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Latin Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

After describing the civilization of the Gauls, Caesar has a brief but highly interesting section on the Germani. We may almost conclude from it that they had maintained the way of life we assume for the late Indo-European period. Their gods are those of the culture of the steppes. They are basically hunter-gatherers. Warfare makes up their principal activity. And in contrast with the Gauls they have no specific classes; this is in keeping with Meillet's conclusion that the Indo-Europeans were basically democratic, and also individualistic.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Caesar goes on to describe the large forests to the east, and some of the animals, such as the elk and the ure-oxen, noting how the Germans hunt them by having them fall in pits. The most interesting part of his account is that given here.

Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt.

  • Germani -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Germanus, Germana, Germanum> Germani -- The Germani
  • multum -- adverb; <multum> greatly -- greatly
  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • hac -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- this
  • consuetudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <consuetudo, consuetudinis> custom, way of life -- way of life
  • differunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <differō, differre, distulī, dīlātum> differ -- differ

Nam neque druides habent, qui rebus divinis praesint, neque sacrificiis student.

  • nam -- conjunction; <nam> for -- for
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- neither
  • druides -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <druides, druidum> Druids -- Druids
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- do they have
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matters
  • divinis -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <divinus, divina, divinum> divine, sacred -- divine
  • praesint -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <praesum, praesse, praefuī> have charge of, preside over -- preside over
  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • sacrificiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <sacrificium, sacrifici> sacrifice -- sacrifices
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to

Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Vulcanum et Lunam, reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt.

  • deorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <deus, dei> god -- of the gods
  • numero -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <numerus, numeri> class, number, repute -- among the number
  • eos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- those
  • solos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <solus, sola, solum> alone -- only
  • ducunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductum> lead, consider -- they consider
  • quos -- relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whom
  • cernunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cernō, cernere, crēvī, certum> discern, see -- they see
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quorum -- relative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- whose
  • aperte -- adverb; <aperte> openly -- openly
  • opibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- assistance
  • iuvantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum> assist, help -- they are helped
  • Solem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Sol, Solis> sun -- the sun
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • Vulcanum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Vulcanus, Vulcani> Vulcan, the fire-god -- fire
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • Lunam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Luna, Lunae> Luna, the moon-god -- the moon
  • reliquos -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <reliquus, reliqua, reliquum> remaining, rest -- the rest
  • ne -- adverb; <ne> not -- not
  • fama -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <fama, famae> report, talk -- by report
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- even
  • acceperunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptum> receive -- they have learned

Vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit.

  • vita -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <vita, vitae> life -- life
  • omnis -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- (Their) whole
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • venationibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <venatio, venationis> hunting -- hunting
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • studiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <studium, studii> application, study -- application
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- to ...affairs
  • militaris -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <militaris, militaris, militare> military -- military
  • consistit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, cōnstitum> stand still, consist in -- consists

Ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student.

  • ab -- preposition; <ab> from, after -- from
  • parvulis -- adjective used as substantive; ablative plural masculine of <parvulus, parvula, parvulum> childhood -- childhood
  • labori -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <labor, laboris> labor, effort -- exertion
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • duritiae -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <duritia, duritiae> hardship -- hardship
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to

Qui diutissime impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt laudem.

  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- (those) who
  • diutissime -- adverb; superlative of <diu> long -- longest
  • impuberes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <impubes, impuberis> youthful, chaste -- as virgins
  • permanserunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <permaneō, permanēre, permansī, permansum> stay, continue -- have stayed
  • maximam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine superlative of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- greatest
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • suos -- possessive pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- their fellows
  • ferunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum> bear, carry -- maintain
  • laudem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <laus, laudis> praise -- praise

Hoc ali staturam, ali vires nervosque confirmari putant.

