The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Baltic Online

Lesson 2: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

In the summer of 1941 Nazi Germany occupied Lithuania, but the Nazis were unable to form Lithuanian legions for their army. In revenge, in March of 1943 they arrested a group of Lithuanian intellectuals and sent them to the Stuthoff concentration camp. Among these was Balys Sruoga, a writer, specialist in literature, and a professor at Vytautas the Great and Vilnius universities. He considered totalitarianism the greatest enemy of mankind. In Stutthof it fell to his lot to experience the horror of the Nazi system of violence, and several times he narrowly escaped death. But still another tragedy awaited him on his return to Lithuania in 1945. His wife, an historian, and his daughter, fleeing from Soviet occupation, had gone west as had thousands of other Lithuanian scholars, artists and writers. The cruelties of Soviet occupation, the trains with Lithuanians exiled to Siberia had forced Sruoga to send them a warning: "Don't return home." He never saw them again.

After the war, Sruoga wrote in a few months a book about the Stutthof concentration camp called Dievu mėskas 'Forest of the gods'. This is one of the first memoirs in Europe about the Nazi concentration camps. In it the process of dehumanization, which the totalitarian systems perpetrated, is exposed from within. Unlike many other works of this genre, here an attempt is made to conceal fragile human nature under external irony, laughter through tears, a screen for what cannot be completely told. But the book was received with hostility by the Soviet system because of its subtle irony, which did not allow a note of sentimentality to thrust its way through in the presence of the brutality and meaninglessness of death. The book was not published until about a decade later, when Europe had more or less had its fill of this kind of memoir. It is entitled "Forest of the Gods," after the name of the swampy place in which the Stutthof concentration camp had been built. Sruoga's health never recovered after Stutthof, and he died in 1947.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In the selection given below, the repressed voice of the humanist Sruoga (a voice which frequently recurs in this book) breaks through when he sees the Stutthof camp's "team of klipatas." Sruoga had invented the new word klėpata to denote the lame and crippled people who could hardly move, the physically injured and morally broken prisoners, out of whom the desire to live had been beaten and who no longer wished to resist death. His 'team' does not resemble living people, but a moving crowd of ghosts. The Nazis didn't kill the Stutthof prisoners immediately, but turned them into floundering shadows, klėpatas.

Here, Nazism is treated as contempt for the human being and a rejection of the ethical and cultural norms of millennia of human history. The writer depicts the forced death as an act of degradation of the world, rejecting all of the values which had existed until the present time. It is not the horror of death that is accentuated, but rather its senselessness, its outrageous, disfigured, befouled image. It is beyond the realm of natural relationships and natural feelings. It is unimaginable to measure it with the emotions of pity and sympathy. This death does not even evoke protest, because it is unclear to whom to protest.

In this selection we encounter a few phraseologisms: duma nurýti 'to smoke', mauske ismčsti 'to take a strong drink', nustóti prõto 'to go mad'. The book was translated into English by Balys Sruoga's granddaughter Ausrėne (Aush) Bylā in 1996 (Vilnius: Vaga). A few changes have been made in the selected part of this translation in order to adapt it better for English speakers.

Mėrsta zmónes kãro laukuosč baisiosč kanciosč.

  • mėrsta -- verb; 3rd person present of <mirti, mėrsta, mėre> die -- die
  • zmónes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <zmónes> people -- people
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of the war
  • laukuosč -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <laukas> field -- on the fields
  • baisiosč -- adjective; locative plural feminine of <baisųs, baisė> terrible, horrible -- horrible
  • kanciosč -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <kanciā> agony, suffering -- in agony

Bčt tenai - visė lýgus.

  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- but
  • tenai -- adverb; <tenai> there -- there
  • visė -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <vėsas, visā> all -- all
  • lýgus -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <lýgus, lýgi> equal -- (are) equal

Ten tāvo mirtės ir kancios siokiõs tokiõs prasmes tųri: del kuriõs nórs idejos kariáujama, del tevynes, del láisves...

  • ten -- adverb; <ten> there, thither -- there
  • tāvo -- pronoun; genitive singular of <> you -- your
  • mirtės -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <mirtės> death -- death
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • kancios -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <kanciā> agony, suffering -- sufferings
  • siokiõs tokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <sióks tóks, siokiā tokiā> some, a little -- some kind
  • prasmes -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <prasme> sense, meaning -- of meaning
  • tųri -- verb; 3rd person present of <tureti, tųri, turejo> have -- have
  • del -- preposition; <del> because, for -- for
  • kuriõs nórs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kurės nórs, kurė nórs> any, some -- any
  • idejos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ideja> idea -- an idea
  • kariáujama -- verb; neuter of present participle passive of <kariáuti, kariája, kariãvo> fight -- (somebody is)fighting
  • del -- preposition; <del> because, for -- for
  • tevynes -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tevyne> homeland -- a homeland
  • del -- preposition; <del> because, for -- for
  • láisves -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <láisve> freedom -- a freedom

Õ ciā - niekur nieko! Jokiõs prasmes!

  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • ciā -- adverb; <ciā> here -- here
  • niekur -- adverb; <niekur> anywhere -- anywhere
  • nieko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <niekas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nothing
  • jokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <jóks, jokiā> no, none -- no
  • prasmes -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <prasme> sense, meaning -- meaning

Niekas táu jokiõs pagálbos neteiks.

