The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Baltic Online

Lesson 3: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

Among the writers who appeared on the scene in the years 1918-1940, Viñcas Mykoláitis-Pùtinas stands out. This author and literary researcher of enormous intellect distanced himself from the usual tendency in belles-lettres of basing one's work only on the means of expression of the folk language. He searched out means of expression in the written language. The themes of his works were the deciding factor. In his works he didn't depict the village people, but rather the lives of intellectuals and educated people. In his poetry and prose, which are distinguished by their intellectual quality, there are many abstract nouns. He especially liked verbal abstracts, e.g., tobulýbė 'perfection', buitìs 'manner of life', pólėkis 'flight (of fancy)', būtìs 'being, existence', lūkesỹs 'expectation', geĩsmas 'desire', síelgrauža 'mental distress' (literally 'gnawing at the soul'). He used international words abundantly, e.g. harmònija 'harmony', mirãžas 'mirage', iliùzija 'illusion', ideãlas 'ideal,' hierárchija 'hierarchy', chaòsas 'chaos'. He used just the right adjectives with abstract nouns, e.g., álkanas liūdesỹs 'hungry grief, famished melancholy', klaikì vienãtvė 'dreadful loneliness', nerimastìnga buitìs 'anxious way of life'. His novel, In the shadow of the altars, was the first intellectual psychological novel in Lithuanian literature. The principal hero of this Stendhal type novel, Liùdas Vasãris, a seminary student and later a priest, writes poetry and cannot reconcile priest and poet in himself. Obedience to the will of his parents and the desire to serve his country have led him to the seminary. Vasãris overvalues the contribution of the priestly class to Lithuanian culture and chooses the goal of following in the footsteps of the poet-priests Mairónis, Antãnas Baranáuskas, and others. In the shadow of the altars has quite a few autobiographical features. The author of the book himself had experienced the conflict of poet and priest.

Mykoláitis-Pùtinas graduated from seminary and became a priest, but later gave up the priesthood. It is the aforementioned conflict that makes up the intellectual and emotional core of his novel. The attainment of freedom is the essence of the human being and art is the most authentic expression of this essence. Vasãris comes to understand that the priesthood has isolated his talent from the living sources of art, love for experience, natural communication with other human beings, and spontaneous expression without any moralizing. There arises the irresistible urge to experience life for the sake of creativity, so that his talent, a gift of God, might not be destroyed. He is also distinguished by the disharmony and duality of his personality. He seeks out, analyzes, and investigates scrupulously his inner contradictions, on the one hand from the point of view of his priestly duty and on the other hand from the point of view of the imperative of the poet's vocation. His indecisiveness, his compromising surrender to circumstances, resignation, silent suffering, and rebellious internal discontent reflect typical features of the Lithuanian character.

Reading and Textual Analysis

In the selection given below, from the first part of the novel, Vasãris considers three possibilities as to how he should act with his talent. He has already rejected his girl friend and taken the first vows of priesthood. Although he was firmly determined to become a good priest, he still felt that the source of his poetry was not "the virtues required of a clergyman, but the whirlpool of the world infected with the microbes of sin." He is constantly tormented by the thought of how to reconcile the free flight of poetry with the ideals of the life of a priest. These two lives are irreconcilably contrary to each other. What seems natural, understandable and unavoidable in one seems strange and forbidden in the other. He feels that the environment of the seminary is destroying his poetic talent, arousing discord and the splitting of his soul.

In the selection, one can find a fair number of international words and abstract nouns. Adjectives are used abundantly, especially those with the suffixes -ingas, -iškas and -inis; there are also comparisons, e.g., šáltas kaĩp lẽdas 'cold as ice,' nusitvė́rė kaĩp skę̃stąs šiaudẽlio 'grasped for (it) like a drowning man for a straw'.

Pirmàsis galimùmas bùvo visái mèsti tą̃ poèziją ir̃ visàs tàs svajonès.

  • pirmàsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <pìrmas, pirmà> first -- the first
  • galimùmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimùmas> possibility -- possibility
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- was
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • mèsti -- verb; infinitive of <mèsti, mẽta, mẽtė> abandon -- to... abandon
  • tą̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- ...
  • poèziją -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <poèzija> poetry -- poetry
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • visàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all
  • tàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- those
  • svajonès -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <svajõnė> dream -- dreams

Taĩ bū́tų tinkamiáusias ir̃ paprasčiáusias kláusimo sprendìmas.

  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • ́ -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- would be
  • tinkamiáusias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <tiñkamas, tinkamà> appropriate -- the most appropriate
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • paprasčiáusias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine superlative of <pàprastas, paprastà> simple -- simplest
  • kláusimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kláusimas> question -- to the problem
  • sprendìmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sprendìmas> solution -- solution

Bèt Vasãris nùjautė, kàd jìs vargù ar̃ pajė̃gs išsižadė́ti tų̃ vilčių̃, kuriõs ìš daliẽs jį̃ į̃ seminãriją àtvedė.

  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • Vasãris -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Vasãris> Vasaris -- Vasaris
  • nùjautė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nujaũsti, nujaũčia, nùjautė> feel -- felt
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • vargù -- particle; <vargù> hardly, scarcely -- hardly
  • ar̃ -- particle; <ar̃> if, or -- ...
  • pajė̃gs -- verb; 3rd person future of <pajė̃gti, pajė̃gia, pàjėgė> have the strength -- could... have the strength
  • išsižadė́ti -- verb; infinitive of <išsižadė́ti, išsìžada, išsižadė́jo> give up -- to give up
  • tų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- those
  • vilčių̃ -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <viltìs> hope -- hopes
  • kuriõs -- pronoun; nominative plural feminine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- to
  • daliẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dalìs> part -- some degree
  • jį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • seminãriją -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <seminãrija> seminary -- the seminary
  • àtvedė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <atvèsti, àtveda, àtvedė> bring -- had brought

Seminãrijos gyvẽnimas, tiesà, gerókai jàs apgrióvė, tačiaũ tuo pačiù metù jisaĩ vìs dėlto pamãtė turį̃s tãlentą.

