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Latin Online

Lesson 3

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

In Book 6 of The Gallic War, Julius Caesar (100 - 44 B.C.) decided to describe the people of Gaul and of Germania. He has given us a brief anthropological account of their customs and activities. Only selections can be included here, but these indicate the differences between the two peoples.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The people of Gaul had obviously been influenced by the Greeks and Romans, while the people of Germania have resisted such influences. The account of the people of Germania consequently provides information on the conditions that applied in previous centuries, possibly even in late Indo-European times. On the other hand, the singling out of the classes of Druids and Knights, beside the common members of their society, shows a striking resemblance to the castes of Indian society, where the Brahmans or priests had the highest status, followed by the Kshatriyas or warriors. But in contrast with the two further Indian castes of Vaishyas and Shudras those not in these two Gallic classes were lumped together, and regarded much like the Indian outcastes. It is questionable, then, whether there is a historic connection between the Gallic class system and the Indian caste system.

Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non alienum esse videtur de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus et quo differant hae nationes inter sese proponere.

  • quoniam -- conjunction; <quoniam> since -- since
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • hunc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • locum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <locus, loci> place -- place
  • perventum -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventum> arrive, reach with est -- has been reached
  • est -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am with perventum -- ...
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • alienum -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <alienus, aliena, alienum> foreign, unfitting -- unfitting
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- be
  • videtur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see -- seem
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- about
  • Galliae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Gallia, Galliae> Gaul -- of Gaul
  • Germaniaeque -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Germania, Germaniae> Germania + conjunction <-que> and -- and of Germania
  • moribus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <mos, moris> custom -- practices
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quo -- interrogative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> who, what -- how
  • differant -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <differō, differre, distulī, dīlātum> differ -- differ
  • hae -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • nationes -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <natio, nationis> nation -- nations
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • sese -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- one another
  • proponere -- verb; infinitive of <prōpōnō, proponere, proposuī, propositum> point out, set forth -- to point out

In omni Gallia eorum hominum, qui aliquo sunt numero atque honore, genera sunt duo.

  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • omni -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all of
  • Gallia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <Gallia, Galliae> Gaul -- Gaul
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • hominum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- humans
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • aliquo -- pronoun adjective; ablative singular masculine of <aliqui, aliqua, aliquod> some, any -- some
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- are
  • numero -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- esteem
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • honore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <honos, honoris> honor, distinction -- distinction
  • genera -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <genus, generis> kind, class -- kinds
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there are
  • duo -- number; <duo, duae, duo> two -- two

Nam plebes paene servorum habetur loco, quae nihil audet per se, nullo adhibetur consilio.

  • nam -- conjunction; <nam> for -- for
  • plebes -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <plebs, plebis> common people -- the common people
  • paene -- adverb; <paene> almost -- almost
  • servorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <servus, servi> slave -- of slaves
  • habetur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- are regarded
  • loco -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <locus, loci> place -- in the position of, as
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • nihil -- noun; indeclinable <nihil> nothing -- nothing
  • audet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <audeō, audēre, ausus sum> dare to do -- dares
  • per -- preposition; <per> through, by -- by
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • nullo -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- not ... any
  • adhibetur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <adhibeō, adhibēre, adhibuī, adhibitum> turn to, treat -- are ...taken as of
  • consilio -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <consilium, consilii> counsel -- account

Plerique, cum aut aere alieno aut magnitudine tributorum aut iniuria potentiorum premuntur, sese in servitutem dicant nobilibus.

  • plerique -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <plerusque, pleraeque, pleraque> most, the majority -- most of them
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- since
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • aere -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <aes, aeris> metal, copper, money -- by debt
  • alieno -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <alienus, aliena, alienum> foreign, unfitting -- of another
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • magnitudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <magnitudo, magnitudinis> size -- by the size
  • tributorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <tributum, tributi> specific payment, tribute -- of their payments
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • iniuria -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <iniuria, injuriae> wrong, harsh treatment -- harsh treatment
  • potentiorum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of comparative of <potens, potentis> powerful -- of the more powerful
  • premuntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <premō, pemere, pressī, pressum> press, oppress -- are oppressed
  • sese -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • servitutem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <servitus, servitutis> servitude, slavery -- slavery
  • dicant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum> say, state, declare -- declare
  • nobilibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <nobilis, nobilis, nobile> famous, noble -- to the nobles

In hos eadem omnia sunt iura, quae dominis in servos.

