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Latin Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

After describing the civilization of the Gauls, Caesar has a brief but highly interesting section on the Germani. We may almost conclude from it that they had maintained the way of life we assume for the late Indo-European period. Their gods are those of the culture of the steppes. They are basically hunter-gatherers. Warfare makes up their principal activity. And in contrast with the Gauls they have no specific classes; this is in keeping with Meillet's conclusion that the Indo-Europeans were basically democratic, and also individualistic.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Caesar goes on to describe the large forests to the east, and some of the animals, such as the elk and the ure-oxen, noting how the Germans hunt them by having them fall in pits. The most interesting part of his account is that given here.

Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt.

  • Germani -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Germanus, Germana, Germanum> Germani -- The Germani
  • multum -- adverb; <multum> greatly -- greatly
  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • hac -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • consuetudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <consuetudo, consuetudinis> custom, way of life -- way of life
  • differunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <differo, differre, distuli, dilatum> differ -- differ

Nam neque druides habent, qui rebus divinis praesint, neque sacrificiis student.

  • nam -- conjunction; <nam> for -- for
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- neither
  • druides -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <druides, druidum> Druids -- Druids
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeo, habere, habui, habitum> have -- do they have
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matters
  • divinis -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <divinus, divina, divinum> divine, sacred -- divine
  • praesint -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <praesum, praesse, praefui> have charge of, preside over -- preside over
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • sacrificiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeo, studere, studui> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to

Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Vulcanum et Lunam, reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt.

  • deorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <deus, dei> god -- of the gods
  • numero -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- among the number
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • solos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <solus, sola, solum> alone -- only
  • ducunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <duco, ducere, duxi, ductum> lead, consider -- they consider
  • quos -- relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whom
  • cernunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cerno, cernere, crevi, certum> discern, see -- they see
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quorum -- relative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whose
  • aperte -- adverb; <aperte> openly -- openly
  • opibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- assistance
  • iuvantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutum> assist, help -- they are helped
  • Solem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Sol, Solis> sun -- the sun
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • Vulcanum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Vulcanus, Vulcani> Vulcan, the fire-god -- fire
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • Lunam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Luna, Lunae> Luna, the moon-god -- the moon
  • reliquos -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <reliquus, reliqua, reliquum> remaining, rest -- the rest
  • ne -- adverb; <ne> not -- not
  • fama -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <fama, famae> report, talk -- by report
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- even
  • acceperunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum> receive -- they have learned

Vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit.

  • vita -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <vita, vitae> life -- life
  • omnis -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- (Their) whole
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • venationibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <venatio, venationis> hunting -- hunting
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • studiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <studium, studii> application, study -- application
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- to ...affairs
  • militaris -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <militaris, militaris, militare> military -- military
  • consistit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <consisto, consistere, constiti, constitum> stand still, consist in -- consists

Ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student.

  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • parvulis -- adjective used as substantive; ablative plural masculine of <parvulus, parvula, parvulum> childhood -- childhood
  • labori -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <labor, laboris> labor, effort -- exertion
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • duritiae -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <duritia, duritiae> hardship -- hardship
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeo, studere, studui> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to

Qui diutissime impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt laudem.

  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- (those) who
  • diutissime -- adverb; superlative of <diu> long -- longest
  • impuberes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <impubes, impuberis> youthful, chaste -- as virgins
  • permanserunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <permaneo, permanere, permansi, permansum> stay, continue -- have stayed
  • maximam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine superlative of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- greatest
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • suos -- possessive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- their fellows
  • ferunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <fero, ferre, tuli, latum> bear, carry -- maintain
  • laudem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <laus, laudis> praise -- praise

Hoc ali staturam, ali vires nervosque confirmari putant.

  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- by this
  • ali -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- on the one hand
  • staturam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <statura, staturae> stature, height -- height
  • ali -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- on the other hand
  • vires -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <vis, vis> power, strength -- strength
  • nervosque -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <nervus, nervi> muscle + conjunction <-que> and -- and muscles
  • confirmari -- verb; infinitive passive of <confirmo, confirmare, confirmavi, confirmatum> make firm, strengthen -- are strengthened
  • putant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <puto, putare, putavi, putatum> think -- think

Intra annum vero vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent rebus.