  • seminãrijos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <seminãrija> seminary -- seminary
  • gyvẽnimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- life
  • tiesà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <tiesà> truth -- indeed
  • gerókai -- adverb; <gerókai> rather -- practically
  • jàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • apgrióvė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <apgriáuti, apgriáuna, apgrióvė> destroy -- had... destroyed
  • tačiaũ -- conjunction; <tačiaũ> but -- but
  • tuo pačiù -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tas pàts, ta patì> same -- the same
  • metù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <mẽtas> time -- at... time
  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • vìs dėlto -- particle; <vìs dėlto> nevertheless -- nevertheless
  • pamãtė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãtė> see -- saw
  • turį̃s -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle active of <turė́ti, tùri, turė́jo> have -- (that) he had
  • tãlentą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <tãlentas> talent -- talent

Ir̃ dabar̃ vìsko išsižadė́ti?

  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • dabar̃ -- adverb; <dabar̃> now -- now
  • vìsko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <vìskas> everything -- everything
  • išsižadė́ti -- verb; infinitive of <išsižadė́ti, išsìžada, išsižadė́jo> give up -- to give up

Nè, taĩ negãlimas dáiktas.

  • -- particle; <> no, not -- no
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • negãlimas -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; nominative singular masculine of <gãlimas, galimà> impossible -- (is) impossible
  • dáiktas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <dáiktas> thing -- (a) thing

Antràsis galimùmas siū́lė jám sudẽrinti kūrýbą sù kùnigišku gyvẽnimu.

  • antràsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <añtras, antrà> other -- the second
  • galimùmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimùmas> possibility -- possibility
  • siū́ -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <siū́lyti, siū́lo, siū́> offer -- offered
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • sudẽrinti -- verb; infinitive of <sudẽrinti, sudẽrina, sudẽrino> reconcile -- to reconcile
  • kūrýbą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kūrýba> creativity -- creativity
  • -- preposition; <> with -- with
  • kùnigišku -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <kùnigiškas, kùnigiška> priestly -- priestly
  • gyvẽnimu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- the... life

Bèt kaĩp?

  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • kaĩp -- adverb; <kaĩp> how -- how

Lig šiõl jám taĩ nepavỹko.

  • lig šiõl -- adverb; <lig šiõl> up to now -- up to his time
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- ...
  • nepavỹko -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <pavỹkti, pavỹksta, pavỹko> succeed -- had not succeeded

Jìs žinójo ir̃ tikė́jo, kàd Diẽvas yrà visókios tobulýbės, grõžio ir̃ kilniáusios poèzijos šaltìnis.

  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • žinójo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <žinóti, žìno, žinójo> know -- knew
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • tikė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <tikė́ti, tìki, tikė́jo> believe -- believed
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • Diẽvas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Diẽvas> God -- God
  • yrà -- verb; 3rd person present of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- is
  • visókios -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <visóks, visókia> all -- all
  • tobulýbės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tobulýbė> perfection -- of... perfection
  • grõžio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <grõžis> beauty -- beauty
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kilniáusios -- adjective; genitive singular feminine superlative of <kilnùs, kilnì> noble -- the noblest
  • poèzijos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <poèzija> poetry -- poetry
  • šaltìnis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <šaltìnis> source -- the source

Bèt kodė̃l visì relìginiai, doróviniai, amžinõsios tiesõs, gė̃rio ir̃ grõžio motỹvai jį̃ palìkdavo šáltą kaĩp lẽdą, õ kūrýbinis lỹrinis susijáudinimas vèsdavo į̃ gyvẽnimo žabángas ir̃ pavojùs?

  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • kodė̃l -- adverb; <kodė̃l> why -- why
  • visì -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all the
  • relìginiai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine <relìginis, relìginė> religious -- religious
  • doróviniai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine <doróvinis, doróvinė> moral -- (and) moral
  • amžinõsios -- definite adjective; genitive singular feminine of <ámžinas, amžinà> eternal -- eternal
  • tiesõs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <tiesà> truth -- of... truth
  • ̃rio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <̃ris> goodness -- goodness
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • grõžio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <grõžis> beauty -- beauty
  • motỹvai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <motỹvas> motif -- motifs
  • jį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • palìkdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <palìkti, paliẽka, palìko> leave -- did... leave
  • šáltą -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <šáltas, šaltà> cold -- (as) cold
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • lẽdą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <lẽdas> ice -- ice
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- whereas
  • kūrýbinis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <kūrýbinis, kūrýbinė> creative -- creative
  • lỹrinis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <lỹrinis, lỹrinė> lyric -- lyric
  • susijáudinimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <susijáudinimas> emotion, excitement -- emotion
  • vèsdavo -- verb; 3rd person frequentative of <vèsti, vẽda, vẽdė> lead -- led
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • gyvẽnimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- of life
  • žabángas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <žabánga> trap, snare -- the traps
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • pavojùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <pavõjus> danger -- dangers

Õ trečiàsis galimùmas tuõ metù jám bùvo dár tìk pradė́jęs aiškė́ti.

  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • trečiàsis -- definite number; nominative singular masculine of <trẽčias, trečià> third -- the third
  • galimùmas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <galimùmas> possibility -- possibility
  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • metù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <mẽtas> time -- at ... moment
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- had
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- just
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- ...
  • pradė́jęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pradė́ti, pràdeda, pradė́jo> begin -- begun
  • aiškė́ti -- verb; infinitive of <aiškė́ti, aiškė́ja, aiškė́jo> become clear -- to become clear

Jõ patiẽs prãktika ródė jám, kàd "kunigãvimas" ir̃ "poetãvimas" yrà dù visái skirtìngi, jéigu nè príešingi, pašaukìmai.

  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • patiẽs -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <pàts, patì> own -- own
  • prãktika -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <prãktika> practice -- practice
  • ródė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <ródyti, ródo, ródė> show -- had shown
  • jám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • kunigãvimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kunigãvimas> being a priest -- being a priest
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • poetãvimas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poetãvimas> poeticizing -- poeticizing
  • yrà -- verb; 3rd person present of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- are
  • -- number; nominative masculine of <dù, dvì> two -- two
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • skirtìngi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <skirtìngas, skirtìnga> different -- different
  • jéigu -- conjunction; <jéigu> if -- if
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • príešingi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <príešingas, príešinga> opposing -- opposing
  • pašaukìmai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pašaukìmas> vocation -- vocations

Tàd kám juõs būtinaĩ jùngti?