  • niekas -- pronoun; nominative singular of <niekas> no one, nobody, nothing -- no one
  • táu -- pronoun; dative singular of <> you -- to you
  • jokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <jóks, jokiā> no, none -- any
  • pagálbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pagálba> aid, help -- aid
  • neteiks -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <teikti, teikia, teike> give, render -- will not give

Niekas taves neatjaus, nepaguõs, i mirties pãslapti pakeleivėngos méiles zodzių nepalydes.

  • niekas -- pronoun; nominative singular of <niekas> no one, nobody, nothing -- no one
  • taves -- pronoun; genitive singular of <> you -- you
  • neatjaus -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <atjausti, atjaucia, ātjaute> sympathize, comfort -- will not comfort
  • nepaguõs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <pagúosti, pagúodzia, pagúode> console -- will not console
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- to
  • mirties -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <mirtės> death -- of death
  • pãslapti -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <paslaptės> mystery -- the mystery
  • pakeleivėngos -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <pakeleivėngas, pakeleivėnga> fellow traveller -- parting
  • méiles -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <méile> love -- of love
  • zodzių -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <zõdis> word -- with a word
  • nepalydes -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person future of <palydeti, palydi, palydejo> accompany -- will not accompany

Seniau, bent kituosč krastuosč, kariamájam bent paskutėni nóra paténkindavo - dúodavo paválgyti, duma nurýti, láiska parasýti, kókia mauske ismčsti...

  • seniau -- adverb; comparative of <seniai> early, long ago -- in earlier times
  • bent -- particle; <bent> at least -- at least
  • kituosč -- pronoun; locative plural masculine of <kėtas, kitā> other -- other
  • krastuosč -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <krãstas> country -- in countries
  • kariamájam -- verb /; dat.sg.masc. of pres.ptc.pass.def. of <kárti, kãria, kóre> hang -- to a hanging one
  • bent -- particle; <bent> at least -- at least
  • paskutėni -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <paskutėnis, paskutėne> last, final -- final
  • nóra -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <nóras> wish -- a wish
  • paténkindavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <paténkinti, paténkina, paténkino> meet, satisfy, grant -- used to grant
  • dúodavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <dúoti, dúoda, dãve> give -- used to give (him)
  • paválgyti -- verb; infinitive of <paválgyti, paválgo, paválge> eat -- to eat
  • duma -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dumas> smoke -- a smoke
  • nurýti -- verb; infinitive of <nurýti, nuryja, nurėjo> swallow -- to swallow
  • láiska -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <láiskas> letter -- a letter
  • parasýti -- verb; infinitive of <parasýti, parãso, parãse> write -- to write
  • kókia -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <kóks, kokiā> any, some -- any
  • mauske -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <mauske> beret -- shot (of liquor)
  • ismčsti -- verb; infinitive of <ismčsti, ėsmeta, ėsmete> down -- to down

Õ ciā - pāspiria kója - ir vėskas.

  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • ciā -- adverb; <ciā> here -- here
  • pāspiria -- verb; 3rd person present of <paspėrti, pāspiria, paspýre> kick -- (they) kick
  • kója -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <kója> foot -- with foot
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • vėskas -- pronoun; nominative of <vėskas> everything -- that's all

Baisus bųvo kitė naikėnimo lãgeriai, kur, budavo, ātveza kãlini ir tuojau nuzųdo.

  • baisus -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <baisųs, baisė> terrible, horrible -- atrocious
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- were
  • kitė -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <kėtas, kitā> other -- other
  • naikėnimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <naikėnimas> extermination, destruction -- extermination
  • lãgeriai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lãgeris> camp -- the camps
  • kur -- adverb; <kur> where -- where
  • budavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- used to
  • ātveza -- verb; 3rd person present of <atvčzti, ātveza, ātveze> bring -- bring in
  • kãlini -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kalinys> prisoner -- a prisoner
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • tuojau -- adverb; <tuojau> at once, immediately -- immediately
  • nuzųdo -- verb; 3rd person present of <nuzudýti, nuzųdo, nuzųde> kill -- kill (him)

Bčt tās pāts zųdymas faktinai vyko ir Dievu mėsko padángej.

  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- however
  • tās pāts -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tās pāts, tā patė> the same -- this same
  • zųdymas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <zųdymas> killing -- killing
  • faktinai -- adverb; <faktinai> in fact, practically -- in fact
  • vyko -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <vykti, vyksta, vyko> take place -- took place
  • ir -- particle; <ir> and -- also
  • Dievu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <dievas> god -- of the Gods
  • mėsko -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mėskas> forest -- of the forest
  • padángej -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <padánge> sky -- under the skies

Skėrtumas bųvo tiktai tasai, kād ciā zmõgu nukankėndavo, ciulptč isciulpdavo jõ sveikãta, jõ jegās, versdavo ji mirti ės bãdo...