  • intra -- preposition; <intra> within, during -- before
  • annum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <annus, anni> year -- year
  • vero -- adverb; <vero> truly, but -- truly
  • vicesimum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <vicesimus, vicesima, vicesimum> twentieth -- twentieth
  • feminae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <femina, feminae> woman -- of a woman
  • notitiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <notitia, notitiae> familiarity, carnal knowledge -- carnal knowledge
  • habuisse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <habeo, habere, habui, habitum> have -- to have had
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- among
  • turpissimis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine superlative of <turpis, turpis, turpe> shameful, disgraceful -- disgraceful
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeo, habere, habui, habitum> have -- consider
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- things

Cuius rei nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus perluntur et pellibus aut parvis renonum tegimentis utuntur magna corporis parte nuda.

  • cuius -- relative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- of which
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • nulla -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- no
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- there is
  • occultatio -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <occultatio, occultationis> secrecy -- secrecy
  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- because
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- both
  • promiscue -- adverb; <promiscue> promiscuous -- promiscuously
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • fluminibus -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <flumen, fluminis> river -- the rivers
  • perluntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <perluo, perluere, perlui, perlutum> wash, bathe -- they bathe
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • pellibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <pellis, pellis> skin, hide -- hides
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • parvis -- adjective; ablative plural neuter of <parvus, parva, parvum> small -- small
  • renonum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <reno, renonis> deer-skin -- of deer-skins
  • tegimentis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <tegumen, teguminis> clothing, covering -- clothing
  • utuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <utor, uti, usus sum> use -- they wear
  • magna -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- with a large
  • corporis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <corpus, corporis> body -- of the body
  • parte -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • nuda -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <nudus, nuda, nudum> bare, naked -- bare

Agriculturae non student, maiorque pars eorum victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit.

  • agriculturae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <agricultura, agriculturae> agriculture -- agriculture
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeo, studere, studui> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to
  • maiorque -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large + conjunction <-que> and -- and the greater
  • pars -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- of their
  • victus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <victus, victus> sustenance, food -- food
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • lacte -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <lac, lactis> milk -- milk
  • caseo -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <caseus, casei> cheese -- cheese
  • carne -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <caro, carnis> meat -- (and) meat
  • consistit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <consisto, consistere, constiti, constitum> stand still, consist in -- consists of

Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios.

  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • quisquam -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisquis, quaeque, quicquid> whoever, whatever -- anyone
  • agri -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ager, agri> land -- of land
  • modum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <modus, modi> kind -- amount
  • certum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <certus, certa, certum> certain -- fixed
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • fines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- boundaries
  • habet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <habeo, habere, habui, habitum> have -- has
  • proprios -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <proprius, propria, proprium> proper, own -- (his) own

Sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt.

  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • magistratus -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <magistratus, magistratus> magistrate -- magistrates
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • principes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <princeps, principis> chief -- chiefs
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • annos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <annus, anni> year -- years
  • singulos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <singulus, singula, singulum> single, individual -- separate
  • gentibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <gens, gentis> race, clan -- to tribes
  • cognationibusque -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <cognatio, cognationis> blood-relations, kindred + conjunction <-que> and -- and to clans
  • hominum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- of persons
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • una -- adverb; <una> at the same place, together -- together
  • coierunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <coeo, coire, coivi, coitum> come together, be assembled -- have assembled
  • quantum -- adverb; <quantum> as much -- as much
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quo -- interrogative pronoun; ablative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> which, what -- whatever
  • loco -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <locus, loci> place -- place
  • visum -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <video, videre, vidi, visum> see with est -- seems best
  • est -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fui> I am with visum -- ...
  • agri -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ager, agri> land -- land
  • attribuunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <attribuo, attribuere, attribui, attributum> assign -- assign
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • anno -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <annus, anni> year -- year
  • post -- adverb; <post> after -- after
  • alio -- adverb; <alio> somewhere else -- to another place
  • transire -- verb; present infinitive of <transeo, transire, transivi, transitum> go over -- to go
  • cogunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cogo, cogere, coegi, coactum> collect, compel -- they compel

Eius rei multas adferunt causas:

  • eius -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- for this
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • multas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <multus, multa, multum> many -- many
  • adferunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <adfero, adferre, attuli, adlatum> bring, convey -- state
  • causas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- reasons

ne adsidua consuetudine capti studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent;

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • adsidua -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <adsiduus, adsidua, adsiduum> constant, continued -- by continued
  • consuetudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <consuetudo, consuetudinis> custom, way of life -- custom
  • capti -- verb; perfect participle passive of <capio, capere, cepi, captum> take, seize -- induced
  • studium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <studium, studii> application, study -- pursuit
  • belli -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <bellum, belli> war -- war
  • gerendi -- verb; gerund(ive) genitive singular neuter of <gero, gerere, gessi, gestum> bear, carry out, wear -- of carrying out
  • agricultura -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <agricultura, agriculturae> agriculture -- for agriculture
  • commutent -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <commuto, commutare, commutavi, commutatum> change, exchange -- exchange

ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores possessionibus expellant;

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • latos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <latus, lata, latum> broad -- extensive
  • fines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- lands
  • parare -- verb; present infinitive of <paro, parare, paravi, paratum> prepare, obtain -- to obtain
  • studeant -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <studeo, studere, studui> give attention, be devoted -- they might become devoted to
  • potentioresque -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine comparative of <potens, potentis> powerful + conjunction <-que> and -- and the more powerful
  • humiliores -- adjective; accusative plural masculine comparative of <humilis, humilis, humile> low, small -- the lower
  • possessionibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <possessio, possessionis> possession -- from their possessions
  • expellant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <expello, expellere, expuli, expulsum> drive out -- drive

ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos aedificent;

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • accuratius -- adverb; comparative of <accurate> carefully -- more carefully
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • frigora -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <frigus, frigoris> cold -- cold
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • aestus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <aestus, aestus> heat -- heat
  • vitandos -- verb; verbal adjective of <vito, vitare, vitavi, vitatus> avoid, evade -- avoiding
  • aedificent -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <aedifico, aedificare, aedificavi, aedificatum> build -- they might build

ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur.

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • qua -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <qui, qua(e), quod> some, any -- some
  • oriatur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <orior, oriri, ortus sum> arise -- might arise
  • pecuniae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pecunia, pecuniae> money -- for money
  • cupiditas -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <cupiditas, cupiditatis> desire -- desire
  • qua -- relative pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • re -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • factiones -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <factio, factionis> faction -- factions
  • dissensionesque -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <dissensio, dissensionis> dissension + conjunction <-que> and -- and dissensions
  • nascuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <nascor, nasci, natus sum> be produced, arise -- would arise

ut animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissimis aequari videat.

  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- so that
  • animi -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <animus, animi> soul, mind -- of spirit
  • aequitate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <aequitas, aequitatis> uniformity, calmness -- in calmness
  • plebem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <plebs, plebis> common people -- the common people
  • contineant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <contineo, continere, continui, contentum> connect, maintain -- they might maintain
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • suas -- possessive pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- his own
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- someone
  • opes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- means
  • cum -- preposition; <cum> with -- with
  • potentissimis -- adjective; dative plural masculine superlative of <potens, potentis> powerful -- the most powerful
  • aequari -- deponent verb; passive infinitive of <aequo, aequare, aequavi, aequatus> to make equal, smoothe -- be equal to
  • videat -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <video, videre, vidi, visum> see -- see

Lesson Text

Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt. Nam neque druides habent, qui rebus divinis praesint, neque sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Vulcanum et Lunam, reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt. Vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit. Ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student. Qui diutissime impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt laudem. Hoc ali staturam, ali vires nervosque confirmari putant. Intra annum vero vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent rebus. Cuius rei nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus perluntur et pellibus aut parvis renonum tegimentis utuntur magna corporis parte nuda. Agriculturae non student, maiorque pars eorum victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit. Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios. Sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt. Eius rei multas adferunt causas: ne adsidua consuetudine capti studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent; ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores possessionibus expellant; ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos aedificent; ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur. ut animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissimis aequari videat.

Translation

The Germani differ a great deal from this way of life. They have no Druids who preside over their divine affairs; nor are they devoted to sacrifices. They consider in the number of their gods only those whom they see and by whose assistance they are openly helped, the Sun and the Fire-god and the Moon; they have not even heard of the rest by report. Their whole life consists of hunting and of the pursuit of military affairs. From youth they are devoted to work and hardship. Those who remain celibate longest enjoy the greatest praise among their fellows. Some think that height, others that strength and sinews are strengthened by this. They truly consider it among the most disgraceful matters to have had intercourse with a woman before their twentieth year. There is no secrecy in the matter for they bathe promiscuously in the rivers and they wear skins or small coverings of deer skins with a large part of their body nude.
They do not practice agriculture; the greater part of their food consists of milk, cheese, and meat. Nor does anyone have a definite amount of land or fixed boundaries. But the magistrates and chiefs every year assign to the tribes and to related people who have grouped together, as much land and in whatever place seems best. And in the next year they compel them to move. They adduce many reasons for this matter: so that they would not change their zeal for warfare to agriculture, tempted by continuous association; so that they would not desire to acquire broad territories, and the more powerful might expel the weaker; so that they would not build more carefully against cold and heat; so that a desire for money would not arise, from which factions and dissentions might be produced; so that they might keep the common people in calmness of spirit, with each seeing his own means as equal to those of the most powerful.

Grammar

21. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns.