  • tàd -- conjunction; <tàd> then, thus -- then
  • kám -- adverb; <kám> why -- why
  • juõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • būtinaĩ -- adverb; <būtinaĩ> necessary -- (is it)necessary
  • jùngti -- verb; infinitive of <jùngti, jùngia, jùngė> unite, join -- to unite

"Kaĩp kùnigas, àš nè poètas, õ kaĩp poètas, àš nè kùnigas."

  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • kùnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kùnigas> priest -- a priest
  • àš -- pronoun; nominative singular of <àš> I -- I
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (am) not
  • poètas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poètas> poet -- a poet
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • poètas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poètas> poet -- a poet
  • àš -- pronoun; nominative singular of <àš> I -- I
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (am) not
  • kùnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kùnigas> priest -- a priest

Štaĩ fòrmulė, kurià Liùdas Vasãris savè apgaudinė́jo ìlgą laĩką.

  • štaĩ -- particle; <štaĩ> here -- this (is)
  • fòrmulė -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <fòrmulė> formula -- the formula
  • kurià -- pronoun; instrumental singular feminine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- with which
  • Liùdas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Liùdas> Liudas -- Liudas
  • Vasãris -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Vasãris> Vasaris -- Vasaris
  • savè -- pronoun; accusative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- himself
  • apgaudinė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <apgaudinė́ti, apgaudinė́ja, apgaudinė́jo> deceive -- deceived
  • ìlgą -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ìlgas, ilgà> long -- long
  • laĩką -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <laĩkas> time -- for a... time

Šìto psichològinio sofìzmo, įvairiomìs atmainomìs gyvẽnime ganà dažnaĩ sutiñkamo, jisaĩ nusitvė́rė kaĩp skę̃stąs šiaudẽlio.

  • šìto -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <šìtas, šità> this -- this
  • psichològinio -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <psichològinis, psichològinė> psychological -- psychological
  • sofìzmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <sofìzmas> sophism -- for... sophism
  • įvairiomìs -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <įvairùs, įvairì> various, different -- various
  • atmainomìs -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <atmainà> guise -- in... guises
  • gyvẽnime -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <gyvẽnimas> life -- in life
  • ganà -- adverb; <ganà> rather -- rather
  • dažnaĩ -- adverb; <dažnaĩ> frequently, often -- frequently
  • sutiñkamo -- verb; genitive singular masculine of present participle passive of <sutìkti, sutiñka, sutìko> encounter, come across -- encountered
  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • nusitvė́ -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <nusitvérti, nusìtveria, nusitvė́> grasp -- grasped
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- like
  • skę̃stąs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle active of <skę̃sti, skę̃sta, skeñdo> drown -- a drowning (man)
  • šiaudẽlio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <šiaudẽlis> straw -- (grasping) for a straw

Šità iliùzija ìlgus metùs laĩkė jį̃ pavir̃šiuj, jìs "kunigãvo" ir̃ "poetãvo", õ tuõ tárpu kùnigas ir̃ poètas vãrė jamè žūtbūtìnę tarpùsavio kõvą.

  • šità -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <šìtas, šità> this -- this
  • iliùzija -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <iliùzija> illusion -- illusion
  • ìlgus -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <ìlgas, ilgà> long -- long
  • metùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <mẽtai> year -- for... years
  • laĩkė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <laikýti, laĩko, laĩkė> keep -- kept
  • jį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- him
  • pavir̃šiuj -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <pavir̃šius> surface -- afloat
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • kunigãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kunigáuti, kunigáuja, kunigãvo> be a priest -- acted as a priest
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • poetãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <poetáuti, poetáuja, poetãvo> be a poet -- acted as a poet
  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- and
  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- the same
  • tárpu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <tárpas> space, period -- at... time
  • kùnigas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kùnigas> priest -- the priest
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • poètas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <poètas> poet -- poet
  • vãrė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <varýti, vãro, vãrė> be engaged -- were engaged in
  • jamè -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- in him
  • žūtbūtìnę -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <žūtbūtìnis, žūtbūtìnė> desperate -- desperate
  • tarpùsavio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <tarpùsavis> between oneself -- ...
  • kõvą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <kovà> battle, struggle -- a ... struggle

Jisaĩ užfiksãvo daũgelį šiõs kovõs momeñtų ir̃ mãnė, kàd kùria poèziją.

  • jisaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • užfiksãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <užfiksúoti, užfiksúoja, užfiksãvo> capture -- wrote down
  • daũgelį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <daũgelis> many -- many
  • šiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <šìs, šì> this -- this
  • kovõs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kovà> battle, struggle -- of ... struggle
  • momeñtų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <momeñtas> moment -- of the moments
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • mãnė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <manýti, mãno, mãnė> think -- thought
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • kùria -- verb; 3rd person present of <kùrti, kùria, kū́> create -- (he) was creating
  • poèziją -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <poèzija> poetry -- poetry

Tuõ tárpu jìs rãšė sàvo žuvìmo kròniką, vienur̃ kitur̃ pamárgintą tikrù kūrýbos žíedu - liūdnù jõ tãlento liùdininku.

  • tuõ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- the same
  • tárpu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <tárpas> space, period -- at... time
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • rãšė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <rašýti, rãšo, rãšė> write -- was writing
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • žuvìmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <žuvìmas> ruin -- of... ruin
  • kròniką -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <krònika> chronicle -- the chronicle
  • vienur̃ -- adverb; <vienur̃> in one place -- here
  • kitur̃ -- adverb; <kitur̃> elsewhere -- (and) there
  • pamárgintą -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <pamárginti, pamárgina, pamárgino> mark -- marked
  • tikrù -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <tìkras, tikrà> genuine -- true
  • kūrýbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kūrýba> creativity -- of creativity
  • žíedu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <žíedas> blossom, flower -- by a... spark
  • liūdnù -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <liū̃dnas, liūdnà> sad -- sad
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • tãlento -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <tãlentas> talent -- of... talent
  • liùdininku -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <liùdininkas> witness -- the... witness

Lesson Text

Pirmàsis galimùmas bùvo visái mèsti tą̃ poèziją ir̃ visàs tàs svajonès. Taĩ bū́tų tinkamiáusias ir̃ paprasčiáusias kláusimo sprendìmas. Bèt Vasãris nùjautė, kàd jìs vargù ar̃ pajė̃gs išsižadė́ti tų̃ vilčių̃, kuriõs ìš daliẽs jį̃ į̃ seminãriją àtvedė. Seminãrijos gyvẽnimas, tiesà, gerókai jàs apgrióvė, tačiaũ tuo pačiù metù jisaĩ vìs dėlto pamãtė turį̃s tãlentą. Ir̃ dabar̃ vìsko išsižadė́ti? Nè, taĩ negãlimas dáiktas.