  • hoc -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <hic, haec, hoc> there, this -- by this
  • ali -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- on the one hand
  • staturam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <statura, staturae> stature, height -- height
  • ali -- pronominal adjective; nominative plural masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- on the other hand
  • vires -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <vis, vis> power, strength -- strength
  • nervosque -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <nervus, nervi> muscle + conjunction <-que> and -- and muscles
  • confirmari -- verb; infinitive passive of <cōnfīrmō, cōnfīrmāre, cōnfīrmāvī, cōnfīrmātum> make firm, strengthen -- are strengthened
  • putant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <putō, putāre, putāvī, putātum> think -- think

Intra annum vero vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent rebus.

  • intra -- preposition; <intra> within, during -- before
  • annum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <annus, anni> year -- year
  • vero -- adverb; <vero> truly, but -- truly
  • vicesimum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <vicesimus, vicesima, vicesimum> twentieth -- twentieth
  • feminae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <femina, feminae> woman -- of a woman
  • notitiam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <notitia, notitiae> familiarity, carnal knowledge -- carnal knowledge
  • habuisse -- verb; perfect infinitive of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- to have had
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- among
  • turpissimis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine superlative of <turpis, turpis, turpe> shameful, disgraceful -- disgraceful
  • habent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- consider
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- things

Cuius rei nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus perluntur et pellibus aut parvis renonum tegimentis utuntur magna corporis parte nuda.

  • cuius -- relative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- of which
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • nulla -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- no
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- there is
  • occultatio -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <occultatio, occultationis> secrecy -- secrecy
  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- because
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- both
  • promiscue -- adverb; <promiscue> promiscuous -- promiscuously
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • fluminibus -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <flumen, fluminis> river -- the rivers
  • perluntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <perluō, perluere, perluī, perlūtum> wash, bathe -- they bathe
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • pellibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <pellis, pellis> skin, hide -- hides
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • parvis -- adjective; ablative plural neuter of <parvus, parva, parvum> small -- small
  • renonum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <reno, renonis> deer-skin -- of deer-skins
  • tegimentis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <tegumen, teguminis> clothing, covering -- clothing
  • utuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum> use -- they wear
  • magna -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- with a large
  • corporis -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <corpus, corporis> body -- of the body
  • parte -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • nuda -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <nudus, nuda, nudum> bare, naked -- bare

Agriculturae non student, maiorque pars eorum victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit.

  • agriculturae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <agricultura, agriculturae> agriculture -- agriculture
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • student -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they are devoted to
  • maiorque -- adjective; nominative singular feminine comparative of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large + conjunction <-que> and -- and the greater
  • pars -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • eorum -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- of their
  • victus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <victus, victus> sustenance, food -- food
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • lacte -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <lac, lactis> milk -- milk
  • caseo -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <caseus, casei> cheese -- cheese
  • carne -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <caro, carnis> meat -- (and) meat
  • consistit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, cōnstitum> stand still, consist in -- consists of

Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios.

  • neque -- adverb; <neque> neither ... nor -- nor
  • quisquam -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisquis, quaeque, quicquid> whoever, whatever -- anyone
  • agri -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ager, agri> land -- of land
  • modum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <modus, modi> kind -- amount
  • certum -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <certus, certa, certum> certain -- fixed
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • fines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- boundaries
  • habet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum> have -- has
  • proprios -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <proprius, propria, proprium> proper, own -- (his) own

Sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt.

