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Latin Online

Lesson 7

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Ennius, 239-169 BC, was born in southern Italy, at Rudiae, twenty miles from Brundisium. Besides Latin he spoke Greek and Oscan. Having joined the Roman army, he was brought to Rome and settled there for the rest of his life. He supported himself by teaching Greek, as well as through his writing. He had contacts with other literary figures of his day, though it is unclear whether Plautus was among them. Among his works were tragedies, poems and most important, the Annals, which, like the Homeric poems, is composed in dactylic hexameters. Beginning with its background at Troy, the Annals covered the history of Rome until shortly before the time of the death of Ennius.

Reading and Textual Analysis

This selection is taken from the Annals of Ennius. The text was "edited and translated" by E. H. Warmington in his four volumes of Remains of Old Latin I, page 30 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961, Loeb Classical Library No.294). It is of interest for its account of the naming of Rome, the contest between the two brothers, Romulus and Remus, and the account of the augury, as well as for an example of archaic Latin. Warmington has modified the spelling, so that it is in keeping with the conventions of classical Latin. There are, then, few differences in this text from the written language several centuries later. The Annals have come down to us in fragments, which Warmington has assembled; among these, this selection is relatively lengthy.

Curantes magna cum cura tum cupientes
Regni dant operam simul auspicio augurioque;
..........in monte..........

  • curantes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <curo, curare, curavi, curatum> care -- caring
  • magna -- adjective; ablative singular feminine of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- great
  • cum -- conjunction; <cum> since, when -- with
  • cura -- noun, feminine; ablative singular of <cura, curae> care -- care
  • tum -- adverb; <tum> then -- then
  • cupientes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitum> desire -- desiring
  • regni -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- supreme power
  • dant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <do, dare, dedi, datum> give -- they give
  • operam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <opera, operae> work, service, attention -- attention
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- simultaneously
  • auspicio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <auspicium, auspicii> divination by the flight of birds -- to the omen from the birds
  • augurioque -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <augurium, augurii> interpretation of omens, augury + conjunction <-que> and -- and to their interpretation
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- on
  • monte -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <mons, montis> mountain -- a mountain

Remus auspicio se devovet atque secundam
solus avem servat. At Romulus pulcher in alto
quaerit Aventino, servat genus altivolentum.

  • Remus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Remus, Remi> Remus -- Remus
  • auspicio -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <auspicium, auspicii> divination by the flight of birds -- to the omen from the birds
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- himself
  • devovet -- verb; 3rd person singular present, of <devoveo, devovere, devovi, devotum> devote -- devotes
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • secundam -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <secundus, secunda, secundum> second, favorable -- favorable
  • solus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <solus, sola, solum> alone -- by himself
  • avem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <avis, avis> bird -- bird
  • servat -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <servo, servare, servavi, servatum> guard, keep, watch -- watches
  • at -- adverb; <at> and -- but
  • Romulus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Romulus, Romuli> Romulus -- Romulus
  • pulcher -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum> beautiful, excellent -- handsome
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- on
  • alto -- adjective; ablative singular masculine of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- high
  • quaerit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum> look for, search -- searches
  • Aventino -- noun, masculine; ablative singular of <Aventinus, Aventini> Aventine -- Aventine
  • servat -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <servo, servare, servavi, servatum> guard, keep, watch -- watches
  • genus -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <genus, generis> kind, class -- class
  • altivolentum -- adjective; genitive plural neuter of <altivolans, altivolantis> high flying -- high flying

Certabant urbem Romam Remoramve vocarent.

  • certabant -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <certo, certare, certavi, certatum> fight, contend -- they were contending
  • urbem -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <urbs, urbis> city -- the city
  • Romam -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Roma, Romae> Rome -- Rome
  • Remoramve -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Remora, Remorae> Remora + conjunction <-ve> or -- or Remora
  • vocarent -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect subjunctive of <voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum> call -- (whether) they would call

Omnibus cura viris uter esset induperator:

  • omnibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- among all
  • cura -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <cura, curae> care -- (there was) concern
  • viris -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vir, viri> man -- the men
  • uter -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <uter, utra, utrum> which of two -- which of the two
  • esset -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect subjunctive of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- would be
  • induperator -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <induperator, induperatoris> commander in chief, emperor -- commander

exspectant, veluti consul quom mittere signum
volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras
quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus.