Antràsis galimùmas siū́lė jám sudẽrinti kūrýbą sù kùnigišku gyvẽnimu. Bèt kaĩp? Lig šiõl jám taĩ nepavỹko. Jìs žinójo ir̃ tikė́jo, kàd Diẽvas yrà visókios tobulýbės, grõžio ir̃ kilniáusios poèzijos šaltìnis. Bèt kodė̃l visì relìginiai, doróviniai, amžinõsios tiesõs, gė̃rio ir̃ grõžio motỹvai jį̃ palìkdavo šáltą kaĩp lẽdą, õ kūrýbinis lỹrinis susijáudinimas vèsdavo į̃ gyvẽnimo žabángas ir̃ pavojùs?

Õ trečiàsis galimùmas tuõ metù jám bùvo dár tìk pradė́jęs aiškė́ti. Jõ patiẽs prãktika ródė jám, kàd "kunigãvimas" ir̃ "poetãvimas" yrà dù visái skirtìngi, jéigu nè príešingi, pašaukìmai. Tàd kám juõs būtinaĩ jùngti? "Kaĩp kùnigas, àš nè poètas, õ kaĩp poètas, àš nè kùnigas." Štaĩ fòrmulė, kurià Liùdas Vasãris savè apgaudinė́jo ìlgą laĩką. Šìto psichològinio sofìzmo, įvairiomìs atmainomìs gyvẽnime ganà dažnaĩ sutiñkamo, jisaĩ nusitvė́rė kaĩp skę̃stąs šiaudẽlio. Šità iliùzija ìlgus metùs laĩkė jį̃ pavir̃šiuj, jìs "kunigãvo" ir̃ "poetãvo", õ tuõ tárpu kùnigas ir̃ poètas vãrė jamè žūtbūtìnę tarpùsavio kõvą. Jisaĩ užfiksãvo daũgelį šiõs kovõs momeñtų ir̃ mãnė, kàd kùria poèziją. Tuõ tárpu jìs rãšė sàvo žuvìmo kròniką, vienur̃ kitur̃ pamárgintą tikrù kūrýbos žíedu - liūdnù jõ tãlento liùdininku.

Translation

The first possibility was to completely abandon poetry and all those dreams. That would be the most appropriate and simplest solution to the problem. But Vasaris felt that he could hardly have the strength to give up those hopes, which to some degree had brought him to the seminary. Seminary life, indeed, had practically destroyed them, but at the same time he saw that he had talent nevertheless. And now to give up everything? No, that is an impossible thing.
The second possibility offered him (the chance) to reconcile creativity with the priestly life. But how? Up to this time he had not succeeded. He knew and believed that God is the source of all perfection, beauty and the noblest poetry. But why did all the religious and moral motifs of eternal truth, goodness and beauty leave him as cold as ice, whereas creative lyric emotion led to the traps and dangers of life?
But at that moment the third possibility just began to become clear. His own practice had shown him that being a priest and poeticizing are two completely different, if not opposing vocations. Then why is it necessary to unite them? 'As a priest I am not a poet, and as a poet I am not a priest.' This is the formula with which Liudas Vasaris deceived himself for a long time. Like a drowning man (grasping) for a straw, he grasped for this psychological sophism, rather frequently encountered in various guises in life. For long years this illusion kept him afloat; he acted as a priest and acted as a poet, and at the same time the priest and poet in him were engaged in a desperate struggle. He wrote down many of the moments of this struggle and thought that he was creating poetry. At the same time he was writing the chronicle of his ruin, here and there marked by a true spark of creativity, the sad witness of his talent.

Grammar

11. The Accent Classes of the Nouns

There are four accent classes of the nouns in Lithuanian. The principal criterion for the attribution of a noun to one or another class is its stress pattern in the dative and the accusative plural. Some nouns have a constant stress, e.g., in all cases the stress falls on one and the same syllable. But in the majority of nouns the stress alternates between the ending and the stem.

Accentuation is rather difficult even for native speakers. In colloquial Lithuanian they often shift the stress from the short ending to the stem.

The current four accent classes developed from the earlier two accent paradigms (the barytone (fixed) stress paradigm and the mobile stress paradigm). The shifting of the stress defined by de Saussure's law determined the development of the present Lithuanian accentuation system. According to this law, the stress passes from a short or circumflex (rising) syllabic nucleus to an acute (falling) one.

In dictionaries the accent class is indicated in Arabic numerals: 1; 2; 3; 4; e.g., áuksas 1 'gold'; pir̃štas 2 'finger'; béržas 3 'birch'; ausìs 4 'ear'. Knowing the peculiarities of each accent class, we can locate the stress and use the appropriate accent in all the forms of the noun. Dictionary listings of adjectives, numerals and pronouns provide information on accent class.

11.1. The First Accent Class

The first accent class comprises nouns which in the dative and accusative plural always have their stress on one and the same syllable of the stem.

In two-syllable nouns the stress is always on the first syllable and it is always an acute, e.g., kója 'leg'; žéntas 'son-in-law'. In polysyllabic nouns, one can have either the acute or the circumflex, or the syllable may be short, e.g., vãsara 'summer'; ́sena 'state, condition'; dìdvyris 'hero'. But when the stress falls on the penultimate syllable only the acute is possible, e.g., saváitė 'week'; varnė́nas 'starling'.

The stress always remains on the same syllable in all the cases in the singular and plural if the noun belongs to the first accent class. This is the most important feature of the first accent class.

