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Latin Online

Lesson 4

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Members of the second class in Indian society are designated Kshatriyas, or the powerful; in contrast, they are referred to as Equites, horsemen or knights, in Celtic society. The term may well have been introduced from Roman society, where it was used to designate the members of the equestrian order that occupied the position between the Senate and the Plebs or common people. Here only sections of Caesar's description can be included.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In giving further information about this class, Caesar discusses the religious practices of the Gauls, their gods, and family relationships. Of further interest is the tradition that they are all descended from Dis, a term related to the word deus 'god', but referring to an underworld deity. As a result, they refer to periods of time by nights rather than days; we have a result of this in our word fortnight, a shortening of fourteen nights for two weeks. Here, the military and administrative practices are excerpted.

Alterum genus est equitum.

  • alterum -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <alter, altera, alterum> the one, the other -- the other
  • genus -- noun, neuter; nominative singular <genus, generis> kind, class -- class
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- is (that of the)
  • equitum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <eques, equitis> horseman, knight -- knights

Hi, cum est usus atque aliquod bellum incidit (quod fere ante Caesaris adventum quotannis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi iniurias inferrent aut illatas propulsarent), omnes in bello versantur.

  • hi -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- these
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- there is
  • usus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <usus, usus> use, practice -- occasion
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and especially
  • aliquod -- pronoun adjective; nominative singular neuter of <aliqui, aliqua, aliquod> some, any -- some
  • bellum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <bellum, belli> war -- war
  • incidit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <incido, incidere, incidi,-> fall in, occur -- occurs
  • quod -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • fere -- adverb; <fere> almost -- almost
  • ante -- preposition; <ante> before -- before
  • Caesaris -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Caesar, Caesaris> Caesar -- Caesar's
  • adventum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <adventus, adventus> arrival, coming -- coming
  • quotannis -- adverb; <quotannis> yearly -- every year
  • accidere -- verb; infinitive of <accido, accidere, accidi, -> fall to, come, happen -- happen
  • solebat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <soleo, solere, solitum> be accustomed -- was accustomed to
  • uti -- conjunction; <uti> that, so that -- as
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • ipsi -- intensive pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ipse, ipsa, ipsum> self -- they themselves
  • iniurias -- noun, feminine; accusative plural <iniuria, injuriae> wrong, harsh treatment -- attacks
  • inferrent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <infero, inferre, intuli, inlatum> introduce, produce -- would produce
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • illatas -- verb; accusative plural feminine of perfect participle passive of <infero, inferre, intuli, inlatum> introduce, produce -- produced
  • propulsarent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <propulso, propulsare, propulsatus, -> ward off, repulse -- would repulse
  • omnes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • bello -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <bellum, belli> war -- war
  • versantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <verso, versare, versavi, versatum> turn often; pass. be involved -- are engaged

Atque eorum ut quisque est venere copiisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se ambactos clientesque habet.

  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and indeed
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- of them
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- as
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- each
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- is
  • venere -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <venus, veneris> grace, esteem -- esteem
  • copiisque -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <copia, copiae> abundance, wealth + conjunction <-que> and -- and wealth
  • amplissimus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <amplius> great, distinguished -- most distinguished
  • ita -- adverb; <ita> thus -- accordingly
  • plurimos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of superlative of <multus, multa, multum> many -- the most
  • circum -- preposition; <circum> around -- around
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- himself
  • ambactos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ambactus, ambacti> dependent -- subordinates
  • clientesque -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <cliens, clientis> retainer + conjunction <-que> and -- and retainers
  • habet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <habeo, habere, habui, habitum> have -- he has

Hanc unam gratiam potentiamque noverunt.

  • hanc -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- This
  • unam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <unus, una, unum> one, alone -- the one
  • gratiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <gratia, gratiae> esteem, regard -- esteem
  • potentiamque -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <potentia, potentiae> power + conjunction <-que> and -- and power
  • noverunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <nosco, noscere, novi, notum> be acquainted with, get to know -- have come to know

Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religionibus.

