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Latin Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

About a hundred and fifty years after Caesar wrote his Gallic War, the historian Tacitus produced a treatise on the Germani. We know less about Cornelius Tacitus than we do about Julius Caesar. He was apparently born around 55 A.D. and died around 120 A.D. He enjoyed a fine career in various government positions. Among his works, in addition to a history of his time known as Historiae and his Annales on the period from the death of Augustus Caesar in 14 A.D. to 68 A.D., is a work entitled De Moribus et Populis Germaniae 'Concerning the customs and peoples of Germania', or more simply Germania. While some authors in Classical times, among them Herodotus, Livy and Caesar, included brief accounts of other peoples in their writings, Tacitus' Germania is the only anthropological account of a people that we have from the period.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In his description of the public and private life of the German peoples, Tacitus gives us a much more comprehensive picture than did Caesar. On the other hand, their way of life seems much the same as it was in Caesar's day. At one point Tacitus does indicate that they have taken on some customs from outside, as in the brief statement iam et pecuniam accipere docuimus 'we have brought them also to accept money', but, as the excerpt given here shows, their habitations and clothing remained much the same.

Nullas Germanorum populis urbes habitari satis notum est, ne pati quidem inter se iunctas sedes.

  • nullas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- no
  • Germanorum -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <Germanus, Germana, Germanum> Germani -- of the Germani
  • populis -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <populus, populi> people -- by the peoples
  • urbes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <urbs, urbis> city -- cities
  • habitari -- verb; passive infinitive of <habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātum> inhabit -- are inhabited
  • satis -- adverb; <satis> adequately, sufficiently -- quite
  • notum -- verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtum> be acquainted with, get to know -- known
  • est -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- it is
  • ne -- conjunction; <ne> so that not -- that ... not
  • pati -- deponent verb; infinitive passive of <patior, patī, passus sum> suffer, endure -- they permit
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- even
  • inter -- preposition; <inter> between, among -- among
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • iunctas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <iunctus, iuncta, iunctum> joined, united -- connected
  • sedes -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <sedes, sedis> seat, habitation -- habitations

Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus placuit.

  • colunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <colō, colere, coluī, cultum> dwell in, cultivate -- They live
  • discreti -- verb; nominative plural masculine perfect participle passive of <discernō, discernere, discrēvī, discrētum> separate, divide -- separately
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- as well as
  • diversi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <diversus, diversa, diversum> contrary, diverse -- diversely
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- where
  • fons -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <fons, fontis> spring -- a spring
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- where
  • campus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <campus, campi> plain, open field -- an open field
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- where
  • nemus -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <nemus, nemoris> grove -- a grove
  • placuit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <placeō, placēre, placuī, placitum> please -- as they please

Vicos locant non in nostrum morem conexis et cohaerentibus aedificiis.

  • vicos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <vicus, vici> village -- villages
  • locant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <locō, locāre, locāvī, locātus> place, arrange -- they arrange
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- in accordance with
  • nostrum -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <noster, nostra, nostrum> our -- our
  • morem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mos, moris> custom -- custom
  • conexis -- adjective; ablative plural neuter of <conexus, conexa, conexum> adjoining -- adjoining
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • cohaerentibus -- ablative plural neuter of <cohaerens, cohaerentis> continuous, adjoining -- continuous
  • aedificiis -- noun, neuter; ablative plural of <aedificium, aedificii> building -- buildings

Suam quisque domum spatio circumdat, sive adversus casus ignis remedium sive inscientia aedificandi.

  • suam -- possessive pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <suus, sua, suum> own -- his
  • quisque -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <quisque, quaeque, quodque> everyone -- everyone
  • domum -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <domus, domi> house -- house
  • spatio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <spatium, spatii> space -- space
  • circumdat -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <circumdō, circumdare, circumdedī, circumdātum> surround -- surrounds
  • sive -- conjunction; <sive> or if, whether ... or -- whether
  • adversus -- adverb; <adversus> opposite to, against -- against
  • casus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <casus, casus> fall, misfortune, chance -- hazard
  • ignis -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ignis, ignis> fire -- of fire
  • remedium -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <remedium, remedii> remedy, assistance -- as a remedy
  • sive -- conjunction; <sive> or if, whether ... or -- or
  • inscientia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <inscientia, inscientiae> ignorance -- through ignorance
  • aedificandi -- verb; genitive of gerund(ive) of <aedificō, aedificāre, aedificāvī, aedificātum> build -- of construction

Ne caementorum quidem apud illos aut tegularum usus.