Nom sg   kója 'leg'   žìrnis 'pea'   ãdata 'needle'   lùpena 'peel'
Gen sg   kójos   žìrnio   ãdatos   lùpenos
Dat sg   kojai   žìrniui   ãdatai   lùpenai
Acc sg   kóją   žìrnį   ãdatą   lùpeną
Inst sg   kója   žìrniu   ãdata   lùpena
Loc sg   kójoj(e)   žìrny(je)   ãdatoj(e)   lùpenoj(e)
Voc sg   kója   žìrni   ãdata   lùpena
                 
Nom pl   kójos   žìrniai   ãdatos   lùpenos
Gen pl   kójų   žìrnių   ãdatų   lùpemų
Dat pl   kójom(s)   žìrniam(s)   ãdatom(s)   lùpenom(s)
Acc pl   kójas   žìrnius   ãdatas   lùpenas
Inst pl   kójom(is)   žìniais   ãdatom(is)   lùpenom(is)
Loc pl   kójose   žìrniuos(e)   ãdatose   lùpenose
Voc pl   kójos   žìrniai   ãdatos   lùpenos
11.2. The Second Accent Class

The second accent class comprises nouns which in the dative plural have their stress on the stem, while in the accusative plural they are stressed on the ending, e.g., dative plural bãtams 'shoes', acc.pl. batùs; dat.pl. pùpoms 'beans', acc.pl. pupàs.

The penultimate syllable has the circumflex or the short intonation. The circumflex or the short stress remains constant, except: in the (a) instrumental singular and (b) accusative plural. If the noun ends in -as, then in addition to the two cases above, the locative singular is also stressed on the ending, e.g., loc.sg. batè 'shoe'. If the noun has -a in nominative singular, then this -a is stressed, e.g., nom.sg. pupà 'bean'.

Nom sg   pir̃štas 'finger'   vištà 'hen'   laũmė 'witch'
Gen sg   pir̃što   vìštos   laũmės
Dat sg   pir̃štui   vìštai   laũmei
Acc sg   pir̃štą   vìštą   laũmę
Inst sg   pirštù   vištà   laumè
Loc sg   pirštè   vìštoj(e)   laũmėj(e)
Voc sg   pir̃šte   vìšta   laũme
             
Nom pl   pir̃štai   vìštos   laũmės
Gen pl   pir̃štų   vìštų   laũmių
Dat pl   pir̃štam(s)   vìštom(s)   laũmėm(s)
Acc pl   pirštùs   vištàs   laumès
Inst pl   pir̃štais   vìštom(is)   laũmėm(is)
Loc pl   pir̃štuos(e)   vìštose   laũmėse
Voc pl   pir̃štai   vìštos   laũmės
12. Pronouns
12.1. The Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns refer to:

  • a definite person or phenomenon (tàs, 'this', 'that'; šìs, šì, šìtas, šìta / šità 'this'; anàs, anà 'that'; tas pàts, ta patì 'the same');
  • a definite property of a person or phenomenon (tóks, tokià 'such a'; šióks, šiokià, šìtoks, šìtokia 'this kind of'; anóks, anókia 'that kind of');
  • a situation (taĩ 'it'; šìta(i) 'it', tas pàt(s) 'the same').

The demonstrative šìs contrasts with tàs. Both šìs and tàs contrast with anàs which denotes a third object which is farther away than objects referred to by tàs, e.g.,

  • Šis nãmas yrà màno, tàs nãmas yrà tàvo, õ anàs nãmas yrà jõ
  • 'This house is mine, that house is yours, but the one over there is his'.

Demonstrative pronouns can be used both as nouns and as adjectives, e.g.,

  • Draugaĩ kviẽčia Diãną eĩti papietáuti, õ šì sė́di ir̃ žiū̃ri prõ lángą 'Friends invite Diana to go out to dinner, but she (the latter) sits and looks out the window'.
  • Bèt Vasãris nùjautė, kàd jìs vargù ar̃ pajė̃gs išsižadė́ti tų̃ vilčių̃ 'But Vasaris felt that he could hardly have the strength to give up those hopes'.

When šìs, šì, tàs, , anàs, anà are used as adjectives (before a noun), they contribute definite status to the noun.

The pronouns šìtoks, šìtokia, tóks, tokià can also used before nouns as intensifiers, e.g., Šìtokia baisì avãrija 'such a terrible accident'.

The declension of šìs, šì is like that of the personal pronouns jìs, . The demonstrative pronouns tàs, and tòks, tokià are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   tàs 'this'     tóks 'such a'   tokià
Gen sg     tõs   tókio   tokiõs
Dat sg   tám   tái   tokiám   tókiai
Acc sg   tą̃     tókį   tókią
Inst sg   tuõ     tókiu   tokià
Loc sg   tamè   tojè   tokiamè   tokiojè
    tam̃   tõj   tokiam̃   tokiõj
                 
Nom pl   tiẽ   tõs   tokiẽ   tókios
Gen pl   tų̃   tų̃   tokių̃   tokių̃
Dat pl   tíems   tóms   tokíems   tokióms
    tíem   tóm   tokíem   tokióm
Acc pl   tuõs   tàs   tókius   tókias
Inst pl   taĩs   tomìs   tokiaĩs   tokiomìs
        tõm       tokiõm
Loc pl   tuosè   tosè   tokiuosè   tokiosè
    tuõs       tokiuõs    

The declension of šìtas, šità is exactly like that of tàs, . Anóks, anókia and šìtoks, šìtokia have the same endings as tóks, tokià, but the stress pattern is different (always on the same syllable). These pronouns have influenced the declension of the adjectives.

12.2. The Interrogative and Relative Pronouns

All intrrogative and relative pronouns begin with the consonant k: kàs 'what', 'who'; kóks, kokià 'what kind of'; kurìs, kurì 'which'; katràs, katrà 'which of two'; kelì, kẽlios 'how many', kelerì, kẽlerios 'how many (used with pluralia tantum); keliñtas, kelintà 'which'.

The interrogative pronoun kàs 'who, what' is declined as follows:

Nom sg   kàs 'who, what'
Gen sg   , kienõ
Dat sg   kám
Acc sg   ką̃
Inst sg   kuõ
Loc sg   kamè

This pronoun has no plural declension and it may refer to either masculine or feminine nouns or pronouns. Kienõ 'whose', 'of whom', 'by whom' is used to denote possession or as the subject or agent of a passive verbal construction, whereas is reserved for other genitive uses, cf:

  • Kàs jį̃ sumušė? 'Who beat him up'?
  • Kienõ jìs bùvo sùmuštas? 'By whom was he beaten up'?
  • Kõ jám nepasìsekė išvéngti? 'What was he not able to avoid'?

Kóks, kokià are declined like tóks, tokià; kurìs, kurì are declined like jìs, ; katràs, katrà are declined like tàs, ; kelerì, kẽlerios are declined like kelì, kẽlios; keliñtas, kelintà are declined like regular adjectives.