  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • magistratus -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <magistratus, magistratus> magistrate -- magistrates
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • principes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <princeps, principis> chief -- chiefs
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in
  • annos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <annus, anni> year -- years
  • singulos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <singulus, singula, singulum> single, individual -- separate
  • gentibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <gens, gentis> race, clan -- to tribes
  • cognationibusque -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <cognatio, cognationis> blood-relations, kindred + conjunction <-que> and -- and to clans
  • hominum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <homo, hominis> man, human -- of persons
  • qui -- relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- who
  • una -- adverb; <una> at the same place, together -- together
  • coierunt -- verb; 3rd person plural perfect of <coeo, coīre, coivī, coitum> come together, be assembled -- have assembled
  • quantum -- adverb; <quantum> as much -- as much
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • quo -- interrogative pronoun; ablative singular masculine of <qui, quae, quod> which, what -- whatever
  • loco -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <locus, loci> place -- place
  • visum -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see with est -- seems best
  • est -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am with visum -- ...
  • agri -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ager, agri> land -- land
  • attribuunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <attribuō, attribuere, attribuī, attribūtum> assign -- assign
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • anno -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <annus, anni> year -- year
  • post -- adverb; <post> after -- after
  • alio -- adverb; <alio> somewhere else -- to another place
  • transire -- verb; present infinitive of <trānseō, transīre, transīvī, transitum> go over -- to go
  • cogunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cōgō, cōgere, coēgi, cōactum> collect, compel -- they compel

Eius rei multas adferunt causas:

  • eius -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- for this
  • rei -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • multas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <multus, multa, multum> many -- many
  • adferunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <adferō, adferre, attulī, adlātum> bring, convey -- state
  • causas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <causa, causae> cause, reason -- reasons

ne adsidua consuetudine capti studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent;

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • adsidua -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <adsiduus, adsidua, adsiduum> constant, continued -- by continued
  • consuetudine -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <consuetudo, consuetudinis> custom, way of life -- custom
  • capti -- verb; perfect participle passive of <capiō, capere, cēpī, captum> take, seize -- induced
  • studium -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <studium, studii> application, study -- pursuit
  • belli -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <bellum, belli> war -- war
  • gerendi -- verb; gerund(ive) genitive singular neuter of <gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum> bear, carry out, wear -- of carrying out
  • agricultura -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <agricultura, agriculturae> agriculture -- for agriculture
  • commutent -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <commūtō, commūtāre, commūtāvi, commūtātum> change, exchange -- exchange

ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores possessionibus expellant;

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • latos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <latus, lata, latum> broad -- extensive
  • fines -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <finis, finis> border, limit -- lands
  • parare -- verb; present infinitive of <parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum> prepare, obtain -- to obtain
  • studeant -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <studeō, studēre, studuī> give attention, be devoted -- they might become devoted to
  • potentioresque -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine comparative of <potens, potentis> powerful + conjunction <-que> and -- and the more powerful
  • humiliores -- adjective; accusative plural masculine comparative of <humilis, humilis, humile> low, small -- the lower
  • possessionibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <possessio, possessionis> possession -- from their possessions
  • expellant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <expellō, expellere, expulī, expulsum> drive out -- drive

ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos aedificent;

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • accuratius -- adverb; comparative of <accurate> carefully -- more carefully
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • frigora -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <frigus, frigoris> cold -- cold
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and also
  • aestus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <aestus, aestus> heat -- heat
  • vitandos -- verb; verbal adjective of <vitō, vitāre, vitāvī, vitātus> avoid, evade -- avoiding
  • aedificent -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <aedificō, aedificāre, aedificāvī, aedificātum> build -- they might build

ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur.

  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- so that not
  • qua -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <qui, qua(e), quod> some, any -- some
  • oriatur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <orior, orīrī, ortus sum> arise -- might arise
  • pecuniae -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pecunia, pecuniae> money -- for money
  • cupiditas -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <cupiditas, cupiditatis> desire -- desire
  • qua -- relative pronoun; ablative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • re -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <res, rei> thing, matter -- matter
  • factiones -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <factio, factionis> faction -- factions
  • dissensionesque -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <dissensio, dissensionis> dissension + conjunction <-que> and -- and dissensions
  • nascuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <nāscor, nāscī, nātus sum> be produced, arise -- would arise

ut animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissimis aequari videat.