  • ne -- adverb; <ne> not -- not
  • caementorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <caementum, caementi> quarry-stone -- of quarry-stones
  • quidem -- adverb; <quidem> in fact, even -- even
  • apud -- preposition; <apud> among, with -- among
  • illos -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <ille, illa, illud> he, she, that -- them
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • tegularum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <tegula, tegulae> tile -- of tiles
  • usus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <usus, usus> use, practice -- use

Materia ad omnia utuntur informi et citra speciem aut delectationem.

  • materia -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <materia, materiae> material -- material
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- for
  • omnia -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- everything
  • utuntur -- deponent verb; 3rd person plural present of <ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum> use -- they use
  • informi -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <informis, informis, informe> unshapely, hideous -- unshapely
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • citra -- preposition; <citra> on this side of, without -- without
  • speciem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <species, speciei> appearance -- pleasing appearance
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • delectationem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <delectatio, delectationis> pleasure, delight -- beauty

Quaedam loca diligentius illinunt terra ita pura ac splendente, ut picturam ac liniamenta colorum imitetur.

  • quaedam -- indefinite pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <quidam, quaedam, quoddam> a certain, some -- some
  • loca -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <locus, loci> place -- places
  • diligentius -- adverb; comparative of <diligenter> industriously -- very industriously
  • illinunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <illinō, illere, illēvī, illitum> spread over -- they spread, smear
  • terra -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <terra, terrae> earth, land -- with earth
  • ita -- adverb; <ita> thus -- so
  • pura -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <purus, pura, purum> pure -- pure
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and also
  • splendente -- verb; ablative singular feminine of present participle of <splendeo, splendere, -, -> shine, be bright -- shiny
  • ut -- conjunction; <ut> that, so that -- that
  • picturam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pictura, picturae> painting -- a painting
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and also
  • liniamenta -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <liniamentum, liniamenti> line, designs -- designs
  • colorum -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <color, coloris> color -- of colors
  • imitetur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular subjunctive present of <imitor, imitāre, imitātum> imitate, resemble -- they resemble

Solent et subterraneos specus aperire eosque multo insuper fimo onerant suffugium hiemis et receptaculum frugibus.

  • solent -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sōleō, solēre, solitum> be accustomed -- They are accustomed
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- also
  • subterraneos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <subterraneus, subterranei> underground -- underground
  • specus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <specus, specus> cave, pit -- pits
  • aperire -- verb; infinitive of <aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum> open -- to open
  • eosque -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this + conjunction <-que> and -- and them
  • multo -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <multus, multa, multum> many -- with much
  • insuper -- adverb; <insuper> above, on top -- on top
  • fimo -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <fimus, fimi> dung -- dung
  • onerant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <onerō, onerāre, onerāvī, onerātum> load, burden -- they cover
  • suffugium -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <suffugium, suffugii> refuge, shelter -- as a shelter
  • hiemis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <hiems, hiemis> winter -- from the winter
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • receptaculum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <receptaculum, receptaculi> receptacle, storage place -- storage place
  • frugibus -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <frux, frugis> fruit, produce -- for fruit

Quia rigorem frigorum eius modi loci molliunt, et si quando hostis advenit, aperta populatur.

  • quia -- conjunction; <quia> because -- because
  • rigorem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <rigor, rigoris> rigor -- rigor
  • frigorum -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <frigus, frigoris> cold -- of the cold
  • eius -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this -- of that
  • modi -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <modus, modi> kind -- kind
  • loci -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <locus, loci> place -- places
  • molliunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <molliō, mollīre, mollīvī, mollītum> moderate, soften -- moderate
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • quando -- adverb; <quando> ever, at some time -- at some time
  • hostis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hostis, hostis> enemy -- an enemy
  • advenit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <adveniō, advenīre, advenī, adventum> arrive, appear -- arrived
  • aperta -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <apertus, aperta, apertum> open -- the open things
  • populatur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <populor, populāri, populatus sum> devastate, plunder -- he would plunder

Abdita autem et defossa aut ignorantur aut eo ipso fallunt, quod quaerenda sunt.