Kelì and kẽlios are used only in the plural:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom   kelì 'how many'   kẽlios
Gen   kelių̃   kelių̃
Dat   kelíems, keliém   kelióms, kelióm
Acc   kelìs   keliàs
Inst   keliaĩs   keliomìs, keliõm
Loc   keliuosè, keliuõs   keliosè

When these pronouns introduce a direct question, they are interrogatives:

  • Kienõ tàs automobìlis? 'Whose car is that'?
  • Kàs gãli atsakýti į̃ šį̃ klaúsimą? 'Who can answer this question'?
  • Kurì suknẽlė táu patiñka? 'Which dress do you like?'
  • Kókias knygàs jū̃s pardavinė́jate? 'What kind of books do you sell'?

Kas, kurìs, kurì, kóks, kokià can also be used as relative pronouns. The number and the gender of the relative pronoun are determined by the word to which it refers, but the case of this pronoun is determined by its use in the clause of which it is a part, e.g.:

  • Mán patiñka tà suknẽlė, kurią̃ tù mán nupirkaĩ
  • 'I like the dress which you have bought for me'.

The relative pronoun kurią̃ is feminine and singular because it refers to suknẽlė which is feminine and singular, but it is in the accusative case because it is the object of the verb nupirkaĩ.

Kokià žiemà, tokià ir̃ vãsara 'Whatever the winter is (like) thus also is the summer'.

12.3. The Indefinite Pronouns

Kàs 'someone', 'somebody', 'something' may be used as an indefinite pronoun by itself, e.g., Jám turbū́t pasivaidẽno kàs 'He probably imagined somebody'.

Kàs, kòks and kurìs also may be used in conjunction with nórs, kažì(n) and kaž-. Kas nórs, koks nórs, kuris nórs have the meaning 'someone', 'somebody', 'anybody' 'something', 'some kind of':

  • Gál norė́tų kas nórs padirbė́ti?
  • 'Would anybody like to work for some time'?

Kažkàs, kažkóks, kažkurìs share a common semantic element meaning 'uncertain', someone not known', 'what', 'which', 'what kind of'. The same meaning is shared by the corresponding compound pronouns with the first component kažì(n), e.g., kaži(n) kàs, kaži(n) kóks, kaži(n) kurìs:

  • Tòmas išvýdo kažin kókį keĩstą dáiktą
  • 'Tomas saw some strange thing'.
13. Adjective Inflection

Adjectives agree in gender, number and case with words they modify. As attributes, adjectives can be used only with nouns, e.g., pàprastas sprendìmas 'a simple decision'.

There are three gender forms of adjectives in Lithuanian: masculine, feminine and neuter. All adjectives can have masculine forms and the respective feminine forms, e.g., nominative singular masculine liū̃dnas 'sad', kilnùs 'noble'; nominative singular feminine liūdnà, kilnì. The neuter forms can be derived by dropping the -s from the masculine nominative singular, cf.: nominative singular masculine liū̃dnas and neuter liū̃dna; nominative singular masculine kilnùs and neuter kilnù. These forms are generally used in certain impersonal constructions as part of the nominal predicate:

  • Mán liū̃dna 'I am sad' (lit. 'To me is sad');
  • Čià bùvo tamsù 'Here it was dark'.

The present tense forms of ́ti 'to be' are mostly omitted in such sentences.

The qualitative adjectives have degrees of comparison. As in English, there are three basic degrees of comparison in Lithuanian: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative, e.g., positive liū̃dnas 'sad', sunkùs 'difficult', 'heavy'; comparative liūdnèsnis 'sadder', sunkèsnis 'more difficult', 'heavier'; superlative liūdniáusias 'the saddest', sunkiáusias 'the most difficult', 'the heaviest'. Descriptive adjectives can have definite forms, which in addition to their lexical meaning of the quality contribute definite status to the noun they determine, e.g., amžinóji tiesà 'the eternal truth'. Historically, definite forms derived from the blend of adjectival endings with the pronoun jìs 'he', 'she', e.g., amžinàsis 'eternal-he', amžinóji 'eternal-she'.

Masculine and feminine adjectives have two numbers: singular and plural.

All adjectives are traditionally classified into three declensions. The easiest way to determine which declension an adjective belongs is by checking the endings in the nominative singular and the nominative plural.

Declension   Nom.sg.masc.   Nom.pl.masc.   Nom.sg.fem.   Nom.pl.fem.   Stem
1st   -(i)as   -i           (i)a
            -(i)a   -(i)os   (i)o
2nd   -us   -ūs           (i)u
            -i   -ios   (i)o
3rd   -is   -iai           (i)a
            -ė   -ės   ė

The declension of masculine and feminine adjectives is quite different. Since early times, feminine adjectives were declined like nouns, but the masculine adjectives have adopted some of the endings of the gendered pronouns, cf.: dative singular masculine liūdnám 'sad' and tám 'that'; locative singular masculine liūdnamè and tamè; nominative plural masculine liūdnì and tiẽ; dative plural masculine liūdníems and tíems.

13.2. First Declension Adjectives

All adjectives ending in -(i)as (masculine nominative singular) and -(i)a (feminine nominative singular) belong to the first declension. The declension of these adjectives should be compared with that of the first and second declension nouns. The declension of the masculine adjectives differs in the dative and locative singular and the nominative and dative plural from that of the first declension nouns.