  • exspectant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <exspecto, exspectare, exspectavi, exspectatum> wait for -- they wait
  • veluti -- adverb; <veluti> as, like -- as
  • consul -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <consul, consulis> consul -- the consul
  • quom -- conjunction; <quom> when -- when
  • mittere -- verb; infinitive of <mitto, mittere, misi, missum> send, give -- to give
  • signum -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <signum, signi> sign -- the signal
  • volt -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <volo, velle, volui> wish, determine -- decides
  • omnes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <omnis, omnis, omne> all -- all
  • avidi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <avidus, avida, avidum> eager -- eagerly
  • spectant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <specto, spectare, spectavi, spectatum> look, gaze -- gaze
  • ad -- preposition; <ad> to, towards -- at
  • carceris -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <carcer, carceris> prison, starting-place in a race-course -- of the starting-place
  • oras -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ora, orae> mouth, boundary, coast -- the front
  • quam -- relative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <qui, quae, quod> who, which, what, that -- which
  • mox -- adverb; <mox> soon -- soon
  • emittat -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <emitto, emittere, emisi, emissum> send out -- he will send
  • pictis -- adjective; ablative plural feminine of <pictus, picta, pictum> painted -- painted
  • e -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • faucibus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <fauces, faucis> throat, entrance -- the...entrance
  • currus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <currus, currus> chariot -- the chariots

sic exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat,
rebus utri magni victoria sit data regni.

  • sic -- adverb; <sic> so, thus -- so
  • exspectabat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <exspecto, exspectare, exspectavi, exspectatum> wait for -- were waiting
  • populus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <populus, populi> people -- the people
  • atque -- conjunction; <atque> and -- and
  • ora -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ora, orae> mouth, boundary, coast -- their tongues
  • tenebat -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <teneo, tenere, tenui, -> hold, control, understand -- holding
  • rebus -- noun, feminine; ablative plural of <res, rei> thing, matter -- by the events
  • utri -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <uter, utra, utrum> which of two -- to which of the two
  • magni -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <magnus, magna, magnum> great, large -- of great
  • victoria -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <victoria, victoriae> victory -- the victory
  • sit -- auxiliary verb; 3rd person singular perfect subjunctive passive of <sum, esse, fui> I am with data -- would be
  • data -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect subjunctive passive of <do, dare, dedi, datum> give -- given
  • regni -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- authority

Interea sol albus recessit in infera noctis.

  • interea -- adverb; <interea> in the meantime -- In the meantime
  • sol -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sol, solis> sun -- the... sun
  • albus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <albus, alba, album> white -- white
  • recessit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <recedo, recedere, recessi, recessum> retire, withdraw -- had withdrawn
  • in -- preposition; <in> in, on -- to
  • infera -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <inferus, inferi> lower part -- depths
  • noctis -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <nox, noctis> night -- of night

Exin candida se radiis dedit icta foras lux.

  • exin -- adverb; <exin> after that, then -- then
  • candida -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <candidus, candida, candidum> clear -- clear
  • se -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- itself
  • radiis -- noun, masculine; ablative plural of <radius, radii> rod, beam -- with beams
  • dedit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <do, dare, dedi, datum> give -- gave
  • icta -- defective verb; nominative singular feminine of perfect participle passive of <icere, ici, ictum> strike -- struck
  • foras -- adverb; <foras> forth, out -- out
  • lux -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <lux, lucis> light -- light

et simul ex alto longe pulcherruma praepes
laeva volavit avis, simul aureus exoritur sol.