As we have noted, and as is clear from the texts in the first five lessons, few particles are used in Latin. On the other hand, pronouns are used to indicate relationships between words, clauses and sentences. The pronouns concerned are chiefly those labeled descriptive and relative, since historical texts use few personal pronouns, in part because the item in question is provided by the verb form. Nonetheless it is necessary to be aware of them, and accordingly they are given here.

The first and second person pronouns are also used as reflexives. The third person pronoun is reflexive, and is used for all three genders in the plural as well as the singular. The dative accordingly may mean 'to himself, to herself, to itself, to themselves.'

    1st Person   2nd Person   3rd Person
    Singular   Plural   Singular   Plural    
Nom   ego 'I'   nos 'we'   tu 'thou'   vos 'you'    
Gen   mei   nostrum, nostri   tui   vestrum, vestri   sui
Dat   mihi   nobis   tibi   vobis   sibi
Acc   me   nos   te   vos   se, sese
Abl   me   nobis   te   vobis   se, sese

The adjectival forms of these pronouns, known as possessives, are inflected in all cases and genders. They are: meus, mea, meum 'my', tuus, tua, tuum 'thy', suus, sua, suum 'his, her, its, their', noster, nostra, nostrum 'our', vester, vestra, vestrum 'your'.

22. Descriptive Pronouns.

These pronouns, which are also referred to as determinative or determiners or even demonstrative, are among the most frequent. They may be translated with forms of 'this' or with personal pronouns like 'he' or with other elements like 'the same'. The genitive and dative forms are the same for all three genders, except for the genitive plural where the feminine has -a- rather than -o-.

    is 'he, she, this'
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   is   ea   id   ii   eae   ea
Gen   eius   eius   eius   eorum   earum   eorum
Dat   ei   ei   ei   iis   iis   iis
Acc   eum   eam   id   eos   eas   ea
Abl   eo   ea   eo   iis   iis   iis
 
    idem 'the same'
Nom   idem   eadem   idem   idem   eaedem   eadem
Gen   eiusdem   eiusdem   eiusdem   eorumdem   earumdem   eorumdem
Dat   eidem   eidem   eidem   isdem   isdem   isdem
Acc   eundem   eandem   idem   eosdem   easdem   eadem
Abl   eodem   eadem   eodem   isdem   isdem   isdem
 
    hic 'this'
Nom   hic   haec   hoc   hi   hae   haec
Gen   huius   huius   huius   horum   harum   horum
Dat   huic   huic   huic   his   his   his
Acc   hunc   hanc   hoc   hos   has   haec
Abl   hoc   hac   hoc   his   his   his
 
    ille 'that, such'
Nom   ille   illa   illud   illi   illae   illa
Gen   illius   illius   illius   illorum   illarum   illorum
Dat   illi   illi   illi   illis   illis   illis
Acc   illum   illam   illud   illos   illas   illa
Abl   illo   illa   illo   illis   illis   illis
23. The Intensive Pronoun ipse 'self'.
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   ipse   ipsa   ipsum   ipsi   ipsae   ipsa
Gen   ipsius   ipsius   ipsius   ipsorum   ipsarum   ipsorum
Dat   ipsi   ipsi   ipsi   ipsis   ipsis   ipsis
Acc   ipsum   ipsam   ipsum   ipsos   ipsas   ipsa
Abl   ipso   ipsa   ipso   ipsis   ipsis   ipsis
24. The Relative Pronoun qui 'who'.
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   qui   quae   quod   qui   quae   quae
Gen   cuius   cuius   cuius   quorum   quarum   quorum
Dat   cui   cui   cui   quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quam   quod   quos   quas   quae
Abl   quo   qua   quo   quibus   quibus   quibus

Indefinite relatives are quicumque 'whoever' and quisquis 'whoever', quidquid 'whatever'. The first element of quicumque may be declined like the simple relative pronoun. The elements of quisquis may be declined like the interrogative pronoun, as demonstrated by the form quidquid; but other forms rarely occur.

25. The Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns.

The interrogative pronoun when used as a noun is quis 'who?'; when used as an adjective it is qui, as in qui homo 'Which man?'; it is inflected like the relative pronoun.

    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   quis   quis   quid   qui   quae   quae
Gen   cuius   cuius   cuius   quorum   quarum   quorum
Dat   cui   cui   cui   quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quem   quid   quos   quas   quae
Abl   quo   qua   quo   quibus   quibus   quibus

Quis is also used as indefinite pronoun, noun, and adjective. When used as an adjective, the nominative forms are qui, quae and quod; when used as a noun, the neuter is quid.