The forms of the 1st declension adjectives are as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   pìktas 'angry'   piktà   žãlias 'green'   žalià
Gen sg   pìkto   piktõs   žãlio   žaliõs
Dat sg   piktám   pìktai   žaliám   žãliai
Acc sg   pìktą   pìktą   žãlią   žãlią
Inst sg   piktù   piktà   žaliù   žalià
Loc sg   piktamè   piktojè   žaliamè   žaliojè
    piktam̃   piktõj   žaliam̃   žaliõj
Voc sg   pìktas   piktà   žãlias   žalià
                 
Nom pl   piktì   pìktos   žalì   žãlios
Gen pl   piktų̃   piktų̃   žalių̃   žalių̃
Dat pl   piktíems   piktóms   žalíems   žalióms
    piktíem   piktóm   žalíem   žalióm
Acc pl   piktùs   piktàs   žaliùs   žaliàs
Inst pl   piktaĩs   piktomìs   žaliaĩs   žaliomìs
        piktõm       žaliõm
Loc pl   piktuosè   piktosè   žaliuosè   žaliosè
    piktuõs       žaliuõs    
Voc pl   piktì   pìktos   žalì   žãlios
13.3. Second Declension Adjectives

Adjectives belonging to the 2nd declension are characterized by the ending -us in the masculine nominative singular and the ending -i in the feminine nominative singular.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   gilùs 'deep'   gilì   saldùs 'sweet'   saldì
Gen sg   gilaũs   giliõs   saldaũs   saldžiõs
Dat sg   giliám   gìliai   saldžiám   sáldžiai
Acc sg   gìlų   gìlią   sáldų   sáldžią
Inst sg   giliù   gilià   sáldžiu   sáldžia
Loc sg   giliamè   giliojè   saldžiamè   saldžiojè
    giliam̃   giliõj   saldžiam̃   saldžiõj
Voc sg   gilùs   gilì   saldùs   saldì
                 
Nom pl   gìlūs   gìlios   sáldūs   sáldžios
Gen pl   gilių̃   gilių̃   saldžių̃   saldžių̃
Dat pl   gilíems   gilióms   saldíems   saldžióms
    gilíem   gilióm   saldíem   saldžióm
Acc pl   giliùs   giliàs   sáldžius   sáldžias
Inst pl   giliaĩs   giliomìs   saldžiaĩs   saldžiomìs
        giliõm       saldžiõm
Loc pl   giliuosè   giliosè   saldžiuosè   saldžiosè
    giliuõs       saldžiuõs    
Voc pl   gìlūs   gìlios   sáldūs   sáldžios

The -ti- and -di- of the feminine nominative singular are replaced by -či- and -dži- respectively in position before the vowels -a-, -o-, -u- in the second declension of adjectives, cf.: nominative singular masculine kartùs 'bitter' and instrumental singular masculine kárčiu; nominative singular masculine saldùs 'sweet' and instrumental singular masculine sáldžiu, etc. In this position, -č- and -- merely denote a soft or palatalized -č- or -- sound; the letter -i- here does not denote a vowel, but merely the softening or palatalization of the preceding consonant. The endings of the nouns of the 4th declension should be carefully compared with the masculine endings above, cf.: sūnùs 'son' and 'gilùs 'deep'. The endings of feminine nouns in -i of the second declension should be carefully compared with the feminine endings above, cf.: martì 'daughter-in-law' and saldì 'sweet'.

13.4. Third Declension Adjectives

The nominative singular of all adjectives in this declension ends in -is for the masculine and -ė for the feminine.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   auksìnis 'golden'   auksìnė   vilnõnis 'woolen'   vilnõnė
Gen sg   auksìnio   auksìnės   vilnõnio   vilnõnės
Dat sg   auksìniam   auksìnei   vilnõniam   vilnõnei
Acc sg   auksìnį   auksìnę   vilnõnį   vilnõnę
Inst sg   auksiniù   auksinè   vilnoniù   vilnonè
Loc sg   auksìniame   auksìnėje   vilnõniame   vilnõnėje
    auksìniam   auksìnėj   vilnõniam   vilnõnėj
Voc sg   auksìni(s)   auksìne   vilnõni(s)   vilnõne
                 
Nom pl   auksìniai   auksìnės   vilnõniai   vilnõnės
Gen pl   auksìnių   auksìnių   vilnõnių   vilnõnių
Dat pl   auksìniams   auksìnėms   vilnõniams   vilnõnėms
    auksìniam   auksìnėm   vilnõniam   vilnõnėm
Acc pl   auksiniùs   auksinès   vilnoniùs   vilnonès
Inst pl   auksìniais   auksìnėmis   vilnõniais   vilnõnėmis
        auksìnėm       vilnõnėm
Loc pl   auksìniuose   auksìnėse   vilnõniuose   vilnõnėse
    auksìniuos       vilnõniuos    
Voc pl   auksìniai   auksìnės   vilnõniai   vilnõnės

Third declension adjectives are usually derived from nouns, cf.:

  • n. áuksas 'gold' and adj. auksìnis 'gold', 'golden';
  • n. vìlna 'wool' and adj. vilnõnis 'woolen';
  • n. ãkcija 'stock' and adj. ãkcinis 'joint-stock';
  • n. stãlas 'table', 'desk' and adj. stalìnis 'table', 'desk'.

Some adjectives of this declension are also derived from other adjectives and past passive participles, cf.:

  • adj. lýgus 'flat', 'even' and adj. lýginis 'even';
  • past.pass.ptc. pir̃ktas 'purchased', 'bought' and adj. pirktìnis 'purchased', 'bought'.
14. Mood
14.1. The Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood indicates a possible action. The simple forms of the subjunctive mood are formed by removing the infinitive ending -ti and adding the endings listed below:

1st sg   láuk-čiau 'I should wait'   turė́-čiau 'I should have'   ́-čiau 'I should be'
2nd sg   láuk-tum   turė́-tum   ́-tum
3rd sg   láuk-tų   turė́-tų   ́-tų
             
1st pl   láuk-tume   turė́-tume   ́-tume
    láuk-tumėm(e)   turė́-tumėm(e)   ́-tumėm(e)
2nd pl   láuk-tute   turė́-tute   ́-tute
    láuk-tumėt(e)   turė́-tumėt(e)   ́-tumėt(e)
3rd pl   láuktų   turė́-tų   ́-tų

The subjunctive mood has two parallel forms for the 1st and the 2nd person plural. It is commonly believed that the longer forms are more common than the shorter ones. In dialects and old writings there is an even greater variety of subjunctive forms.

The compound subjunctive forms consist of the simple forms of the auxiliary ́ti 'to be' and active or passive participles, e.g., ́tum žinójęs 'you would have known'; ́tų žìnomas 'he would be known'.

As subjunctive mood forms have an infinitive stem, they preserve the stress and intonation of the infinitive.

The subjunctive mood may be used in both the main clause and the if-clause of a sentence which contains a contrary-to-fact condition, e.g.:

  • Jéi paprašýtum, paskõlinčiau 'If you would ask, I would lend';
  • Jéigu tù bū́tum protingèsnė, taĩp dabar̃ nekalbė́tum 'If you were wiser, you would not speak like this now'.