  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- so that
  • animi -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <animus, animi> soul, mind -- of spirit
  • aequitate -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <aequitas, aequitatis> uniformity, calmness -- in calmness
  • plebem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <plebs, plebis> common people -- the common people
  • contineant -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <contineō, continēre, continuī, contentum> connect, maintain -- they might maintain
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- when
  • suas -- possessive pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- his own
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- someone
  • opes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ops, opis> assistance, wealth, resources -- means
  • cum -- preposition; <cum> with -- with
  • potentissimis -- adjective; dative plural masculine superlative of <potens, potentis> powerful -- the most powerful
  • aequari -- deponent verb; passive infinitive of <aequō, aequāre, aequāvī, aequātus> to make equal, smoothe -- be equal to
  • videat -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum> see -- see

Lesson Text

Germani multum ab hac consuetudine differunt. Nam neque druides habent, qui rebus divinis praesint, neque sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Vulcanum et Lunam, reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt. Vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit. Ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student. Qui diutissime impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos ferunt laudem. Hoc ali staturam, ali vires nervosque confirmari putant. Intra annum vero vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissimis habent rebus. Cuius rei nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus perluntur et pellibus aut parvis renonum tegimentis utuntur magna corporis parte nuda. Agriculturae non student, maiorque pars eorum victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit. Neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios. Sed magistratus ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque hominum, qui una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum est agri attribuunt atque anno post alio transire cogunt. Eius rei multas adferunt causas: ne adsidua consuetudine capti studium belli gerendi agricultura commutent; ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores possessionibus expellant; ne accuratius ad frigora atque aestus vitandos aedificent; ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur. ut animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissimis aequari videat.

Translation

The Germani differ a great deal from this way of life. They have no Druids who preside over their divine affairs; nor are they devoted to sacrifices. They consider in the number of their gods only those whom they see and by whose assistance they are openly helped, the Sun and the Fire-god and the Moon; they have not even heard of the rest by report. Their whole life consists of hunting and of the pursuit of military affairs. From youth they are devoted to work and hardship. Those who remain celibate longest enjoy the greatest praise among their fellows. Some think that height, others that strength and sinews are strengthened by this. They truly consider it among the most disgraceful matters to have had intercourse with a woman before their twentieth year. There is no secrecy in the matter for they bathe promiscuously in the rivers and they wear skins or small coverings of deer skins with a large part of their body nude.
They do not practice agriculture; the greater part of their food consists of milk, cheese, and meat. Nor does anyone have a definite amount of land or fixed boundaries. But the magistrates and chiefs every year assign to the tribes and to related people who have grouped together, as much land and in whatever place seems best. And in the next year they compel them to move. They adduce many reasons for this matter: so that they would not change their zeal for warfare to agriculture, tempted by continuous association; so that they would not desire to acquire broad territories, and the more powerful might expel the weaker; so that they would not build more carefully against cold and heat; so that a desire for money would not arise, from which factions and dissentions might be produced; so that they might keep the common people in calmness of spirit, with each seeing his own means as equal to those of the most powerful.

Grammar

21. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns.

As we have noted, and as is clear from the texts in the first five lessons, few particles are used in Latin. On the other hand, pronouns are used to indicate relationships between words, clauses and sentences. The pronouns concerned are chiefly those labeled descriptive and relative, since historical texts use few personal pronouns, in part because the item in question is provided by the verb form. Nonetheless it is necessary to be aware of them, and accordingly they are given here.

The first and second person pronouns are also used as reflexives. The third person pronoun is reflexive, and is used for all three genders in the plural as well as the singular. The dative accordingly may mean 'to himself, to herself, to itself, to themselves.'

    1st Person   2nd Person   3rd Person
    Singular   Plural   Singular   Plural    
Nom   ego 'I'   nōs 'we'   tū 'thou'   vōs 'you'    
Gen   meī   nostrum, nostrī   tui   vestrum, vestrī   suī
Dat   mihi   nōbis   tibī   vōbis   sibī
Acc   mē   nōs   tē   vōs   sē, sēsē
Abl   mē   nōbis   tē   vōbis   sē, sēsē

The adjectival forms of these pronouns, known as possessives, are inflected in all cases and genders. They are: meus, mea, meum 'my', tuus, tua, tuum 'thy', suus, sua, suum 'his, her, its, their', noster, nostra, nostrum 'our', vester, vestra, vestrum 'your'.