  • natio -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <natio, nationis> nation -- nation
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- is
  • omnis -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- the entire
  • Gallorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Galli, Gallorum> the Gauls -- of the Gauls
  • admodum -- adverb; <admodum> completely -- completely
  • dedita -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <deditus, dedita, deditum> devoted, addicted -- devoted to
  • religionibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <religio, religionis> religious practice -- religious practices

Atque ob eam causam, qui sunt adfecti gravioribus morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos vovent, administrisque ad ea sacrificia druidibus utuntur. [Section omitted at this point.]

  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and indeed
  • ob -- preposition; <ob> because of -- for
  • eam -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- this
  • causam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- reason
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- those who
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- are
  • adfecti -- verb; nominative plural masculine of perfect participle passive of <adficio, adficere, adfeci, adfectum> afflict -- afflicted
  • gravioribus -- adjective; ablative plural masculine of comparative of <gravis, gravis, grave> grave, serious -- with more serious
  • morbis -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <morbus, morbi> illness -- illnesses
  • quique -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that + conjunction <-que> and -- and those who
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • proeliis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <proelium, proelii> battle -- battles
  • periculisque -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <periculum, periculi> danger + conjunction <-que> and -- and in dangers
  • versantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <verso, versare, versavi, versatum> turn often; pass. be involved -- are involved
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • pro -- preposition; <pro> for, before -- as
  • victimis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <victima, victimae> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • homines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- people
  • immolant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <immolo, immolare, immolavi, immolatum> sacrifice, immolate -- sacrifice
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- they themselves
  • immolaturos -- verb; accusative plural masculine of future participle of <immolo, immolare, immolavi, immolatum> sacrifice, immolate -- will be sacrificed
  • vovent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <voveo, vovere, vovi, votum> vow -- they vow
  • administrisque -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <administer, administri> administrator + conjunction <-que> and -- and ...as administrators
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • ea -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • sacrificia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • druidibus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <druides, druidum> Druids -- Druids
  • utuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <utor, uti, usus sum> use -- they use

Quae civitates commodius suam rem publicam administrare existimantur, habent legibus sanctum, si quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama accepterit, uti ad magistratum deferat neve cum quo alio communicet.

  • quae -- relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- the ... that
  • civitates -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <civitas, civitatis> state -- states
  • commodius -- adjective; comparative accusative singular neuter of <commodus, commoda, commodum> used adverbially = complete, advantageous -- more advantageously
  • suam -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- their
  • rem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- affairs
  • publicam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • administrare -- verb; infinitive of <administro, administrare, administravi, administratum> administer, conduct -- to conduct
  • existimantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatum> judge, consider -- are considered
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeo, habere, habui, habitum> have -- have
  • legibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <lex, legis> law -- by law
  • sanctum -- verb; accusative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <sancio, sancire, sanxi, sanctum> enact -- prescribed
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • quis -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- anyone
  • quid -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- anything
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • re -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- affair
  • publica -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • a -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • finitimis -- adjective used as substantive; ablative plural masculine of <finitimus, finitima, finitimum> bordering, neighbor -- neighbors
  • rumore -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <rumor, rumoris> murmur, rumor -- by rumor
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • fama -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <fama, famae> report, talk -- report
  • accepterit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect subjunctive of <accepto, acceptare, acceptavi, acceptatum> receive -- might learn
  • uti -- conjunction; <uti> that, so that -- that
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • magistratum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <magistratus, magistratus> magistrate -- a magistrate
  • deferat -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <defero, deferre, detuli, delatum> report -- should report
  • neve -- conjunction; <neve> and not, nor -- and not
  • cum -- preposition; <cum> with -- with
  • quo -- indefinite pronoun; ablative singular masculine of <quis, quis, quid> someone, anything -- anyone
  • alio -- pronominal adjective; ablative singular masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- else
  • communicet -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <communico, communicare, communicavi, communicatum> communicate -- share

Quod saepe homines temerarios atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri et ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus consilium capere cognitum est.