If there is no contrary-to-fact condition, then the subjunctive mood is not required, e.g., Jéi paprašýsi, paskõlinsiu 'If you ask, I shall lend'; Jéi netùri, neduók 'If you do not have, don't give'. The future tense (not the present, as in English) is used with jéi 'if', when a future time is implied.

The subjunctive mood is also used to express purpose, generally with the subordinating conjunction kàd 'that', 'in order that', e.g.,

  • Jis padėjo pìnigus añt stãlo, kád visì matýtų 'He put the money on the table in order that everyone would see (it)';
  • Àš nóriu, kà tù atvažiúotum 'I want you to come' (lit. I want that you would come).

Lithuanian does not use the object of a verb of wishing or saying as the subject of an infinitive as in English.

14.2. Imperative

There are three basic forms of imperative in Lithuanian: 2nd person singular, 1st person plural, and 2nd person plural. As a rule, the action is addressed to another person. Hence the most common forms of the imperative are 2nd person singular and 2nd person plural.

2nd sg   skaitýk 'read'   turė́k 'have'   ́k
1st pl   skaitýkim(e)   turė́kim(e)   ́kim(e)
2nd pl   skaitýkit(e)   turė́kit(e)   ́kit(e)

The formation of these forms is fairly simple:

  • 2nd person singular: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -k: skaity + k = skaitýk;
  • 1st person plural: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -kime: skaity + kime = skaitýkim(e);
  • 2nd person plural: drop the -ti from the infinitive, add -kite: skaity + kite = skaitýkit(e).

The stress is the same as for the infinitive.

The 2nd person singular is used in addressing children, animals, close friends, members of the immediate family and God. The 2nd person plural is used to address a group of persons or animals, or to address one person politely. The 1st person plural renders the English 'let us', e.g., skaitykim 'let us read'.

Frequently the first person plural of the present tense when used without a pronoun has hortative meaning:

  • Per̃kam! 'Let's buy'!
  • Dainúojam! 'Let's sing'!
14.3. The Optative Mood

Traditionally, the imperative mood includes the forms of the optative (permisive) mood. The inclusion of the optative mood raises problems, since the optative mood is permissive, not imperative.

The optative may be formed by prefixing te- to the third person form of the verb, e.g., te-skaĩto 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read; te-eĩna 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'. Sometimes these forms are created by a synthetic combination of tegul̃ 'let...' or tegù 'let...' with the third person of the verb, e.g., tegul̃ skaĩto 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read'; tegù eĩna 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'.

An alternative formation is furnished by adding the endings -ai (for the verbs of the third conjungation) or -ie for other verbs to the present stem, e.g., 3 pres. skaĩt-o 'reads', opt. te-skaĩt-ai 'may he (she) read', 'let him (her) read'; 3 pres. eĩn-a 'goes', opt. te-ein-iẽ 'may he (she) go', 'let him (her) go'. These forms are recognized as archaic; they are found in older Lithuanian writings. The only verb used fairly often in Standard Lithuanian is the verb ́ti 'to be': tebūniẽ, teesiẽ 'let it be'. They are also found in prayers:

  • Teesiẽ šveñtas tàvo var̃das 'Hallowed be Thy name';
  • Teateiniẽ tàvo karalỹstė 'Thy kingdom come';
  • Tebūniẽ tàvo valià kaĩp dangujè taĩp ir̃ žẽmėje 'Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven'.
15. Interrogative Words and Interrogative Sentences

In Lithuanian most interrogative sentences are similar in structure to declarative sentences. They can be marked by intonation alone and, sometimes, by word order:

  • Tù namiẽ? 'Are you at home'?;
  • Jìs tikraĩ gìmė Pietų̃ Ãfrikoje? 'Was he really born in South Africa'?
  • Rašýti baĩgėt? 'Did you finish writing'?

General questions either contain no interrogative marker, or may begin with the particles ar̃, ar̃gi, gál, nejaũ, nejaũgi. The affirmative answer begins with the affirmative particle taĩp 'yes', and the negative answer with 'no':

  • Ar̃ mẽs dalyváusime? 'Will we be taking part'?; Taĩp, bè jokiõs abejõnės 'Yes, without any doubt';
  • Gál jùms padė́ti? 'May I help you'? Ãčiū, nè (or nereĩkia) 'No, thank you' (or 'it is not necessary');
  • Nejaũgi jiẽ suklýdo? 'Did they really make a mistake'? Taip̃, suklýdo 'Yes, they did'.

Special questions usually require a concrete answer. They are formed with various case forms of the interrogative pronouns kàs 'who, what', kurìs 'which', kóks 'what (kind of)', kelì 'how many', keliñtas 'which' (of the ordinal number), and with the interrogative adverbs kur̃ 'where', kadà 'when', kaĩp 'how', kodė̃l 'why', kíek 'how many'. These markers are placed initially:

  • Kàs čià atsitìko? 'What has happened'? Dúrys užsìtrenkė 'The door slammed';
  • Kám tù norė́tum paskam̃binti? 'Whom would you like to call'? Sàvo draugáms Lietuvojè 'My friends in Lithuania';
  • Kur̃ jìs išvažiúoja? 'Where is he leaving for'? Į Kìniją 'For China'.
  • Kodė̃l jū̃s tóks pìktas? 'Why are you so angry'? 'Pa\mec^iau pinigi\ne*' 'I have lost my purse'.

Lithuanian also uses "tag questions" but, compared to English, they are less common. There are several ways to express 'do you', 'don't you', 'haven't you', 'will you', won't you', 'aren't you', etc., in Lithuanian. Literally the negative question ar̃ nè? means 'is it not', 'was it not', 'will it not (be)', etc. after positive statements. The word tiesà? 'true, correct'? can be used both after positive and negative statements. Ar̃ nè tiesà? 'is it not so'? is used after positive statements, but sometimes also after negative sentences or clauses:

  • Jì daininiñkė, ar̃ nè? 'She is a singer, isn't she'?
  • Mìlda niekadà nesugrį̃š, tiesà? 'Milda will never come back, will she'?
  • Žmónės yrà liñkę slė̃pti tikrúosius jausmùs, ar̃ nè tiesà? 'People have an inclination to hide their real feelings, don't they'?
  • Tù pasiteiravaĩ, kodė̃l jiẽ neatvỹko, ar̃ nè 'You asked why they had not come, didn't you'?