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Lesson 3: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

Among the writers who appeared on the scene in the years 1918-1940, Vincas Mykoláitis-Pųtinas stands out. This author and literary researcher of enormous intellect distanced himself from the usual tendency in belles-lettres of basing one's work only on the means of expression of the folk language. He searched out means of expression in the written language. The themes of his works were the deciding factor. In his works he didn't depict the village people, but rather the lives of intellectuals and educated people. In his poetry and prose, which are distinguished by their intellectual quality, there are many abstract nouns. He especially liked verbal abstracts, e.g., tobulýbe 'perfection', buitės 'manner of life', pólekis 'flight (of fancy)', butės 'being, existence', lukesys 'expectation', geismas 'desire', síelgrauza 'mental distress' (literally 'gnawing at the soul'). He used international words abundantly, e.g. harmōnija 'harmony', mirãzas 'mirage', iliųzija 'illusion', ideãlas 'ideal,' hierárchija 'hierarchy', chaōsas 'chaos'. He used just the right adjectives with abstract nouns, e.g., álkanas liudesys 'hungry grief, famished melancholy', klaikė vienãtve 'dreadful loneliness', nerimastėnga buitės 'anxious way of life'. His novel, In the shadow of the altars, was the first intellectual psychological novel in Lithuanian literature. The principal hero of this Stendhal type novel, Liųdas Vasãris, a seminary student and later a priest, writes poetry and cannot reconcile priest and poet in himself. Obedience to the will of his parents and the desire to serve his country have led him to the seminary. Vasãris overvalues the contribution of the priestly class to Lithuanian culture and chooses the goal of following in the footsteps of the poet-priests Mairónis, Antãnas Baranáuskas, and others. In the shadow of the altars has quite a few autobiographical features. The author of the book himself had experienced the conflict of poet and priest.

Mykoláitis-Pųtinas graduated from seminary and became a priest, but later gave up the priesthood. It is the aforementioned conflict that makes up the intellectual and emotional core of his novel. The attainment of freedom is the essence of the human being and art is the most authentic expression of this essence. Vasãris comes to understand that the priesthood has isolated his talent from the living sources of art, love for experience, natural communication with other human beings, and spontaneous expression without any moralizing. There arises the irresistible urge to experience life for the sake of creativity, so that his talent, a gift of God, might not be destroyed. He is also distinguished by the disharmony and duality of his personality. He seeks out, analyzes, and investigates scrupulously his inner contradictions, on the one hand from the point of view of his priestly duty and on the other hand from the point of view of the imperative of the poet's vocation. His indecisiveness, his compromising surrender to circumstances, resignation, silent suffering, and rebellious internal discontent reflect typical features of the Lithuanian character.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In the selection given below, from the first part of the novel, Vasãris considers three possibilities as to how he should act with his talent. He has already rejected his girl friend and taken the first vows of priesthood. Although he was firmly determined to become a good priest, he still felt that the source of his poetry was not "the virtues required of a clergyman, but the whirlpool of the world infected with the microbes of sin." He is constantly tormented by the thought of how to reconcile the free flight of poetry with the ideals of the life of a priest. These two lives are irreconcilably contrary to each other. What seems natural, understandable and unavoidable in one seems strange and forbidden in the other. He feels that the environment of the seminary is destroying his poetic talent, arousing discord and the splitting of his soul.

In the selection, one can find a fair number of international words and abstract nouns. Adjectives are used abundantly, especially those with the suffixes -ingas, -iskas and -inis; there are also comparisons, e.g., sáltas kaip ledas 'cold as ice,' nusitvere kaip skestas siaudelio 'grasped for (it) like a drowning man for a straw'.

Pirmāsis galimųmas bųvo visái mčsti tã počzija ir visās tās svajončs.

  • pirmāsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <pėrmas, pirmā> first -- the first
  • galimųmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimųmas> possibility -- possibility
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- was
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • mčsti -- verb; infinitive of <mčsti, meta, mete> abandon -- to... abandon
  • -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <tās, tā> this, that -- ...
  • počzija -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <počzija> poetry -- poetry
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • visās -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <vėsas, visā> all -- all
  • tās -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <tās, tā> this, that -- those
  • svajončs -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <svajõne> dream -- dreams

Tai butu tinkamiáusias ir paprasciáusias kláusimo sprendėmas.

  • tai -- pronoun; neuter of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • butu -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- would be
  • tinkamiáusias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <tinkamas, tinkamā> appropriate -- the most appropriate
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • paprasciáusias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <pāprastas, paprastā> simple -- simplest
  • kláusimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kláusimas> question -- to the problem
  • sprendėmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sprendėmas> solution -- solution

Bčt Vasãris nųjaute, kād jės vargų ar pajegs issizadeti tu vilciu, kuriõs ės dalies ji i seminãrija ātvede.

  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- but
  • Vasãris -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Vasãris> Vasaris -- Vasaris
  • nųjaute -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nujausti, nujaucia, nųjaute> feel -- felt
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • vargų -- particle; <vargų> hardly, scarcely -- hardly
  • ar -- particle; <ar> if, or -- ...
  • pajegs -- verb; 3rd person future of <pajegti, pajegia, pājege> have the strength -- could... have the strength
  • issizadeti -- verb; infinitive of <issizadeti, issėzada, issizadejo> give up -- to give up
  • tu -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <tās, tā> this, that -- those
  • vilciu -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <viltės> hope -- hopes
  • kuriõs -- pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- which
  • ės -- preposition; <ės> from -- to
  • dalies -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dalės> part -- some degree
  • ji -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- him
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- to
  • seminãrija -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <seminãrija> seminary -- the seminary
  • ātvede -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <atvčsti, ātveda, ātvede> bring -- had brought

Seminãrijos gyvenimas, tiesā, gerókai jās apgrióve, taciau tuo pacių metų jisai vės delto pamãte turis tãlenta.