  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- over
  • hos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- those
  • eadem -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <idem, eadem, idem> the same -- the same
  • omnia -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- are
  • iura -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <ius, iuris> right -- rights
  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • dominis -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <dominus, domini> lord, master -- masters (have)
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- over
  • servos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <servus, servi> slave -- slaves

Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum.

  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- in fact
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- of
  • his -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative plural neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • duobus -- number; ablative plural neuter of <duo, duae, duo> two -- two
  • generibus -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <genus, generis> kind, class -- classes
  • alterum -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <alter, altera, alterum> the one, the other -- the one
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- consists of
  • druidum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <druides, druidum> Druids -- Druids
  • alterum -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <alter, altera, alterum> the one, the other -- the other
  • equitum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <eques, equitis> horseman, knight -- knights

Illi rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur.

  • illi -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- these
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matters
  • divinis -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <divinus, divina, divinum> divine, sacred -- sacred
  • intersunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <intersum, interesse, interfuī> lie between, concern -- are concerned with
  • sacrificia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • publica -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • privata -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual -- private
  • procurant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <prōcūrō, prōcūrāre, prōcūrāvi, prōcūrātum> take care of -- they take care of
  • religiones -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <religio, religionis> religious practice -- religious matters
  • interpretantur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <interpretor, interpretāri, interpretātus sum> interpret -- they interpret

Ad hos magnus adulescentium numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore.

  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • hos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • magnus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- large
  • adulescentium -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <adulescens, adulescentis> young people -- the young people
  • numerus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- number
  • disciplinae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <disciplina, disciplinae> discipline, education -- instruction
  • causa -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- for the sake of
  • concurrit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <concurrō, concurrere, concurrī, concursum> assemble, come together -- come together
  • magnoque -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large + conjunction <-que> and -- and ... great
  • hi -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- are
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- among
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- them
  • honore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <honos, honoris> honor, distinction -- in ... honor

Nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt, et, si quid admissum facinus, si caedes facta, si de heriditate de finibus controversia est, idem decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt.

  • nam -- conjunction; <nam> for -- for
  • fere -- adverb; <fere> almost -- almost
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • omnibus -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • controversiis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <controversia, controversiae> controversy -- controversies
  • publicis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • privatisque -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual + conjunction <-que> and -- and private
  • constituunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtum> decide -- they decide
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • quid -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- any
  • admissum -- verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <admittō, admittere, admīsī, admīssum> let, go, commit -- has been committed
  • facinus -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <facinus, facinoris> crime -- crime
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • caedes -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <caedes, caedis> murder -- murder
  • facta -- verb; nominative singular feminine of perfect participle passive of <faciō, facere, fēcī, factum> do, make -- has been done
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • heriditate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <heriditas, heriditatis> heredity, inheritance -- inheritance
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • finibus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- boundaries
  • controversia -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <controversia, controversiae> controversy -- controversy
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there is
  • idem -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <idem, eadem, idem> the same -- all the same
  • decernunt -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <dēcernō, decernere, decrēvī, decrētum> decide -- they decide
  • praemia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <praemium, praemii> reward -- rewards
  • poenasque -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <poena, poenae> punishment, penalty + conjunction <-que> and -- and penalties
  • constituunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitūtum> decide -- they decide

Si qui aut privatus aut populus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt.

  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • qui -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <qui, qua(e), quod> some, any -- any (one)
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • privatus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual -- private
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • populus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <populus, populi> people -- public
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- their
  • decreto -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <decretum, decreti> decision -- by ... decree
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • stetit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <stō, stāre, stēti, statum> stand, abide -- does ... abide
  • sacrificiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- from the sacrifices
  • interdicunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <interdīcō, interdicere, interdīxi, interdictum> prohibit -- they ban (him)

Haec poena apud eos est gravissima.