  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- because
  • saepe -- adverb; <saepe> often -- often
  • homines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- people
  • temerarios -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <temerarius, temeraria, temerarium> rash, indiscreet -- indiscreet
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • imperitos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <imperitus, imperita, imperitum> inexperienced -- inexperienced
  • falsis -- adjective; ablative plural masculine of <falsus, falsa, falsum> false -- by false
  • rumoribus -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <rumor, rumoris> murmur, rumor -- rumors
  • terreri -- verb; passive infinitive of <terreo, terrere, terrui, territus> terrify, frighten -- are frightened
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- to
  • facinus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <facinus, facinoris> crime -- crime
  • impelli -- verb; passive infinitive of <impello, impellere, impuli, impulsum> drive, move -- be driven
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • summis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <summus, summa, summum> highest with rebus -- the general (welfare)
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- welfare (see above)
  • consilium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <consilium, consilii> counsel with capere -- to form plans, make decisions
  • capere -- verb; infinitive of <capio, capere, cepi, captum> take, seize -- to make
  • cognitum -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <cognitus, cognita, cognitum> known -- known
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- it is

Magistratus quae visa sunt occultant quaeque esse ex usu iudicaverunt multitudini produnt.

  • magistratus -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <magistratus, magistratus> magistrate -- The magistrates
  • quae -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- what
  • visa -- verb; accusative plural neuter of participle perfect passive of <video, videre, vidi, visum> see -- seem proper
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- be
  • occultant -- 3rd person plural present of <occulto, occultare, occultavi, occultatum> conceal -- conceal
  • quaeque -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that + conjunction <-que> and -- and what
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- be
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- of
  • usu -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <usus, usus> use, practice -- benefit
  • iudicaverunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <iudico, iudicare, iudicavi, iudicatum> decide -- decide
  • multitudini -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <multitudo, multitudinis> multitude -- to the common people
  • produnt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditum> put forth, make known -- make known

De re publica nisi per concilium loqui non conceditur.

  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- concerning
  • re -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- affairs
  • publica -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <publicus, publica, publicum> public -- public
  • nisi -- conjunction; <nisi> if not, unless -- unless
  • per -- preposition; <per> through, by -- by means of
  • concilium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <concilium, concilii> council, assembly -- an assembly
  • loqui -- deponent verb; infinitive of <loquor, loqui, locutus sum> speak -- speak
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • conceditur -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <concedo, concedere, concessi, concessum> grant, allow -- it is allowed

Lesson Text

Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, cum est usus atque aliquod bellum incidit (quod fere ante Caesaris adventum quotannis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi iniurias inferrent aut illatas propulsarent), omnes in bello versantur. Atque eorum ut quisque est venere copiisque amplissimus, ita plurimos circum se ambactos clientesque habet. Hanc unam gratiam potentiamque noverunt. Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religionibus. Atque ob eam causam, qui sunt adfecti gravioribus morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos vovent, administrisque ad ea sacrificia druidibus utuntur. [Section omitted at this point.] Quae civitates commodius suam rem publicam administrare existimantur, habent legibus sanctum, si quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama accepterit, uti ad magistratum deferat neve cum quo alio communicet. Quod saepe homines temerarios atque imperitos falsis rumoribus terreri et ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus consilium capere cognitum est. Magistratus quae visa sunt occultant quaeque esse ex usu iudicaverunt multitudini produnt. De re publica nisi per concilium loqui non conceditur.

Translation

The knights are the other class. When there is an occasion and especially when a war arises (which would happen almost yearly before Caesar's arrival, so that either they themselves would carry out attacks or would repulse such), these are all engaged in war. And as each is most distinguished in esteem and by wealth, he accordingly has the most subordinates and retainers about him. They have recognized this as the single basis of esteem and power.
The entire nation of the Gauls is greatly devoted to religious affairs. And for that reason those who are afflicted with more serious illnesses and those who are involved in battles and dangers either sacrifice people as victims or they vow that they themselves will be sacrificed; and they make use of Druids as administrators for those sacrifices. [Section omitted at this point.]
The states that are considered to administer their public affairs more advantageously have it prescribed by law that, if anyone might learn anything about public affairs from neighbors by rumor or report, he should report it to a magistrate and not communicate with anyone else. For it is known that indiscreet and inexperienced men are often frightened by false rumors, and are driven to crime or to make decisions concerning the general welfare. Magistrates conceal what seems best, and they decide what is of use and provide it for the common people. It is not allowed to speak about public matters except by means of an assembly.