  • seminãrijos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <seminãrija> seminary -- seminary
  • gyvenimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gyvenimas> life -- life
  • tiesā -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <tiesā> truth -- indeed
  • gerókai -- adverb; <gerókai> rather -- practically
  • jās -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- them
  • apgrióve -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <apgriáuti, apgriáuna, apgrióve> destroy -- had... destroyed
  • taciau -- conjunction; <taciau> but -- but
  • tuo pacių -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tas pāts, ta patė> same -- the same
  • metų -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <metas> time -- at... time
  • jisai -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • vės delto -- particle; <vės delto> nevertheless -- nevertheless
  • pamãte -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãte> see -- saw
  • turis -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle active of <tureti, tųri, turejo> have -- (that) he had
  • tãlenta -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <tãlentas> talent -- talent

Ir dabar vėsko issizadeti?

  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • dabar -- adverb; <dabar> now -- now
  • vėsko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <vėskas> everything -- everything
  • issizadeti -- verb; infinitive of <issizadeti, issėzada, issizadejo> give up -- to give up

Nč, tai negãlimas dáiktas.

  • -- particle; <> no, not -- no
  • tai -- pronoun; neuter of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • negãlimas -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; nominative singular masculine of <gãlimas, galimā> impossible -- (is) impossible
  • dáiktas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <dáiktas> thing -- (a) thing

Antrāsis galimųmas siule jám suderinti kurýba sų kųnigisku gyvenimu.

  • antrāsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <antras, antrā> other -- the second
  • galimųmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimųmas> possibility -- possibility
  • siule -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <siulyti, siulo, siule> offer -- offered
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- him
  • suderinti -- verb; infinitive of <suderinti, suderina, suderino> reconcile -- to reconcile
  • kurýba -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kurýba> creativity -- creativity
  • -- preposition; <> with -- with
  • kųnigisku -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <kųnigiskas, kųnigiska> priestly -- priestly
  • gyvenimu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <gyvenimas> life -- the... life

Bčt kaip?

  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- but
  • kaip -- adverb; <kaip> how -- how

Lig siõl jám tai nepavyko.

  • lig siõl -- adverb; <lig siõl> up to now -- up to his time
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • tai -- pronoun; neuter of <tās, tā> this, that -- ...
  • nepavyko -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <pavykti, pavyksta, pavyko> succeed -- had not succeeded

Jės zinójo ir tikejo, kād Dievas yrā visókios tobulýbes, grõzio ir kilniáusios počzijos saltėnis.

  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • zinójo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <zinóti, zėno, zinójo> know -- knew
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • tikejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <tiketi, tėki, tikejo> believe -- believed
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • Dievas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Dievas> God -- God
  • yrā -- verb; 3rd person present of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- is
  • visókios -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <visóks, visókia> all -- all
  • tobulýbes -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tobulýbe> perfection -- of... perfection
  • grõzio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <grõzis> beauty -- beauty
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • kilniáusios -- adjective; genitive singular feminine superlative of <kilnųs, kilnė> noble -- the noblest
  • počzijos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <počzija> poetry -- poetry
  • saltėnis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <saltėnis> source -- the source

Bčt kodel visė relėginiai, doróviniai, amzinõsios tiesõs, gerio ir grõzio motyvai ji palėkdavo sálta kaip leda, õ kurýbinis lyrinis susijáudinimas včsdavo i gyvenimo zabángas ir pavojųs?

  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- but
  • kodel -- adverb; <kodel> why -- why
  • visė -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <vėsas, visā> all -- all the
  • relėginiai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine <relėginis, relėgine> religious -- religious
  • doróviniai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine <doróvinis, doróvine> moral -- (and) moral
  • amzinõsios -- definite adjective; genitive singular feminine of <ámzinas, amzinā> eternal -- eternal
  • tiesõs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tiesā> truth -- of... truth
  • gerio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <geris> goodness -- goodness
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • grõzio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <grõzis> beauty -- beauty
  • motyvai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <motyvas> motif -- motifs
  • ji -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- him
  • palėkdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <palėkti, palieka, palėko> leave -- did... leave
  • sálta -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <sáltas, saltā> cold -- (as) cold
  • kaip -- conjunction; <kaip> as, like -- as
  • leda -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ledas> ice -- ice
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- whereas
  • kurýbinis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <kurýbinis, kurýbine> creative -- creative
  • lyrinis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <lyrinis, lyrine> lyric -- lyric
  • susijáudinimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <susijáudinimas> emotion, excitement -- emotion
  • včsdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <včsti, veda, vede> lead -- led
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- to
  • gyvenimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gyvenimas> life -- of life
  • zabángas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <zabánga> trap, snare -- the traps
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • pavojųs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <pavõjus> danger -- dangers

Õ treciāsis galimųmas tuõ metų jám bųvo dár tėk pradejes aisketi.

  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • treciāsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <trecias, treciā> third -- the third
  • galimųmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimųmas> possibility -- possibility
  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • metų -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <metas> time -- at ... moment
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- him
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- had
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- just
  • tėk -- particle; <tėk> only -- ...
  • pradejes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pradeti, prādeda, pradejo> begin -- begun
  • aisketi -- verb; infinitive of <aisketi, aiskeja, aiskejo> become clear -- to become clear

Jõ paties prãktika róde jám, kād "kunigãvimas" ir "poetãvimas" yrā dų visái skirtėngi, jéigu nč príesingi, pasaukėmai.

  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- his
  • paties -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <pāts, patė> own -- own
  • prãktika -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <prãktika> practice -- practice
  • róde -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <ródyti, ródo, róde> show -- had shown
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- him
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • kunigãvimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kunigãvimas> being a priest -- being a priest
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • poetãvimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poetãvimas> poeticizing -- poeticizing
  • yrā -- verb; 3rd person present of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- are
  • -- number; nominative masculine of <dų, dvė> two -- two
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • skirtėngi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <skirtėngas, skirtėnga> different -- different
  • jéigu -- conjunction; <jéigu> if -- if
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • príesingi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <príesingas, príesinga> opposing -- opposing
  • pasaukėmai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pasaukėmas> vocation -- vocations

Tād kám juõs butinai jųngti?