  • haec -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • poena -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <poena, poenae> punishment, penalty -- punishment
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- among
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- them
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- is
  • gravissima -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of superlative of <gravis, gravis, grave> grave, serious -- severest

Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur.

  • magnum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- large
  • ibi -- adverb; <ibi> there, then -- there
  • numerum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- number
  • versuum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <versus, versus> verse -- of verses
  • ediscere -- verb; infinitive of <ēdiscō, ēdiscere, ēdidici, -> learn, memorize -- (they) memorize
  • dicuntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum> say, state, declare -- they say, it is said

Itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent.

  • itaque -- adverb; <itaque> and also -- also
  • annos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <annus, anni> year -- years
  • nonnulli -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <nonnullus, nonulla, nonullum> some -- some
  • vicenos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <vicenus, viceni> twenty -- twenty
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • disciplina -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <disciplina, disciplinae> discipline, education -- training
  • permanent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <permaneō, permanēre, permansī, permansum> stay, continue -- remain

Neque fas esse existimant ea litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatisque rationibus Graecis litteris utantur.

  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • fas -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <fas, -> right -- right
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- to be
  • existimant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <existimō, existimāre, existimāvī, existimātum> judge, consider -- do they consider
  • ea -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- these things
  • litteris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <littera, litterae> letter -- to letters, to writing
  • mandare -- verb; infinitive of <mando, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātum> commit -- to commit
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- because
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • reliquis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <reliquus, reliqua, reliquum> remaining, rest -- remaining
  • fere -- adverb; <fere> almost -- almost
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matters
  • publicis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • privatisque -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <privatus, privata, privatum> private, individual + conjunction <-que> and -- and private
  • rationibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <ratio, rationis> account, affair -- in . . .affairs
  • Graecis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <Graecus, Graeca, Graecum> Greek -- Greek
  • litteris -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <littera, litterae> letter -- letters
  • utantur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum> use -- they use

Lesson Text

Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non alienum esse videtur de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus et quo differant hae nationes inter sese proponere. In omni Gallia eorum hominum, qui aliquo sunt numero atque honore, genera sunt duo. Nam plebes paene servorum habetur loco, quae nihil audet per se, nullo adhibetur consilio. Plerique, cum aut aere alieno aut magnitudine tributorum aut iniuria potentiorum premuntur, sese in servitutem dicant nobilibus. In hos eadem omnia sunt iura, quae dominis in servos. Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum. Illi rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur. Ad hos magnus adulescentium numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore. Nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis privatisque constituunt, et, si quid admissum facinus, si caedes facta, si de heriditate de finibus controversia est, idem decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt. Si qui aut privatus aut populus eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt. Haec poena apud eos est gravissima. Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur. Itaque annos nonnulli vicenos in disciplina permanent. Neque fas esse existimant ea litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere rebus, publicis privatisque rationibus Graecis litteris utantur.

Translation

Since I have come to this point, it does not seem inappropriate to set forth the customs of Gaul and of Germania, and how these nations differ among each other. . . . In all Gaul there are two classes of humans who are of definite account and honor. But the common people are regarded almost at the level of slaves, who dare to do nothing by themselves and are taken as of no account. And most, since they are either oppressed by debt or by a great amount of tribute or by crimes of the more powerful, commit themselves in slavery to the nobles. They have indeed among these all the rights as masters over slaves. Of these two classes the one consists of Druids, the other of Knights. The former are concerned with divine worship; they handle public and private sacrifices, and they interpret religious matters. A great number of the youth gather around them for the sake of education, and they are held among these in great honor. For they make decisions about almost all public and private controversies, and if any crime has been committed, if a murder has been done, if there is controversy about boundaries, they decide the same, they determine rewards and punishments. If any one, either private or public, does not abide by their decree, they ban him from sacrifices. This punishment is the most serious among them. ... It is said that they memorize a great number of verses (in the Druidic schools). And for that reason some remain twenty years in training. Nor do they think it proper to commit these to writing, while in almost all other things, in public and private matters, they use Greek letters.