  • skėrtumas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <skėrtumas> difference -- difference
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- was
  • tiktai -- particle; <tiktai> only -- the only
  • tasai -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine definite of <tās, tā> this, that -- ...
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • ciā -- adverb; <ciā> here -- here
  • zmõgu -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <zmogųs> human being, person -- a person
  • nukankėndavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <nukankėnti, nukankėna, nukankėno> torture -- (they) used to torture
  • ciulptč -- second infinitive; <ciulpti, ciulpia, ciulpe> sucking -- ...
  • isciulpdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative; <isciulpti, isciulpia, ėsciulpe> suck -- used to suck
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- his
  • sveikãta -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <sveikatā> health -- health
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- his
  • jegās -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <jegā> energy -- energy
  • versdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <versti, vercia, verte> force, compel -- used to force
  • ji -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- him
  • mirti -- verb; infinitive of <mirti, mėrsta, mėre> die -- to die
  • ės -- preposition; <ės> from -- from
  • bãdo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bãdas> starvation -- starvation

Kurė lãgeriu rusės geriau atitinka musu ámziaus kulturos laimejimus, dievāz nelengva butu nuspresti.

  • kurė -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- which
  • lãgeriu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lãgeris> camp -- of camps
  • rusės -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <rusės> type -- type
  • geriau -- adverb; comparative of <gerai> better -- better
  • atitinka -- verb; 3rd person present of <atitėkti, atitinka, atitėko> correspond -- complements
  • musu -- pronoun; genitive plural of <mes> our -- our
  • ámziaus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ámzius> century -- century's
  • kulturos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kulturā> culture -- of culture
  • laimejimus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <laimejimas> achievement, winning -- the achievements
  • dievāz -- interjection; <dievāz> god knows -- God knows
  • nelengva -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; neuter of <lengvas, lengvā> easy -- (it is) not easy
  • butu -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- would be
  • nuspresti -- verb; infinitive of <nuspresti, nuspréndzia, nusprénde> decide -- to decide

Pagaliau, - tai individualaus skõnio reikalas...

  • pagaliau -- conjunction; <pagaliau> after all, at last -- after all
  • tai -- pronoun; neuter of <tās, tā> this, that -- it (is)
  • individualaus -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <individualųs, individualė> individual -- individual
  • skõnio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <skõnis> taste -- of taste
  • reikalas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <reikalas> matter -- a matter

Naujõkas, pėrma karta sāvo gyvenime isvýdes klėpatu kománda, lýg prõto nustója.

  • naujõkas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <naujõkas> newcomer -- a newcomer
  • pėrma -- number; accusative singular masculine of <pėrmas, pirmā> first -- first
  • karta -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kartas> time -- for the ... time
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • gyvenime -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <gyvenimas> life -- in ... life
  • isvýdes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <isvýsti, isvýsta, isvýdo> see, witness -- witnessing
  • klėpatu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <klėpata> cripple -- of cripples
  • kománda -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kománda> detachment, brigade -- the detachment
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- (it is) as if
  • prõto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <prõtas> mind -- (his) mind
  • nustója -- verb; 3rd person present of <nustóti, nustója, nustójo> lose -- he is losing

Nč mirties jám baisų, - baisų sėto isniekinto zmogaus vaizdo.

  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • mirties -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <mirtės> death -- death
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- for him
  • baisų -- adjective; neuter of <baisųs, baisė> terrible, horrible -- (is) horrible
  • baisų -- adjective; neuter of <baisųs, baisė> terrible, horrible -- (is) horrible
  • sėto -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <sėtas, sitā> this -- this
  • isniekinto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <isniekinti, isniekina, isniekino> desecrate -- desecrated
  • zmogaus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <zmogųs> human being, person -- of man
  • vaizdo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vaizdas> sight, image -- sight

Ir nč tíek zmogaus, - baisų sito isniekinto, subjauróto, sųdergto mirties vaizdo!

  • ir -- particle; <ir> and -- even
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • tíek -- adverb; <tíek> so much, so many -- so much
  • zmogaus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <zmogųs> human being, person -- (the image) of the man
  • baisų -- adjective; neuter of <baisųs, baisė> terrible, horrible -- (is) horrible
  • sito -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <sėtas, sitā> this -- this
  • isniekinto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <isniekinti, isniekina, isniekino> desecrate -- desecrated
  • subjauróto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <subjauróti, subjaurója, subjaurójo> disfigure, defile -- disfigured
  • sųdergto -- verb; genitive singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <sudergti, sudergia, sųderge> befoul -- befouled
  • mirties -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <mirtės> death -- of death
  • vaizdo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vaizdas> sight, image -- image

Lesson Text

Mėrsta zmónes kãro laukuosč baisiosč kanciosč. Bčt tenai - visė lýgus. Ten tāvo mirtės ir kancios siokiõs tokiõs prasmes tųri: del kuriõs nórs idejos kariáujama, del tevynes, del láisves...

Õ ciā - niekur nieko! Jokiõs prasmes! Niekas táu jokiõs pagálbos neteiks. Niekas taves neatjaus, nepaguõs, i mirties pãslapti pakeleivėngos méiles zodzių nepalydes.

Seniau, bent kituosč krastuosč, kariamájam bent paskutėni nóra paténkindavo - dúodavo paválgyti, duma nurýti, láiska parasýti, kókia mauske ismčsti... Õ ciā - pāspiria kója - ir vėskas.