  • abdita -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural neuter of <abditus, abdita, abditum> hidden place -- the hidden places
  • autem -- conjunction; <autem> but -- but
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • defossa -- participle used as substantive; nominative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <dēfodiō, defossere, defōdī, defossum> dig deep, hide -- the caves
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- either
  • ignorantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <īgnōrō, īgnōrāre, īgnōrāvi, īgnōrātum> ignore, be unknown -- remain unknown
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • eo ipso -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular neuter of <is, ea, id> him, her, this + intensive pronoun <ipse, ipsa, ipsum> self -- by that very reason
  • fallunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <fallō, fallere, fefellī, falsum> deceive, elude -- they elude
  • quod -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- what
  • quaerenda -- verbal adjective; nominative plural neuter of <quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum> look for, search -- to be sought
  • sunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <sum, esse, fuī> I am -- they are

Tegumen omnibus sagum fibula aut, si desit, spina consertum.

  • tegumen -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <tegumen, teguminis> clothing, covering -- The covering
  • omnibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- for all
  • sagum -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <sagum, sagi> rough mantle -- (is) a rough mantle
  • fibula -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <fibula, fibulae> brooch -- with a brooch
  • aut -- conjunction; <aut> or -- or
  • si -- conjunction; <si> if -- if
  • desit -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <desum, deesse, defuī> be lacking -- is unavailable
  • spina -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <spina, spinae> thorn -- a thorn
  • consertum -- verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <cōnserō, cōnserere, cōnseruī, cōnsertum> connect -- held together

Cetera intecti totos dies iuxta focum atque ignem agunt.

  • cetera -- adverb; <cetera> otherwise -- Otherwise
  • intecti -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <intectus, intecta, intectum> uncovered -- naked
  • totos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <totus, tota, totum> entire -- entire
  • dies -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <dies, diei> day -- days
  • iuxta -- preposition; <iuxta> near -- near
  • focum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <focus, foci> fire-place, hearth -- the hearth
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • ignem -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ignis, ignis> fire -- the fire
  • agunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <agō, agere, ēgī, āctum> move, conduct -- they spend

Locupletissimi reste distinguuntur, non fluitante, sicut Sarmatae ac Parthi, sed stricta et singulos artus exprimente.

  • locupletissimi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of superlative of <locuples, locupletis> rich in lands, wealthy -- The wealthy
  • reste -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <restis, restis> undergarment -- by an undergarment
  • distinguuntur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <dīstinguō, dīstinguere, dīstinxī, dīstinctum> divide, distinguish -- are distinguished
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • fluitante -- verb; ablative singular feminine of present participle of <fluitō, fluitāre, fluitāvī, -> flow -- flowing
  • sicut -- adverb; <sicut> as, like -- like
  • Sarmatae -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Sarmatae, Sarmatarum> Sarmatians -- the Sarmatians
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • Parthi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Parthi, Parthorum> Parthians -- Parthians
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but
  • stricta -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <strictus, stricta, strictum> drawn together, tight -- tight
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • singulos -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <singulus, singula, singulum> single, individual -- the individual
  • artus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <artus, artus> joints, limbs -- limbs
  • exprimente -- verb; ablative singular feminine of present participle of <exprimō, exprimere, expressī, expressum> express -- revealing

Gerunt et ferarum pelles, proximi ripae neglegenter, ulteriores exquisitius, ut quibus nullus per commercia cultus.

  • gerunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum> bear, carry out, wear -- They wear
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- also
  • ferarum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <fera, ferae> wild beast -- of wild animals
  • pelles -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <pellis, pellis> skin, hide -- hides
  • proximi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <proximus, proxima, proximum> next to -- (those) next to
  • ripae -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ripa, ripae> river-bank -- the river (= Rhine and Danube)
  • neglegenter -- adverb; <neglegenter> carelessly -- with no discrimination
  • ulteriores -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <ulterior, ulterioris> farther, remote -- those more remote
  • exquisitius -- adverb; comparative of <exquisitus, exquisita, exquisitum> exquisitely -- more exquisitely
  • ut -- adverb; <ut> as, where -- seeing that
  • quibus -- relative pronoun; dative plural masculine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- for them
  • nullus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nullus, nulla, nullum> no, none -- (there is) no
  • per -- preposition; <per> through, by -- through
  • commercia -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <commercium, commerci> commerce -- through commerce
  • cultus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <cultus, cultus> care, culture -- refinement

Eligunt feras et detracta velamina spargunt maculis pellibusque beluarum, quas exterior Oceanus atque ignotum mare gignit.

  • eligunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ēligō, ēlegere, elēgī, elēctum> choose, select -- they select
  • feras -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <fera, ferae> wild beast -- (the hides of) wild beasts
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • detracta -- verb; perfect participle passive of <dētrahō, detrahere, dētraxī, detractum> take off, remove -- removed
  • velamina -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <velamen, velaminis> cover, clothing -- clothing
  • spargunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <spargō, spargere, sparsī, sparsum> strew, sprinkle -- they distribute
  • maculis -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <macula, maculae> spot -- with spots
  • pellibusque -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <pellis, pellis> skin, hide + conjunction <-que> and -- and with hides
  • beluarum -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <belua, beluae> wild animal, monster -- of wild animals
  • quas -- relative pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • exterior -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <exterior, exterioris> outer -- the outer
  • Oceanus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Oceanus, Oceani> ocean -- ocean
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • ignotum -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <ignotus, ignota, ignotum> unknown -- an unknown
  • mare -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <mare, maris> sea -- sea
  • gignit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <gīgnō, genere, genuī, genitum> generate, produce -- produces

Nec alius feminis quam viris habitus, nisi quod feminae saepius lineis amictibus velantur eosque purpura variant.

  • nec -- adverb; <nec> neither ... nor -- not
  • alius -- pronominal adjective; nominative singular masculine of <alius, alia, aliud> other, some -- different
  • feminis -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <femina, feminae> woman -- for the women
  • quam -- adverb used as conjunction; <quam> than -- than
  • viris -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vir, viri> man -- for the men
  • habitus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <habitus, habitus> clothing, dress -- clothing
  • nisi -- conjunction; <nisi> if not, unless -- except
  • quod -- conjunction; <quod> that, because -- that
  • feminae -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <femina, feminae> woman -- the women
  • saepius -- adverb; comparative of <saepe> often -- more often
  • lineis -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <lineus, linea, lineum> flaxen -- by flaxen
  • amictibus -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <amictus, amictus> outer garment -- outer garments
  • velantur -- verb; 3rd person plural present passive of <vēlō, velāre, velāvī, velātum> cover -- are covered
  • eosque -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <is, ea, id> him, her, this + conjunction <-que> and -- and those
  • purpura -- ablative singular feminine of <purpura, purpurae> purple, purple cloth -- with purple cloth
  • variant -- verb, 3rd person plural present of <variō, variāre, variāvī, variātum> variegate -- they variegate

Partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non extendunt; nudae brachia ac lacertos; sed et proxima pars pectoris patet.

  • partemque -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pars, partis> part + conjunction <-que> and -- And ...part
  • vestitus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vestitus, vestitus> clothing -- of their ... clothing
  • superioris -- adjective; genitive singular masculine comparative of <superus, supera, superum> higher, gods -- upper
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- into
  • manicas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <manicae, manicarum> long sleeves -- sleeves
  • non -- adverb; <non> not -- not
  • extendunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <extendō, extendere, extendī, extēnsum> extend -- they extend
  • nudae -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <nudus, nuda, nudum> bare, naked -- (are) bare
  • brachia -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <brachium, brachi> lower arm -- (their) lower arms
  • ac -- conjunction; <ac> and -- and
  • lacertos -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <lacertus, lacerti> upper arm -- (their) upper arms
  • sed -- conjunction; <sed> but -- but, in fact
  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- also
  • proxima -- adjective; nominative singular feminine superlative of <prope> near -- nearest
  • pars -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pars, partis> part -- part
  • pectoris -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pectus, pectoris> breast -- of their breast
  • patet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pateō, patēre, patuī, -> lie open, be exposed -- lies open