  • tād -- conjunction; <tād> then, thus -- then
  • kám -- adverb; <kám> why -- why
  • juõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- them
  • butinai -- adverb; <butinai> necessary -- (is it)necessary
  • jųngti -- verb; infinitive of <jųngti, jųngia, jųnge> unite, join -- to unite

"Kaip kųnigas, ās nč počtas, õ kaip počtas, ās nč kųnigas."

  • kaip -- conjunction; <kaip> as, like -- as
  • kųnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kųnigas> priest -- a priest
  • ās -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ās> I -- I
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (am) not
  • počtas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <počtas> poet -- a poet
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • kaip -- conjunction; <kaip> as, like -- as
  • počtas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <počtas> poet -- a poet
  • ās -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ās> I -- I
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (am) not
  • kųnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kųnigas> priest -- a priest

Stai fōrmule, kuriā Liųdas Vasãris savč apgaudinejo ėlga laika.

  • stai -- particle; <stai> here -- this (is)
  • fōrmule -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <fōrmule> formula -- the formula
  • kuriā -- pronoun; instrumental singular feminine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- with which
  • Liųdas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Liųdas> Liudas -- Liudas
  • Vasãris -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Vasãris> Vasaris -- Vasaris
  • savč -- pronoun; accusative of <saves> oneself, itself -- himself
  • apgaudinejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <apgaudineti, apgaudineja, apgaudinejo> deceive -- deceived
  • ėlga -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ėlgas, ilgā> long -- long
  • laika -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <laikas> time -- for a... time

Sėto psicholōginio sofėzmo, ivairiomės atmainomės gyvenime ganā daznai sutinkamo, jisai nusitvere kaip skestas siaudelio.

  • sėto -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <sėtas, sitā> this -- this
  • psicholōginio -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <psicholōginis, psicholōgine> psychological -- psychological
  • sofėzmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <sofėzmas> sophism -- for... sophism
  • ivairiomės -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <ivairųs, ivairė> various, different -- various
  • atmainomės -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <atmainā> guise -- in... guises
  • gyvenime -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <gyvenimas> life -- in life
  • ganā -- adverb; <ganā> rather -- rather
  • daznai -- adverb; <daznai> frequently, often -- frequently
  • sutinkamo -- verb; genitive singular masculine of present participle passive of <sutėkti, sutinka, sutėko> encounter, come across -- encountered
  • jisai -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • nusitvere -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <nusitvérti, nusėtveria, nusitvere> grasp -- grasped
  • kaip -- conjunction; <kaip> as, like -- like
  • skestas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle active of <skesti, skesta, skendo> drown -- a drowning (man)
  • siaudelio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <siaudelis> straw -- (grasping) for a straw

Sitā iliųzija ėlgus metųs laike ji pavirsiuj, jės "kunigãvo" ir "poetãvo", õ tuõ tárpu kųnigas ir počtas vãre jamč zutbutėne tarpųsavio kõva.

  • sitā -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <sėtas, sitā> this -- this
  • iliųzija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <iliųzija> illusion -- illusion
  • ėlgus -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <ėlgas, ilgā> long -- long
  • metųs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <metai> year -- for... years
  • laike -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <laikýti, laiko, laike> keep -- kept
  • ji -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- him
  • pavirsiuj -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <pavirsius> surface -- afloat
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • kunigãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kunigáuti, kunigáuja, kunigãvo> be a priest -- acted as a priest
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • poetãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <poetáuti, poetáuja, poetãvo> be a poet -- acted as a poet
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- the same
  • tárpu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <tárpas> space, period -- at... time
  • kųnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kųnigas> priest -- the priest
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • počtas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <počtas> poet -- poet
  • vãre -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <varýti, vãro, vãre> be engaged -- were engaged in
  • jamč -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- in him
  • zutbutėne -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <zutbutėnis, zutbutėne> desperate -- desperate
  • tarpųsavio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <tarpųsavis> between oneself -- ...
  • kõva -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kovā> battle, struggle -- a ... struggle

Jisai uzfiksãvo daugeli siõs kovõs momentu ir mãne, kād kųria počzija.

  • jisai -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • uzfiksãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <uzfiksúoti, uzfiksúoja, uzfiksãvo> capture -- wrote down
  • daugeli -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <daugelis> many -- many
  • siõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <sės, sė> this -- this
  • kovõs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kovā> battle, struggle -- of ... struggle
  • momentu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <momentas> moment -- of the moments
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • mãne -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <manýti, mãno, mãne> think -- thought
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • kųria -- verb; 3rd person present of <kųrti, kųria, kure> create -- (he) was creating
  • počzija -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <počzija> poetry -- poetry

Tuõ tárpu jės rãse sāvo zuvėmo krōnika, vienur kitur pamárginta tikrų kurýbos zíedu - liudnų jõ tãlento liųdininku.

  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- the same
  • tárpu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <tárpas> space, period -- at... time
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • rãse -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <rasýti, rãso, rãse> write -- was writing
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • zuvėmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <zuvėmas> ruin -- of... ruin
  • krōnika -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <krōnika> chronicle -- the chronicle
  • vienur -- adverb; <vienur> in one place -- here
  • kitur -- adverb; <kitur> elsewhere -- (and) there
  • pamárginta -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <pamárginti, pamárgina, pamárgino> mark -- marked
  • tikrų -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <tėkras, tikrā> genuine -- true
  • kurýbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kurýba> creativity -- of creativity
  • zíedu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <zíedas> blossom, flower -- by a... spark
  • liudnų -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <liudnas, liudnā> sad -- sad
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- his
  • tãlento -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <tãlentas> talent -- of... talent
  • liųdininku -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <liųdininkas> witness -- the... witness

Lesson Text

Pirmāsis galimųmas bųvo visái mčsti tã počzija ir visās tās svajončs. Tai butu tinkamiáusias ir paprasciáusias kláusimo sprendėmas. Bčt Vasãris nųjaute, kād jės vargų ar pajegs issizadeti tu vilciu, kuriõs ės dalies ji i seminãrija ātvede. Seminãrijos gyvenimas, tiesā, gerókai jās apgrióve, taciau tuo pacių metų jisai vės delto pamãte turis tãlenta. Ir dabar vėsko issizadeti? Nč, tai negãlimas dáiktas.