Baisus bųvo kitė naikėnimo lãgeriai, kur, budavo, ātveza kãlini ir tuojau nuzųdo. Bčt tās pāts zųdymas faktinai vyko ir Dievu mėsko padángej. Skėrtumas bųvo tiktai tasai, kād ciā zmõgu nukankėndavo, ciulptč isciulpdavo jõ sveikãta, jõ jegās, versdavo ji mirti ės bãdo...

Kurė lãgeriu rusės geriau atitinka musu ámziaus kulturos laimejimus, dievāz nelengva butu nuspresti. Pagaliau, - tai individualaus skõnio reikalas...

Naujõkas, pėrma karta sāvo gyvenime isvýdes klėpatu kománda, lýg prõto nustója. Nč mirties jám baisų, - baisų sėto isniekinto zmogaus vaizdo. Ir nč tíek zmogaus, - baisų sito isniekinto, subjauróto, sųdergto mirties vaizdo!

Translation

People die on the battlefields in horrible agony. But there, everyone is equal. Your death and suffering have some kind of meaning: you're fighting for a purpose, for your homeland, for your freedom...
But here - nothing anywhere! No meaning! No one will give you any help. No one will comfort you, console you, accompany you to the mystery of death with a parting word of love.
In earlier times, in other countries, they granted a final wish to the one about to hang: they gave him (something) to eat, (a chance) to smoke, to write a letter, to down a shot of liquor... But here they give you a kick, and that's all.
The other extermination camps, where they brought in a prisoner and immediately killed (him), were atrocious, too. This same killing took place under the skies of the Forest of the Gods; the only difference was that here they tortured a person to death. His health, his energy were sucked dry, they made him die of starvation...
Which type of camp better complements the achievements of our century's culture? God knows! (It is) not easy to decide. After all, it's a matter of individual taste...
A newcomer witnessing the detachment of cripples for the first time in his life, it is as if he is losing his mind. Death is not horrible (for him) - this sight of a desecrated man is horrible. And not only (the image of the) man, but even the desecrated, disfigured, befouled image of death is horrible.

Grammar

6. Diphthongs

There are 6 pure diphthongs and 16 mixed diphthongs in Lithuanian. The pure diphthongs consist of two vowels and are the following: ai, au, ei, ie, ui, uo. Each of these can be stressed or unstressed. As with the long vowels, if stressed they can have either the circumflex intonation (marked by tilde) on the second vowel, or the acute intonation (marked by acute accent) on the first vowel. A diphthong with acute intonation will have a heavier stress on the initial element, e.g., láisve 'freedom', méile 'love', píeva 'meadow'. Thus, the initial element will be held longer than the second. Just the reverse is true for a diphthong with the circumflex intonation, e.g., laukas 'field', vaizdas 'view, sight', paguõsti 'to console'.

There are two types of pure diphthongs: gliding diphthongs (ie, uo) and compound diphthongs (ai, au, ei, ui). In pronouncing the gliding diphthongs, we do not feel a phonetic boundary between the first and the second element. The Lithuanian ie has no counterpart in English, It may be thought of as similar to the vowel of 'beard'. When this diphthong occurs in initial position, there is a tendency to pronounce it as though there were a j in front of it: ieskóti 'to look for'. The diphthong uo also has no counterpart in English; it can perhaps be compared to the "uo" of Italian 'buono'.

Both elements of the compound diphthongs are clearly marked. ái is similar to the 'ai' of English 'aisle'; ai is somewhat similar to the English 'a' in 'able'. áu is somewhat similar to the 'ou' of American-English 'out'; au may be compared to the Canadian English 'ou' in 'out'. There is no such diphthong as éi in English. It can be roughly compared to the English 'ai' in 'sail'. ei is quite similar to the 'ei' in 'weight'. There is nothing like ui in English; ųi (which is relatively rare) sounds something like a very rapidly pronounced 'phooey'.

Diphthongs in which the vowels a, e, i, u are followed by l, m,n, r are known as mixed diphthongs. In the mixed diphthongs, as in the pure diphthongs, either the first or the second element may be stressed. If the second element is stressed, a tilde (~) will be written over the l, m, n or r, e.g., kartas 'time', lengvas 'easy, light'. The second circumflex element is half-long. If the first element is to be stressed, an acute acent is written over the letters a and e (the acute element is half-long), but a grave accent is used over the letters i and u (the acute element remains short), e.g., padánge 'the skies', kélti 'to lift', mėrsta 'dies', pėlkas 'grey'. In international words, mixed diphthongs with short e and o are used: fčrma 'farm', bōmba 'bomb'.

The unstressed diphthongs sound like ai, au, ei, ui, etc., but the unstressed syllable has less amplitude than the stressed: vaidmuõ 'role', kartųs 'bitter'. Some other diphthongs (eu, oi, ou) occur only in international words, e.g., Európa 'Europe', kolōidas 'colloid'.

7. Noun Declensions
7.1. The 3rd Declension

Most nouns of the third declension are of the feminine gender, but a few such as dantės 'tooth', vagės, 'thief', zverės 'beast', debesės 'cloud' are masculine (they have -ui in the dative singular). All nouns of the third declension have the ending -is in the nominative singular. The genitive singular helps to distinguish third declension nouns from those first declension nouns with the nominative singular ending -is, cf: nom.sg. brólis, gen.sg. brólio 'brother' (1st declension) and nom.sg. sirdės, gen.sg. sirdies 'heart' (3rd declension).