Lesson Text

Nullas Germanorum populis urbes habitari satis notum est, ne pati quidem inter se iunctas sedes. Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus placuit. Vicos locant non in nostrum morem conexis et cohaerentibus aedificiis. Suam quisque domum spatio circumdat, sive adversus casus ignis remedium sive inscientia aedificandi. Ne caementorum quidem apud illos aut tegularum usus. Materia ad omnia utuntur informi et citra speciem aut delectationem. Quaedam loca diligentius illinunt terra ita pura ac splendente, ut picturam ac liniamenta colorum imitetur. Solent et subterraneos specus aperire eosque multo insuper fimo onerant suffugium hiemis et receptaculum frugibus. Quia rigorem frigorum eius modi loci molliunt, et si quando hostis advenit, aperta populatur. Abdita autem et defossa aut ignorantur aut eo ipso fallunt, quod quaerenda sunt. Tegumen omnibus sagum fibula aut, si desit, spina consertum. Cetera intecti totos dies iuxta focum atque ignem agunt. Locupletissimi reste distinguuntur, non fluitante, sicut Sarmatae ac Parthi, sed stricta et singulos artus exprimente. Gerunt et ferarum pelles, proximi ripae neglegenter, ulteriores exquisitius, ut quibus nullus per commercia cultus. Eligunt feras et detracta velamina spargunt maculis pellibusque beluarum, quas exterior Oceanus atque ignotum mare gignit. Nec alius feminis quam viris habitus, nisi quod feminae saepius lineis amictibus velantur eosque purpura variant. Partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non extendunt; nudae brachia ac lacertos; sed et proxima pars pectoris patet.

Translation

It is well known that cities are not inhabited by the peoples of the Germani, indeed that connected habitations are not permitted among them. They live separately and independently, where a spring, an open field or a wood has pleased them. They do not arrange their villages according to our custom, with adjoining and continuous buildings. Each surrounds his house with an open space, whether as a remedy against the occurrence of fire, or because of ignorance of construction. There is not even use of quarry-stones or tiles among them. For all things they use unshapely materials, without pleasant appearance or beauty. Some places they smear so carefully with such pure and shiny earth that they resemble a painting and designs of colors. And they also dig underground pits and cover them with much dung on top, for a shelter from the winter and a storage place for fruits. Because those places moderate the rigorous cold; and when an enemy appears, he would plunder only the open things. For the hidden places and the caves remain unknown or they elude them because they would have to be sought out.
The clothing for all is a rough mantle held together with a brooch or if that is lacking by a thorn. Otherwise they are unclothed; they spend entire days in this way near the hearth and fire. Only the richest are distinguished by an undergarment, not flowing, like those of the Sarmatians and Parthians, but tight and revealing all the limbs. They also wear hides of wild animals, those along the river not discriminating among them, but those more remote also more exquisitely. Because there is no culture through commerce there! They select the hides and spread the removed coverings with spots and hides of wild animals that the outer ocean and an unknown sea produce.
The clothing of the women does not differ from that of the men, except that they often are covered with flaxen outer garments and those they variegate with purple cloth. And they do not extend part of their upper clothing to their arms. Their lower and upper arms are bare. In fact, the nearest part of their breast also lies open.

Grammar

26. The importance of verb forms.

As we have noted, verbs are highly important for understanding and translating Latin. They often include the subject of a sentence. They also vary in form, so that they indicate the writer's intention, whether factual, hypothetical, or the like.

Besides active and passive voices and indicative and subjunctive moods, verbs in general have two systems, those based on the present tense and representing time of action, those based on the perfect tense and representing aspect as well as time of action. The twofold set may be determined from the lists of principal parts of verbs, as we may illustrate with an example of the patterns found in dictionaries:

dōnō 'I give', dōnāvī 'I have given', dōnātum 'given', dōnāre 'to give'.