Antrāsis galimųmas siule jám suderinti kurýba sų kųnigisku gyvenimu. Bčt kaip? Lig siõl jám tai nepavyko. Jės zinójo ir tikejo, kād Dievas yrā visókios tobulýbes, grõzio ir kilniáusios počzijos saltėnis. Bčt kodel visė relėginiai, doróviniai, amzinõsios tiesõs, gerio ir grõzio motyvai ji palėkdavo sálta kaip leda, õ kurýbinis lyrinis susijáudinimas včsdavo i gyvenimo zabángas ir pavojųs?

Õ treciāsis galimųmas tuõ metų jám bųvo dár tėk pradejes aisketi. Jõ paties prãktika róde jám, kād "kunigãvimas" ir "poetãvimas" yrā dų visái skirtėngi, jéigu nč príesingi, pasaukėmai. Tād kám juõs butinai jųngti? "Kaip kųnigas, ās nč počtas, õ kaip počtas, ās nč kųnigas." Stai fōrmule, kuriā Liųdas Vasãris savč apgaudinejo ėlga laika. Sėto psicholōginio sofėzmo, ivairiomės atmainomės gyvenime ganā daznai sutinkamo, jisai nusitvere kaip skestas siaudelio. Sitā iliųzija ėlgus metųs laike ji pavirsiuj, jės "kunigãvo" ir "poetãvo", õ tuõ tárpu kųnigas ir počtas vãre jamč zutbutėne tarpųsavio kõva. Jisai uzfiksãvo daugeli siõs kovõs momentu ir mãne, kād kųria počzija. Tuõ tárpu jės rãse sāvo zuvėmo krōnika, vienur kitur pamárginta tikrų kurýbos zíedu - liudnų jõ tãlento liųdininku.

Translation

The first possibility was to completely abandon poetry and all those dreams. That would be the most appropriate and simplest solution to the problem. But Vasaris felt that he could hardly have the strength to give up those hopes, which to some degree had brought him to the seminary. Seminary life, indeed, had practically destroyed them, but at the same time he saw that he had talent nevertheless. And now to give up everything? No, that is an impossible thing.
The second possibility offered him (the chance) to reconcile creativity with the priestly life. But how? Up to this time he had not succeeded. He knew and believed that God is the source of all perfection, beauty and the noblest poetry. But why did all the religious and moral motifs of eternal truth, goodness and beauty leave him as cold as ice, whereas creative lyric emotion led to the traps and dangers of life?
But at that moment the third possibility just began to become clear. His own practice had shown him that being a priest and poeticizing are two completely different, if not opposing vocations. Then why is it necessary to unite them? 'As a priest I am not a poet, and as a poet I am not a priest.' This is the formula with which Liudas Vasaris deceived himself for a long time. Like a drowning man (grasping) for a straw, he grasped for this psychological sophism, rather frequently encountered in various guises in life. For long years this illusion kept him afloat; he acted as a priest and acted as a poet, and at the same time the priest and poet in him were engaged in a desperate struggle. He wrote down many of the moments of this struggle and thought that he was creating poetry. At the same time he was writing the chronicle of his ruin, here and there marked by a true spark of creativity, the sad witness of his talent.

Grammar

11. The Accent Classes of the Nouns

There are four accent classes of the nouns in Lithuanian. The principal criterion for the attribution of a noun to one or another class is its stress pattern in the dative and the accusative plural. Some nouns have a constant stress, e.g., in all cases the stress falls on one and the same syllable. But in the majority of nouns the stress alternates between the ending and the stem.

Accentuation is rather difficult even for native speakers. In colloquial Lithuanian they often shift the stress from the short ending to the stem.

The current four accent classes developed from the earlier two accent paradigms (the barytone (fixed) stress paradigm and the mobile stress paradigm). The shifting of the stress defined by de Saussure's law determined the development of the present Lithuanian accentuation system. According to this law, the stress passes from a short or circumflex (rising) syllabic nucleus to an acute (falling) one.

In dictionaries the accent class is indicated in Arabic numerals: 1; 2; 3; 4; e.g., áuksas 1 'gold'; pirstas 2 'finger'; bérzas 3 'birch'; ausės 4 'ear'. Knowing the peculiarities of each accent class, we can locate the stress and use the appropriate accent in all the forms of the noun. Dictionary listings of adjectives, numerals and pronouns provide information on accent class.

11.1. The First Accent Class

The first accent class comprises nouns which in the dative and accusative plural always have their stress on one and the same syllable of the stem.

In two-syllable nouns the stress is always on the first syllable and it is always an acute, e.g., kója 'leg'; zéntas 'son-in-law'. In polysyllabic nouns, one can have either the acute or the circumflex, or the syllable may be short, e.g., vãsara 'summer'; busena 'state, condition'; dėdvyris 'hero'. But when the stress falls on the penultimate syllable only the acute is possible, e.g., saváite 'week'; varnenas 'starling'.

The stress always remains on the same syllable in all the cases in the singular and plural if the noun belongs to the first accent class. This is the most important feature of the first accent class.