In the genitive plural some nouns of this paradigm have the ending -u, e.g., debesu 'clouds' after a hard consonant, whereas others have the following ending after a palatalized consonant -iu, e.g., rusiu 'kinds'. This can be explained historically: the former nouns are traced back to the 5th declension (consonantal stems), the latter to the 3rd declension (i-stem). There is a strong tendency for masculine nouns of the 3rd declension to shift to the 1st declension (ia-stem), cf:

  • nom.sg. debesės and debesys 'cloud';
  • gen.sg. danties and dancio 'tooth'; debesies and debesio 'cloud'; zveries and zverio 'beast';
  • inst.sg. dantimė and dancių 'tooth'; debesimė and debesiu 'cloud'; zverimė and zveriu 'beast', etc.

Some nouns can be declined either according to 1st or the 3rd declension, e.g., deguõnis 'oxygen', grobuõnis 'plunderer', veliónis 'the deceased'.

In colloquial Lithuanian and the dialects, the feminine nouns may have two alternative forms in the instrumental singular: one of the 3rd declension (i-stem) and another of the 2nd declension (io-stem), e.g., sirdimė and sėrdzia 'heart'; ugnimė and ugniā 'fire'; zuvimė and zuviā 'fish', etc.

móteris 'woman' and obelės 'apple tree' have two alternative forms in the genitive singular: móters, obels and moteries, obelies.

The forms of the 3rd declension are as follows:

    Feminine   Masculine
Nom sg   zuvės 'fish'   vagės 'thief'
Gen sg   zuvies   vagies
Dat sg   zųviai   vãgiui
Acc sg   zųvi   vãgi
Inst sg   zuvimė   vagimė
    zuvim   vagim
Loc sg   zuvyjč   vagyjč
    zuvy   vagy
Voc sg   zuvie   vagie
         
Nom pl   zųvys   vãgys
Gen pl   zuvu   vagiu
Dat pl   zuvėms   vagėms
    zuvėm   vagėm
Acc pl   zuvės   vagės
Inst pl   zuvimės   vagimės
    zuvim   vagim
Loc pl   zuvysč   vagysč
Voc pl   zųvys   vãgys
7.2. The 4th Declension

All nouns ending in -us (hard stem) and -ius (soft stem) belong to the fourth declension. They are all masculine. Those nouns which have the soft stem (iu-stem) have the plural declension exactly like the first declension (ia-stem). The 4th declension nouns are not numerous. They may obtain inflectional forms of the 1st (ia-stem) declension, e.g:

  • nom.pl. sunus and sunai 'sons'; turgus and turgai 'markets';
  • dat.pl. sunųms and sunáms 'sons'; turgums and turgams 'markets'.

On the other hand, 1st declension nouns ending in -jas have the endings of the 4th declension -au in vocative singular, e.g., destytojau (nom.sg. destytojas) 'lecturer', vejau (nom.sg. vejas) 'wind'; and locative singular, e.g., destytojuje, vejuje (vejyje is also used).

The noun zmogųs 'man', 'human being' is inflected in the singular according to the 4th declension; in the plural it is inflected according to the 2nd (e-stem) declension (see bellow).

Below are paradigms for the 4th declension nouns sunųs 'son', ámzius 'age' and zmogųs 'man':

    Hard   Soft   Hard
Nom sg   sunųs 'son'   ámzius 'age'   zmogųs 'man'
Gen sg   sunaus   ámziaus   zmogaus
Dat sg   sunui   ámziui   zmõgui
Acc sg   sunu   ámziu   zmõgu
Inst sg   sunumė   ámziumi   zmogumė
    sunum   ámzium   zmogum
Loc sg   sunujč   ámziuje   zmogujč
    sunųj   ámziuj   zmogųj
Voc sg   sunau   ámziau   zmogau
             
    Hard   Soft   Soft
Nom pl   sunus   ámziai   zmónes
Gen pl   sunu   ámziu   zmoniu
Dat pl   sunųms   ámziams   zmonems
    sunųm   ámziam   zmonem
Acc pl   sunus   ámzius   zmónes
Inst pl   sunumės   ámziais   zmonemės
    sunum       zmonem
Loc pl   sunuosč   ámziuose   zmonesč
Voc pl   sunus   ámziai   zmónes
7.3. The 5th Declension

The number of nouns belonging to the 5th declension is not very large, and some are irregular. To this declension belong feminine nouns in -uo, -e (gen.sg. -ers) and masculine nouns in -uo (gen.sg. -ens). They are a continuation of the ancient consonantal n, r and other stems. The consonantal stems have been retained only in the genitive singular. In all other cases, except the nominative singular, consonant stem nouns are now inflected like i-stem nouns. In certain cases some of these nouns have forms of the 1st declension.

In the instrumental singular the masculine nouns akmuõ 'stone', vanduõ 'water', piemuõ 'shepherd' have the endings of the 1st declension (ia-stem): ãkmeniu, vándeniu, píemeniu; the feminine nouns sesuõ 'sister' and dukte 'daughter' have two alternative forms of instrumental singular: seserimė, dukterimė (i-stem) and seseria, dųkteria (io-stem).