Grammar

11. Deponents.

Deponents are verbs that are passive in form but have active meaning. The meaning is typically one of state rather than vigorous action; the passive developed out of a stative conjugation in early Indo-European, and deponents reflect this meaning rather than that of a pure passive. In this unit, the deponents interpretor 'interpret' and utor 'use' are found. The previous units included precor 'ask' and profiscor 'set out'. None of these meanings indicates action as do verbs like concurrō 'run together' or constituō 'place'. Deponents are labeled as such in dictionaries.

12. The Passive.

As in the English verb system, the passive indicates that the subject of the verb is affected by rather than performing some action. In English the passive consists of compound forms, such as "they were invited by the organizers," in contrast with "the organizers invited them."

The inflectional system of the passive is parallel to that of the active. Examples of the present indicative passive are given here for the verbs illustrating the four conjugations in Unit 1. Since the imperfect is treated in section 14, the third singular and third plural imperfect is given here for the passive.

Present Indicative Passive
1 sg   laudor   moneor   tegor   audior
2 sg   laudāris   monēris   tegeris   audiēris
3 sg   laudātur   monētur   tegitur   audītur
 
1 pl   laudāmur   monēmur   tegimur   audīmur
2 pl   laudāminī   monēmini   tegimini   audīminī
3 pl   laudantur   monentur   teguntur   audiuntur

Imperfect Indicative Passive in the third persons
3 sg   laudābātur   monēbātur   tegēbātur   audiēbātur
3 pl   laudābantur   monēbantur   tegēbantur   audiēbantur

The perfect conjugation forms are made with the past participle accompanied by forms of the verb sum. They are accordingly easy to note and translate. Third singular forms are given here for the perfect and pluperfect of the four conjugations.

Perfect
3 sg   laudātus est   monitus est   tectus est   audītus est
Pluperfect
3 sg   laudātus erat   monitus erat   tectus erat   audītus erat
13. The Fourth and Fifth Declensions of Nouns.

The fourth and fifth declensions include relatively few nouns. The nominative in the fourth ending in -us, like the second declension; but the u-vowel is basically long, which is the ending also for neuters in the declension, e.g. cornu. The nominative in the fifth declension ends in -es; the declension includes few nouns, among them however the frequent dies 'day' and res 'thing'.

    Fourth Declension       Fifth declension
Nom sg   tribus 'tribe'   cornu 'horn'   diēs 'day'   rēs 'thing'
Gen sg   tribūs   cornūs   dieī   reī
Dat sg   tribuī   cornu   dieī   reī
Acc sg   tribum   cornu   diem   rem
Abl sg   tribū   cornū   diē   rē
 
Nom pl   tribūs   cornua   diēs   rēs
Gen pl   tribuum   cornuum   diērum   rērum
Dat pl   tribubus   cornibus   diēbus   rēbus
Acc pl   tribūs   cornua   diēs   rēs
Abl pl   tribubus   cornibus   diēbus   rēbus
14. The Imperfect, Indicative, and Subjunctive.

The imperfect is made with a ba-suffix in the indicative, and an re-suffix in the subjunctive. Since the endings are identical throughout the four conjugations, examples from only the first and third will be given here.

    First Conjugation   Third Conjugation
    Indicative   Subjunctive       Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   laudābam   laudārem   tegēbam   tegerem
2 sg   laudābās   laudārēs   tegēbās   tegerēs
3 sg   laudābat   laudāret   tegēbat   tegeret
 
1 pl   laudābāmus   laudārēmus   tegēbāmus   tegerēmus
2 pl   laudābātis   laudārētis   tegēbātis   tegerētis
3 pl   laudābant   laudārent   tegēbant   tegerent
15. Conjunctions.

As in English, conjunctions connect words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. They are straightforward lexical items, and the common ones are readily memorized. Lists of various kinds of the common coordinating conjunctions are given here.

  • Coordinating conjunctions: et, -que, atque, 'and', ac, neque 'and not'
  • Disjunctive conjunctions: aut, vel, -ve 'or'
  • Adversative conjunctions: at, autem, sed, tamen 'but, nevertheless'
  • Of the conjunctions introducing clauses, two have occurred: postquam 'after' and cum 'when, since, because'.