Nom sg   kója 'leg'   zėrnis 'pea'   ãdata 'needle'   lųpena 'peel'
Gen sg   kójos   zėrnio   ãdatos   lųpenos
Dat sg   kojai   zėrniui   ãdatai   lųpenai
Acc sg   kója   zėrni   ãdata   lųpena
Inst sg   kója   zėrniu   ãdata   lųpena
Loc sg   kójoj(e)   zėrny(je)   ãdatoj(e)   lųpenoj(e)
Voc sg   kója   zėrni   ãdata   lųpena
                 
Nom pl   kójos   zėrniai   ãdatos   lųpenos
Gen pl   kóju   zėrniu   ãdatu   lųpemu
Dat pl   kójom(s)   zėrniam(s)   ãdatom(s)   lųpenom(s)
Acc pl   kójas   zėrnius   ãdatas   lųpenas
Inst pl   kójom(is)   zėniais   ãdatom(is)   lųpenom(is)
Loc pl   kójose   zėrniuos(e)   ãdatose   lųpenose
Voc pl   kójos   zėrniai   ãdatos   lųpenos
11.2. The Second Accent Class

The second accent class comprises nouns which in the dative plural have their stress on the stem, while in the accusative plural they are stressed on the ending, e.g., dative plural bãtams 'shoes', acc.pl. batųs; dat.pl. pųpoms 'beans', acc.pl. pupās.

The penultimate syllable has the circumflex or the short intonation. The circumflex or the short stress remains constant, except: in the (a) instrumental singular and (b) accusative plural. If the noun ends in -as, then in addition to the two cases above, the locative singular is also stressed on the ending, e.g., loc.sg. batč 'shoe'. If the noun has -a in nominative singular, then this -a is stressed, e.g., nom.sg. pupā 'bean'.

Nom sg   pirstas 'finger'   vistā 'hen'   laume 'witch'
Gen sg   pirsto   vėstos   laumes
Dat sg   pirstui   vėstai   laumei
Acc sg   pirsta   vėsta   laume
Inst sg   pirstų   vistā   laumč
Loc sg   pirstč   vėstoj(e)   laumej(e)
Voc sg   pirste   vėsta   laume
             
Nom pl   pirstai   vėstos   laumes
Gen pl   pirstu   vėstu   laumiu
Dat pl   pirstam(s)   vėstom(s)   laumem(s)
Acc pl   pirstųs   vistās   laumčs
Inst pl   pirstais   vėstom(is)   laumem(is)
Loc pl   pirstuos(e)   vėstose   laumese
Voc pl   pirstai   vėstos   laumes
12. Pronouns
12.1. The Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns refer to:

  • a definite person or phenomenon (tās, 'this', 'that'; sės, , sėtas, sėta / sitā 'this'; anās, anā 'that'; tas pāts, ta patė 'the same');
  • a definite property of a person or phenomenon (tóks, tokiā 'such a'; sióks, siokiā, sėtoks, sėtokia 'this kind of'; anóks, anókia 'that kind of');
  • a situation (tai 'it'; sėta(i) 'it', tas pāt(s) 'the same').

The demonstrative sės contrasts with tās. Both sės and tās contrast with anās which denotes a third object which is farther away than objects referred to by tās, e.g.,

  • Sis nãmas yrā māno, tās nãmas yrā tāvo, õ anās nãmas yrā jõ
  • 'This house is mine, that house is yours, but the one over there is his'.

Demonstrative pronouns can be used both as nouns and as adjectives, e.g.,

  • Draugai kviecia Diãna eiti papietáuti, õ sė sedi ir ziuri prõ lánga 'Friends invite Diana to go out to dinner, but she (the latter) sits and looks out the window'.
  • Bčt Vasãris nųjaute, kād jės vargų ar pajegs issizadeti tu vilciu 'But Vasaris felt that he could hardly have the strength to give up those hopes'.

When sės, , tās, , anās, anā are used as adjectives (before a noun), they contribute definite status to the noun.

The pronouns sėtoks, sėtokia, tóks, tokiā can also used before nouns as intensifiers, e.g., Sėtokia baisė avãrija 'such a terrible accident'.

The declension of sės, is like that of the personal pronouns jės, . The demonstrative pronouns tās, and tōks, tokiā are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   tās 'this'     tóks 'such a'   tokiā
Gen sg     tõs   tókio   tokiõs
Dat sg   tám   tái   tokiám   tókiai
Acc sg     ta   tóki   tókia
Inst sg   tuõ     tókiu   tokiā
Loc sg   tamč   tojč   tokiamč   tokiojč
    tam   tõj   tokiam   tokiõj
                 
Nom pl   tie   tõs   tokie   tókios
Gen pl   tu   tu   tokiu   tokiu
Dat pl   tíems   tóms   tokíems   tokióms
    tíem   tóm   tokíem   tokióm
Acc pl   tuõs   tās   tókius   tókias
Inst pl   tais   tomės   tokiais   tokiomės
        tõm       tokiõm
Loc pl   tuosč   tosč   tokiuosč   tokiosč
    tuõs       tokiuõs    

The declension of sėtas, sitā is exactly like that of tās, . Anóks, anókia and sėtoks, sėtokia have the same endings as tóks, tokiā, but the stress pattern is different (always on the same syllable). These pronouns have influenced the declension of the adjectives.

12.2. The Interrogative and Relative Pronouns

All intrrogative and relative pronouns begin with the consonant k: kās 'what', 'who'; kóks, kokiā 'what kind of'; kurės, kurė 'which'; katrās, katrā 'which of two'; kelė, kelios 'how many', kelerė, kelerios 'how many (used with pluralia tantum); kelintas, kelintā 'which'.

The interrogative pronoun kās 'who, what' is declined as follows:

Nom sg   kās 'who, what'
Gen sg   , kienõ
Dat sg   kám
Acc sg  
Inst sg   kuõ
Loc sg   kamč

This pronoun has no plural declension and it may refer to either masculine or feminine nouns or pronouns. Kienõ 'whose', 'of whom', 'by whom' is used to denote possession or as the subject or agent of a passive verbal construction, whereas is reserved for other genitive uses, cf:

  • Kās ji sumuse? 'Who beat him up'?
  • Kienõ jės bųvo sųmustas? 'By whom was he beaten up'?
  • Kõ jám nepasėseke isvéngti? 'What was he not able to avoid'?

Kóks, kokiā are declined like tóks, tokiā; kurės, kurė are declined like jės, ; katrās, katrā are declined like tās, ; kelerė, kelerios are declined like kelė, kelios; kelintas, kelintā are declined like regular adjectives.