The noun menuo (its alternative form is menesis) 'month' is declined according to the 1st declension.

suõ 'dog' is irregular. In the nominative singular suõ has an alternative form suvā and in the genitive singular its alternatives are sunies and sųnio.

The forms of the 5th declension are as folows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Feminine   Masculine
Nom sg   vanduõ 'water'   sesuõ 'sister'   dukte 'daughter'   suõ 'dog'
Gen sg   vandens   sesers   dukters   suns
Dat sg   vándeniui   seseriai   dųkteriai   sųniui
Acc sg   vándeni   seseri   dųkteri   sųni
Inst sg   vándeniu   seserimė   dukterimė   sunimė
        seserim   dukterim   sunim
Loc sg   vandenyjč   seseryjč   dukteryjč   sunyjč
    vandeny   sesery   duktery   suny
Voc sg   vandenie   seserie   dukterie   sunie
                 
Nom pl   vándenys   seserys   dųkterys   sųnys
Gen pl   vandenu   seseru   dukteru   sunu
Dat pl   vandenėms   seserėms   dukterėms   sunėms
    vandenėm   seserėm   dukterėm   sunėm
Acc pl   vándenis   seseris   dųkteris   sunės
Inst pl   vandenimės   seserimės   dukterimės   sunimės
    vandenim   seserim   dukterim   sunim
Loc pl   vandenysč   seserysč   dukterysč   sunysč
Voc pl   vándenys   seserys   dųkterys   sųnys
8. Verb Tenses
8.1. The Frequentative Past Tense

In addition to the simple past tense (or preterit) discussed in Lesson 1 there is another past tense, the frequentative past, which denotes an action which took place several times, frequently, at repeated intervals in the past. It can be translated by such English expresions as: 'I used to...'; 'I kept...'; I 'would...'. To obtain the frequentative past tense forms, we must drop the infinitive ending -ti and add the suffix -dav- plus the preterit endings: -au, -ai, -o, -ome, -ote, -o.

The method of formation is the same for all three conjungations. The stress is always on the same syllable as in the infinitive.

A past habit can be expressed analytically by the use of the parenthetic form budavo 'used to be' and the present of the verb, e.g., Baisus bųvo kitė naikėnimo lãgeriai, kur, budavo, ātveza kãlini ir tuojau nuzųdo 'The other extermination camps, where they brought in a prisoner and immediately killed (him), were atrocious, too'. Repeated past events that occurred on a specific occasion cannot be expressed by the frequentative past tense, cf: Jės zaisdavo dvė vãlandas 'He used to play two hours'. Vãkar jės zaide dvė vãlandas 'Yesterday he played two hours'.

Here the frequentative past tense paradigms of three verbs áugti 'to grow', tureti 'to have' and skaitýti are given:

1st sg   áugdavau   turedavau   skaitýdavau
2nd sg   áugdavai   turedavai   skaitýdavai
3rd sg   áugdavo   turedavo   skaitýdavo
             
1st pl   áugdavom(e)   turedavom(e)   skaitýdavom(e)
2nd pl   áugdavot(e)   turedavot(e)   skaitýdavot(e)
3rd pl   áugdavo   turedavo   skaitýdavo
8.2. The Future Tense

The future tense is formed by dropping the -ti from the infinitive and adding the future tense suffix -s(i)- plus endings: -siu, -si, -s, -sime, -site, -s.

The stress is always on the same syllable as in the infinitive. In the 3rd person an acute is replaced by a circumflex stress: tureti 'to have'; tures '(he) will have'.

Some verbs with a monosyllabic stem shorten the root vowel in the 3rd person, e.g., inf. puti 'to rot'; 3 fut. pųs '(it) will rot'; inf. lýti 'to rain'; 3 fut. lės '(it) will rain'.

Certain consonantal constractions or simplifications are characteristic of the future tense: s + s = s; s + s = s; z + s = s; z + s = s, e.g., mčs-ti 'to throw' and mes + siu = mčsiu; 'I will throw'; nčs-ti 'to carry' and nes + siu = nčsiu 'I will carry'; zirz-ti 'to whine' and zirz + siu = zirsiu; 'I will whine'; včz-ti 'to transport' and vez + siu = včsiu 'I will transport'.

The future tense denotes a concrete or generalized action in the future, e.g., Greit ateis ziemā 'Winter will come soon'. The form of the future tense may also denote willingness, determination, intention, likelihood, threat, etc: Ās jái niekadā neatléisiui 'I will never forgive her'.

The future tense paradigms for the verbs áugti 'to grow', rýti 'to swallow' and včzti 'to transport' are given below:

1st sg   áugsiu 'I will grow'   rýsiu 'I will swallow'   včsiu 'I will transport'
2nd sg   áugsi   rýsi   včsi
3rd sg   augs   rės   včs
             
1st pl   áugsim(e)   rýsim(e)   včsim(e)
2nd pl   áugsit(e)   rýsit(e)   včsit(e)
3rd pl   augs   rės   včs
8.3. Conjungation of the Verb buti 'to be'

The verb buti 'to be' has different (suppletive) stems: es-, bu- / bu-. In the 3rd person present the unique stem yrā '(it) is, (they) are' is used.

