries. References may be found in catalogues of libraries and publishers.

47. Grammars.

In much the same way, the grammars of Latin are based on long attention. The fullest grammar is that of Manu Leumann, Joh. Bapt. Hofmann and Anton Szantyr, Lateinische Grammatik. I. Laut-und Formenlehre (Munich: Beck, 1977), II. Syntax und Stilistik (Munich: Beck, 1965). For ready reference, most readers will find useful a shorter grammar, such as A Latin Grammar of 1903, by William Gardner Hale and Carl Darling Buck (Tuscaloosa: Alabama University Press, 1966).

For a historical treatment, see the Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, by Carl Darling Buck (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933). A successor is the New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, by Andrew L. Sihler (Oxford: University Press, 1995); it is written like a novel -- no references, no bibliography.

48. Dictionaries.

Dictionaries of various extent are also readily available. A Latin Dictionary, by Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (Oxford University Press, 1956) is extensive. The companion Elementary Latin Dictionary by Lewis (Oxford University Press, 1969) is also comprehensive, and less costly.

49. Specialized handbooks.

As catalogues in libraries and in lists of the concerned publishers indicate, one may readily find handbooks dealing with all aspects of Roman culture and history. Among examples, the Oxford University Press (2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513) has published The Oxford History of the Roman World, eds. John Boardman, Jasper Griffin, Oswyn Murray (2001), The Oxford Illustrated History of the Roman World by the same editors (2001), Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome, by Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins (1998), Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire, by K.R.Bradley (1987), Rome, by M. Rostovtzeff (1960), among many other more specialized works. References works like A Smaller Classical Dictionary, ed. E.H.Blakeney (New ork: Dutton, 1928) provide compact entries on persons, places and things in the Roman and Greek world.

One should not overlook the essays in encyclopedias, such as those in the celebrated 13th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica. These deal with various aspects of culture and history.

50. The Legacy of the Roman World.

The Roman world has exerted massive influence on the western world, as its linguistic effects and institutions indicate. An example is Salus Mundi 'welfare or prosperity of the world', the name of the foundation that sponsored the present work. Among many other examples, we may cite Cursor Mundi, the name of an English epic poem of the 13th century that sketches the history of the world according to the Old and New Testaments. Its unidentified author explains the title with the lines:

Cursur of werld man aght it call
For almast it overrennes all.

(Cf. Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 7, p. 650. London: The Encyclopedia Britannica Co., 1926, 13th ed.) Another expression, E pluribus unum -- one out of many -- was selected as characterizing the United States. And Summa cum laude -- with the highest praise -- indicates academic excellence.

James Bradstreet Greenough and George Lyman Kittredge state in their work Words and their Ways in English Speech (New York: Macmillan, 1902) p. 93: "The influence of Latin is not confined to the technical vocabulary. It is felt in almost every sentence that we utter. It pervades the whole system of English speech." A sentence like the first in this section provides ample support for the statement. They also point to the Roman numerals and the symbol &c for Latin et cetera. Moreover, they cite doublets, like reason, ration and ratio, the first of which was taken from the Old French reflex of the Latin word, the second somewhat later from French in military use, and the last directly from Latin in mathematical use.

The institutions are of lesser concern here, but as the linguistic importations indicate, they as well as our clerical, military and educational terms are heavily based on those developed in the Roman world. Such effects indicate excellent reasons for reading Latin texts, as promoted by this series of online lessons.