Kelė and kelios are used only in the plural:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom   kelė 'how many'   kelios
Gen   keliu   keliu
Dat   kelíems, keliém   kelióms, kelióm
Acc   kelės   keliās
Inst   keliais   keliomės, keliõm
Loc   keliuosč, keliuõs   keliosč

When these pronouns introduce a direct question, they are interrogatives:

  • Kienõ tās automobėlis? 'Whose car is that'?
  • Kās gãli atsakýti i si klaúsima? 'Who can answer this question'?
  • Kurė suknele táu patinka? 'Which dress do you like?'
  • Kókias knygās jus pardavinejate? 'What kind of books do you sell'?

Kas, kurės, kurė, kóks, kokiā can also be used as relative pronouns. The number and the gender of the relative pronoun are determined by the word to which it refers, but the case of this pronoun is determined by its use in the clause of which it is a part, e.g.:

  • Mán patinka tā suknele, kuriã tų mán nupirkai
  • 'I like the dress which you have bought for me'.

The relative pronoun kuriã is feminine and singular because it refers to suknele which is feminine and singular, but it is in the accusative case because it is the object of the verb nupirkai.

Kokiā ziemā, tokiā ir vãsara 'Whatever the winter is (like) thus also is the summer'.

12.3. The Indefinite Pronouns

Kās 'someone', 'somebody', 'something' may be used as an indefinite pronoun by itself, e.g., Jám turbut pasivaideno kās 'He probably imagined somebody'.

Kās, kōks and kurės also may be used in conjunction with nórs, kazė(n) and kaz-. Kas nórs, koks nórs, kuris nórs have the meaning 'someone', 'somebody', 'anybody' 'something', 'some kind of':

  • Gál noretu kas nórs padirbeti?
  • 'Would anybody like to work for some time'?

Kazkās, kazkóks, kazkurės share a common semantic element meaning 'uncertain', someone not known', 'what', 'which', 'what kind of'. The same meaning is shared by the corresponding compound pronouns with the first component kazė(n), e.g., kazi(n) kās, kazi(n) kóks, kazi(n) kurės:

  • Tōmas isvýdo kazin kóki keista dáikta
  • 'Tomas saw some strange thing'.
13. Adjective Inflection

Adjectives agree in gender, number and case with words they modify. As attributes, adjectives can be used only with nouns, e.g., pāprastas sprendėmas 'a simple decision'.

There are three gender forms of adjectives in Lithuanian: masculine, feminine and neuter. All adjectives can have masculine forms and the respective feminine forms, e.g., nominative singular masculine liudnas 'sad', kilnųs 'noble'; nominative singular feminine liudnā, kilnė. The neuter forms can be derived by dropping the -s from the masculine nominative singular, cf.: nominative singular masculine liudnas and neuter liudna; nominative singular masculine kilnųs and neuter kilnų. These forms are generally used in certain impersonal constructions as part of the nominal predicate:

  • Mán liudna 'I am sad' (lit. 'To me is sad');
  • Ciā bųvo tamsų 'Here it was dark'.

The present tense forms of buti 'to be' are mostly omitted in such sentences.

The qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison. As in English, there are three basic degrees of comparison in Lithuanian: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative, e.g., positive liudnas 'sad', sunkųs 'difficult', 'heavy'; comparative liudnčsnis 'sadder', sunkčsnis 'more difficult', 'heavier'; superlative liudniáusias 'the saddest', sunkiáusias 'the most difficult', 'the heaviest'. Descriptive adjectives can have definite forms, which in addition to their lexical meaning of the quality contribute definite status to the noun they determine, e.g., amzinóji tiesā 'the eternal truth'. Historically, definite forms derived from the blend of adjectival endings with the pronoun jės 'he', 'she', e.g., amzināsis 'eternal-he', amzinóji 'eternal-she'.

Masculine and feminine adjectives have two numbers: singular and plural.

All adjectives are traditionally classified into three declensions. The easiest way to determine which declension an adjective belongs is by checking the endings in the nominative singular and the nominative plural.

Declension   Nom.sg.masc.   Nom.pl.masc.   Nom.sg.fem.   Nom.pl.fem.   Stem
1st   -(i)as   -i           (i)a
            -(i)a   -(i)os   (i)o
2nd   -us   -us           (i)u
            -i   -ios   (i)o
3rd   -is   -iai           (i)a
            -e   -es   e

The declension of masculine and feminine adjectives is quite different. Since early times, feminine adjectives were declined like nouns, but the masculine adjectives have adopted some of the endings of the gendered pronouns, cf.: dative singular masculine liudnám 'sad' and tám 'that'; locative singular masculine liudnamč and tamč; nominative plural masculine liudnė and tie; dative plural masculine liudníems and tíems.

13.2. First Declension Adjectives

All adjectives ending in -(i)as (masculine nominative singular) and -(i)a (feminine nominative singular) belong to the first declension. The declension of these adjectives should be compared with that of the first and second declension nouns. The declension of the masculine adjectives differs in the dative and locative singular and the nominative and dative plural from that of the first declension nouns.