From the first and last of these principal parts, one determines the forms of the present system; from the second one determines the forms of the perfect system. The third form is the perfect participle passive, which is used in making some of the passive forms, and it is often used as an adjective.

There are four conjugations, based on differing stems. The verbs of the first conjugation have stems ending in long --, such as dōnō, donāre 'give'; those of the second conjugation have stems ending in long --, such as habeō, habēre 'have'; those of the third conjugation have stems ending in short -e-, such as tegō, tegere 'cover'; those of the fourth conjugation have stems ending in long --, such as audiō, audīre 'hear'. To provide an overview of the numerous forms for any verb, we will give all forms of a verb of the first conjugation, because they are the most regular. We assume that with these lists you will be able to recognize any verb form, not that you will memorize them unless you so choose. Many of the forms are unlikely to occur in the narrative texts included here, such as the imperatives; these may however occur in poetry, especially drama. But they are most likely to occur in everyday conversation.

27. The Present Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dōnō, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   dōnō   dōnem   dōnor   dōner
2 sg   dōnās   dōnēs   dōnāris   dōnēris
3 sg   dōnat   dōnet   dōnātur   dōnētur
1 pl   dōnāmus   dōnēmus   dōnāmur   dōnēmur
2 pl   dōnātis   dōnētis   dōnāminī   dōnēminī
3 pl   dōnant   dōnent   dōnantur   dōnentur
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habeō   habeam   habeor   habear
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tegō   tegam   tegor   tegar
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audiō   audiam   audior   audiar
28. The Imperfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dōnō, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   dōnābam   dōnārem   dōnābar   dōnārer
2 sg   dōnābās   dōnārēs   dōnābāris   dōnārētis
3 sg   dōnābat   dōnāret   dōnābātur   dōnārētur
1 pl   dōnābāmus   dōnārēmus   dōnābāmur   dōnārēmus
2 pl   dōnābātis   dōnārētis   dōnābāminī   dōnārēmini
3 pl   dōnābant   dōnārent   dōnābantur   dōnārentur
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habēbam   habērem   habēbar   habērer
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tegēbam   tegerem   tegēbar   tegerer
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audiēbam   audīrem   audiēbar   audīrer
29. The Forms of the Future. Note that there is no subjunctive.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
1 sg   dōnābō   dōnābor
2 sg   dōnābis   dōnāberis
3 sg   dōnābit   dōnābitur
1 pl   dōnābimus   dōnābimur
2 pl   dōnābitis   dōnābiminī
3 pl   dōnābunt   dōnābuntur
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habēbō   habēbor
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   tegam   tegar
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audiam   audiar
30. The forms of the Imperative, the Present Infinitive, and the Present and Future Participles.
Imperative
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
2 sg pres   dōnā   dōnāre
2 pl pres   dōnāte   dōnāminī
2 sg fut   dōnātō   dōnātor
2 pl fut   dōnātōte   dōnantor
 
2nd conjugation
2 sg pres   habē   habēre
2 pl pres   habēte   habēminī
2 sg fut   habētō   habētor
2 pl fut   habētōte   habentor
 
3rd conjugation
2 sg pres   tege   tegere
2 pl pres   tegite   tegiminī
2 sg fut   tegitō   tegitor
2 pl fut   tegitōte   teguntor
 
4th conjugation
2 sg pres   audī   audīre
2 pl pres   audīte   audīminī
2 sg fut   audītō   audītor
2 pl fut   audītōte   audiuntor
 
Infinitive
1st conjugation
pres   dōnāre   dōnāri
 
2nd conjugation
pres   habēre   habērī
 
3rd conjugation
pres   tegere   tegī
 
4th conjugation
pres   audīre   audīrī
 
Participle
1st conjugation
pres   dōnāns    
fut   dōnātūrus    
 
2nd conjugation
pres   habēns    
fut   habitūrus    
 
3rd conjugation
pres   tegēns    
fut   tēctūrus    
 
4th conjugation
pres   audiēns    
fut   audītūrus