22. Descriptive Pronouns.

These pronouns, which are also referred to as determinative or determiners or even demonstrative, are among the most frequent. They may be translated with forms of 'this' or with personal pronouns like 'he' or with other elements like 'the same'. The genitive and dative forms are the same for all three genders, except for the genitive plural where the feminine has -a- rather than -o-.

    is 'he, she, this'
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   is   ea   id   iī   eae   ea
Gen   ēius   ēius   ēius   eōrum   eārum   eōrum
Dat   eī   eī   eī   iīs   iīs   iīs
Acc   eum   eam   id   eōs   eās   ea
Abl   eō   eā   eō   iīs   iīs   iīs
 
    idem 'the same'
Nom   īdem   eadem   idem   idem   eaedem   eadem
Gen   ēiusdem   ēiusdem   ēiusdem   eōrumdem   eārumdem   eōrumdem
Dat   eīdem   eīdem   eīdem   īsdem   īsdem   īsdem
Acc   eundem   eandem   idem   eōsdem   eāsdem   eadem
Abl   eōdem   eādem   eōdem   īsdem   īsdem   īsdem
 
    hic 'this'
Nom   hic   haec   hoc   hī   hae   haec
Gen   hūius   hūius   hūius   hōrum   hārum   hōrum
Dat   huīc   huīc   huīc   hīs   hīs   hīs
Acc   hunc   hanc   hoc   hōs   hās   haec
Abl   hōc   hāc   hōc   hīs   hīs   hīs
 
    ille 'that, such'
Nom   ille   illa   illud   illī   illae   illa
Gen   illīus   illīus   illīus   illōrum   illārum   illōrum
Dat   illī   illī   illī   illīs   illīs   illīs
Acc   illum   illam   illud   illōs   illās   illa
Abl   illō   illā   illō   illīs   illīs   illīs
23. The Intensive Pronoun ipse 'self'.
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   ipse   ipsa   ipsum   ipsī   ipsae   ipsa
Gen   ipsīus   ipsīus   ipsīus   ipsōrum   ipsārum   ipsōrum
Dat   ipsī   ipsī   ipsī   ipsīs   ipsīs   ipsīs
Acc   ipsum   ipsam   ipsum   ipsōs   ipsās   ipsa
Abl   ipsō   ipsā   ipsō   ipsīs   ipsīs   ipsīs
24. The Relative Pronoun quī 'who'.
    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   quī   quae   quod   quī   quae   quae
Gen   cūius   cūius   cūius   quōrum   quārum   quōrum
Dat   cuī   cuī   cuī   quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quam   quod   quōs   quās   quae
Abl   quō   quā   quō   quibus   quibus   quibus

Indefinite relatives are quicumque 'whoever' and quisquis 'whoever', quidquid 'whatever'. The first element of quicumque may be declined like the simple relative pronoun. The elements of quisquis may be declined like the interrogative pronoun, as demonstrated by the form quidquid; but other forms rarely occur.

25. The Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns.

The interrogative pronoun when used as a noun is quis 'who?'; when used as an adjective it is qui, as in qui homo 'Which man?'; it is inflected like the relative pronoun.

    Singular   Plural
    Masc   Fem   Neut   Masc   Fem   Neut
Nom   quis   quis   quid   quī   quae   quae
Gen   cūius   cūius   cūius   quōrum   quārum   quōrum
Dat   cuī   cuī   cuī   quibus   quibus   quibus
Acc   quem   quem   quid   quōs   quās   quae
Abl   quō   quā   quō   quibus   quibus   quibus

Quis is also used as indefinite pronoun, noun, and adjective. When used as an adjective, the nominative forms are qui, quae and quod; when used as a noun, the neuter is quid.