The forms of the 1st declension adjectives are as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   pėktas 'angry'   piktā   zãlias 'green'   zaliā
Gen sg   pėkto   piktõs   zãlio   zaliõs
Dat sg   piktám   pėktai   zaliám   zãliai
Acc sg   pėkta   pėkta   zãlia   zãlia
Inst sg   piktų   piktā   zalių   zaliā
Loc sg   piktamč   piktojč   zaliamč   zaliojč
    piktam   piktõj   zaliam   zaliõj
Voc sg   pėktas   piktā   zãlias   zaliā
                 
Nom pl   piktė   pėktos   zalė   zãlios
Gen pl   piktu   piktu   zaliu   zaliu
Dat pl   piktíems   piktóms   zalíems   zalióms
    piktíem   piktóm   zalíem   zalióm
Acc pl   piktųs   piktās   zaliųs   zaliās
Inst pl   piktais   piktomės   zaliais   zaliomės
        piktõm       zaliõm
Loc pl   piktuosč   piktosč   zaliuosč   zaliosč
    piktuõs       zaliuõs    
Voc pl   piktė   pėktos   zalė   zãlios
13.3. Second Declension Adjectives

Adjectives belonging to the 2nd declension are characterized by the ending -us in the masculine nominative singular and the ending -i in the feminine nominative singular.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   gilųs 'deep'   gilė   saldųs 'sweet'   saldė
Gen sg   gilaus   giliõs   saldaus   saldziõs
Dat sg   giliám   gėliai   saldziám   sáldziai
Acc sg   gėlu   gėlia   sáldu   sáldzia
Inst sg   gilių   giliā   sáldziu   sáldzia
Loc sg   giliamč   giliojč   saldziamč   saldziojč
    giliam   giliõj   saldziam   saldziõj
Voc sg   gilųs   gilė   saldųs   saldė
                 
Nom pl   gėlus   gėlios   sáldus   sáldzios
Gen pl   giliu   giliu   saldziu   saldziu
Dat pl   gilíems   gilióms   saldíems   saldzióms
    gilíem   gilióm   saldíem   saldzióm
Acc pl   giliųs   giliās   sáldzius   sáldzias
Inst pl   giliais   giliomės   saldziais   saldziomės
        giliõm       saldziõm
Loc pl   giliuosč   giliosč   saldziuosč   saldziosč
    giliuõs       saldziuõs    
Voc pl   gėlus   gėlios   sáldus   sáldzios

The -ti- and -di- of the feminine nominative singular are replaced by -ci- and -dzi- respectively in position before the vowels -a-, -o-, -u- in the second declension of adjectives, cf.: nominative singular masculine kartųs 'bitter' and instrumental singular masculine kárciu; nominative singular masculine saldųs 'sweet' and instrumental singular masculine sáldziu, etc. In this position, -c- and -dz- merely denote a soft or palatalized -c- or -dz- sound; the letter -i- here does not denote a vowel, but merely the softening or palatalization of the preceding consonant. The endings of the nouns of the 4th declension should be carefully compared with the masculine endings above, cf.: sunųs 'son' and 'gilųs 'deep'. The endings of feminine nouns in -i of the second declension should be carefully compared with the feminine endings above, cf.: martė 'daughter-in-law' and saldė 'sweet'.

13.4. Third Declension Adjectives

The nominative singular of all adjectives in this declension ends in -is for the masculine and -e for the feminine.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   auksėnis 'golden'   auksėne   vilnõnis 'woolen'   vilnõne
Gen sg   auksėnio   auksėnes   vilnõnio   vilnõnes
Dat sg   auksėniam   auksėnei   vilnõniam   vilnõnei
Acc sg   auksėni   auksėne   vilnõni   vilnõne
Inst sg   auksinių   auksinč   vilnonių   vilnonč
Loc sg   auksėniame   auksėneje   vilnõniame   vilnõneje
    auksėniam   auksėnej   vilnõniam   vilnõnej
Voc sg   auksėni(s)   auksėne   vilnõni(s)   vilnõne
                 
Nom pl   auksėniai   auksėnes   vilnõniai   vilnõnes
Gen pl   auksėniu   auksėniu   vilnõniu   vilnõniu
Dat pl   auksėniams   auksėnems   vilnõniams   vilnõnems
    auksėniam   auksėnem   vilnõniam   vilnõnem
Acc pl   auksiniųs   auksinčs   vilnoniųs   vilnončs
Inst pl   auksėniais   auksėnemis   vilnõniais   vilnõnemis
        auksėnem       vilnõnem
Loc pl   auksėniuose   auksėnese   vilnõniuose   vilnõnese
    auksėniuos       vilnõniuos    
Voc pl   auksėniai   auksėnes   vilnõniai   vilnõnes

Third declension adjectives are usually derived from nouns, cf.:

  • n. áuksas 'gold' and adj. auksėnis 'gold', 'golden';
  • n. vėlna 'wool' and adj. vilnõnis 'woolen';
  • n. ãkcija 'stock' and adj. ãkcinis 'joint-stock';
  • n. stãlas 'table', 'desk' and adj. stalėnis 'table', 'desk'.

Some adjectives of this declension are also derived from other adjectives and past passive participles, cf.:

  • adj. lýgus 'flat', 'even' and adj. lýginis 'even';
  • past.pass.ptc. pirktas 'purchased', 'bought' and adj. pirktėnis 'purchased', 'bought'.
14. Mood
14.1. The Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood indicates a possible action. The simple forms of the subjunctive mood are formed by removing the infinitive ending -ti and adding the endings listed below:

1st sg   láuk-ciau 'I should wait'   ture-ciau 'I should have'   bu-ciau 'I should be'
2nd sg   láuk-tum   ture-tum   bu-tum
3rd sg   láuk-tu   ture-tu   bu-tu
             
1st pl   láuk-tume   ture-tume   bu-tume
    láuk-tumem(e)   ture-tumem(e)   bu-tumem(e)
2nd pl   láuk-tute   ture-tute   bu-tute
    láuk-tumet(e)   ture-tumet(e)   bu-tumet(e)
3rd pl   láuktu   ture-tu   bu-tu

The subjunctive mood has two parallel forms for the 1st and the 2nd person plural. It is commonly believed that the longer forms are more common than the shorter ones. In dialects and old writings there is an even greater variety of subjunctive forms.

The compound subjunctive forms consist of the simple forms of the auxiliary buti 'to be' and active or passive participles, e.g., butum zinójes 'you would have known'; butu zėnomas 'he would be known'.

As subjunctive mood forms have an infinitive stem, they preserve the stress and intonation of the infinitive.

The subjunctive mood may be used in both the main clause and the if-clause of a sentence which contains a contrary-to-fact condition, e.g.:

  • Jéi paprasýtum, paskõlinciau 'If you would ask, I would lend';
  • Jéigu tų butum protingčsne, taip dabar nekalbetum 'If you were wiser, you would not speak like this now'.