Grammar

16. Relative Clauses.

Relative clauses are introduced primarily by the relative pronouns, qui 'who', quae 'who', quod 'what', and their inflected forms. A number of examples have occurred in the texts here, such as (bellum) quod in the first sentence of this lesson. The forms are as follows:

  Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   qui   quae   quod  |  qui   quae   quae
Gen   cuius   cuius   cuius  |  quorum   quarum   quorum
Dat   cui   cui   cui  |  quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quam   quod  |  quos   quas   quae
Abl   quo   qua   quo  |  quibus   quibus   quibus

Another relative pronoun is quisquis 'whoever'. It is inflected like the interrogative pronoun quis 'who', which will be introduced in Lesson 5.

17. Adjectives and their Comparison.

Adjectives are inflected like nouns. Many of them are inflected in accordance with the first and second declensions, such as magnus, magna, magnum 'great'. Others are inflected in accordance with the third declension, such as acer, acris, acre 'sharp'. The declension of any adjective is noted in dictionaries.

As in English there are three degrees of comparison: Positive, Comparative and Superlative. The Comparative is made by adding -ior, the Superlative by adding -issimus. An example is clarus, clarior, clarissimus 'clear, clearer, clearest'. Many of the most common adjectives are irregular, such as their counterparts in English, like bonus, melior, optimus 'good, better, best'. Another example is magnus, maior, maximus 'great, greater, greatest'. These too are noted in dictionaries.

18. More Nouns in the Third Declension.

As noted earlier, nouns in the third declension end in consonants, so that there may be changes in form of the stem, especially in the nominative. Examples are given here for some of the sub-classes with the words pes 'foot', pater 'father', sermo 'speech', finis 'end', nox 'night'.

    Singular
Nom   pes   pater   sermo   finis   nox
Gen   pedis   patris   sermonis   finis   noctis
Dat   pedi   patri   sermoni   fini   nocti
Acc   pedem   patrem   sermonem   finem   noctem
Abl   pede   patre   sermone   fine   nocte

    Plural
Nom   pedes   patres   sermones   fines   noctes
Gen   pedum   patrum   sermonum   finium   noctium
Dat   pedibus   patribus   sermonibus   finibus   noctibus
Acc   pedes   patres   sermones   fines   noctes
Abl   pedibus   patribus   sermonibus   finibus   noctibus
19. Verb Forms of sum.

As in English, forms of the verb esse 'to be' are irregular. They are also common, used as auxiliaries as well as straightforwardly. Accordingly they should be noted. The indicative active forms are listed below.

    Present   Past   Future   Perfect   Pluperfect   Future Perfect
1 sg   sum   eram   ero   fui   fueram   fuero
2 sg   es   eras   eris   fuisti   fueras   fueris
3 sg   est   erat   erit   fuit   fuerat   fuerit
1 pl   sumus   eramus   erimus   fuimus   fueramus   fuerimus
2 pl   estis   eratis   eritis   fuistis   fueratis   fueritis
3 pl   sunt   erant   erunt   fuerunt   fuerant   fuerint
20. Adverbs.

Adverbs must be noted as independent lexical items. Those that are based on adjectives in the first and second declensions end in -e, such as male 'badly' from malus 'bad', bene 'well' from bonus 'good'. Those based on adjectives of the third declension end in -ter, such as graviter 'heavily' from gravis 'heavy'.

Like adjectives, they may have comparative and superlative forms. Those with forms from regular inflections have endings in -ius for the comparative and -e for the superlative, for example alte 'highly', altius 'more highly' and altissime 'most highly'. But some of the most frequent have irregular forms, such as bene, melius, optime 'well, better, best', multum, magis, maxime 'much, more, most'. These must be noted in dictionaries.