  • et -- conjunction; <et> and -- and
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- at the same time
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> out of, from -- from
  • alto -- adjective used as substantive; ablative singular neuter of <altus, alta, altum> high, deep -- heaven
  • longe -- adverb; <longe> by far -- by far
  • pulcherruma -- adjective; nominative singular feminine superlative of <pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum> beautiful, excellent -- the most excellent
  • praepes -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <praepes, praepetis> of good omen, favorable -- favorable
  • laeva -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <laevus, laeva, laevum> left -- left
  • volavit -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <volo, volare, volavi, volatum> fly -- flew
  • avis -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <avis, avis> bird -- bird
  • simul -- adverb; <simul> at the same time -- at the same time
  • aureus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <aureus, aurea, aureum> golden -- the golden
  • exoritur -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <exorior, exoriri, exortus sum> arise, appear -- arose
  • sol -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sol, solis> sun -- sun

Cedunt de caelo ter quattuor corpora sancta
avium, praepetibus sese pulchrisque locis dant.

  • cedunt -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum> go from, depart -- come down
  • de -- preposition; <de> from, about -- from
  • caelo -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <caelum, caeli> sky, heavens -- the sky
  • ter -- number; <ter> three -- three
  • quattuor -- number; <quattuor> four -- four
  • corpora -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <corpus, corporis> body -- bodies
  • sancta -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <sanctus, sancta, sanctum> holy -- holy
  • avium -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <avis, avis> bird -- of birds
  • praepetibus -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <praepes, praepetis> of good omen, favorable -- to propitious
  • sese -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sui> self -- themselves
  • pulchrisque -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum> beautiful, excellent + conjunction <-que> and -- and beautiful
  • locis -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <locus, loci> place -- places
  • dant -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <do, dare, dedi, datum> give -- arrange

Conspicit inde sibi data Romulus esse propritim
auspicio regni stabilita scamna solumque.

  • conspicit -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectum> perceive -- perceives
  • inde -- adverb; <inde> from that -- From that
  • sibi -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sui> self -- to him
  • data -- verb; nominative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <do, dare, dedi, datum> give -- were given
  • Romulus -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Romulus, Romuli> Romulus -- Romulus
  • esse -- verb; infinitive of <sum, esse, fui> I am -- to be
  • propritim -- adverb; <propritim> as one's own -- as his own
  • auspicio -- noun, neuter; ablative singular of <auspicium, auspicii> divination by the flight of birds -- by the auspices
  • regni -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <regnum, regni> kingship, supreme power -- of supreme power
  • stabilita -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect participle passive of <stabilio, stabilire, stabilivi, stabilitus> establish, confirm -- confirmed
  • scamna -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <scamnum, scamni> bench, seat -- the throne
  • solumque -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <solum, soli> foundation + conjunction <-que> and -- and the land

Lesson Text

Curantes magna cum cura tum cupientes
Regni dant operam simul auspicio augurioque;
..........in monte..........
Remus auspicio se devovet atque secundam
solus avem servat. At Romulus pulcher in alto
quaerit Aventino, servat genus altivolentum.
Certabant urbem Romam Remoramve vocarent.
Omnibus cura viris uter esset induperator:
exspectant, veluti consul quom mittere signum
volt, omnes avidi spectant ad carceris oras
quam mox emittat pictis e faucibus currus.
sic exspectabat populus atque ora tenebat,
rebus utri magni victoria sit data regni.
Interea sol albus recessit in infera noctis.
Exin candida se radiis dedit icta foras lux.
et simul ex alto longe pulcherruma praepes
laeva volavit avis, simul aureus exoritur sol.
Cedunt de caelo ter quattuor corpora sancta
avium, praepetibus sese pulchrisque locis dant.
Conspicit inde sibi data Romulus esse propritim
auspicio regni stabilita scamna solumque.