If there is no contrary-to-fact condition, then the subjunctive mood is not required, e.g., Jéi paprasýsi, paskõlinsiu 'If you ask, I shall lend'; Jéi netųri, neduók 'If you do not have, don't give'. The future tense (not the present, as in English) is used with jéi 'if', when a future time is implied.

The subjunctive mood is also used to express purpose, generally with the subordinating conjunction kād 'that', 'in order that', e.g.,

  • Jis padejo pėnigus ant stãlo, kád visė matýtu 'He put the money on the table in order that everyone would see (it)';
  • Ās nóriu, kā tų atvaziúotum 'I want you to come' (lit. I want that you would come).

Lithuanian does not use the object of a verb of wishing or saying as the subject of an infinitive as in English.

14.2. Imperative

There are three basic forms of imperative in Lithuanian: 2nd person singular, 1st person plural, and 2nd person plural. As a rule, the action is addressed to another person. Hence the most common forms of the imperative are 2nd person singular and 2nd person plural.

2nd sg   skaitýk 'read'   turek 'have'   buk
1st pl   skaitýkim(e)   turekim(e)   bukim(e)
2nd pl   skaitýkit(e)   turekit(e)   bukit(e)

The formation of these forms is fairly simple:

  • 2nd person singular: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -k: skaity + k = skaitýk;
  • 1st person plural: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -kime: skaity + kime = skaitýkim(e);
  • 2nd person plural: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -kite: skaity + kite = skaitýkit(e).

The stress is the same as for the infinitive.

The 2nd person singular is used in addressing children, animals, close friends, members of the immediate family and God. The 2nd person plural is used to address a group of persons or animals, or to address one person politely. The 1st person plural renders the English 'let us', e.g., skaitykim 'let us read'.

Frequently the first person plural of the present tense when used without a pronoun has hortative meaning:

  • Perkam! 'Let's buy'!
  • Dainúojam! 'Let's sing'!
14.3. The Optative Mood

Traditionally, the imperative mood includes the forms of the optative (permisive) mood. The inclusion of the optative mood raises problems, since the optative mood is permissive, not imperative.

The optative may be formed by prefixing te- to the third person form of the verb, e.g., te-skaito 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read; te-eina 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'. Sometimes these forms are created by a synthetic combination of tegul 'let...' or tegų 'let...' with the third person of the verb, e.g., tegul skaito 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read'; tegų eina 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'.

An alternative formation is furnished by adding the endings -ai (for the verbs of the third conjungation) or -ie for other verbs to the present stem, e.g., 3 pres. skait-o 'reads', opt. te-skait-ai 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read'; 3 pres. ein-a 'goes', opt. te-ein-ie 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'. These forms are recognized as archaic; they are found in older Lithuanian writings. The only verb used fairly often in Standard Lithuanian is the verb buti 'to be': tebunie, teesie 'let it be'. They are also found in prayers:

  • Teesie sventas tāvo vardas 'Hallowed be Thy name';
  • Teateinie tāvo karalyste 'Thy kingdom come';
  • Tebunie tāvo valiā kaip dangujč taip ir zemeje 'Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven'.
15. Interrogative Words and Interrogative Sentences

In Lithuanian most interrogative sentences are similar in structure to declarative sentences. They can be marked by intonation alone and, sometimes, by word order:

  • Tų namie? 'Are you at home'?;
  • Jės tikrai gėme Pietu Ãfrikoje? 'Was he really born in South Africa'?
  • Rasýti baiget? 'Did you finish writing'?

General questions either contain no interrogative marker, or may begin with the particles ar, argi, gál, nejau, nejaugi. The affirmative answer begins with the affirmative particle taip 'yes', and the negative answer with 'no':

  • Ar mes dalyváusime? 'Will we be taking part'?; Taip, bč jokiõs abejõnes 'Yes, without any doubt';
  • Gál jųms padeti? 'May I help you'? Ãciu, nč (or nereikia) 'No, thank you' (or 'it is not necessary');
  • Nejaugi jie suklýdo? 'Did they really make a mistake'? Taip, suklýdo 'Yes, they did'.

Special questions usually require a concrete answer. They are formed with various case forms of the interrogative pronouns kās 'who, what', kurės 'which', kóks 'what (kind of)', kelė 'how many', kelintas 'which' (of the ordinal number), and with the interrogative adverbs kur 'where', kadā 'when', kaip 'how', kodel 'why', kíek 'how many'. These markers are placed initially:

  • Kās ciā atsitėko? 'What has happened'? Dúrys uzsėtrenke 'The door slammed';
  • Kám tų noretum paskambinti? 'Whom would you like to call'? Sāvo draugáms Lietuvojč 'My friends in Lithuania';
  • Kur jės isvaziúoja? 'Where is he leaving for'? I Kėnija 'For China'.
  • Kodel jus tóks pėktas? 'Why are you so angry'? 'Pa\mec^iau pinigi\ne*' 'I have lost my purse'.

Lithuanian also uses "tag questions" but, compared to English, they are less common. There are several ways to express 'do you', 'don't you', 'haven't you', 'will you', won't you', 'aren't you', etc., in Lithuanian. Literally the negative question ar nč? means 'is it not', 'was it not', 'will it not (be)', etc. after positive statements. The word tiesā? 'true, correct'? can be used both after positive and negative statements. Ar nč tiesā? 'is it not so'? is used after positive statements, but sometimes also after negative sentences or clauses:

  • Jė dainininke, ar nč? 'She is a singer, isn't she'?
  • Mėlda niekadā nesugris, tiesā? 'Milda will never come back, will she'?
  • Zmónes yrā linke slepti tikrúosius jausmųs, ar nč tiesā? 'People have an inclination to hide their real feelings, don't they'?
  • Tų pasiteiravai, kodel jie neatvyko, ar nč 'You asked why they had not come, didn't you'?