Its paradigms for the present, preterit, frequentative and future tense are as follows:

    Present   Preterit   Frequentative   Future
1st sg   esų '(I) am'   buvau '(I) was'   budavau '(I) used to be'   busiu '(I) will be'
2nd sg   esė   buvai   budavai   busi
3rd sg   yrā   bųvo   budavo   bųs
                 
1st pl   esam(e)   bųvom(e)   budavom(e)   busim(e)
2nd pl   esat(e)   buvot(e)   budavot(e)   busit(e)
3rd pl   yrā   bųvo   budavo   bųs

Also, more recent forms created by adding the formants -n- or -v- exist, e.g., 1st sg. bunų, buvų 'I am', 3rd buna, buva '(it) is, (they) are', etc. These forms convey the meaning of a regular process. The athematic 3rd person form esti '(it) is, (they) are' has this meaning also.

9. Pronouns
9.1. The Personal Pronouns

The use of the personal pronouns is similar to that of English. 1st and 2nd person pronouns do not substitute for nouns. They refer either to masculine or feminine nouns. Only 3rd person pronouns can refer to both persons and non-persons, e.g.,

  • jės - zmogųs 'man'; laukas 'field'.
  • - móteris 'woman'; paslaptės 'mystery, secret'.

One must remember, however, that the 3rd person agrees with the word it refers to in number and gender.

1st and 2nd person forms are usually used without any pronoun:

  • Atsikeliau ankstė 'I got up early'.
  • Isvykstame vidųrdieni 'We are leaving at noon'.

The case of the pronoun is determined by its use in the clause in which it occurs, e.g.,

  • Edėta pasitėksiu aeroúoste 'I will meet Edita in the airport'.
  • Prãsom jái pérduoti māno linkejimus 'Please give her my regards'.

The pronoun jái 'her' is feminine singular because it refers to Editā. It is in the dative case because it is the second object of the verb pérduoti 'to give'. In the clause, personal pronouns may function as subjects, objects, predicatives, adverbial modifiers of place, e.g., Jės sedejo saliā manes 'He was sitting next to me' (subject and adverbial modifier of place).

The 2nd singular pronoun 'thou' is the familiar form; it is used to address animals, children, close friends, members of the immediate family, and God. The polite form jus is used whenever one addresses persons who are not members of the above-mentioned groups. This usage is practically identical with the use of 'du' and 'Sie' in German. Another respectful word támsta 'you' is considered old-fashioned. The forms pāts, patė 'oneself' are not as formal as jus 'you', but are used only rarely.

The forms of the personal pronouns are as folows:

    1st person   2nd person   3rd person Masculine   3rd person Feminine
Nom sg   ās 'I'   'you (thou)'   jės 'he'   'she'
Gen sg   manes   taves     jõs
    māno   tāvo        
Dat sg   mán   táu   jám   jái
Acc sg   manč   tavč   ji  
Inst sg   manimė   tavimė   juõ  
    manim   tavim        
Loc sg   manyjč   tavyjč   jamč   jojč
    many   tavy        
                 
Nom pl   mes 'we'   jus 'you'   jie 'they'   jõs 'they'
Gen pl   musu   jusu   ju   ju
Dat pl   mųms   jųms   jíems   jóms
    mųm   jųm   jíem   jóm
Acc pl   mųs   jųs   juõs   jās
Inst pl   mumės   jumės   jais   jomės
Loc pl   mumysč   jumysč   juosč   josč
9.2. The Dual of the Pronouns

Special forms of the personal pronouns may be used in the dual:

  • 1st masc. mųdu 'we two'
  • 1st fem. mųdvi 'we two'
  • 2nd masc. jųdu 'you two'
  • 2nd fem. jųdvi 'you two'
  • 3rd masc. juõdu (jiedu) 'they two'
  • 3rd masc. jiedvi 'they two'

They have the same endings as (masc.), dvė (fem.) 'two'. There are some demonstrative dual forms (e.g., tuõdu, tiedvi 'those two'; siuõdu, siedvi 'these two', anuõdu, aniedvi 'those two') and interrogative dual pronouns (e.g., kuriuõdu, kuriedvi 'which two'), but they are used much more rarely.

The pronouns abų (abųdu), abė (abi\dvi) 'both' have only the dual meaning. As the dual number of other word classes has almost disappeard, dual pronominal forms are used with the plural forms of nouns, adjectives and verbs. However, in Modern Lithuanian the dual pronominal forms are usually replaced by plural forms.

9.3. The Possessive Pronouns

Possessive forms indicate that an object belongs to some person or persons. This meaning is usually expressed by the genitive form of the personal pronouns. The personal pronouns ās 'I', 'you' ('thou'), and the reflexive pronoun have separate possessive genitive singular forms māno 'my', tāvo 'your' and sāvo. They differ from the genitive singular manes, taves, saves used in other functions, cf: Kur māno knygā? 'Where is my book?'; Paláuk manes 'Wait for me'; Negavau tāvo láisko 'I did not receive your letter'; Nepazistu taves 'I do not know you'.

Possessive pronouns can function as attributes and predicatives:

Personal pronoun   Possessive Attributive   Possessive Predicative
ās 'I'   māno 'my'   māno 'mine'
'you, thou'   tāvo 'your, thy'   tāvo 'yours'
jės 'he'   'his'   'his'
'she'   jõs 'her'   jõs 'hers'
mes 'we'   musu 'our'   musu 'ours'
jus 'you'   jusu 'your'   jusu 'yours'
jie 'they'   ju 'their'   ju 'theirs'
jõs 'they'   ju 'their'   ju 'theirs'

Examples:

  • Vãkar kalbejau sų tāvo draugč 'Yesterday I spoke with your (female) friend';
  • Sėtas dvėratis yrā tāvo 'This bicycle is yours'.