Translation

Then with very great care and desiring the supreme power, they turn their attention at the same time to watching and to divination by the flight of birds ... on a hill. Remus devotes himself to the auspices and by himself looks for a favorable bird. But handsome Romulus searches on high Aventine, and looks for the high-flying kind. They contested whether they would call the city Rome or Remora. There is anxiety among all the men to see which of the two would be supreme chief. They are expectant, as when the consul will give the signal, and all look eagerly at the boundaries of the area to see how soon he will send out the chariots from the painted jaws. So the people were waiting and holding their tongues, looking forward to see to which of the two the victory of great authority would be given by the events. In the meantime the white sun has gone down to the depths of night. Then the clear light thrust out with its rays; and at the same time from far on high a most beautiful prophet of a bird flew at the left, at the same time as the gold sun rose. Three or four holy birds fly down from the heavens, and establish themselves on places that are auspicious and beautiful. From that Romulus sees that the established seat and throne of supreme power have been given to him as his own.

Grammar

31. The Perfect System.

The perfect system is comparable in tenses and moods to the present system. Its basic meaning is a state as a result of completed action. In many ways the difference is comparable to that in English. The past or imperfect simply indicates a situation or an action in past time; the perfect however has the additional connotation of completed action. We can say: "I went to town yesterday" but not "I have gone to town yesterday". The specification provided by the adverb "yesterday" does not permit a verbal form that indicates a state. At times, then, the Latin perfect may be translated with a present tense form.

32. The Perfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dono an the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   donavi   donaverim   donatus sum   donatus sim
2 sg   donavisti   donaveris   donatus es   donatus sis
3 sg   donavit   donaverit   donatus est   donatus sit
1 pl   donavimus   donaverimus   donati sumus   donati simus
2 pl   donavistis   donaveritis   donati estis   donati sitis
3 pl   donaverunt   donaverint   donati sunt   donati sint
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habui   habuerim   habitus sum   habitus sim
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   texi   texerim   tectus sum   tectus sim
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audivi   audiverim   auditus sum   auditus sim
33. The Pluperfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dono, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Indicative   Subjunctive
1 sg   donaveram   donavissem   donatus eram   donatus essem
2 sg   donaveras   donavisses   donatus eras   donatus esses
3 sg   donaverat   donavisset   donatus erat   donatus esset
1 pl   donaveramus   donavissemus   donati eramus   donati essemus
2 pl   donaveratis   donavissetis   donati eratis   donati essetis
3 pl   donaverant   donavissent   donati erant   donati essent
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habueram   habuissem   habitus eram   habitus essem
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   texeram   texissem   tectus eram   tectus essem
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audiveram   audivissem   auditus eram   auditus essem

N.B. The full form for the 4th conjugation, Active voice, Indicative mood, Pluperfect tense is exemplified above by audiveram; however, according to Leumann et al., Vol. I., p. 598, the -v- has often been omitted since the time of Plautus. Therefore, Pluperfect forms such as audieram may be observed in later texts, like the one in our Lesson 10.

34. The Future Perfect Tense forms of the first conjugation verb dono, and the first singular forms of the three other conjugations.
1st conjugation
    Active Voice   Passive Voice
1 sg   donavero   donatus ero
2 sg   donaveris   donatus eris
3 sg   donaverit   donatus erit
1 pl   donaverimus   donati erimus
2 pl   donaveritis   donati eritis
3 pl   donaverint   donati erunt
 
2nd conjugation
1 sg   habuero   habitus ero
 
3rd conjugation
1 sg   texero   tectus ero
 
4th conjugation
1 sg   audivero   auditus ero
35. The forms of the Perfect Infinitive and Participle, with a brief statement on irregular conjugations.
    Infinitive   Participle
  1st conjugation
perf   donavisse   donatus
 
  2nd conjugation
perf   habuisse   habitus
 
  3rd conjugation
perf   texisse   tectus
 
  4th conjugation
perf   audivisse   auditus

These forms have been given to provide an overview of the conjugations. A few statements provide information on additional patterns.

  1. As we have noted, deponent verbs have the forms of the passive.
  2. Some common verbs have irregular forms. These are given in dictionaries; as examples, a few are given here with their principal parts.
    • do, dedi, datum, dare 'give'
    • eo, ii, itum, ire 'go'
    • fero, tuli, latum ferre 'bear'
    • fio, factus, fieri 'become'
    • possum, potui, posse 'be able'
    • volo, volui, velle 'wish'
  3. The inflections are best determined from grammars.