Besides the possessive genitive forms, the pronouns mãnas, manā 'my', tãvas, tavā 'your', sãvas, savā exist, but are rarely used, e.g., Ciā sãvas krãstas 'Here is my homeland'. The substantivized forms manėskis, manėske 'my,', tavėskis, tavėske 'your', musėskis, musėske, 'our', jusėskis, jusėske 'your' are also used to indicate relatives or friends:

  • Atvaziãvo musėskiai 'Our relatives (friends) came';
  • Ar tavėskis dár negrizo? 'Hasn't your husband (son, close friend) come back yet?'
9.4. The Reflexive Pronoun saves

The reflexive pronoun saves, etc. generally refers to the subject of the sentence, whatever person the subject may be. Therefore in English it may be translated as 'myself', 'yourself', 'himself', 'ourselves', 'themselves' depending upon whether the subject is 1st, 2nd or 3rd person and whether it is singular or plural.

This pronoun does not have nominative case and plural. saves is declined as folows:

Gen   saves
    sāvo
Dat   sáu
Acc   savč
Inst   savimė
    savim
Loc   savyjč
    savy

Examples:

  • Jė didziúojasi savimė 'She is proud of herself';
  • Ās pasiziurejau i savč véidrodyje 'I looked at myself in the mirror';
  • Jõnas ir Dianā káltino savč uz tã klaida 'Jonas and Diana blamed themselves for that mistake';
  • Mes pirkom sáu keleta daiktu 'We bought some things for ourselves'.

The possessive genitive sāvo refers to the subject of sentence regardless of its person or number:

  • Ās didziúojuosi sāvo laimejimais 'I am proud of my achievements';
  • Tų didziúojiesi sāvo laimejimais 'You are proud of your achievements';
  • Jės didziúojasi sāvo laimejimais 'He is proud of his achievements';
  • Mes didziúojames sāvo laimejimais 'We are proud of our achievements', etc.
10. Negation

In Lithuanian four negative particles are used: the principal particles are 'no, not' and nebč 'not (any more/longer)', and also ne and nei 'not (a)', 'not even'. nebč differs from in that it is used to negate continuation of an action or state. It is similar in force to English 'no more, no longer' or the like. is more common than nebč. It can be used to response to a question: Ar tų gyvenė Vėlniuje? - Nč 'Do you live in Vilnius? - No'.

In Lithuanian, both 'no' and 'not' are expresssed by the same negative particle . In the sense of 'no', is set off by comma: Nč, ās nemegstu keliaúti 'No, I do not like to travel'. and nebč usually precede that word which they negate. They are written together with verbs, adjectives and adverbs:

  • Geras sãpnas nesipėldo 'A good dream does not come true';
  • Negeras sãpnas pėldosi 'A bad (not good) dream comes true';
  • Visė kalbejo nerimtai 'Nobody spoke seriously' (lit. 'All spoke not seriously').

There is an exception in case of contrast in the clause, e.g.,

  • Pėldosi nč geras, õ blõgas sãpnas 'A bad dream comes true, not a good (one)';
  • Jie nč kalbejo, bčt sauke víenas ant kėto 'They did not speak, but they shouted at each other'.

The negative particle is not written together with a following noun, unless the noun functions as a lexical compound, i. e. has a separate dictionary meaning:

Jės yrā nč krepsininkas, õ fųtbolininkas 'He is not a basketball player, but a football player'.

The negative particle with the verbal form yrā 'is, are' forms a contraction nerā 'is not, are not', e.g., Jie nerā māno gėmines 'They are not my relatives'.

All the verbs add to the positive form to form the negative, e.g., válgyti 'to eat' and neválgyti 'not to eat'; paténkinti 'to satisfy' and nepaténkinti 'not to satisfy'. There are, however, two exceptions: buti 'to be' and eiti 'to go'. These add only n, e.g., Ās nesų zurnalėstas 'I am not a journalist'; Mes dár neiname namõ 'We do not go home yet'.

The direct object of the negated verb must be in the genitive rather than accusative case, cf: Jė prarãdo vėlti 'She lost hope'; Jė neprarãdo vilties 'She did not lose hope'.

Contrary to English usage, the negative must be repeated, e.g., Rėmas niekadā niekur nieko nesãko 'Ri\mas doesn't ever tell anything anywhere' (lit. 'Rimas doesn't nothing tell nowhere never'); Niekas táu jokiõs pagálbos neteiks 'No one will give you any help' (lit. 'Nobody will not give you any help').

The particle ne denotes emphatic negation, e.g. Tevas ne nepāzvelge i manč 'Father did not even glance at me'. If two or more coordinated words or clauses are negated, the reduplicated negative conjunction nei... nei 'neither... nor' is used (the predicate usually has the negative prefix in this case). Its meaning is similar to the meaning of nei: Nedziųgino jõs nei pinigai, nei turtai 'Neither the money nor the wealth gave her joy'.